Cisco ONS 15454 User Documentation, Release 2.2.x
Chapter 4, Configuring Networks

Table Of Contents

Configuring Networks

4.1 Bidirectional Line Switched Rings

4.1.1 Sample BLSR Application

4.1.2 Setting Up BLSRs

4.1.3 Adding and Dropping BLSR Nodes

4.1.4 Moving BLSR Trunk Cards

4.2 Unidirectional Path Switched Rings

4.2.1 Sample UPSR Application

4.2.2 Setting Up a UPSR

4.2.3 Adding and Dropping UPSR Nodes

4.3 Subtending Rings

4.4 Creating a Linear ADM Configuration

4.5 Path Protected Mesh Networks

4.6 Creating and Provisioning Circuits

4.6.1 Cross Connect Card Capacities

4.6.2 VT Tunnels

4.6.3 Creating Circuits With Multiple Drops

4.6.4 Creating Monitor Circuits

4.6.5 Editing UPSR Circuits

4.7 DCC Tunneling

4.7.1 Creating DCC Tunnels

4.8 Loopbacks and Network Tests

4.8.1 Network Test Types

4.8.2 Network Test Procedures

4.9 Managing Multiple ONS 15454 Rings

4.10 Creating Diagnostic Files


4

Configuring Networks


This chapter provides procedures for configuring ONS 15454 rings and circuits including Bidirectional Line Switched Rings (BLSRs), Unidirectional Path Switched Rings (UPSRs), linear add-drop multiplexers (ADMs), circuits, Data Communication Channel (DCC) tunnels, and loopbacks.

4.1 Bidirectional Line Switched Rings

The ONS 15454 supports two-fiber BLSRs with up to 16 ONS 15454 nodes. BLSRs allocate half the available fiber bandwidth for protection. In an OC-48 BLSR, for example, STSs 1-24 are allocated to working traffic, and STSs 25-48 are allocated for protection. If a break occurs on one fiber, working traffic switches to the protection bandwidth (STSs 25-48) on the other fiber. Working traffic travels in one direction on STSs 1-24 on one fiber, and on STSs 1-24 in the opposite direction on the second fiber. Because the working and protection bandwidths must be equal, you can create only OC-12 and OC-48 BLSRs. Figure 4-1 shows a two-fiber OC-48 BLSR.

Figure 4-1 Four-Node, Two-Fiber OC-48 BLSR

SONET sends BLSR protection information over the K1 and K2 overhead bytes. The K bytes communicate failure conditions and actions taken between different nodes in the ring. Receiving nodes monitor the K bytes to determine when to switch the SONET signal to an alternate physical path. BLSRs are limited to a maximum of 16 nodes due to K byte node addressing requirements.

BLSR rings work well for distributed "mesh" and node-to-node traffic applications, such as interoffice networks and access networks. A BLSR node can terminate traffic fed from either side of the ring. Protection is provided by BLSR "standby bandwidth." Table 4-1 shows the bidirectional bandwidth capacities of two-fiber BLSRs.

Table 4-1 Two-Fiber BLSR Capacity

OC Rate
Working Bandwidth
Protection Bandwidth
Ring Capacity

OC-12

STS1-6

STS 7-12

6 x N1 - PT2

OC-48

STS 1-24

STS 25-48

24 x N - PT

1 N equals the number of ONS 15454 nodes configured as BLSR nodes.

2 PT equals the number of STS-1 circuits passed through an ONS 15454 node (capacity can vary depending on the traffic pattern).


In BLSRs, bandwidth can be reused around the ring. The ONS 15454 can carry more traffic in networks with a distributed traffic pattern than a network with traffic flowing through one central hub. With a distributed traffic pattern, a BLSR can carry more traffic than a UPSR operating at the same optical rate.

Figure 4-2 shows an example of BLSR bandwidth reuse. The same STS carries three different traffic sets simultaneously on different spans on the ring: one set from Node 3 to Node 1, one from Node 1 to Node 2, and another from Node 2 to Node 3.

Figure 4-2 BLSR Bandwidth Reuse

4.1.1 Sample BLSR Application

Figure 4-3 shows a sample BLSR implementation. A regional long-distance network connects to other carriers at Node 0. Traffic is delivered to the service provider's major hubs.

Carrier 1 delivers six DS-3s over two OC-3 spans to Node 0. Carrier 2 provides twelve DS-3s directly. Node 0 receives the signals and delivers them around the ring to the appropriate node.

The ring also brings 14 DS-1s back from each remote site to Node 0. Intermediate nodes serve these shorter regional connections.

The ONS 15454 OC-3 module supports a total of four OC-3 ports, so that two additional OC-3 spans can be added at little cost.

Figure 4-3 Sample BLSR Application

Figure 4-4 shows the shelf layout for Node 0, which has one free slot. Figure 4-5 shows the shelf layout for the remaining sites in the ring. In this BLSR configuration, an additional eight DS-3s at Node IDs 1 and 3 can be activated. An additional four DS-3s can be added at Node ID 4, and ten DS-3s can be added at Node ID 2. Each site has free slots for future traffic needs.

Figure 4-4 Sample Shelf Layout for Node 0 in Figure 4-3

Figure 4-5 Sample Shelf Layout for Nodes 1-4 in Figure 4-3

4.1.2 Setting Up BLSRs

To set up a BLSR, you perform five basic procedures:

Install the Optical Carrier cards and attach the fibers

Create the BLSR DCC terminations

Enable the BLSR ports

Set up BLSR timing

Configure the BLSR ring

The BLSR setup procedures in this section are for a two-fiber, two-node BLSR. However, you can apply the same setup principles to larger rings.

Procedure: Install the Optical Carrier Cards


Step 1 Use the procedures in the "Card Installation and Turn-Up" section on page 1-35 to install the OC-12 or OC-48 cards.

You can install the OC-12 cards in any slot, but the OC-48 cards can only be installed in Slots 5, 6, 12, or 13. Figure 4-6 shows a sample OC-48 BLSR. shows a sample card installation for a two-node, OC-48 BLSR.

Figure 4-6 Two Node OC-48 BLSR

Figure 4-7 Sample Shelf Setup for Two Node BLSR

Step 2 Allow the cards to boot.

Step 3 Attach the fiber to the cards. When the ACT LED on the card you installed turns green, use the steps in the following procedure to configure the BLSR.


Procedure: Create the BLSR DCC Terminations


Step 1 Log into the first node that will be in the BLSR.

Step 2 Click the Provisioning>Sonet DCC tabs.

Step 3 Under SDCC Terminations, click Create.

Step 4 On the Create SDCC Terminations dialog, press Control and click the two slots/ports that will serve as the BLSR ring ports at the node. For example, Slot 6 (OC-48)/Port 1 and Slot 12 (OC-48)/ Port 1.


Note   The ONS 15454 uses the SONET Section layer DCC (SDCC) for data communications. It does not use the Line DCCs; therefore, the Line DCCs are available to tunnel DCCs from third-party equipment across ONS 15454 networks. For more detail, see the "Provision a DCC Tunnel" section.


Step 5 Click OK.

The slots/ports display under SDCC Terminations.

Step 6 Complete Steps 2 - 5 at each node that will be in the BLSR.


Procedure: Enable the Optical Card Ports


Step 1 Open one of the nodes that will be in the BLSR.

Step 2 Double click one of the optical cards that you configured as an SDCC termination.

Step 3 Click the Provisioning>Line tabs.

Step 4 Click Status ( ) and choose In Service.

Figure 4-8 Line Subtab

Step 5 Repeat Steps 2 - 4 for the other optical card configured as a SDCC termination.

Step 6 Repeat Steps 2 - 5 for each node that will be in the BLSR.


After configuring the SONET DCC, you set the timing for the node. For procedures, see the "Setup ONS 15454 Timing" section on page 3-31. For general information about ONS 15454 timing, including Synchronization Status Messaging, see the "Setting Up ONS 15454 Timing" section on page 3-29. After you configure the BLSR timing you can enable the BLSR ports, which is described in the following procedure.

Procedure: Configure the BLSR


Step 1 Log into one BLSR node.

Step 2 Click the Provisioning>Ring tabs.

Step 3 On the Ring subtab under BLSR, assign a Node ID in the NODE ID field.

The Node ID identifies the node to the BLSR. Nodes in your BLSR must have different Node IDs. After you select a Node ID, the other BLSR fields are displayed.

Step 4 Set the BLSR properties:

Ring ID—assign a ring ID (a number between 0 and 255). You must use the same Ring ID for all nodes in the same BLSR.

Reversion time—set the amount of time after which the working traffic will revert back to the original working path. The default is 5 minutes.

East Port—assign the east port from the pull-down menu.

West Port—assign the west port from the pull-down menu.

The east and west ports must be ports where you created SDCC terminations in the "Create the BLSR DCC Terminations" section. The fiber of the east port must plug into the fiber of the west port on an adjacent node, and the fiber of the east port must plug into the port of a west port. To avoid errors, use a system to assign BLSR ports. A common practice is to make the east port the furthest slot to the right and the west port the farthest left. For example, if you use Slots 4 and 14, Slot 14 is the east port and Slot 4 is the west port. Figure 4-9 shows the Ring subtab with the east and west ports selected.

Figure 4-9 Ring Subtab

Step 5 Click Apply.

Step 6 When the BLSR Map Ring Change dialog displays, click Yes.

Step 7 On the BLSR Ring Map dialog, click Accept.

The node is added to the BLSR ring map. However, Default K alarms will display until all nodes in the ring are configured.

Step 8 Complete Steps 2 - 7 at each node that you are adding to the BLSR.

Step 9 When all nodes are added to the BLSR, switch to network view to verify that span lines appear between all BLSR nodes and that the Default K alarms are cleared.

Step 10 Test the BLSR using testing procedures normal for your site. Here are a few steps you can use:

(a) Log into a node, click the Maintenance>Ring tabs, and choose MANUAL RING from East Operation. Click Apply. Verify that traffic switches normally.

(b) Choose Clear from East Operation and click Apply.

(c) Repeat Steps a and b for West Operation.

(d) Pull fibers at one node and verify that traffic switches normally.


4.1.3 Adding and Dropping BLSR Nodes

This section provides procedures for adding and dropping BLSR nodes. To add or drop a node, you force a protection switch to route traffic away from the span where service will be performed.
Figure 4-10 shows a three-node BLSR before the new node is added.


Note   You can only add one node at a time to an ONS 15454 BLSR.


Figure 4-10 Three Node BLSR Example

Procedure: Add a BLSR Node

Perform these steps on-site and not from a remote location.


Step 1 Install the optical cards in the ONS 15454 that you will add to the BLSR. Make sure fiber cables are available to connect to the cards. Run test traffic through the node to ensure the cards are functioning properly.

Step 2 Log into the node that will connect to the new node through its east port (Node 1 in the example shown in ).

Step 3 Manually switch protection on the east port:

(a) Click the Maintenance>Ring tabs.

(b) From East Operation, choose FORCE RING.

(c) Click Apply.

Performing a manual switch generates a manual equipment request alarm. This is normal.


Caution   Traffic is unprotected during a protection switch.

Step 4 Log into the node that will connect to the new node through its west port (Node 3 in the example).

Step 5 Manually switch protection on the west port:

(a) Click the Maintenance>Ring tabs.

(b) From West Operation, choose FORCE RING.

(c) Click Apply.

Step 6 Log into the new node and complete the BLSR setup procedures in the "Setting Up BLSRs" section:

Provision the SONET DCC

Configure the BLSR timing

Enable the BLSR ports

Configure the BLSR

Step 7 Remove the fiber connections from the two nodes that will connect directly to the new node.

(a) Remove the east fiber from the node that will connect to the west port of the new node.

(b) Remove the west fiber from the node that will connect to the east port of the new node.

Step 8 Replace the removed fibers with fibers that are connected to the new node. Connect the west port to the east port and the east port to the west port, as shown in Figure 4-11.

Figure 4-11 BLSR Example with Added Fourth Node

Step 9 Log out of CTC and then log back in. Wait for the BLSR Ring Map Change dialog to display. (If the ring map does not display, select the Provisioning>Ring tabs and click Ring Map.)

Step 10 When the BLSR Map Ring Change dialog displays, click Yes.

Step 11 On the BLSR Ring Map dialog, click Accept.

Step 12 From the Go To menu, select Network View. Click the Circuits tab. Wait until all the circuits are discovered. The circuits that pass through the new node will be shown as incomplete.

Step 13 In network view, right click the new node and select Update Circuits with the new node from the shortcut menu. Verify that the number of updated circuits displayed in the dialog is correct.

Step 14 Select the Circuits tab and verify that no incomplete circuits are present.

Step 15 Clear the protection switch. Do this for the node that is using its east port to connect to the new node, and for the node that is using its west port to connect to the new node.

(a) To clear the protection switch from the east port, display the Maintenance>Ring tabs. From East Operation choose CLEAR. Click Apply.

(b) To clear the protection switch from the west port, click West Operation and choose CLEAR. Click Apply.


Procedure: Drop a BLSR Node


Caution   The following procedure minimizes traffic outages during node deletions, but traffic will be lost when you delete and recreate circuits that passed through the deleted node.


Step 1 In the node that will be removed, delete all the circuits that originate or terminate in that node. (If a circuit has multiple drops, delete only the drops that terminate on the node you want to delete.)

(a) Click the Circuits tab.

(b) Select the circuits that you need to delete, then click Delete.

(c) Click Yes when prompted.

(d) If a multidrop circuit has drops at the node that will be removed, select the circuit, click Edit, and remove the drops.


Note   Do not log into the node that is being removed.


Step 2 Manually switch traffic away from the ports of neighboring nodes that will be disconnected when the node is removed:

(a) Open the node that is connected through its east port to the removed node.

(b) Click the Maintenance>Ring tabs and choose FORCE from East Operation. Click Apply.

(c) Open the node that is connected through its west port to the removed node.

(d) From West Operation choose FORCE. Click Apply.


Caution   Traffic is unprotected during the protection switch.

Step 3 Remove all fiber connections between the node being removed and the two nodes where it is still connected.

Step 4 Reconnect the two neighboring nodes.

Step 5 Wait for the BLSR Map Ring Change dialog to display. If the dialog does not display, select the Provisioning>Ring tabs and click Ring Map.

Step 6 When the BLSR Map Ring Change dialog displays, click Yes.

Step 7 On the BLSR Ring Map dialog, click Accept.

Step 8 Delete, then recreate each circuit that passed through the deleted node. Do this one circuit at a time.

Step 9 Clear the protection switches on the neighboring nodes:

(a) Open the node with the protection switch on its east port.

(b) Click the Maintenance>Ring tabs and choose CLEAR from East Operation. Click Apply.

(a) Open the node with the protection switch on its west port.

(b) Click the Maintenance>Ring tabs and choose CLEAR from West Operation. Click Apply.

Step 10 If a BITS clock is not used at each node, check that the synchronization is set to one of the eastbound or westbound BLSR spans on the adjacent nodes. If the removed node was the BITS timing source, use a new node as the BITS source or select internal synchronization at one node from which all other nodes will derive their timing.

Step 11 Select the Circuits tab and verify that incomplete circuits are not present.

Step 12 Recreate all circuits deleted in Step 1 that passed through the dropped node.


4.1.4 Moving BLSR Trunk Cards


Caution   Call the Technical Assistance Center (1-877-323-7368) before performing this procedure to ensure that provisioning and circuit data is preserved.


Caution   To arrange the trunk cards, you will drop one node at a time from the current BLSR ring. This procedure is service affecting during the time needed to complete the steps below. This applies to all BLSR nodes where cards will change slots. Review all the steps before you proceed.

shows a four node OC-48 BLSR made up of Node 1, Node 2, Node 3, and Node 4. Node 4 is temporarily removed from the active BLSR, while the OC-48 card in Slot 6 moves to Slot 5 and the OC-48 card in Slot 12 moves to Slot 6.

Figure 4-12 BLSR Trunk Card Switchover Example

Procedure: Move a BLSR Trunk Card

Use the following steps to move one BLSR trunk card to a different slot. Use this procedure for each card you want to move. Although the procedure is for OC-48 BLSR trunk cards, you can use the same procedure for OC-12 cards.


Note   The ONS 15454 nodes must have CTC Release 2.0 or later and cannot have active alarms for the OC-48 or OC-12 cards or the BLSR configuration.



Step 1 Switch traffic away from the node where the trunk card will be switched:

(a) Log into the node connected through its east port to the node where the trunk card will be moved. Click the Maintenance>Ring tabs.

(b) From East Operation, choose FORCE RING.

(c) Click Apply.

When you perform a manual switch, a manual equipment request alarm is generated. This is normal.


Caution   Traffic is unprotected during a protection switch.

(d) Log into the node that is connected through its west port to the node where the trunk card will be moved. Click the Maintenance>Ring tabs.

(e) From West Operation, choose FORCE RING.

(f) Click Apply.

Step 2 Log into the node where the trunk card you will move is installed.

Step 3 Click the Circuits tab ( Figure 4-13).

Step 4 Record the provisioning information of the affected circuits. You will need this information later to restore the circuits.

Figure 4-13 Circuits Tab

Step 5 Delete the circuits on the card you are removing:

(a) Highlight the circuit(s). To select multiple circuits, press the Shift or Ctrl key.

(b) Click Delete.

(c) On the Delete Circuit dialog, click Yes.

Step 6 Delete the SONET DCC termination on the card you are removing:

(a) Click the Provisioning>Sonet DCC tabs.

(b) Under SDCC Terminations, click the Sonet DCC you need to delete and click Delete.

Step 7 Disable the ring on the current node:

(a) Click the Provisioning>Ring tabs.

(b) From Node ID and choose Ring Disabled.

(c) Click Apply.

Step 8 If the OC card is a timing source, select the Provisioning>Timing tabs and set timing to Internal.

Step 9 Place the ports on the card out of service:

(a) Double click the card.

(b) On the Provisioning>Line tabs under Status, choose Out of Service for each port.

Step 10 Physically remove the card.

Step 11 Insert the card into its new slot and wait for the card to boot.

Step 12 To delete the card from its former slot, right click the card in node view and select Delete from the list of options.

Step 13 Place the port(s) back in service:

(a) To open the card, double click or right click the card and select Open.

(b) Click the Provisioning tab.

(c) From Status choose In Service.

(d) Click Apply.

Step 14 Follow the steps described in the "Setting Up BLSRs" section to reenable the ring using the same cards (in their new slots) and ports for east and west.

Step 15 Manually reenter the circuits that were deleted.

For more information about circuit provisioning, see the "Creating and Provisioning Circuits" section.

Step 16 If you use line timing and the card you are moving is a timing reference, reenable the timing parameters on the card.


4.2 Unidirectional Path Switched Rings

UPSRs provide duplicate fiber paths around the ring. Working traffic flows in one direction and protection traffic flows in the opposite direction. If a problem occurs in the working traffic path, the receiving node switches to the path coming from the opposite direction.

Figure 4-14 shows a basic UPSR configuration. If Node ID 0 sends a signal to Node ID 2, the working signal travels on the working traffic path through Node ID 1. The same signal is also sent on the protect traffic path through Node ID 3. If a fiber break occurs ( Figure 4-15), Node ID 2 switches its active receiver to the protect signal coming through Node ID 3.

Figure 4-14 Basic UPSR Configuration

Figure 4-15 UPSR Fiber Break

Because each traffic path is transported around the entire ring, UPSRs are best suited for networks where traffic concentrates at one or two locations and is not widely distributed. UPSR ring capacity is equal to its bit rate. Services can originate and terminate on the same UPSR, or they can be passed to an adjacent access or interoffice ring for transport to the service-terminating location.

CTC automates ring configuration. UPSR traffic is defined within the ONS 15454 on a circuit-by-circuit basis. If a path-protected circuit is not defined within a 1+1 or BLSR line protection scheme and path protection is available and specified, CTC uses UPSR as the default.

4.2.1 Sample UPSR Application

Figure 4-16 shows a common UPSR application. OC-3 optics provide remote switch connectivity to a host TR-303 switch. In the example, each remote switch requires eight DS-1s to return to the host switch. and show the shelf layout for each site.

Figure 4-16 Sample OC-3 UPSR Application

Node ID 0 has four DS1-14 cards to provide 56 active DS-1 ports. The other sites only require two DS1-14 cards to handle the eight DS-1s to and from the remote switch. You can use the other half of each ONS 15454 shelf to provide support for a second or third ring to other existing or planned remote sites.

In this sample OC-3 UPSR, Node 0 contains four DS1-14 cards and two OC3 IR 4 1310 cards. Six free slots also exist in this setup and can be provisioned with cards or left empty. Figure 4-17 shows the shelf setup for these cards.

Figure 4-17 Node ID 0 Layout for Sample OC-3 UPSR

In this sample OC-3 UPSR, Nodes 1 to 3 each contain two DS1-14 cards and two OC3 4 IR 1310 cards. Eight free slots exist. They can be provisioned with other cards or left empty. Figure 4-18 shows the shelf setup for this configuration sample.

Figure 4-18 Node ID 1-3 Layout for Sample OC-3 UPSR

4.2.2 Setting Up a UPSR

To set up a UPSR, you perform four basic procedures:

Install the Optical Carrier cards and attach the fiber

Create the UPSR DCC terminations

Configure the timing

Enable the ports

After you enable the ports, you set up the UPSR circuits. UPSR signal thresholds are set at the circuit level. For procedures on creating UPSR circuits, see the "Creating and Provisioning Circuits" section.

Procedure: Install the Optical Carrier Cards


Step 1 Use the procedures in Chapter 1 to install the Optical Carrier cards. If you use OC-48 cards, make sure they are installed in Slots 5, 6, 12, or 13.

Step 2 When the ACT LED turns green, log into the node. Figure 4-19 shows a sample two-node OC-48 UPSR, and Figure 4-20 shows a sample shelf setup for the two-node, OC-48 UPSR.

Figure 4-19 Sample Two Node OC-48 UPSR

Figure 4-20 Sample Two Node OC-48 UPSR Shelf Setup


Procedure: Configure the UPSR DCC Terminations


Step 1 Log into the first node that will be in the UPSR.

Step 2 Click the Provisioning>Sonet DCC tabs.

Step 3 Under SDCC Terminations, click Create.

Step 4 On the Create SDCC Terminations dialog, press Control and click the two slots/ports that will serve as the UPSR ring ports at the node. For example, Slot 6 (OC-48)/Port 1 and Slot 12 (OC-48)/Port 1.


Note   The ONS 15454 uses the SONET Section layer DCC (SDCC) for data communications. It does not use the Line DCCs. These can be used to tunnel DCCs from third party equipment across ONS 15454 networks. For procedures, see the "Provision a DCC Tunnel" section.


Step 5 Click OK.

The slots/ports display under SDCC Terminations.

Step 6 Complete Steps 2 - 5 at each node that will be in the UPSR.


After configuring the SONET DCC, set the timing for the node. For procedures, see the "Setup ONS 15454 Timing" section on page 3-31. For general information about ONS 15454 timing, see the "Setting Up ONS 15454 Timing" section on page 3-29. After configuring the timing, enable the UPSR ports as described in the following procedure.

Procedure: Enable the UPSR Ports


Step 1 Open one of the UPSR nodes.

Step 2 Double click one of the cards that you configured as an SDCC termination.

Step 3 Click the Provisioning>Line tabs.

Step 4 Under Status, select In Service for each port that you want enabled.

Step 5 Click Apply.


You configured a UPSR for one node. Use the same procedure to configure the additional nodes. To create path protected mesh networks, see the "Path Protected Mesh Networks" section. To create circuits, see the "Creating and Provisioning Circuits" section.

4.2.3 Adding and Dropping UPSR Nodes

This section provides procedures for adding and dropping nodes in an ONS 15454 UPSR configuration. To add or drop a node, you manually switch traffic on the affected spans to route traffic away from the area of the ring where service will be performed. Use the selector maintenance option to switch traffic from a UPSR span at different protection levels. The selector maintenance option is useful when you need to temporarily reroute traffic from a UPSR span to add or drop nodes, perform maintenance, or perform other operations. Figure 4-21 shows a three-node UPSR before a fourth node is added.

Figure 4-21 Three Node UPSR

Procedure: Switch UPSR Traffic


Step 1 Go to the CTC network view.

Step 2 Right click the span that will be cut to add the new node and select Circuits from the shortcut menu ( Figure 4-22).

Figure 4-22 Span Shortcut Menu

Step 3 On the Circuits on Span dialog ( Figure 4-23), select the protection from the Switch all UPSR circuits away menu:

CLEAR removes a previously-set switch command.

MANUAL (recommended) switches the span if the new span is error free.

FORCE forces the span to switch, regardless of whether the new span is error free.

LOCKOUT locks out or prevents switching to a highlighted span. (LOCKOUT is only available when Revertive traffic is enabled.)


Caution   FORCE and LOCKOUT commands override normal protective switching mechanisms. Applying these commands incorrectly might cause line outages.

Figure 4-23 Circuits on Span Dialog

Step 4 Click Apply.

Step 5 When the confirmation dialog appears, click OK to confirm the protection switching. The column under Switch State changes to your chosen level of protection.

Step 6 Click Close after Switch State changes.


Procedure: Add a UPSR Node


Note   You can add only one node at a time. Perform these steps onsite and not from a remote location.



Step 1 At the node that will be added to the UPSR:

Verify that the Optical Carrier cards are installed and fiber is available to connect to the other nodes.

Run test traffic through the cards that will connect to the UPSR.

Provision the new node following the procedures listed in the "Setting Up a UPSR" section.

Step 2 Log into one of the nodes that will directly connect to the new node.

Step 3 Use the procedures in the "Switch UPSR Traffic" section to switch traffic away from the span that will connect to the new node.


Caution   Traffic is not protected during a protection switch.

Step 4 Two nodes will connect directly to the new node; remove their fiber connections:

(a) Remove the east fiber connection from the node that will connect to the west port of the new node (Node 1 in the example shown in Figure 4-21).

(b) Remove the west fiber connection from the node that will connect to the east port of the new node (Node 3 in the Figure 4-21 example).

Step 5 Replace the removed fiber connections with connections from the new node. Connect the west port to the east port and the east port to the west port as shown in Figure 4-24.

Figure 4-24 UPSR Example With Fourth Node


Note   Perform this step on site at the new node.


Step 6 Log out of CTC and then log back in.

Step 7 Go to the network view. The new node should appear in the network map. Wait for a few minutes to allow all the nodes to appear.

Step 8 Click the Circuits tab and wait for all the circuits to appear, including spans. The affected circuit will display as "incomplete." One span will be missing until you update the circuit with the new node (Step 9). All other spans should be present.

Step 9 In the network view, right-click the new node and select Update Circuits with new node from the list of options. Wait for the confirmation dialog to appear. Verify that the number of updated circuits displayed in the dialog is correct.

Step 10 Select the Circuits tab and verify that no incomplete circuits are displayed. If incomplete circuits are displayed, run the Update command again.

Step 11 Use the procedures in the "Switch UPSR Traffic" section to clear the protection switch.


Procedure: Drop a Node


Caution   The following procedure is designed to minimize traffic outages during node deletions, but traffic will be lost when you delete and recreate circuits that passed through the deleted node.


Step 1 Use the procedures in the "Switch UPSR Traffic" section to switch traffic away from the node you are dropping. Do this on all spans connected to the node you are deleted.


Caution   Traffic is not protected during a force protection switch.

Step 2 In the node that will be removed, delete circuits that originate or terminate in that node. (If a circuit has multiple drops, delete only the drops that terminate on the node you are deleting.)

(a) Click the Circuits tab.

(b) Select the circuit(s) to delete. To select multiple circuits, press the Shift or Ctrl key.

(c) Click Delete.

(d) Click Yes when prompted.

Step 3 From the node that will be deleted, remove the east and west span fibers. At this point, the node should no longer be a part of the ring.

Step 4 Reconnect the span fibers of the nodes remaining in the ring.

Step 5 Open the Alarms window of each newly-connected node and verify that the span cards are free of alarms. Resolve any alarms before proceeding.

Step 6 One circuit at a time, delete and recreate each circuit that passed through the deleted node.


Note   If the removed node was the BITS timing source, select a new node as the BITS source, or select another node as the master timing node.


Step 7 Verify the network map and circuits:

(a) Switch to network view.

(b) Select the Circuits tab, then select each circuit and click Map.

(c) Verify that all circuits are correct and no incomplete circuits are displayed.


4.3 Subtending Rings

Because the ONS 15454 supports up to ten SONET DCCs, one ONS 15454 can terminate and groom five UPSR rings or four UPSR rings and one BLSR ring. (If you tunnel DCCs, this number drops by one ring for each DCC tunnel. See the "DCC Tunneling" section.) Subtending rings from a single ONS 15454 reduces the number of shelves and cards required, and reduces external shelf-to- shelf cabling. Figure 4-25 shows an ONS 15454 with multiple subtending rings.


Note   You cannot nest rings on the same ONS 15454 nodes. For example, if a UPSR is set up on Nodes 1 - 4, you cannot run a BLSR on the same nodes.


Figure 4-25 ONS 15454 With Multiple Subtending Rings

This section shows how to subtend a UPSR from a BLSR. To subtend multiple rings, repeat the following procedure for each ring. Figure 4-26 shows a UPSR subtending from a BLSR. In this example, Node 2 is the only node serving both the BLSR and UPSR. Some Node 2 slots are dedicated to BLSR and others to UPSR.

Figure 4-26 Multiple Subtending Rings

Procedure: Subtend a UPSR from a BLSR


Step 1 Fill the optical slots with the number of optical cards needed for your application.

Step 2 From the Node view, click the Provisioning>Sonet DCC tabs.

Step 3 Click Create.

The Create SDCC Termination dialog is displayed ( Figure 4-27).

Figure 4-27 Create SDCC Termination dialog

Step 4 In the Create SDCC Terminations dialog, click the slot and port that will carry the UPSR.

Step 5 Click OK.

Step 6 Repeat Steps 3 - 5 for all optical slots/ports that will carry the UPSR.

The selected slots/ports are displayed under SDCC Terminations.

Step 7 Put the ports that you will use in service:

(a) In the node view, double click the desired optical card.

(b) Select the Provisioning>Line tabs. Under Status, choose In Service.

(c) Click Apply.

Step 8 Repeat Step 7 for all ports/slots that will carry the UPSR.

Step 9 Follow Steps 1 - 8 for the other nodes you will use for the UPSR.

Step 10 Go to the network view to view the subtending ring.


Procedure: Subtend a BLSR from a UPSR


Step 1 Fill the optical slots with the number of optical cards needed for your application.

Step 2 From the Node view, click the Provisioning>Sonet DCC tabs.

Step 3 Click Create.

The Create SDCC Termination dialog is displayed.

Step 4 In the Create SDCC Terminations dialog, click the slot and port that will carry the BLSR.

Step 5 Click OK.

Step 6 Repeat Steps 3 - 5 for all optical slots/ports that will carry the BLSR.

The selected slots/ports are displayed under SDCC Terminations.

Step 7 Configure the BLSR:

(a) Click the Provisioning>Ring tabs.

(b) On the Ring subtab under BLSR, assign a Node ID in the NODE ID field.

The Node ID identifies the node to the BLSR. Nodes in your BLSR must have different Node IDs. After you select a Node ID, the other BLSR fields are displayed.

(c) Set the BLSR properties:

Ring ID—assign a ring ID (a number between 0 and 255). You must use the same Ring ID for all nodes in the same BLSR.

Reversion time—set the amount of time after which the working traffic reverts back to the original working path. The default is 5 minutes.

East Port—assign the east port from the pull-down menu.

West Port—assign the west port from the pull-down menu.

(d) Click Apply.

Step 8 Put the ports that you will use in service:

(a) In the node view, double click the desired optical card.

(b) Select the Provisioning>Line tabs. Under Status, choose In Service.

(c) Click Apply.

(d) When the BLSR Map Ring Change dialog displays, click Yes.

(e) On the BLSR Ring Map dialog, click Accept.

Step 9 Repeat Step 8 for all ports/slots that will carry the BLSR.

Step 10 Follow Steps 1 - 9 for the other nodes you will use for the BLSR.

Step 11 Go to the network view to see the subtending ring.


4.4 Creating a Linear ADM Configuration

You can configure ONS 15454s as a line of add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) by configuring one set of optical cards as the working path and a second set as the protect path. Unlike rings, linear ADMs require that the optical cards at each node be in 1+1 protection to ensure that a break to the working line is automatically routed to the protect line.

shows three ONS 15454s in a linear ADM configuration. Working traffic flows from Slot 6 of Node 1 to Slot 6 of Node 2, and from Slot 12 of Node 2 to Slot 12 of Node 3. You create the protect path by placing Slot 6 in a 1+1 protection with Slot 5 at Nodes 1 and 2, and Slot 12 in 1+1 protection with Slot 13 at Nodes 2 and 3.

Figure 4-28 Linear ADM

Procedure: Create a Linear ADM

Complete the following steps for each node that will be included in the linear ADM.


Step 1 Complete the general setup information for the node. For procedures, see the "Setting Up General Node Information" section on page 3-21.

Step 2 Set up the network information for the node. For procedures, see the "Setting Up ONS 15454 Network Information" section on page 3-22.

Step 3 Set up 1+1 protection for the optical cards in the ADM. In , Slots 6 and 12 are the working ports and Slots 5 and 13 are the protect ports. In this example, you would set up one protection group for Node 1 (Slots 5 and 6), two for Node 2 (Slots 5 and 6, and 12 and 13) and one for Node 3 (Slots 12 and 13). For procedures on creating protection groups, see the "Creating Protection Groups" section on page 3-26.

Step 4 For optical ports connecting ONS 15454s, set the SONET Data Communications Channel terminations:

(a) Log into a linear ADM node and select the Provisioning>Sonet DCC tabs.

(b) Under SDCC Terminations, click Create.

(c) On the Create SDCC Terminations dialog, select the working port. Click OK.


Note   Terminating nodes (Nodes 1 and 3 in ) will have one SDCC, and intermediate nodes (Node 2 in ) will have two SDCCs.


Step 5 Use the procedures provided in the "Setting Up ONS 15454 Timing" section on page 3-29 to set up the node timing. If a node is using line timing, set the working optical card as the timing source.

Step 6 Place the optical ports in service:

(a) Open an optical card that is connected to the linear ADM.

(b) On the Provisioning>Line tabs under Status, select In Service.

(c) Click Apply.

Repeat Step 6 for each optical card connected to the linear ADM.


Procedure: Convert a Linear ADM to UPSR

The following procedures describe how to convert a three-node linear ONS 15454 ADM to a UPSR.


Caution   This procedure affects service.


Step 1 Start CTC and log into one of the nodes that you want to convert from linear to ring.

Step 2 Click the Maintenance>Protection tabs ( Figure 4-29).

Figure 4-29 Maintenance>Protection Subtab

Step 3 Select the 1+1 protection group (that is, the group supporting the 1+1 span cards). Verify that the working slot is active. For example, under Selected Group, the working port should be shown as "Working/Active." If the slot says "Working/Standby," manually switch traffic to the working slot:

(a) In Operations, select Manual_Switch_to_Working. Click Apply.

(b) Click Yes on the confirmation dialog.

(c) Verify that the working slot is carrying traffic. If it is, continue to Step (d). If not, clear the conditions that prevent the card from carrying working traffic before proceeding.

(d) In Operations, select Clear. Click Apply.

(e) Click Yes on the confirmation dialog.

Repeat Step 3 for each group listed in Protection Groups.

Step 4 For each node, delete the 1+1 OC-N protection group that supports the linear ADM span:

(a) Click the Provisioning>Protection tabs.

(b) In Protection Groups, select the group you want to delete (shown in Figure 4-30). Click Delete.

(c) Click Yes on the confirmation dialog.

Figure 4-30 Provisioning>Protection Subtab

Step 5 Physically remove one of the protect fibers running between the middle and end nodes. In the Figure 4-31 example, the fiber running from Slot 13/Node 2 to Slot 13/Node 3 is removed.

Figure 4-31 Linear to UPSR Conversion

Step 6 Physically reroute the other protect fiber to connect the two end nodes. In the Figure 4-31 example, the fiber between Node 1/Slot 5 and Node 2/ Slot 5 is rerouted to connect Node 1/Slot 5 to Node 3/Slot 13.

Step 7 In the middle node, remove the optic cards that are no longer connected to end nodes and delete their equipment records. (If you are leaving the optic cards in place, skip this step and go to Step 9.) In this example, cards in Node 2/Slots 5 and 13 are removed:

(a) Double click the first card (Slot 5, in the example).

(b) In the Provisioning>Line tabs under Status, select Out of Service.

(c) From the Go To menu, select Parent View.

(d) Right click the card you just placed out of service (e.g. Slot 5) and select Delete Card. (You can also go to the Inventory tab, select the card, and click Delete.)

(e) Click Yes on the confirmation dialog.

(f) Repeat (a) through (e) for the second card (e.g. Slot 13).

(g) Record all information for each cross-connect in the linear configuration.

Step 8 Go to one of the end nodes.

Step 9 Select the Provisioning>Sonet DCC tabs.

Step 10 Under SDCC Terminations, click Create.

Step 11 Highlight the slot that is not already in the SDCC Terminations list (in this example, port 1 of Slot 5 (OC-48).

Step 12 Click OK.

Step 13 Go to the node on the opposite end (Node 3 in Figure 4-31) and repeat Steps 9 - 12.

Step 14 Delete and reenter the circuits one at a time. (See the "Creating and Provisioning Circuits" section.)


Note   Deleting circuits affects traffic.


Step 15 Go to the network map to view the newly-created ring ( Figure 4-32).

Figure 4-32 Network View with Ring


Procedure: Convert a Linear ADM to a BLSR

The following procedures describe how to convert a three-node linear ONS 15454 ADM to a BLSR.


Caution   This procedure affects service.


Step 1 Start CTC and log into one of the nodes that you want to convert from linear to ring.

Step 2 Click the Maintenance>Protection tabs.

Step 3 Select the 1+1 protection group (that is, the group supporting the 1+1 span cards). Verify that the working slot is active. For example, under Selected Group, the working port should be "Working/Active." If the slot says "Working/Standby," manually switch traffic to the working slot:

(a) In Operations, select Manual_Switch_to_Working. Click Apply.

(b) Click Yes on the confirmation dialog.

(c) Verify that the working slot is carrying traffic. If it is, continue to Step d. If not, before proceeding clear the conditions that prevent the card from carrying working traffic.

(d) In Operations, select Clear. Click Apply.

(e) Click Yes on the confirmation dialog.

Repeat Step 3 for each group listed in Protection Groups.

Step 4 For each node, delete the 1+1 OC-N protection group that supports the linear ADM span:

(a) Click the Provisioning>Protection tabs.

(b) In Protection Groups, select the group you want to delete. Click Delete.

(c) Click Yes on the confirmation dialog.

Step 5 Physically remove one of the protect fibers running between the middle and end nodes. In the Figure 4-33 example, the fiber running from Slot 13/Node 2 to Slot 13/Node 3 is removed.

Figure 4-33 Linear to BLSR Conversion

Step 6 Physically reroute the other protect fiber so it connects the two end nodes. In the
Figure 4-33 example, the fiber between Node 1/Slot 5 and Node 2/Slot 5 is rerouted to connect Node 1/Slot 5 to Node 3/Slot 13.

Step 7 In the middle node, remove the optic cards that are no longer connected to end nodes and delete their equipment records. (If you are leaving the optic cards in place, skip this step and go to Step 9.) In this example, cards in Node 2/Slots 5 and 13 are removed:

(a) Double click the first card (Slot 5, in the example).

(b) In the Provisioning>Line tabs under Status, select Out of Service.

(c) From the Go To menu, select Parent View.

(d) Right click the card you just placed out of service (Slot 5 in the example) and select Delete Card. (Or, you can go to the Inventory tab, select the card, and click Delete.)

(e) Click Yes on the confirmation dialog.

(f) Repeat (a) through (e) for the second card (Slot 13 in the example).

(g) Select the Provisioning>Line tabs and record the circuit information for the linear configuration. To export the circuit information, select Export from the File menu. (For more information about exporting CTC data, see the "Printing and Exporting CTC Data" section on page 3-34.)

Step 8 Go to one of the end nodes.

Step 9 Select the Provisioning>Sonet DCC tabs.

Step 10 Under SDCC Terminations, click Create.

Step 11 Highlight the slot that is not already in the SDCC Terminations list (in this example, port 1 of Slot 5 (OC-48) on Node 1.

Step 12 Click OK.

Step 13 Go to the node on the opposite end (Node 3 in Figure 4-33) and repeat Steps 9 - 12.

Step 14 For circuits running on a BLSR protect STS (STSs 7-12 for an OC-12 BLSR, STSs 25-48 for an OC-48 BLSR), delete and recreate the circuit:

(a) Delete the first circuit.

(b) Recreate the circuit on STSs 1- 6 (for an OC-12 BLSR) or 1 - 24 (for an OC-48 BLSR) on the fiber that served as the protect fiber in the linear ADM. Before creating the circuit, deselect "Route Automatically" and "Fully Protected Path" on the Circuit Creation dialog box. Follow procedures in the "Creating and Provisioning Circuits" section to provision the circuit.

(c) Repeat Steps (a) and (b) for each circuit residing on a BLSR protect STS.


Note   Deleting circuits affects traffic.


Step 15 Configure the BLSR:

(a) Click the Provisioning>Ring tabs.

(b) On the Ring subtab under BLSR, assign a Node ID in the NODE ID field.

The Node ID identifies the node to the BLSR. Nodes in your BLSR must have different Node IDs. After you select a Node ID, the other BLSR fields are displayed.

(c) Set the BLSR properties:

Ring ID—assign a ring ID (a number between 0 and 255). You must use the same Ring ID for all nodes in the same BLSR.

Reversion time—set the amount of time after which the working traffic reverts back to the original working path. The default is 5 minutes.

East Port—assign the east port from the pull-down menu.

West Port—assign the west port from the pull-down menu.

(d) Click Apply.

(e) When the BLSR Map Ring Change dialog displays, click Yes.

(f) On the BLSR Ring Map dialog, click Accept.

Step 16 Go to the network map to view the newly-created ring.


4.5 Path Protected Mesh Networks

ONS 15454 networks give you the option to set up path protected mesh networks (PPMN). PPMN extends the protection scheme of UPSR from the basic ring configuration to the meshed architecture of several interconnecting rings. Typical UPSR protection creates two separate routes between source and destination nodes on a single UPSR. PPMN does this for source and destination nodes that do not lie on the same ring but link together through a network of meshed connections. When applied to a single ring, PPMN uses the same paths as the Telcordia-specified UPSR.

PPMN connects the source and destination of a circuit over two diverse paths through a network of single or multiple meshed rings. These two routes form a circuit-level UPSR. The source sends traffic on each of the diverse routes to the destination node, where the destination node uses the active route or switches to the standby route.


Note   The primary and secondary routes are guaranteed to be link and span diverse, but not node diverse.


When you check the "Fully protect path" box during the normal A to Z provisioning process, PPMN provisions automatically in CTC. Choosing this option establishes an alternate route for the circuit in addition to the normally provisioned route. The second route or the protected path follows a unique second path through the network between the source and destination and sets up a second set of cross-connections. You can do this routing manually as well.

Figure 4-34 shows an example of PPMN. In the example, A to Z provisioned Node 3 as the source node and Node 9 as the destination node. The ONS 15454 CTC determined that the shortest route between the two end nodes passes through Node 8 and Node 7, shown by the dotted line. A to Z provisioning then automatically created cross-connections at each of the four nodes, 3, 8, 7, and 9, to provide the route for working traffic.

When the protected circuit box is checked, PPMN establishes a second unique route between Nodes 3 and 9 and automatically creates cross-connections at each of the five nodes, 3, 2, 1, 11, and 9 as illustrated by the dashed line. If a signal failure occurs on the primary path, traffic switches to the second, or protected circuit path. In this example, Node 9 switches from the traffic coming in from Node 7, to the traffic coming in from Node 11 and service resumes. The switch occurs within
50 milliseconds.

Figure 4-34 Path Protected Mesh Network Example

PPMN also allows spans of different SONET line rates to be mixed together in "virtual rings." Figure 4-35 shows Nodes 1, 2, 3, and 4 forming a standard OC-48 ring. Nodes 5, 6, 7, and 8 link to the backbone ring through OC-12 fiber. The "virtual ring" formed by Nodes 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 uses both OC-48 and OC-12.

Figure 4-35 PPMN Virtual Ring

4.6 Creating and Provisioning Circuits

You can create STS, VT1.5, and Ethernet circuits across and within ONS 15454 nodes and assign. circuits different attributes. For example, you can:

Create one-way, two-way, or multicast circuits.

Assign user-defined names to circuits.

Assign different circuit sizes. STS circuits can be STS-1, STS-3c, STS-12c or STS-48c. Ethernet circuits can be STS-1, STS-3c, STS-6c, or STS-12c.


Note   Procedures for creating Ethernet circuits are provided in the "ONS 15454 Ethernet Circuit Configurations" section on page 7-16.


Route circuits automatically or manually.

Set an attribute so that CTC routes circuits only on protected paths.

Set a filter to prevent you from attaching circuits to unprotected cards.

Define a secondary circuit source or destination that allows you to interoperate an ONS 15454 UPSR with third-party equipment UPSRs.

4.6.1 Cross Connect Card Capacities

The ONS 15454 XC and XCVT cards perform the port-to-port time division multiplexing. XC cards perform STS switching; XCVT cards perform STS and VT1.5 switching. All TDM traffic consumes XC and XCVT bandwidth, even traffic that originates and terminates on the same ONS 15454. For example, each OC-12 card and the 12-port DS3-12 card consume 12 STS ports.

shows the terminating STS and STS port-connection capacities of the XC and XCVT cards. shows the terminating STS and VT1.5 connection capacities.

Table 4-2 XC and XCVT Card Capacity: STSs (Bidirectional) 

Card
Terminating STSs
Connections between STS ports (1 to 1)

XC

288

144

XCVT

288

144


Table 4-3 XC and XCVT Card Capacity: VT1.5s (Bidirectional)

Card
Terminating STSs
Connections between VT1.5 ports

XC

0

0

XCVT

24 (672 VT1.5s)

336


When VT1.5 circuits are routed through ONS 15454 nodes, the number of VTs used within the XCVT cross-connect matrix depends on the protection scheme of the node. VT use is slightly higher at the source and drop nodes in 1+1 protection and in UPSRs than in BLSRs. shows an example of VT use within an XCVT at the source and drop nodes.

Table 4-4 VT Use Example

Protection
VT ports Used Within XCVT Matrix per circuit
Description

1 + 1

31

1) I/O card

2) Trunk card (working)

3) Trunk card (protect)

UPSR

3*

1) I/O card

2) Trunk card (working)

3) Trunk card (protect)

BLSR

2

1) I/O card

2) Trunk card (working)

1 Source and drop nodes; two VT ports are used at pass-through nodes


4.6.2 VT Tunnels

You can tunnel VT1.5 circuits through ONS 15454 nodes. VT1.5 tunnels provide two benefits:

VT1.5 tunnels allow you to route VT1.5 circuits through ONS 15454s with XC cards. (VT1.5 circuits require XCVT cards at the source and drop nodes.)

When tunneled through nodes with XCVT cards, VT1.5 tunnels do not use VT connection capacity, thereby freeing the XCVT card's capacity for other VT1.5 circuits.

When planning VT1.5 circuits, weigh the benefits of using tunnels with the need to maximize STS capacity. For example, a VT1.5 tunnel between Node 1 and Node 4 passing (transparently) through Node 2 and Node 3 is advantageous if:

A full STS is used for Node 1 - Node 4 VT1.5 traffic (that is, the number of VT1.5s between these nodes is close to 28),

Node 2 or Node 3 have XC cards, or

XCVT cards at Node 2 and Node 3 have reached full VT cross-connection capacity.

However, if the Node 1 - Node 4 tunnel carries only a few VT1.5 circuits, creating a regular VT1.5 circuit between Nodes 1, 2, 3, and 4 might maximize STS capacity.

When you create a VT1.5 circuit, CTC checks to see whether a tunnel already exists between source and drop nodes. If a tunnel exists, CTC checks the tunnel capacity. If capacity is sufficient, CTC routes the circuit on the existing tunnel. If a tunnel does not exist, or if an existing tunnel does not have sufficient capacity, CTC displays a dialog asking whether you want to create a tunnel. Before you create the tunnel, review the existing tunnel availability, keeping in mind future bandwidth needs. In some cases, manually routing a circuit might make more sense than creating a new tunnel.

Procedure: Create a Circuit


Step 1 Log into CTC and click the Circuits tab.

Step 2 Click Create. The Circuit Creation dialog ( Figure 4-36) displays.

Figure 4-36 Circuit Creation Dialog

Step 3 In the Circuit Creation dialog, complete the following fields:

Name—assign a name to the circuit. The name can be alphanumeric and up to 32 characters (including spaces).

Type—select the type of circuit you want to create: STS, VT (VT1.5), or VT tunnel. The circuit type you select determines the circuit-provisioning options that are displayed.

Size—select the circuit size.

Bidirectional—check this box if you want to create a two-way circuit; uncheck it to create a one-way circuit.

Number of circuits—type the number of circuits you want to create. If you enter more than 1, CTC returns to the Circuit Source dialog after you create each circuit until you finish creating the number of circuits you specified here.

Route Automatically—check this box if you want the CTC to choose the circuit path automatically. If it is not checked, you must provision the circuit spans and set the circuit paths manually.

Fully Protected Path—check this box if you want CTC to route circuits only on protected paths. In other words, if a path cannot be a BLSR, UPSR, linear ADM, or PPM protected, CTC will not allow it to be used in the circuit if this box is checked.

Protected Drops—If this box is checked, CTC only displays cards residing in 1:1, 1:N, or 1+1 protection for circuit source and destination selections.

Step 4 If the circuit is on a UPSR, set the UPSR Selector Defaults:

Revertive—check this box if you want working traffic to revert back to its original path when the conditions that diverted it to the protect path are repaired. If it is not checked, working traffic remains on the protect path.

Reversion time—if Revertive is checked, set the reversion time. This is the amount of time after which the traffic reverts back to the original working path when conditions causing the switch are cleared (the default is 5 minutes).

SF threshold—set the UPSR Path-level signal failure BER thresholds.

SD threshold—set the UPSR Path-level signal degrade BER thresholds.

Switch on PDI-P—check this box if you want traffic to switch when an STS payload defect indicator is received.

Step 5 Click Next.

Step 6 In the Circuit Source dialog, set the circuit source.

Options include node, slot, port, STS, and VT/DS-1. The options displayed depend on the circuit type and circuit properties you selected and the cards installed in the node. For example, if the node does not have an XCVT card, VT circuits are not available for selection. For Ethergroups, see the "ONS 15454 Ethernet Circuit Configurations" section on page 7-16.

Click Use Secondary Source if you need to create a UPSR bridge/selector circuit entry point in a multivendor UPSR ring.

Step 7 Click Next.

Step 8 In the Circuit Destination dialog, enter the appropriate information for the circuit destination. Click Use Secondary Destination if you need to create a UPSR bridge/selector circuit destination point in a multivendor UPSR ring.

Step 9 Click Next. If you checked Route Automatically in Step 3, go to Step 10. If you did not check Route Automatically in Step 3, the Circuit Creation dialog is displayed ( Figure 4-37). Follow Steps a - e to manually route your circuit path.

Figure 4-37 Circuit Path Selection Dialog

(a) Click the line of the span that will carry the circuit (the span turns white) and move the arrow so that it points from the source to the destination. To change the direction of the arrow, click the selected line again.

(b) Click Source STS or VT and select the source STS or VT.

(c) Click Add Span.

The span turns blue.

(d) Verify that the spans are correctly provisioned. The spans in the Selected Spans were added.

When provisioning a BLSR circuit, you only need to select one BLSR path from the source to the drop. If you are provisioning a UPSR, you can only select unprotected spans as paths. BLSR and 1+1 protected spans are not allowed. When selecting UPSR spans, select two different paths from source to drop. In Figure 4-37, the arrows would point from Node_1 to Node_2, Node_2 to Node_3, and from Node_1 to Node_3 (protect span).


Caution   The ONS 15454 allows BLSR traffic to pass through an intermediate node on different STSs (for example, incoming traffic on STS-1, outgoing traffic on STS-2). However, if a pass-through node with incoming and outgoing traffic on different STSs becomes isolated (that is, multiple failures occur), the traffic supported by these STSs is not protected by the protection switch. Therefore, use the same STS/VT when passing traffic through a BLSR node.

(e) Click Next.

Step 10 In the Confirm Circuit Creation dialog, verify the circuit information.

Step 11 If the information is correct, click Finish.

If you entered more than 1 in Number of Circuits in the Circuit Attributes dialog, the Circuit Source dialog is displayed so you can create the remaining circuits. Otherwise, you are finished provisioning a circuit.


Note   Ports must be placed in service before the circuits can carry traffic.



4.6.3 Creating Circuits With Multiple Drops

Unidirectional circuits can have multiple drops for use in broadcast circuit schemes. In broadcast scenarios, one source transmits traffic to multiple destinations, but traffic is not returned back to the source.


Note   When you create a unidirectional circuit, the card that does not have its backplane Rx input terminated with a valid input signal generates an LOS alarm. You cannot mask the alarm through CTC or through an internal hairpin connection. This will be addressed in a future release.


Procedure: Create a Circuit with Multiple Drops


Step 1 Create a unidirectional circuit by using the procedures in the "Create a Circuit" section. (To create a unidirectional circuit, deselect Bidirectional on the Circuit Creation dialog.)

Step 2 On the Circuits window, select the circuit and click Edit.

Step 3 On the Drops tab of the Edit Circuits dialog, select the circuit and click Create.

Step 4 On the Define New Drop dialog, complete the appropriate fields to define the new circuit drop: Node, Slot, Port, STS, VT (if applicable).

Step 5 Click OK.

Step 6 If you need to create additional drops, repeat Steps 3 - 5. If not, click Close.

Step 7 Verify the new drops appear under the circuit's Destination column on the Circuits window.


4.6.4 Creating Monitor Circuits

You can set up secondary circuits to monitor traffic on primary circuits. You can create monitor circuits for bidirectional circuits only. For unidirectional circuits, simply create a drop to the port where the test equipment is attached. shows an example. At Node 1, a VT1.5 is dropped from Port 1 of an EC1-12 card. To monitor the VT1.5 traffic, test equipment is plugged into Port 2 of the EC1-12 and CTC is used to provision a circuit monitor to Port 2. Circuit monitors are one-way. The monitor in shows VT1.5 traffic received by the EC1-12. To monitor traffic sent from Node 1, a circuit monitor needs to be set up at Node 2.


Note   Monitor circuits cannot be used with stitched Ethernet circuits.


Figure 4-38 Monitor Circuit Example

Procedure: Set Up a Monitor Circuit


Step 1 Log into CTC.

Step 2 In node view, select the Circuits tab.

Step 3 Select the circuit that you want to monitor. Click Edit.

Step 4 On the Edit Circuit dialog, select the Monitors tab ( Figure 4-39).

The Monitors tab displays ports that you can use to monitor the circuit selected in Step 3.

Figure 4-39 Monitors Tab

Step 5 On the Monitors tab, select a port, then click Create Monitor Circuit.

Step 6 On the Circuit Creation dialog, select the destination node, slot, port, and STS for the monitored circuit. Click Next.

Step 7 On the Circuit Creation dialog confirmation, review the monitor circuit information. Click Finish.

Step 8 On the Edit Circuit dialog, click Close. The new monitor circuit displays on the Circuits tab.


4.6.5 Editing UPSR Circuits

To change UPSR selectors and switch protection paths, use the Edit Circuits dialog ( ). You can view the UPSR circuit's working and protection paths, edit the reversion time, edit the Signal Fail/Signal Degrade thresholds, turn PDI-P on or off, and perform maintenance switches on the circuit selector. You can also display a map of the UPSR circuits to better see circuit flow between nodes.

Figure 4-40 Edit Circuit Dialog - UPSR Tab

Procedure: Edit UPSR Circuits


Step 1 Log into the source or drop node of the UPSR circuit.

Step 2 Click the Circuits tab.

Step 3 Click the circuit you want to edit, then click Edit.

Step 4 On the Edit Circuit dialog, click the UPSR tab.

Step 5 Edit the UPSR selectors:

Reversion Time—controls whether or not working traffic reverts back to the working path when conditions that diverted it to the protect path are repaired. If you select Never, traffic does not revert. Selecting a time sets the amount of time after which traffic reverts back to the working path following repair of the working path.

SF BER Level—sets the UPSR signal failure bit error rate threshold.

SD BER Level—sets the UPSR signal degrade bit error rate threshold.

PDI-P—when checked, traffic switches on STS payload defect indication path.

Switch State—switches circuit traffic between the working and protect paths. The color of the Working Path and Protect Path fields indicate the active path. Normally, the Working Path is green and the Protect Path is purple. If the Protect Path is green, working traffic has switched to the Protect Path.

CLEAR—removes a previously-set switch command.

LOCKOUT OF PROTECT—prevents traffic from switching to the protect circuit path.

FORCE TO WORKING—forces traffic to switch to the working circuit path, regardless of whether the path is error free.

FORCE TO PROTECT—forces traffic to switch to the protect circuit path, regardless of whether the path is error free.

MANUAL TO WORKING—switches traffic to the working circuit path when the working path is error free.

MANUAL TO PROTECT—switches traffic to the protect circuit path when the protect path is error free.


Caution   FORCE and LOCKOUT commands override normal protective switching mechanisms. Applying these commands incorrectly might cause circuit outages.

Step 6 Click Apply.

Step 7 Click Close.


4.7 DCC Tunneling

SONET provides four data communications channels (DCCs) for network element operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning: one on the SONET Section layer and three on the SONET Line layer. The ONS 15454 uses the Section DCC (SDCC) for ONS 15454 management and provisioning.

You can use the Line DCCs (LDCCs) and the SDCC (when the SDCC is not used for ONS 15454 DCC terminations) to tunnel third-party SONET equipment SDCCs across ONS 15454 networks. To create a DCC tunnel, you connect the tunnel end points from one ONS 15454 optical port to another. DCC traffic is forwarded transparently, byte-for-byte, across the ONS 15454 network. Each ONS 15454 can support up to 32 DCC tunnel connections. shows the DCC tunnels that you can create.

Table 4-5 DCC Tunnels

DCC
SONET
Layer
SONET
Bytes
OC-3
(Ports 1 & 3)1
OC-12
(all ports)
OC-48
(all ports)

SDCC

Section

D1 - D3

Yes

Yes

Yes

Tunnel 1

Line

D4 - D6

No

Yes

Yes

Tunnel 2

Line

D7 - D10

No

Yes

Yes

Tunnel 3

Line

D11 - D12

No

Yes

Yes

1 You cannot use Ports 2 and 4 on OC-3 cards for DCC tunnels.


4.7.1 Creating DCC Tunnels

A DCC tunnel is a series of connection points that map a third-party equipment SDCC to ONS 15454 LDCCs. DCC tunnel end points are defined by slot, port, and DCC type (SDCC, Tunnel 1, Tunnel 2, or Tunnel 3). You can link an SDCC to an LDCC (Tunnel 1, Tunnel 2, or Tunnel 3), and an LDCC to an SDCC. You can also link LDCCs to LDCCs and link SDCCs to SDCCs.

Figure 4-41 shows a DCC tunnel example. Third-party equipment is connected to OC-3 cards at Node 1, Slot 3, Port 1, and Node 3, Slot 3, Port 1. Each ONS 15454 node is connected by OC-48 trunk cards. In the example, three tunnel connections are created, one at Node 1 (OC-3 to OC-48), one at Node 2 (OC-48 to OC-48), and one at Node 3 (OC-48 to OC-3).

Figure 4-41 DCC Tunnel Example

Procedure: Provision a DCC Tunnel


Step 1 Log into an ONS 15454 that is connected to the non-ONS 15454 network.

Step 2 Click the Provisioning>Sonet DCC tabs.

Step 3 Beneath the DCC Tunnel Connections area (bottom right of the screen), click Create.

Step 4 In the Create DCC Tunnel Connection dialog ( Figure 4-42), select the tunnel end points from the From (A) and To B) lists.


Note   You cannot use the SDCC listed under SDCC Terminations (left side of the screen) for tunnel connections. These are used for ONS 15454 SDCCs.


Figure 4-42 Create DCC Tunnel Connection Dialog

Step 5 Click OK.

Step 6 The ports hosting the a DCC tunnel are not in service:

(a) Double click the card hosting the DCC in the shelf graphic or right click the card and select Open.

(b) Click the Provisioning>Line tabs.

(c) Under Status, select In Service.

(d) Click Apply.


DCC Provisioning is now complete for one slot/port. Repeat these steps for all slots/ports that are part of the DCC tunnel, including any intermediate nodes that will pass traffic through third party equipment. The procedure is confirmed when the third party network elements successfully communicate over the newly established DCC tunnel.

4.8 Loopbacks and Network Tests

Use loopbacks and hairpins to test newly-created circuits before adding live traffic or to logically isolate the source of a network failure. All ONS 15454 I/O cards, except Ethernet cards, allow loopbacks and hairpins.

4.8.1 Network Test Types

Facility loopbacks test the line interface unit (LIU) of a card, the backplane, and cabling. You put a facility loopback on a card and use a test set to run traffic over the loopback. A successful facility loopback eliminates the LIU of the card, backplane, and cabling plant as the cause or potential cause of a network problem. shows a facility loopback on a DS-N card.

Figure 4-43 The facility loopback process

Terminal loopbacks test a circuit path through the XC card and loop back from the card that the terminal loopback is testing. shows a terminal loopback set on an OC-N card. The test set traffic comes in on the DS-N card and goes through the XC card to the OC-N card. The terminal loopback on the OC-N card turns the signal around before it reaches the LIU and sends it through the XC card to the DS-N card. This test verifies that the XC card and circuit paths are valid, but does not test the LIU on the OC-N card. To test the LIU on an OC-N card, connect an optical test set to the OC-N card ports and perform a facility loopback or use a loopback or hairpin on a card that is farther along the circuit path.

Figure 4-44 The terminal loopback process

Hairpin circuits bring traffic in and out on a DS-N port instead of sending the traffic onto the OC-N. A hairpin loops back only the specific STS or VT circuit and does not cause an entire OC-N port to loopback, which would drop all traffic on the OC-N port. The hairpin allows you to test a circuit on nodes running live traffic.

Figure 4-45 The hairpin circuit process

4.8.2 Network Test Procedures

Facility loopbacks, terminal loopbacks, and hairpin circuits are often used together to test the circuit path through the network or to logically isolate a fault. Performing a network test at each point along the circuit path systematically eliminates possible points of failure. In our example, we test a DS-N circuit on a two node BLSR. Using a series of facility loopbacks, terminal loopbacks, and hairpins, we trace the path of the circuit and eliminate possible points of failure.

A logical progression of five network test procedures apply to this scenario: a facility loopback on the source node DS-N card, a hairpin on the source node DS-N card, a hairpin on the destination node OC-N card, a terminal loopback to the destination node DS-N card, and a facility loopback to the destination DS-N card.

Procedure: Perform a Facility Loopback on a Source DS-N Card

The first loopback test is a facility test performed on the first card in the circuit; in this example, the DS1-14 card in source node. Completing a successful facility loopback on this card eliminates the cabling, DS-N card, and the backplane as possible failure points.

Figure 4-46 Facility loopback on a source DS-N card


Caution   Performing a loopback on an in-service circuit is service affecting.


Note   Loopbacks operate only on in-service ports.



Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop.

To perform a hard loop, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with a cable and send traffic across this loop to ensure that the test set works.

Step 2 Use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals of the test set to the backplane connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port. Setup the test set accordingly.

Step 3 In node view, double-click the loopback card where you will perform the loopback.

Step 4 Click the Maintenance > Loopback tabs.

Step 5 On the Loopback subtab, select Facility (Line) from the Loopback Type column for the port being tested.

Figure 4-47 Performing a facility loopback

Step 6 Click Apply.

Step 7 On the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.


Note   It is normal for an alarm to appear during loopback setup. The alarm clears when you remove the loopback.


Step 8 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 9 Examine the traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 10 If the test set indicates a good circuit:

(a) Clear the Facility Loopback:

On the Loopback subtab, select None from the Loopback Type column.

Click Apply.

(b) Skip to the second procedure (the "Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node" section).

Step 11 A faulty circuit signifies a problem with the DS-N card, the cabling from the DS-N card to the DSx panel, or the backplane. Test the DS-N cabling, the DS-N card, and then the backplane.

Step 12 To test the cabling:

(a) Replace the suspect cabling (the cables from the test set to the backplane ports) with a known good cable.

(b) If a known good cable is not available, test the suspect cable with a test set. Remove the suspect cable from the backplane and connect the cable to the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) of the test set. Run traffic to determine whether the cable is good or suspect.

(c) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good cable installed.

(d) If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective cable. Replace this cable and skip to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" section.

Step 13 To test the card:

(a) Replace the suspect card with a known good card.

(b) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good card.

(c) If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective card. Replace the suspect card and skip to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" section.

(d) Return the defective card to Cisco through the returned materials authorization (RMA) process. Call the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

Step 14 If the loopback test fails with a known good cable and a known good card, then the backplane is suspect.

(a) Repeat the facility loopback test for the DS-N card, but use a different port. This requires setting up a new facility loopback on CTC for the new port and running cables from the test set to the new port.

(b) If the loopback test on the new port fails, the entire backplane is suspect.

(c) If the loopback test succeeds on the new port, the backplane problem may be limited to the original port.

(d) No user-serviceable operations exist for the backplane. Call the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case for the backplane. Tell them whether the entire backplane is suspect or only specific ports.

(e) Replace the backplane.

(f) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with known good cabling, a known good card, and the replacement backplane.

(g) If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective backplane. Skip to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node" section.

Step 15 Clear any loopback before testing the next segment of the circuit path.


Procedure: Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node

The second loopback test is a hairpin circuit performed on the first XC card in the circuit. Completing a successful loopback through this card eliminates the possibility that the source XC card is the reason for the faulty circuit.

Figure 4-48 Hairpin on a source node


Note   The ONS 15454 does not support simplex operation on the XC/XCVT card. Two XC/XCVT cards must be installed for each node.



Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop if you have not already done so.

To perform a hard loop, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with a cable and send traffic across this loop to make the test set work.

Step 2 If you just completed the prior procedure, Perform a Facility Loopback on a Source DS-N Card, leave the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card.

Step 3 If you are starting the current procedure without the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card, use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals to the backplane connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port. Set up the test set accordingly.

Step 4 Click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

Step 5 Give the circuit an easily-identifiable name, such as hairpin1.

Step 6 Set the Circuit Type and Size to your normal preferences.

Step 7 Uncheck the Bidirectional check box and click Next.

Step 8 In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the same card and port where you performed the first loopback test. The DS-N card in the source node.

Step 9 Click Next.

Step 10 In the Circuit Destination dialog box, use the same card and port used for the source information.

Step 11 Click Finish.

Step 12 Confirm that the newly-created circuit appears with a direction column noting that this circuit is 1-way.

Step 13 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 14 Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 15 If the test set indicates a good circuit, skip to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node" section.

Step 16 If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality, there may be a problem with the XC card.


Caution   XC manual switches (side switches) are service-affecting. Any live traffic on any card in the node endures a hit of up to 50 ms.

Step 17 Perform a software reset on the standby XC/XCVT card:

(a) Determine the standby XC card. On both the physical node and the CTC screen, the ACT/STBY LED of the standby XC card is yellow, and the ACT/STBY LED of the active XC card is green.

(b) Position the cursor over the standby XC/XCVT card.

(c) Right-click to choose RESET CARD.

Step 18 Do a manual switch (sideswitch) of the XC cards and retest the circuit:

(a) Determine the standby XC card. The ACT/STBY LED of the standby XC card is yellow, and the ACT/STBY LED of the active XC card is green.


Note   Place the cursor on top of the card graphic to display a dialog. This display identifies the card as XC: Active or XC: Standby.


(b) In the node view, select the Maintenance > XC/XCVT Cards tabs.

(c) From the Cross Connect Cards menu, choose Switch.

(d) Click Yes on the Confirm Switch dialog box.


Note   After the active XC/XCVT goes into standby, the original standby slot becomes active. This causes the ACT/STBY LED to become green on the former standby card.


(e) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Now the test set traffic goes through the alternate XC card.

(f) Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

(g) If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, assume the XC card is not causing the problem. Skip to Step j of this procedure.

(h) If the circuit is now good, the problem could be a defective card. To confirm a defective original XC card:

Redo the manual switch (sideswitch) procedure to make the original active XC card again the active card.

Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

If the circuit is now good, the XC card may have had a temporary problem that was cleared by the sideswitch.

(i) Replace the defective XC card.

(j) Click the Circuits tab.

(k) Highlight the newly-created hairpin circuit and click Delete.

(l) Go to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node" section.


Procedure: Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node

The third test is a hairpin circuit on the XC card in the destination node. To perform this test, first create a bidirectional circuit from the source DS-N card to the source OC-N node in the transmit direction. Creating the bidirectional circuit and completing a successful hairpin eliminates the possibility that the source and destination OC-N cards, the destination XC card, or the fiber span is responsible for the faulty circuit.

Figure 4-49 Hairpin on a destination node


Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop if you have not done so.


Note   To perform a hard loop, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with an appropriate cable and send traffic across this loop to ensure the test set works.


Step 2 If you are starting the current procedure with the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card, leave the test set hooked up.

Step 3 If you are starting the current procedure without the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card, use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals to the backplane connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port. Set up the test set accordingly.

Step 4 To create the first circuit, click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

Step 5 Give the circuit an easily-identifiable name, such as bidirectional1.

Step 6 Select the appropriate circuit type, VT or STS-1.

Step 7 Leave the Bidirectional check box checked and click Next.

Step 8 In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the same card and port where you performed the first loopback test (the DS-N card in the source node).

Step 9 Click Next.

Step 10 In the Circuit Destination dialog box, use the source node OC-N card and port.

Step 11 Click Next and Finish.

Step 12 Confirm that the newly-created circuit appears with a direction column showing a 2-way circuit.

Step 13 Log into the destination node.

Step 14 For the second circuit, click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

Step 15 Give the circuit an easily-identifiable name, such as hairpin2.

Step 16 Set Circuit Type and Size to your normal preferences.

Step 17 Uncheck the Bidirectional check box and click Next.

Step 18 In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the destination OC-N card and port.

Step 19 Click Next.

Step 20 In the Circuit Destination dialog box, use the same card and port from the Circuit Source dialog box.

Step 21 Click Finish.

Step 22 Confirm that the second newly-created circuit appears with a direction column noting a 1-way circuit.

Step 23 Double-click the circuit to display the network view.

Step 24 Verify that the circuits connect to the correct slots. For example, source node/Slot 6 (east slot) to destination node/Slot 12(west slot). If two east or two west slots are connected, the circuit will not work. Except for the distinct slots, all other circuit information, such as ports, should be identical.

Step 25 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 26 Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information indicated by the test set.

Step 27 If the test set indicates a good circuit, skip to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" section.

Step 28 If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality, a problem may exist with the destination XC card, the source or destination OC-N card, or the fiber span. Test the destination XC card, then the OC-N cards, and then test the fiber span.


Caution   XC manual switches (side switches) are service-affecting. Any live traffic on any card in the node will endure a hit of up to 50 ms.

Step 29 Perform a software reset on the standby XC/XCVT card:

(a) Determine the standby XC card. On both the physical node and the CTC screen, the ACT/STBY LED of the standby XC card is yellow, and the ACT/STBY LED of the active XC card is green.

(b) Position the cursor over the standby XC/XCVT card.

(c) Right-click to choose RESET CARD.

Step 30 Do a manual switch (sideswitch) of the XC cards and retest the circuit:

(a) In the node view, select the Maintenance > XC/XCVT Cards tabs.

(b) From the Cross Connect Cards menu, choose Switch.

(c) Click Yes on the Confirm Switch dialog box.


Note   After the active XC/XCVT goes into standby, the original standby slot becomes active. This causes the ACT/STBY LED to become green on the former standby card.


(d) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Now the test set traffic routes through the alternate XC card.

(e) Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

(f) If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, assume the XC card is not causing the problem. Skip to Step k of this procedure.

(g) If the circuit is now good, the problem could be a defective card. To confirm a defective original XC card:

Redo the manual switch (sideswitch) procedure to make the original active XC card again the active card.

Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

If the circuit is now good, the XC card may have had a temporary problem that was cleared by the sideswitch.

(h) Replace the defective XC card.

(i) Click the Circuits tab.

(j) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

The test set traffic routes through the alternate XC card rather than the original XC card.

(k) Examine the received test set traffic. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

(l) If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, assume the problem does not lie in a faulty XC card and skip to Step 31 of this procedure.

(m) If the circuit is now good, the problem could be a defective card. To confirm a defective original XC card:

Repeat the manual switch (side switch) procedure to make the original active XC card again the active card.

Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

If the circuit is now good, the XC card may have had a temporary problem that is now cleared by the sideswitch.

(n) Replace the defective XC card.

(o) Click Apply and click the Circuits tab.

Step 31 To eliminate the possibility of faulty OC-N cards:

(a) Replace the suspect source OC-N card with a known good card.

(b) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good card.

(c) If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective card. Return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

(d) Repeat steps a - b for the suspect destination OC-N card.

(e) Skip to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" section.

If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality and the OC-N card is a known good card, then the fiber span is suspect.

Step 32 If you now have a valid fiber span, resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 33 Examine the test traffic being received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 34 If you do not have a valid test signal or a valid fiber span, try to obtain access to another known good span, hook the source and destination OC-N cards to the known good span, and resend the test signal.

Step 35 If you do not have a valid signal with a known good span, valid OC-N cards, and a valid XC card, repeat the "Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node" section to try and determine the problem or call the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 and explain the situation.

Step 36 If you have a valid test signal with the known good span, replace or fix the original fiber span to obtain a valid circuit. Then, go to "Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node" section

Step 37 Highlight the newly-created hairpin circuit.

Step 38 Click Delete.

Step 39 Go to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" section.


Procedure: Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card

The fourth test is a terminal loopback performed on the fourth I/O card in the circuit; in this example the DS-N card in the destination node. First create a bidirectional circuit that starts on the source node DS-N port and terminates on the destination node DS-N port, then proceed with the terminal loopback test. Completing a successful terminal loopback to a destination node DS-N card eliminates the possibility that this card is responsible for the faulty circuit.

Figure 4-50 Terminal loopback on a destination DS-N card


Caution   Performing a loopback on an in-service circuit is service affecting.


Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop if you have not already done so.

To perform a hard loop, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with an appropriate cable and send traffic across the loop to ensure the test set works.

Step 2 If you are starting the current procedure with the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card in the source node, leave the test set hooked up.

Step 3 If you are starting the current procedure without the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card in the source node, use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals to the backplane connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port. Setup the test set accordingly.

Step 4 Click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

Step 5 Give the circuit an easily-identifiable name, such as DSNtoDSN.

Step 6 Set Circuit Type and Size to your normal preferences.

Step 7 Leave the Bidirectional check box checked and click Next.

Step 8 In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the same card and port where you performed the first loopback test (the DS-N card in the source node).

Step 9 Click Next.

Step 10 In the Circuit Destination dialog box, use the DS-N card and port in the destination node.

Step 11 Click Finish.

Step 12 Confirm that the newly created circuit appears on a Circuits screen row with a direction column that shows a 2-way circuit.

Step 13 In node view, double-click the card that requires the loopback. In this example, the DS-N card in the destination node.

Step 14 Click the Maintenance > Loopback tabs.

Step 15 On the Loopback subtab, select Terminal (Inward) from the Loopback Type column.

Step 16 Click Apply.

Step 17 On the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.


Note   Loopbacks operate only on in-service ports.



Note   It is normal for an alarm to appear during a loopback setup. The alarm clears when you remove the loopback.


Step 18 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 19 Examine the test traffic being received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 20 If the test set indicates a good circuit, skip to the "Perform a Facility Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" section.

Step 21 If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality, then test the DS-N card.

(a) Replace the suspect card with a known good card.

(b) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good card.

(c) If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective card. Replace the suspect card and return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.


Procedure: Perform a Facility Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card

The final test is a facility loopback performed on the last card in the circuit; in this case the DS-N card in the destination node. Completing a successful facility loopback on this card eliminates the possibility that the destination node cabling, DS-N card, LIU, or backplane is responsible for a faulty circuit.

Figure 4-51 Facility loopback on a destination DS-N card


Caution   Performing a loopback on an in-service circuit is allowed but is service affecting.


Note   Loopbacks operate only on in-service ports.



Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop if you have not already done so.

To perform a hard loop on the test set, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with an appropriate cable and send traffic across this loop to make the test set works.

Step 2 Use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals to the backplane connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port. Set up your test set accordingly.

Step 3 In node view, double-click the card where you will perform the loopback.

Step 4 Click the Maintenance > Loopback tabs.


Note   Loopbacks operate only on in-service ports.


Step 5 On the Loopback subtab, select Facility (Line) from the Loopback Type column for the port being tested.

Step 6 Click Apply.

Step 7 On the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.


Note   It is normal for an alarm to appear during loopback. The alarm clears when you remove the loopback.


Step 8 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 9 Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 10 If the test set indicates a clean circuit:

(a) Clear the Facility Loopback:

On the Loopback subtab, select None from the Loopback Type column.

Click Apply.

(b) The entire DS-N circuit path has now passed its comprehensive series of loopback tests. This circuit qualifies to carry live traffic.

Step 11 If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality, there is a problem with the DS-N card, the cabling from the DS-N card, or the backplane. Test the DS-N cabling first, the DS-N card next, and the backplane last.

Step 12 To test the cabling:

(a) Replace the suspect cabling (the cables from the test set to the backplane ports) with a known good cable.

(b) If a known good cable is not available, you can test the suspect cable with a test set. Remove the suspect cable from the backplane and connect the cable to the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) of the test set. Run traffic to determine whether this is a good cable.

(c) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good cable installed.

(d) If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective cable. Replace this cable.

(e) Skip to Step 14.

Step 13 To test the card:

(a) Replace the suspect card with a known good card.

(b) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good card.

(c) If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective card. Replace the defective card.

(d) Return your defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

Step 14 If the loopback test fails with a known good cable and known good card, then the backplane is suspect.

(a) Repeat the facility loopback test for the DS-N card, but use a different port. This will require setting up a new facility loopback on CTC for the new port and running cables from the test set to the new port.

(b) If the loopback test on the new port fails, the entire backplane is suspect.

(c) If the loopback test succeeds on the new port, the backplane problem may be limited to the original port.

(d) No user-serviceable operations exist for the backplane. Call the Cisco technical assistance center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case on the backplane. Make sure to include whether the entire backplane is suspect or only specific ports.

(e) Replace the backplane.

(f) Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with known good cabling, a known good card, and the replacement backplane.

(g) If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective backplane.

Step 15 The entire DS-N circuit path has now passed its comprehensive series of loopback tests. This circuit qualifies to carry live traffic.


4.9 Managing Multiple ONS 15454 Rings

A small modification to the CMS.INI file enables CTC to manage multiple rings or nodes that are connected only by Ethernet and not interconnected by fiber or the DCC. Figure 4-52 shows a multiple ONS 15454 ring. An ONS 15454 with an unmodified CMS.INI file can only manage the ONS 15454 that the PC dialed directly into and the three node ring attached to that ONS 15454. The file cannot manage the single node and two-node ring that are not optically connected to the dialed into ONS 15454. However, you can modify the CMS.INI file to manage the additional single node and two node ring.

Figure 4-52 CTC Multiple Ring Management

Procedure: Enable Multiple Ring Management

The following procedure shows how to enable CTC for multiple ring management. To enable multiple ring management, the CTC software must be installed and launched.


Caution   Close all CTC sessions before modifying the CMS.INI file.


Step 1 from the Windows Start menu, select Find>Files or Folder.

Step 2 In the Find dialog, type CMS.INI in the Named field. Click Find Now.

Step 3 Double-click the located file to bring up Microsoft Notepad or a similar text-editing program. Example text from an unmodified CMS.INI file is shown below:

#CTC Preferences File

#Tue Aug 8 15:00:27 PDT 2000

CMS_LAUNCHER.CmsJarPath=C\:\\TEMP\\CMS51877.jar

CMS.LastHost=192.168.106.143

Step 4 Record on paper the IP addresses for the rings and nodes that connect directly to the Ethernet. Do not record IP addresses that connect to the Ethernet through another node on the ring.


Note   All nodes in a ring can connect directly to the Ethernet; in this case any node IP address in the ring can be used.


In this example, record IP addresses 192.168.105.119 and 192.168.104.109 because they connect directly to the Ethernet. Do not record the IP address 192.168.103.199 because it does not connect directly to the Ethernet. The IP address 192.168.103.199 connects via the ring to 192.168.104.109, which connects to the Ethernet.

Step 5 After recording the IP addresses, close any open CTC sessions and edit the CMS.INI file text by adding an additional line below the next line that contains the date.

The added line reads Topology.Hosts=(first IP address to manage through Ethernet)\n(second IP address to manage through Ethernet)\n(third IP address to manage through Ethernet), etc. In the example, the additional line reads: Topology.Hosts=192.168.106.143\n192.168.105.119\n192.168.104.109. The modified CMS.INI text is:

#CTC Preferences File

#Tue Aug 8 15:00:27 PDT 2000

Topology.Hosts=192.168.106.143\n192.168.105.119\n192.168.104.109

CMS_LAUNCHER.CmsJarPath=C\:\\TEMP\\CMS51877.jar

CMS.LastHost=192.168.106.143


Note   The IP address used for the node ring directly connected to the PC does not need to be entered in the added line. This IP address is already present in the bottom line of the CMS.INI file.


Step 6 Save and close the modified CMS.INI. file.

Step 7 Launch CTC and view the separate configurations in one CTC network view.


4.10 Creating Diagnostic Files

When working with ONS 15454 customer support, you might need to record system information to a file for diagnosis by technical personnel.

Procedure: Create a Diagnostic File


Step 1 Select the Maintenance>Diagnostic tabs.

Step 2 Click Diagnostic.

Step 3 In the Save dialog, type a file name. Do not add an extension to the file name; the CTC extension is added automatically.

Step 4 Choose a directory where you want to save the file.

Step 5 Click Save. A dialog confirms a successful file transfer. (The dialog can take 20-30 seconds to display.)

Step 6 E-mail the diagnostic file to the address given to you by customer support.