The switch LEDs provide troubleshooting information about the switch. They show boot fast failures, port-connectivity problems, and overall switch performance. You can also get statistics from Device Manager.
Look at the port LEDs information when troubleshooting the switch. See LEDs for a description of the LED colors and their meanings.
Bad or Damaged Cable
Always examine the cable for marginal damage or failure. A cable might be just good enough to connect at the physical layer, but it could corrupt packets as a result of subtle damage to the wiring or connectors. You can identify this problem because the port has many packet errors or it constantly flaps (loses and regains link).
■Exchange the copper or fiber-optic cable with a known good cable.
■Look for broken or missing pins on cable connectors.
■Rule out any bad patch panel connections or media convertors between the source and the destination. If possible, bypass the patch panel, or eliminate media convertors (fiber-optic-to-copper).
■Try the cable in another port to see if the problem follows the cable.
Ethernet and Fiber-Optic Cables
Make sure that you have the correct cable:
■For Ethernet, use Category 3 copper cable for 10 Mb/s UTP connections. Use either Category 5, Category 5e, or Category 6 UTP for 10/100 Mb/s, and PoE connections.
■Verify that you have the correct fiber-optic cable for the distance and port type. Make sure that the connected device ports match and use the same type encoding, optical frequency, and fiber type.
■Determine if a copper crossover cable was used when a straight-through was required or the reverse.
Verify that both sides have a link. A broken wire or a shutdown port can cause one side to show a link even though the other side does not have a link.
A port LED that is on does not guarantee that the cable is functional. It might have encountered physical stress, causing it to function at a marginal level. If the port LED does not turn on:
■Connect the cable from the switch to a known good device.
■Make sure that both ends of the cable are connected to the correct ports.
■Verify that both devices have power.
■Verify that you are using the correct cable type. See Cables and Adapters for information.
■Look for loose connections. Sometimes a cable appears to be seated but is not. Disconnect the cable, and then reconnect it.
10/100 Port Connections
If a port appears to malfunction:
■Verify the status of all ports by checking the LEDs. For more information, see Switch LEDs.
■Verify the cable type. See Cable and Connectors.
Use only Cisco SFP modules. Each Cisco module has an internal serial EEPROM that is encoded with security information. This encoding verifies that the module meets the requirements for the switch.
■Inspect the SFP module. Exchange the suspect module with a known good module.
■Verify that the module is supported on this platform. (The switch release notes on Cisco.com list the SFP modules that the switch supports.)
■Make sure that all fiber-optic connections are clean and securely connected.
Verify that the interface is not disabled or powered off. If an interface is manually shut down on either side of the link, it does not come up until you reenable the interface. If needed, reenable the interface.
Ping End Device
Ping from a laptop first, and then work your way back port by port, interface by interface, trunk by trunk, until you find the source of the connectivity issue. Make sure that each switch can identify the end device MAC address in its Content-Addressable Memory (CAM) table.
Spanning Tree Loops
STP loops can cause serious performance issues that look like port or interface problems.
A unidirectional link can cause loops. It occurs when the traffic sent by the switch is received by the neighbor, but the traffic from the neighbor is not received by the switch. A broken cable, other cabling problems, or a port issue can cause this one-way communication.
Speed, Duplex, and Autonegotiation
Port statistics that show a large amount of alignment errors, frame check sequence (FCS), or late-collisions errors, might mean a speed or duplex mismatch.
A common issue occurs when duplex and speed settings are mismatched between two switches, between a switch and a router, or between the switch and a workstation or server. Mismatches can happen when manually setting the speed and duplex or from autonegotiation issues between the two devices.
To maximize switch performance and to ensure a link, follow one of these guidelines when changing the duplex or the speed settings.
■Let both ports autonegotiate both speed and duplex.
■Manually set the speed and duplex parameters for the interfaces on both ends of the connection.
■If a remote device does not autonegotiate, use the same duplex settings on the two ports. The speed parameter adjusts itself even if the connected port does not autonegotiate.
Autonegotiation and Network Interface Cards
Problems sometimes occur between the switch and third-party network interface cards (NICs). By default, the switch ports and interfaces autonegotiate. Laptops or other devices are commonly set to autonegotiate, yet sometimes issues occur.
To troubleshoot autonegotiation problems, try manually setting both sides of the connection. If this does not solve the problem, there could be a problem with the firmware or software on the NIC. You can resolve this by upgrading the NIC driver to the latest version.
If the port statistics show excessive FCS, late-collision, or alignment errors, verify that the cable distance from the switch to the connected device meets the recommended guidelines. See Cables and Adapters.
Resetting the Switch
These are reasons why you might want to reset the switch to the factory default settings:
■You installed the switch in your network and cannot connect to it because you assigned the wrong IP address.
■You want to reset the password on the switch.
Note: Resetting the switch deletes the configuration and reboots the switch.
To reset the switch:
1. Press and hold the Express Setup button (recessed behind a small hole in the faceplate) for about 15-20 seconds with a paper clip or similar object. The switch reboots. The system LED turns green after the switch completes rebooting.
2. Press the Express Setup button again for 3 seconds. Fa 1/1port blinks green.
The switch now behaves like an unconfigured switch.