This chapter contains these topics:
The LEDs on the front panel provide troubleshooting information about the switch. They show POST failures, port-connectivity problems, and overall switch performance. You can also get statistics from Device Manager, from the CLI, or from an SNMP workstation.
Switch POST Results
POST failures are usually fatal. Contact your Cisco technical support
representative if your switch does not pass POST.
If you have physical access
to the switch, look at the port LEDs for troubleshooting information about the
switch. See the LED section for a description of the LED colors and their
Bad or Damaged Cable
Always examine the cable for
marginal damage or failure. A cable might be just good enough to connect at the
physical layer, but it could corrupt packets as a result of subtle damage to
the wiring or connectors. You can identify this situation because the port has
many packet errors or the port constantly flaps (loses and regains link).
Examine or exchange the
copper or fiber-optic cable with a known, good cable.
Look for broken or missing
pins on cable connectors.
Rule out any bad patch panel
connections or media convertors between the source and the destination. If
possible, bypass the patch panel, or eliminate faulty media convertors
Try the cable in another port
or interface, if possible, to see if the problem follows the cable.
Remove and inspect the stack
cable and stack port for bent pins or damaged connectors. If the cable is bad,
replace it with a known good cable.
and Fiber-Optic Cables
Make sure that you have the
correct cable for the connection.
For Ethernet, use Category 3
copper cable for 10 Mb/s UTP connections. Use either Category 5, Category 5e,
or Category 6 UTP for 10/100/1000 Mb/s connections.
For fiber-optic cables,
verify that you have the correct cable for distance and port type. Ensure that
the connected device ports match and use the same type of encoding, optical
frequency, and fiber type.
For copper connections,
determine if a crossover cable was used when a straight-through was required or
the reverse. Enable auto-MDIX on the switch, or replace the cable.
Verify that both sides have
link. A single broken wire or a shutdown port can cause one side to show link
even though the other side does not have link.
A port LED that is on does
not guarantee that the cable is fully functional. The cable might have
encountered physical stress that causes it to function at a marginal level. If
the port LED does not turn on:
Connect the cable from the
switch to a known good device.
Ensure that both ends of the
cable are connected to the correct ports.
Verify that both devices have
Verify that you are using the
correct cable type.
Check for loose connections.
Sometimes a cable appears to be seated, but is not. Disconnect the cable and
then reconnect it.
A port appears to
Use the Mode button to show
the status for all ports.
privileged EXEC command to see if the port is error-disabled, disabled, or
shutdown. Reenable the port if necessary.
10/100/1000 PoE+ Port
A powered device connected to
a PoE port does not receive power:
Use the Mode button to show
the PoE status for all ports.
privileged EXEC command to see if the port is in error-disabled, disabled, or
shutdown. Reenable the port if necessary.
Verify that the power supply
installed in the switch meets the power requirements of your connected devices.
there is sufficient PoE power budget to provide power to the attached device.
inline global configuration command to check on the available PoE power
Verify the cable type. Many
legacy powered devices, including older Cisco IP phones and access points that
do not fully support IEEE 802.3af, might not support PoE when connected to the
switch by a crossover cable. Replace the crossover cable with a
Noncompliant cabling or
powered devices can cause a PoE port fault. Use only standard-compliant cabling
to connect Cisco prestandard IP Phones and wireless access points or IEEE
802.3af-compliant devices. You must remove any cable or device that causes a
SFP and SFP+ Module
Use only Cisco SFP or SFP+ modules in the switch. Each Cisco module has an internal serial EEPROM that is encoded with security information. This encoding provides a way for Cisco to identify and validate that the module meets the requirements for the switch.
Inspect the SFP module.
Exchange the suspect module with a known good module. Verify that the module is
supported on this platform. (The switch release notes on Cisco.com list the SFP
modules that the switch supports.)
privileged EXEC command to see if the port or module is error-disabled,
disabled, or shutdown. Reenable the port if needed.
Make sure that all
fiber-optic connections are properly cleaned and securely connected.
Verify that the interface is not disabled or powered off. If an interface is manually shut down on either side of the link, it does not come up until you reenable the interface. Use the show interfaces privileged EXEC command to see if the interface is error-disabled, disabled, or shutdown on either side of the connection. If needed, reenable the interface.
Ping End Device
Ping from the directly connected switch first, and then work your way back port by port, interface by interface, trunk by trunk, until you find the source of the connectivity issue. Make sure that each switch can identify the end device MAC address in its Content-Addressable Memory (CAM) table.
Spanning Tree Loops
STP loops can cause serious performance issues that look like port or interface problems.
A unidirectional link can cause loops. It occurs when the traffic sent by the switch is received by its neighbor, but the traffic from the neighbor is not received by the switch. A broken fiber-optic cable, other cabling problems, or a port issue could cause this one-way communication.
You can enable UniDirectional Link Detection (UDLD) on the switch to help identify unidirectional link problems.
Speed, Duplex, and Autonegotiation
If the port statistics show a large amount of alignment errors, frame check sequence (FCS), or late-collisions errors, this might mean a speed or duplex mismatch.
A common issue with speed and duplex occurs when duplex and speed settings are mismatched between two switches, between a switch and a router, or between the switch and a workstation or server. Mismatches can happen when manually setting the speed and duplex or from autonegotiation issues between the two devices.
To maximize switch performance and to ensure a link, follow one of these guidelines when changing the duplex or the speed settings.
Let both ports autonegotiate both speed and duplex.
Manually set the speed and duplex parameters for the interfaces on both ends of the connection.
If a remote device does not autonegotiate, use the same duplex settings on the two ports. The speed parameter adjusts itself even if the connected port does not autonegotiate.
Autonegotiation and Network Interface Cards
Problems sometimes occur between the switch and third-party network interface cards (NICs). By default, the switch ports and interfaces autonegotiate. Laptops or other devices are commonly set to autonegotiate, yet sometimes autonegotiation issues occur.
To troubleshoot autonegotiation problems, try manually setting both sides of the connection. If this does not solve the problem, there could be a problem with the firmware or software on your NIC. You can resolve this by upgrading the NIC driver to the latest version.
If the port statistics show excessive FCS, late-collision, or alignment errors, verify that the cable distance from the switch to the connected device meets the recommended guidelines.
Clearing the Switch IP Address and Configuration
If you have configured a new switch with a wrong IP address, or if all of the switch LEDs start blinking when you are trying to enter Express Setup mode, you can clear the configured IP address. The switch returns to the factory default settings.
This procedure clears the IP address and all configuration information stored on the switch. Do not follow this procedure unless you want to completely reconfigure the switch.
||Press and hold the Mode button. The switch LEDs blink after about 2 seconds. If the switch is not configured, the LEDs above the Mode button turn green. You can omit the next step.|
||Continue holding down the Mode button. The LEDs stop blinking after 8 seconds, and then the switch reboots. |
You can now configure the switch by using Express Setup as described in the switch getting started guide.
You can also configure the switch by using the CLI setup procedure described in the appendix.
Finding the Serial Number
If you contact Cisco
Technical Assistance, you need to know the switch serial number. You can also
show version privileged
EXEC command to see the switch serial number.
Figure 1. Serial Number Location for
Figure 2. Serial Number Location for the FlexStack Module
Figure 3. Serial Number Location for
the Catalyst 2960-XR Switches
Replacing a Failed Stack Member
Get a replacement switch that has the same model number as the failed switch.|
||Power down the failed switch.|
||Make sure that the replacement switch is off and that the FlexStack module is installed.|
||Connect the switch to the stack.|
||Make the same connections on the replacement switch that were on the failed switch.|
||Reinstall any modules, and make cable connections.|
||Power on the replacement switch. |
The replacement switch has the same configuration for all the interfaces as the failed switch and functions the same as the failed switch.
If you had manually set the member numbers for any stack members, you need to manually assign the replacement switch with the same member number as the failed switch. See the Catalyst 2960-X Switch Stacking Command Reference on Cisco.com.