First Hop Redundancy Protocols Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Everest 16.5
The documentation set for this product strives to use bias-free language. For the purposes of this documentation set, bias-free is defined as language that does not imply discrimination based on age, disability, gender, racial identity, ethnic identity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and intersectionality. Exceptions may be present in the documentation due to language that is hardcoded in the user interfaces of the product software, language used based on RFP documentation, or language that is used by a referenced third-party product. Learn more about how Cisco is using Inclusive Language.
Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For
the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search
Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find
information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the
releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table.
Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software
image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to https://cfnng.cisco.com/. An account on
Cisco.com is not required.
Information About HSRP Support for ICMP Redirects
HSRP Support for ICMP Redirect Messages
By default, HSRP filtering of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) redirect messages is enabled on devices running HSRP.
ICMP is a network layer Internet protocol that provides message packets to report errors and other information relevant to
IP processing. ICMP can send error packets to a host and can send redirect packets to a host.
When HSRP is running, preventing hosts from discovering the interface (or real) IP addresses of devices in the HSRP group
is important. If a host is redirected by ICMP to the real IP address of a device, and that device later fails, then packets
from the host will be lost.
ICMP redirect messages are automatically enabled on interfaces configured with HSRP. This functionality works by filtering
outgoing ICMP redirect messages through HSRP, where the next hop IP address may be changed to an HSRP virtual IP address.
ICMP Redirects to Active HSRP Devices
The next-hop IP address is compared to the list of active HSRP devices on that network; if a match is found, then the real
next-hop IP address is replaced with a corresponding virtual IP address and the redirect message is allowed to continue.
If no match is found, then the ICMP redirect message is sent only if the device corresponding to the new next hop IP address
is not running HSRP. Redirects to passive HSRP devices are not allowed (a passive HSRP device is a device running HSRP, but
which contains no active HSRP groups on the interface).
For optimal operation, every device in a network that is running HSRP should contain at least one active HSRP group on an
interface to that network. Every HSRP device need not be a member of the same group. Each HSRP device will snoop on all HSRP
packets on the network to maintain a list of active devices (virtual IP addresses versus real IP addresses).
Consider the network shown in the figure below, which supports the HSRP ICMP redirection filter.
If the host wants to send a packet to another host on Net D, then it first sends it to its default gateway, the virtual IP
address of HSRP group 1.
The following is the packet received from the host:
dest MAC = HSRP group 1 virtual MAC
source MAC = Host MAC
dest IP = host-on-netD IP
source IP = Host IP
Device R1 receives this packet and determines that device R4 can provide a better path to Net D, so it prepares to send a
redirect message that will redirect the host to the real IP address of device R4 (because only real IP addresses are in its
The following is the initial ICMP redirect message sent by device R1:
dest MAC = Host MAC
source MAC = router R1 MAC
dest IP = Host IP
source IP = router R1 IP
gateway to use = router R4 IP
Before this redirect occurs, the HSRP process of device R1 determines that device R4 is the active HSRP device for group
3, so it changes the next hop in the redirect message from the real IP address of device R4 to the virtual IP address of group
3. Furthermore, it determines from the destination MAC address of the packet that triggered the redirect message that the
host used the virtual IP address of group 1 as its gateway, so it changes the source IP address of the redirect message to
the virtual IP address of group 1.
The modified ICMP redirect message showing the two modified fields (*) is as follows:
dest MAC = Host MAC
source MAC = router R1 MAC
dest IP = Host IP
source IP* = HSRP group 1 virtual IP
gateway to use* = HSRP group 3 virtual IP
This second modification is necessary because hosts compare the source IP address of the ICMP redirect message with their
default gateway. If these addresses do not match, the ICMP redirect message is ignored. The routing table of the host now
consists of the default gateway, virtual IP address of group 1, and a route to Net D through the virtual IP address of group
ICMP Redirects to Passive HSRP Devices
ICMP redirects to passive HSRP devices are not permitted. Redundancy may be lost if hosts learn the real IP addresses of HSRP
In the "Network Supporting the HSRP ICMP Redirection Filter" figure, redirection to device R8 is not allowed because R8 is
a passive HSRP device. In this case, packets from the host to Net D will first go to device R1 and then be forwarded to device
R4; that is, they will traverse the network twice.
A network configuration with passive HSRP devices is considered a misconfiguration. For HSRP ICMP redirection to operate
optimally, every device on the network that is running HSRP should contain at least one active HSRP group.
ICMP Redirects to Non-HSRP Devices
ICMP redirects to devices not running HSRP on their local interface are permitted. No redundancy is lost if hosts learn the
real IP address of non-HSRP devices.
In the "Network Supporting the HSRP ICMP Redirection Filter" figure, redirection to device R7 is allowed because R7 is not
running HSRP. In this case, the next hop IP address is unchanged. The source IP address is changed dependent upon the destination
MAC address of the original packet. You can specify the
nostandbyredirectunknown command to stop these redirects from being sent.
Passive HSRP Advertisement Messages
Passive HSRP devices send out HSRP advertisement messages both periodically and when entering or leaving the passive state.
Thus, all HSRP devices can determine the HSRP group state of any HSRP device on the network. These advertisements inform other
HSRP devices on the network of the HSRP interface state, as follows:
Active—Interface has at least one active group. A single advertisement is sent out when the first group becomes active.
Dormant—Interface has no HSRP groups. A single advertisement is sent once when the last group is removed.
Passive—Interface has at least one nonactive group and no active groups. Advertisements are sent out periodically.
You can adjust the advertisement interval and hold-down time using the
ICMP Redirects Not Sent
If the HSRP device cannot uniquely determine the IP address used by the host when it sends the packet that caused the redirect,
the redirect message will not be sent. The device uses the destination MAC address in the original packet to make this determination.
In certain configurations, such as the use of the
standbyuse-bia interface configuration command specified on an interface, redirects cannot be sent. In this case, the HSRP groups use the
interface MAC address as their virtual MAC address. The device now cannot determine if the default gateway of the host is
the real IP address or one of the HSRP virtual IP addresses that are active on the interface.
The IP source address of an ICMP packet must match the gateway address used by the host in the packet that triggered the
ICMP packet, otherwise the host will reject the ICMP redirect packet. An HSRP device uses the destination MAC address to determine
the gateway IP address of the host. If the HSRP device is using the same MAC address for multiple IP addresses, uniquely determining
the gateway IP address of the host is not possible, and the redirect message is not sent.
The following is sample output from the
debugstandbyeventsicmp EXEC command if HSRP could not uniquely determine the gateway used by the host:
10:43:08: HSRP: ICMP redirect not sent to 10.0.0.4 for dest 10.0.1.2
10:43:08: HSRP: could not uniquely determine IP address for mac 00d0.bbd3.bc22
How to Configure HSRP Support for ICMP Redirects
Enabling HSRP Support for ICMP Redirect Messages
By default, HSRP filtering of ICMP redirect messages is enabled on devices running HSRP. Perform this task to reenable this
feature on your device if it is disabled.
The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use
these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products
and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.
Feature Information for HSRP Support for ICMP Redirects
The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists
only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise,
subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.
Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco
Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.