Information About IEEE 802.1Q-in-Q VLAN Tag Termination
IEEE 802.1Q-in-Q VLAN Tag Termination on Subinterfaces
IEEE 802.1Q-in-Q VLAN Tag Termination simply adds another layer of IEEE 802.1Q tag (called “metro tag” or “PE-VLAN”) to the 802.1Q tagged packets that enter the network. The purpose is to expand the VLAN space by tagging the tagged packets, thus producing a “double-tagged” frame. The expanded VLAN space allows the service provider to provide certain services, such as Internet access on specific VLANs for specific customers, and yet still allows the service provider to provide other types of services for their other customers on other VLANs.
Generally the service provider’s customers require a range of VLANs to handle multiple applications. Service providers can allow their customers to use this feature to safely assign their own VLAN IDs on subinterfaces because these subinterface VLAN IDs are encapsulated within a service-provider designated VLAN ID for that customer. Therefore there is no overlap of VLAN IDs among customers, nor does traffic from different customers become mixed. The double-tagged frame is “terminated” or assigned on a subinterface with an expanded encapsulation dot1q command that specifies the two VLAN ID tags (outer VLAN ID and inner VLAN ID) terminated on the subinterface (see the figure below).
IEEE 802.1Q-in-Q VLAN Tag Termination is generally supported on whichever Cisco IOS XE features or protocols are supported on the subinterface. The only restriction is whether you assign ambiguous or unambiguous subinterfaces for the inner VLAN ID. See the Unambiguous and Ambiguous Subinterfaces section.
The primary benefit for the service provider is reduced number of VLANs supported for the same number of customers. Other benefits of this feature include:
PPPoE scalability. By expanding the available VLAN space from 4096 to approximately 16.8 million (4096 times 4096), the number of PPPoE sessions that can be terminated on a given interface is multiplied.
When deploying Gigabyte Ethernet DSL Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) in wholesale model, you can assign the inner VLAN ID to represent the end-customer virtual circuit (VC) and assign the outer VLAN ID to represent the service provider ID.
Whereas switches require IEEE 802.1Q tunnels on interfaces to carry double-tagged traffic, routers need only encapsulate Q-in-Q VLAN tags within another level of 802.1Q tags in order for the packets to arrive at the correct destination.
Unambiguous and Ambiguous Subinterfaces
The encapsulation dot1q command is used to configure Q-in-Q termination on a subinterface. The command accepts an Outer VLAN ID and one or more Inner VLAN IDs. The outer VLAN ID always has a specific value, while inner VLAN ID can either be a specific value or a range of values.
A subinterface that is configured with a single Inner VLAN ID is called an unambiguous Q-in-Q subinterface. In the following example, Q-in-Q traffic with an Outer VLAN ID of 101 and an Inner VLAN ID of 1001 is mapped to the Gigabit Ethernet 1/1/0.100 subinterface:
Device(config)# interface gigabitEehernet1/1/0.100 Device(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 101 second-dot1q 1001
A subinterface that is configured with multiple Inner VLAN IDs is called an ambiguous Q-in-Q subinterface. By allowing multiple Inner VLAN IDs to be grouped together, ambiguous Q-in-Q subinterfaces allow for a smaller configuration, improved memory usage and better scalability.
In the following example, Q-in-Q traffic with an Outer VLAN ID of 101 and Inner VLAN IDs anywhere in the 2001-2100 and 3001-3100 range is mapped to the Gigabit Ethernet 1/1/0.101 subinterface:
Device(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/1/0.101 Device(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 101 second-dot1q 2001-2100,3001-3100
Ambiguous subinterfaces can also use the any keyword to specify the inner VLAN ID.
See the Configuration Examples for IEEE 802.1Q-in-Q VLAN Tag Termination section for an example of how VLAN IDs are assigned to subinterfaces, and for a detailed example of how the any keyword is used on ambiguous subinterfaces.
Only PPPoE is supported on ambiguous subinterfaces. Standard IP routing is not supported on ambiguous subinterfaces.