Configuring Routing between VLANs with ISL Encapsulation
Table of Contents
Configuring Routing between VLANs with ISL Encapsulation
Overview of Inter-Switch Link Protocol
ISL Encapsulation Configuration Task List
Configure AppleTalk Routing over ISL
Enable AppleTalk RoutingConfigure Banyan VINES Routing over ISL
Define the VLAN Encapsulation Format
Configure AppleTalk on the Subinterface
Enable Banyan VINES RoutingConfigure DECnet Routing over ISL
Define the VLAN Encapsulation Format
Configure Banyan VINES on the Subinterface
Configure Hot Standby Router Protocol over ISL
Configure IPX Routing over ISL
Configure VIP Distributed Switching over ISL
Configure XNS Routing over ISL
ISL Encapsulation Configuration Examples
AppleTalk Routing over ISL Configuration Examples
Banyan VINES Routing over ISL Configuration Example
DECnet Routing over ISL Configuration Example
HSRP over ISL Configuration Example
IPX Routing over ISL Configuration Example
VIP Distributed Switching over ISL Configuration Example
XNS Routing over ISL Configuration Example
This chapter describes the Inter-Switch Link (ISL) protocol and provides guidelines for configuring ISL features. For a complete description of the commands used to configure routing between VLANs using ISL encapsulation, refer to the Cisco IOS Switching Services Command Reference. To locate documentation of other commands that appear in this chapter, use the master index or search online.
Inter-Switch Link (ISL) is a Cisco protocol for interconnecting multiple switches and maintaining VLAN information as traffic goes between switches. ISL provides VLAN capabilities while maintaining full wire speed performance on Fast Ethernet links in full- or half-duplex mode. ISL operates in a point-to-point environment and will support up to 1000 VLANs. You can define virtually as many logical networks as are necessary for your environment.
This chapter describes how to configure routing between VLANs using ISL encapsulation.
A VLAN ID is added to the frame only when the frame is destined for a non-local network. Figure 9 illustrates VLAN packets traversing the shared backbone. Each VLAN packet carries the VLAN ID within the packet header.
Figure 9: VLAN packets Traversing the Shared Backbone
You can configure routing between any number of VLANs in your network. This section documents the configuration tasks for each protocol supported with ISL encapsulation. The basic process is the same, regardless of the protocol being routed. It involves
The configuration processes documented in this chapter include the following:
Refer to the "ISL Encapsulation Configuration Examples" section at the end of this chapter for sample configurations.
AppleTalk can be routed over virtual LAN (VLAN) subinterfaces using the ISL and IEEE 802.10 VLAN encapsulation protocols. The AppleTalk Routing over ISL and IEEE 802.10 Virtual LANs feature provides full-feature Cisco IOS software AppleTalk support on a per-VLAN basis, allowing standard AppleTalk capabilities to be configured on VLANs.
To route AppleTalk over ISL or IEEE 802.10 between VLANs, you need to customize the subinterface to create the environment in which it will be used. Perform these tasks in the order in which they appear:
To enable AppleTalk routing on either ISL or 802.10 interfaces, perform this task in global configuration mode:
After you enable AppleTalk globally and define the encapsulation format, you need to enable it on the subinterface by specifying the cable range and naming the AppleTalk zone for each interface. To enable the AppleTalk protocol on the subinterface, perform the following tasks in interface configuration mode:
Banyan VINES can be routed over virtual LAN (VLAN) subinterfaces using the ISL encapsulation protocol. The Banyan VINES Routing over ISL Virtual LANs feature provides full-feature Cisco IOS software Banyan VINES support on a per-VLAN basis, allowing standard Banyan VINES capabilities to be configured on VLANs.
To route Banyan VINES over ISL between VLANs, you need to configure ISL encapsulation on the subinterface. Perform these tasks in the order in which they appear:
After you enable Banyan VINES globally and define the encapsulation format, you need to enable VINES on the subinterface by specifying the VINES routing metric. To enable the Banyan VINES protocol on the subinterface, perform this task in interface configuration mode:
DECnet can be routed over virtual LAN (VLAN) subinterfaces using the ISL VLAN encapsulation protocols. The DECnet Routing over ISL Virtual LANs feature provides full-feature Cisco IOS software DECnet support on a per-VLAN basis, allowing standard DECnet capabilities to be configured on VLANs.
To route DECnet over ISL VLAN you need to configure ISL encapsulation on the subinterface. Perform these tasks in the order in which they appear.
The Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) provides fault tolerance and enhanced routing performance for IP networks. HSRP allows Cisco IOS routers to monitor each other's operational status and very quickly assume packet forwarding responsibility in the event the current forwarding device in the HSRP group fails or is taken down for maintenance. The standby mechanism remains transparent to the attached hosts and can be deployed on any LAN type. With multiple hot-standby groups, routers can simultaneously provide redundant backup and perform load-sharing across different IP subnets. Figure 10 illustrates HSRP in use with ISL providing routing between several VLANs.
Figure 10: Hot Standby Router Protocol in VLAN Configurations
A separate HSRP group is configured for each VLAN subnet so that Cisco IOS router A can be the primary and forwarding router for VLANs 10 and 20. At the same time, it acts as backup for VLANs 30 and 40. Conversely, Router B acts as the primary and forwarding router for ISL VLANs 30 and 40, as well as the secondary and backup router for distributed VLAN subnets 10 and 20.
Running HSRP over ISL allows users to configure redundancy between multiple routers that are configured as front ends for VLAN IP subnets. By configuring HSRP over ISLs, users can eliminate situations in which a single point of failure causes traffic interruptions. This feature inherently provides some improvement in overall networking resilience by providing load balancing and redundancy capabilities between subnets and VLANs.
To configure HSRP over ISLs between VLANs, you need to create the environment in which it will be used. Perform these tasks in the order in which they appear.
The IPX Routing over ISL Virtual LANs (VLANs) feature extends Novell NetWare routing capabilities to include support for routing all standard IPX encapsulations for Ethernet frame types in VLAN configurations. Users with Novell NetWare environments can now configure any one of the four IPX Ethernet encapsulations to be routed using the Inter-Switch Link (ISL) encapsulation across VLAN boundaries. IPX encapsulation options now supported for VLAN traffic include
NetWare users can now configure consolidated VLAN routing over a single VLAN trunking interface. With configurable Ethernet encapsulation protocols, users have the flexibility of using VLANs regardless of their NetWare Ethernet encapsulation. Configuring Novell IPX encapsulations on a per-VLAN basis facilitates migration between version of Netware. NetWare traffic can now be routed across VLAN boundaries with standard encapsulation options (arpa, sap, and snap) previously unavailable. Encapsulation types and corresponding framing types are described in the "Configuring Novell IPX" chapter of the Network Protocols Configuration Guide, Part 2.
Note Restrictions - Only one type of IPX encapsulation can be configured per VLAN (subinterface). The IPX encapsulation used must be the same within any particular subnet: a single encapsulation must be used by all NetWare systems that belong to the same virtual LAN.
To configure Cisco IOS software on a router with connected VLANs to exchange different IPX framing protocols, perform these tasks in the order in which they are appear:
After you enable NetWare globally and define the VLAN encapsulation format, you need to enable the subinterface by specifying the NetWare network number (if necessary) and the encapsulation type. Perform this task in interface configuration mode:
Note The default IPX encapsulation format for Cisco IOS routers is "novell-ether" (Novell Ethernet_802.3). If you are running Novell Netware 3.12 or 4.0, the new Novell default encapsulation format is Novell Ethernet_802.2 and you should configure the Cisco router with the IPX encapsulation format "sap."
With the introduction of the VIP Distributed ISL feature, Inter-Switch Link (ISL) encapsulated IP packets can be switched on Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) controllers installed on Cisco 7500 series routers.
The second generation Versatile Interface Processor (VIP2) provides distributed switching of IP encapsulated in ISL in VLAN configurations. Where an aggregation route performs inter-VLAN routing for multiple VLANs, traffic can be switched autonomously on-card or between cards rather than through the central Route Switch Processor (RSP). Figure 11 shows the VIP distributed architecture of the Cisco 7500 series router.
Figure 11: Cisco 7500 Distributed Architecture
This distributed architecture allows incremental capacity increases by installing additional VIP cards. Using VIP cards for switching the majority of IP VLAN traffic in multiprotocol environments significantly increases routing performance for the other protocols since the RSP off-loads IP and can then be dedicated to switching the non-IP protocols.
VIP distributed switching offloads switching of ISL VLAN IP traffic to the VIP card, removing involvement from the main CPU. Offloading ISL traffic to the VIP card, significantly improves networking performance. Because you can install multiple VIP cards in a router, VLAN routing capacity is increased linearly according to the number of VIP cards installed in the router.
To configure distributed switching on the VIP, you must first configure the router for IP routing. Perform these tasks in the order in which they appear:
Once you have IP routing enabled on the router, you can customize the characteristics to suit your environment. Refer to the IP configuration chapters in the Network Protocols configuration Guide, Part 1 for guidelines on configuring IP.
XNS can be routed over virtual LAN (VLAN) subinterfaces using the ISL VLAN encapsulation protocol. The XNS Routing over ISL Virtual LANs feature provides full-feature Cisco IOS software XNS support on a per-VLAN basis, allowing standard XNS capabilities to be configured on VLANs.
To route XNS over ISL VLANs you need to configure ISL encapsulation on the subinterface. Perform these tasks in the order in which they appear:
Begin the XNS routing configuration in global configuration mode:
This section provides configuration examples for each of the protocols described in this chapter. It includes these examples:
The configuration example illustrated in Figure 12 shows AppleTalk being routed between different ISL and IEEE 802.10 VLAN encapsulating subinterfaces.
Figure 12: Routing AppleTalk over VLAN encapsulations
As shown in Figure 12, AppleTalk traffic is routed to and from switched VLAN domains 3, 4, 100, and 200 to any other AppleTalk routing interface. This example shows a sample configuration file for the Cisco 7500 series router with the commands entered to configure the network shown in Figure 12.
Configuration for the Cisco 7500 Router
! appletalk routing interface Fddi 1/0.100 encapsulation sde 100 appletalk cable-range 100-100 100.2 appletalk zone 100 ! interface Fddi 1/0.200 encapsulation sde 200 appletalk cable-range 200-200 200.2 appletalk zone 200 ! interface FastEthernet 2/0.3 encapsulation isl 3 appletalk cable-range 3-3 3.2 appletalk zone 3 ! interface FastEthernet 2/0.4 encapsulation isl 4 appletalk cable-range 4-4 4.2 appletalk zone 4 !
To configure routing of the Banyan VINES protocol over ISL trunks, you need to define ISL as the encapsulation type. This example shows Banyan VINES configured to be routed over an ISL trunk:
vines routing interface fastethernet 0.1 encapsulation isl 100 vines metric 2
To configure routing the DECnet protocol over ISL trunks, you need to define ISL as the encapsulation type. This example shows DECnet configured to be routed over an ISL trunk:
decnet routing 2.1 interface fastethernet 1/0.1 encapsulation isl 200 decnet cost 4
The configuration example shown in Figure 13 shows HSRP being used on two VLAN routers sending traffic to and from ISL VLANs through a Catalyst 5000 switch. Each router forwards its own traffic and acts as a standby for the other.
Figure 13: Hot Standby Router Protocol Sample Configuration
The topology shown in Figure 13 illustrates a Cisco Catalyst VLAN switch supporting Fast Ethernet connections to two routers running HSRP. Both routers are configured to route HSRP over ISLs.
The standby conditions are determined by the standby commands used in the configuration. Traffic from Host 1 is forwarded through Router A. Because the priority for the group is higher, Router A is the active router for Host 1. Because the priority for the group serviced by Host 2 is higher in Router B, traffic from Host 2 is forwarded through Router B, making Router B its active router.
In the configuration shown in Figure 13, if the active router becomes unavailable, the standby router assumes active status for the additional traffic and automatically routes the traffic normally handled by the router that has become unavailable.
Host 1 Configuration
interface Ethernet 1/2 ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 188.8.131.52
Host 2 Configuration
interface Ethernet 1/2 ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0 ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 220.127.116.11 !
Router A Configuration
interface FastEthernet 1/1.110 encapsulation isl 110 ip address 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.0 standby 1 ip 22.214.171.124 standby 1 preempt standby 1 priority 105 standby 2 ip 126.96.36.199 standby 2 preempt ! end !
Router B Configuration
interface FastEthernet 1/1.110 encapsulation isl 110 ip address 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.0 standby 1 ip 184.108.40.206 standby 1 preempt standby 2 ip 220.127.116.11 standby 2 preempt standby 2 priority 105 router igrp 1 ! network 18.104.22.168 network 22.214.171.124 !
VLAN Switch Configuration
set vlan 110 5/4 set vlan 110 5/3 set trunk 2/8 110 set trunk 2/9 110
Figure 14 shows IPX interior encapsulations configured over ISL encapsulation in VLAN configurations. Note that three different IPX encapsulation formats are used. VLAN 20 uses sap encapsulation, VLAN 30 uses arpa, and VLAN 70 uses novell-ether encapsulation. Prior to the introduction of this feature, only the default encapsulation format, "novell-ether," was available for routing IPX over ISLlinks in VLANs.
Figure 14: Configurable IPX Encapsulations Routed over ISL in VLAN Configurations
VLAN 20 Configuration
ipx routing interface FastEthernet 2/0 no shutdown interface FastEthernet 2/0.20 encapsulation isl 20 ipx network 20 encapsulation sap
VLAN 30 Configuration
ipx routing interface FastEthernet 2/0 no shutdown interface FastEthernet 2/0.30 encapsulation isl 30 ipx network 30 encapsulation arpa
ipx routing interface FastEthernet 3/0 no shutdown interface Fast3/0.70 encapsulation isl 70 ipx network 70 encapsulation novell-ether
Figure 15 illustrates a topology in which Catalyst VLAN switches are connected to routers forwarding traffic from a number of ISL VLANs. With the VIP distributed ISL capability in the Cisco 7500 series router, each VIP card can route ISL-encapsulated VLAN IP traffic. The inter-VLAN routing capacity is increased linearly by the packet-forwarding capability of each VIP card.
Figure 15: VIP Distributed ISL VLAN Traffic
In Figure 15, the VIP cards forward the traffic between ISL VLANs or any other routing interface. Traffic from any VLAN can be routed to any of the other VLANs, regardless of which VIP card receives the traffic.
These commands show the configuration for each of the VLANs shown in Figure 15:
interface FastEthernet1/0/0 ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 ip route-cache distributed full-duplex interface FastEthernet1/0/0.1 ip address 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 1 interface FastEthernet1/0/0.2 ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 2 interface FastEthernet1/0/0.3 ip address 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 3 interface FastEthernet1/1/0 ip route-cache distributed full-duplex interface FastEthernet1/1/0.1 ip address 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 4 interface Fast Ethernet 2/0/0 ip address 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.0 ip route-cache distributed full-duplex interface FastEthernet2/0/0.5 ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 5 interface FastEthernet2/1/0 ip address 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.0 ip route-cache distributed full-duplex interface FastEthernet2/1/0.6 ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 6 interface FastEthernet2/1/0.7 ip address 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 7
To configure routing of the XNS protocol over ISL trunks, you need to define ISL as the encapsulation type. This example shows XNS configured to be routed over an ISL trunk.
xns routing 0123.4567.adcb interface fastethernet 1/0.1 encapsulation isl 100 xns network 20