The Catalyst 9800 IOS-XE based Wireless LAN Controller has several options for programmatic configuration. Traditional methods for configuring the WLC include the CLI or WebUI, but that has now been expanded to include the programmatic interfaces. These programmatic interfaces include NETCONF, RESTCONF, and the gNMI/gRPC protocols. YANG data models define what data is accessible over the programmatic interfaces, and they come in several varieties. Cisco IOS-XE features are defined within the native data models, while standard and vendor agnostic features are defined within the open data models. Either models can be used for many tasks, however features specific to IOS-XE are only available in the native models.
Regardless of the interfaces used, the following configuration is required on the Catalyst 9800:
configure terminal aaa new-model aaa authentication login default local aaa authorization exec default local aaa session-id common exit write memory
Additionally, a user account is required. Create a new user account with username ‘netconf’ and password ‘netconf’ with the following command
username netconf privilege 15 password 0 netconf username restconf privilege 15 password 0 restconf
Alternately the existing or pre-configure ‘admin’ user and password can be used as the dedicated NETCONF or RESTCONF user account is not required.
NETCONF is a protocol defined by the IETF to “install, manipulate, and delete the configuration of network devices”. NETCONF operations are realized on top of a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) layer using an XML encoding and provides a basic set of operations to edit and query configuration on a network device.
To enable the NETCONF interface enter the following commands:
configure terminal netconf-yang exit
NETCONF YANG Models
The NETCONF capabilities exchange can be retrieved by connecting to the device on the default port 830. The capabilities exchange lists all available YANG data models supported by the device. Using tools like YangExplore and pYANG which are detailed in further sections, these YANG modules can be downloaded from the device and analyzed further.
Verifying NETCONF status
To verify the NETCONF interface is operational, run the command: show platform software yang-management process. Ensure the NETCONF SSHD “ncsshd” process is running
NETCONF XML RPC payloads examples
The XML RPC payloads below can be generated, modified, and sent from within the YangExplorer tool, or any other tool that can send XML payloads over the NETCONF interface, such as a python script. Example WLC creation, verification, and removal XML payloads are listed below. These can be used to quickly and easily create, verify, and remove a WLAN over the NETCONF interface.
The XML RPC below can be sent over the NETCONF interface to create a WLAN with the defined parameters. In this case, the WLAN ID is 4 and the SSID is “open”.
<rpc xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0" message-id="6"> <edit-config xmlns:nc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0"> <target> <running/> </target> <test-option>test-then-set</test-option> <error-option>rollback-on-error</error-option> <config> <wlan-cfg-data xmlns="http://cisco.com/ns/yang/Cisco-IOS-XE-wireless-wlan-cfg"> <wlan-cfg-entries> <wlan-cfg-entry> <profile-name>open</profile-name> <vap-id>4</vap-id> <security-wifi-sec>false</security-wifi-sec> <rsn-ie-enabled>false</rsn-ie-enabled> <rsn-cipher-suite-aes>false</rsn-cipher-suite-aes> <auth-key-mgmt-suite8021x>false</auth-key-mgmt-suite8021x> <client-session-timeout>1800</client-session-timeout> <id-data> <profile-name>open</profile-name> <ssid>open</ssid> <status>true</status> </id-data> <is-remote-lan>false</is-remote-lan> </wlan-cfg-entry> </wlan-cfg-entries> </wlan-cfg-data> </config></edit-config></rpc>
The XML RPC below can be sent over the NETCONF interface to verify a WLAN with ID 4.
<rpc message-id="101" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0"> <get> <filter> <wlan-cfg-data xmlns="http://cisco.com/ns/yang/Cisco-IOS-XE-wireless-wlan-cfg"> <wlan-cfg-entries> <wlan-cfg-entry> <vap-id>4</vap-id> </wlan-cfg-entry> </wlan-cfg-entries> </wlan-cfg-data> </filter> </get> </rpc>
The XML RPC below can be sent over the NETCONF interface to remove a WLAN with ID 4.
<rpc message-id="101" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0" xmlns:xc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0"> <edit-config> <target> <running/> </target> <config> <wlan-cfg-data xmlns="http://cisco.com/ns/yang/Cisco-IOS-XE-wireless-wlan-cfg"> <wlan-cfg-entries xc:operation="delete"> <wlan-cfg-entry> <vap-id>4</vap-id> </wlan-cfg-entry> </wlan-cfg-entries> </wlan-cfg-data> </config> </edit-config> </rpc>
RESTCONF (BETA, not supported)
RESTCONF uses structured XML or JSON and YANG data models to provide a REST-like API which enables programmatic access to the network device. RESTCONF API uses HTTPs method. The Catalyst 9800 IOS XE implementation supports the following RESTCONF operations: GET, PATCH, PUT, POST, DELETE, HEAD.
To enable the RESTCONF interface enter the following commands:
configure terminal ip http secure-server restconf exit
RESTCONF YANG Models
The list of supported YANG data models can be retrieved from the RESTCONF interface by sending GET request to the URI restconf/data?fields=ietf-yang-library:modules-state/module
curl -k -u username:password https://10.10.10.223/restconf/data?fields=ietf-yang- library:modules-state/module
A specific YANG module can be downloaded by sending another GET request to the URI containing the model. For example to download the Cisco-IOS-XE-wireless-access-point-oper model send the GET request to /restconf/tailf/modules/Cisco-IOS-XE-wireless-access-point-oper/2018-06-28 as seen in the screenshot below:
In the step above the ‘pyang’ tool is used to details some data is contained within the YANG data model. In this example ap-history, wireless-interface-data, etc, are sections within the "access-point-oper-data” container.
Verifying RESTCONF status
To verify the RESTCONF interface is operational, run the command: show platform software yang-management process. Ensure the “nginx” process is running.
gRPC and gNMI (BETA, not supported)
gNMI is gRPC Network Management Interface developed by Google. gNMI provides the mechanism to install, manipulate, and delete the configuration of network devices, and also to view operational data. The content provided through gNMI can be modeled using YANG. gRPC is a remote procedure call developed by Google for low-latency, scalable distributions with mobile clients communicating to a cloud server. gRPC carries gNMI, and provides the means to formulate and transmit data and operation requests.
To enable the gNMI interface enter the following commands:
configure terminal gnmi-yang gnmi-yang server gnmi-yang port 50052 exit write memeory
The following operations are supported over the gNMI interface:
Additional details on utilizing this interface are available from the Programmability Configuration Guide linked in the Additional Resources section.
Verifying gNMI status
To verify the gNMI interface is operational, run the command: show gnmi-yang state. Ensure the state is enabled and status is up.
YANG Data Models
YANG is a data modelling language for NETCONF. YANG models within the IOS XE device have been defined that describe how to structure the data to send or receive. The YANG standard was defined in RFC6020. There are 2 main types of YANG models in use: Native and Open. The models are further categorized as either Configuration or Operational models. The configuration models can be used for programmatic configuration while the operational models can be used with telemetry.
The Native models for wireless can be grouped into two main categories: config and operational. The config modules contain configuration information for the related features, while the operational models provide run time and operational data about the feature.
Native Configuration Models
Native Operational Models
In addition to the Cisco native configuration and operational models, there are several additional YANG models that are supported on the device. The capabilities exchange via NETCONF and RESTCONF’s yang-library list all of these models. There are models for SNMP MIB’s, IETF, and OpenConfig. These models can be used in the same way as the Native models, however, they offer a limited or subset of the capabilities available on the device. For this reason it is recommended to utilize the Cisco Native models whenever possible.
YangExplorer is a tool used for interfacing with the NETCONF and RESTCONF interfaces. It is available on Github and can be used to generate and send XML RPC payloads to the device.
Follow the instructions from the Github site at https://github.com/CiscoDevNet/yang-explorer to complete the installation. Detailed instructions are available for Mac and Linux.
YangExplorer Day 0 configuration
Once YangExplorer is installed and running, a few tasks must be completed before interacting with the Catalyst 9800. Select “Create device profile” and enter the Django administration page with the username and password of ‘admin’. The “Add Device Profile” page loads, where information about the device must be added. Enter the profile name, select the device type, and enter the NETCONF IP, RESTCONF IP, username, and password.
Once the device is added, refreshing the main YangExplorer window will show the available device when selecting the “Profile” drop-down.
To ensure the setup is successful select the “Capabilities” button and YangExplorer will connect to the selected device and return the list of YANG modules that are supported on the device.
Downloading the YANG Models from YangExplorer
From within YangExplorer the YANG modules can be downloaded from the device. Follow the steps to sync and subscribe to the models:
Select “Manage Models” tab.
Select “Device” tab.
Select the device profile by selecting the down arrow.
To see only the wireless modules, enter “wireless” into the search box.
Enable the “Select All” tick-box to select all wireless modules
Select “Sync” to download the modules from the devices
Once the download is completed, select “Subscribe” and the models will now be available in the Explorer tab of YangExplorer.
Ansible is a popular and easy to use open-source software suite that automates software provisioning, configuration, and management. It connects to and controls devices via SSH, NETCONF, and a variety of other protocols as well. Ansible is agentless, meaning there is no installation or requirements on the target device, other than having an accessible API or interface. It is minimal in nature and provides a secure and reliable way to interact with remote devices. It is commonly used with other automation tools to accomplish complex workflows as it is highly adaptable. Below are some examples of using Ansible to complete basic day0 configuration tasks.
Ansible has several components that work together to provide a holistic solution. There are modules that are reusable and standalone script that can be called. Tasks call upon modules to perform an action. When there are multiple tasks, a play can be used to call the tasks in order. A playbook is then used when there are multiple plays. Finally, a role is a set of playbooks.
Ansible Example: Enable NETCONF-YANG and RESTCONF
The hosts file has connection details and device specific information including credentials. In this example it is assumed that the Catalyst 9800 has already been configured to allow SSH logins, and that the enable password has also been set. The hosts files and YAML file are used together to accomplish a task, in this case, to connect to the CLI over SSH, enter enable mode, and execute the requires IOS commands to enable netconf-yang and setup the AAA requirements.
Ansible hosts file for Day 0 configuration
This example hosts.txt file contains the variables needed to successfully establish a connection to the device.
[all:vars] ansible_connection=network_cli ansible_network_os=ios ansible_user=admin ansible_password=Cisco123 ansible_become=yes ansible_become_method=enable ansible_become_pass=Cisco123 [cat9800] cat9800-1 ansible_host=10.10.10.224
Ansible YAML configuration file to enable NETCONF and RESTCONF
This example enable_netconf_yang.yaml YAML file that can be used to enable the NETCONF interface on the device and configure the authentication prerequisites including adding a user.
--- - hosts: cat9800 gather_facts: no tasks: - ios_config: commands: - aaa new-model - aaa authorization exec default local - aaa authentication login default local - aaa session-id common - username netconf privilege 15 password 0 netconf - netconf-yang - ip http secure-server - restconf save_when: modified
Ansible YAML show file to verify NETCONF and RESTCONF configuration
This example cat9800_verify.yaml YAML file will run 2 ios SHOW commands to verify that netconf-yang and restconf is enabled, and the output will be registered and displayed on the screen once executed:
- hosts: cat9800 gather_facts: no tasks: - ios_command: commands: - show run | i netconf-yang - show run | i restconf register: show - debug: var=show.stdout_lines
Executing the task to enable and verify NETCONF and RESTCONF
The ‘ansible-playbook’ command can be used to execute the task that we define above to enable the NETCONF-YANG interface on the device. In this example we will define a variable to set the Host Key Checking to false, so that the SSH host key is not validated. In production environments it is important to verify the authenticity of the device being accessed, however in this lab example the check is set to false for ease of use.
From the command line, execute the following command to run the enable_netconf_yang.yaml configuration:
$ ANSIBLE_HOST_KEY_CHECKING=False ansible-playbook -i ./hosts.txt ./enable_netconf_yang.yaml
From the command line, execute the following command to run the cat9800_verify.yaml configuration
$ ANSIBLE_HOST_KEY_CHECKING=False ansible-playbook -i ./hosts.txt ./cat9800_verify.yaml
Dial-in dynamic vs Dial-out configured subscriptions
Both the NETCONF and gNMI interfaces support telemetry subscriptions in either a dial-in or dial-out configuration. IOS XE supports NETCONF Dial-in and gRPC supports dial-out style configuration. With a dial-in or “dynamic” subscription, the subscriber must first establish session a connection to the device and then subscribe to the data models. The NETCONF session must remain established in order for telemetry data to remain streaming. If the session is disconnected then the telemetry subscription must be manually re-established. With dial-out or “configured” subscriptions, once the configuration is setup by the user, the device will maintain the subscription configuration and sends telemetry to the subscriber without needing an active session to the collector.
Dial-in NETCONF dynamic telemetry subscription with ncc
Dial-in telemetry subscriptions can be easily created by using the open source NCC tools available from https://github.com/CiscoDevNet/ncc. The repository can be simply cloned from Github with the git clone command. An additional requirement is to use a patched ncclient tool that works with the ncc-establish-subscription.py tool. This can be installed by following the directions on the ncc Github page or by executing the two commands below:
$ git clone https://github.com/CiscoDevNet/ncc $ sudo pip install --upgrade git+https://github.com/CiscoDevNet/ncclient.git
Once downloaded a subscription can be established by running the following command:
$ python ncc-establish-subscription.py --host 10.10.10.223 --port 830 -x “/wireless-access-point-oper:access-point-oper-data/wireless-interface-data" --period 5000 -u netconf -p netconf
In the example above a telemetry subscription has been created using the Cisco-IOS-XE-wireless-access-point-oper YANG model, which has a xpath of “/wireless-access-point-oper:access-point-oper-data/wireless-interface-data”. YangExplorer is used to determine the correct XPath Filter for this YANG model as seen in the screenshot below:
Dial-out gRPC configured subscription
Instead of having the subscriber or collector establish the telemetry subscription to the device, the device can be configured with a dial-out subscription. In this mode the collector’s role is only to collect and process the data and it is not responsible for establishing a session into the device in order to receive the telemetry data. Dial out subscriptions only support encoding with key-value google protocol buffers (kv-gpb) over a gRPC-TCP connection.
The following configuration can be used to establish a dial-out gRPC telemetry subscription. This configuration creates a new subscription with an ID of 101. The encoding is set to kv-gpb, and the xpath filter defines the KPI to subscribe to, in this case wireless-interface-data. The xpath filter is defined within the YANG model and YangExplorer is used to determine the exact xpath for this model. The source address and VRF to use from the device is set, as well as the receiver IP, port, and protocol. The yang-push stream is set to 1000 centiseconds, so data will be published every 10 seconds.
telemetry ietf subscription 101 encoding encode-kvgpb filter xpath /wireless-access-point-oper:access-point-oper-data/wireless-interface-data source-address 10.10.10.223 source-vrf Mgmt-vrf stream yang-push update-policy periodic 1000 receiver ip address 10.10.10.49 57500 protocol grpc-tcp
Receiving events with Pipeline
The key-value encoded google protocol buffer (kv-gpb) telemetry data that is sent over the gRPC interface can be received with many tools and in many different configurations, depending on the business needs and use-cases. Pipeline is an open source set of tools that can be used to receive the data and is available on Github at https://github.com/cisco/bigmuddy-network-telemetry-pipeline. Pipeline works be acting as the gRPC receiver, where it processes the Google Protocol Buffers and sends the data into the time series database InfluxDB. From there Grafana can be used to visualize the data. Pipeline is highly configurable and can receive a variety of telemetry sources as well as output data to a variety of data source, including Kafka, InfluxDB, and Prometheus. Follow the documentation on the Github page to setup Pipeline to receive telemetry as required. Additional documentation is available from https://xrdocs.io/telemetry/tutorials/2018-06-04-ios-xr-telemetry-collection-stack-intro/
Verifying telemetry subscriptions
There are several show commands available to verify the status of the telemetry subscription configurations:
show telemetry ietf subscription all show telemetry ietf subscription <ID> receiver show telemetry ietf subscription all <ID> detail
Examples of each are below:
Using the details within the guide the programmatic interfaces can be enabled and configured for use. Configured and Dynamic telemetry subscriptions can be established using open source tools. Example XML payloads can be used to create, verify, and remove a WLAN programmatically using the YangExplorer tools. An example Ansible configuration can be used to enable the programmatic interfaces on the Catalyst 9800 device.
Cisco IOS-XE Programmability Book https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/enterprise-networks/nb-06-ios-xe-prog-ebook-cte-en.pdf
Programmability Configuration Guide
pYang: : https://github.com/mbj4668/pyang
Pipeline on Github: https://github.com/cisco/bigmuddy-network-telemetry-pipeline