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Updated:October 12, 2020
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This document describes the Director Election process in a VPN load-balancing scenario with the Cisco 5500-X Series Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA).
There are no specific requirements for this document.
The information in this document is based on the Cisco ASA 5500-X that runs software Version 9.2.
Note: This document also applies to all software versions, since the feature was first introduced in Version 7.0(1).
The information in this document was created from the devices in a specific lab environment. All of the devices used in this document started with a cleared (default) configuration. If your network is live, make sure that you understand the potential impact of any command.
VPN load balancing is a mechanism that is used in order to equitably distribute network traffic among the devices in a virtual cluster. Load balancing is based on simple distribution; it does not take in to account throughput utilization or other factors. A load-balancing cluster consists of two or more devices, a director and one or more secondary devices, and these devices do not have to be configured identically.
Here is an overview of the load-balancing algorithm:
The director device maintains a sorted list of secondary cluster members in ascending order of inside IP addresses.
The load is computed as an integer percentage (number of active/maximum sessions) that is supplied by each secondary cluster member.
The director device redirects the IPSec/Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) VPN tunnel to a device with the lowest load first, until it is one percent higher than the other devices.
The director device redirects to itself only when all of the secondary cluster members are one percent higher than the director device.
Here is an example with one director and two secondary cluster members:
All nodes begin with a zero-percent load, and all percentages are rounded to the nearest half-percent.
The director device takes the connection if all of the members have a load that is one percent higher than the director device.
If the director device does not take the connection, the session is taken by the backup device that currently has the smallest load percentage.
If all of the members have the same load percentage, then the backup device with the least amount of sessions takes the session.
If all of the members have the same load percentage and the same number of sessions, then the backup device with the least amount of IP addresses takes the session.
Director Election Process
The VPN load balancing Director Election process is performed on the cluster outside network. There are two types of data exchanged on the outside network:
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets for the cluster IP address that are used for director discovery are exchanged. The maximum number of ARP packets that are sent for the cluster IP address in order to discover the director is:
(10 - priority) + 1
Here, priority is configured as in the priority subcommand of the vpn load-balancing CLI command.
UDP packets on the outside for the Hello request/response messages are exchanged. The port number is specified in the cluster port load-balancing subcommand and is default to 9023.
As an example, if the priority is five for a load-balancing device, it attempts to send up to six ARP packets in order to see if any director device owns the cluster IP address. If a director device is detected, the ASA does not send any more ARP messages and waits 15 seconds before it sends the UDP Hello request. The director device then responds with an UDP Hello response.
Caveat for Reboot Scenarios
In a reboot situation with two ASAs in a load-balancing cluster:
Either ASA-1 or ASA-2 was the director before the reboot.
ASA-1 is rebooted.
ASA-2 becomes the director if it was not the director previously.
ASA-1 simply joins the cluster as a member after reboot.
The load-balancing algorithm might be affected by a configuration of the switch where the outside interface of the cluster devices are connected also. For example, a Spanning-Tree algorithm might cause connectivity delay when the device that is connected to the switch is rebooted.
In some cases, a newly rebooted ASA that has load balancing enabled might attempt to become the director device (even if a director device already exists) because it cannot reach the current director device due to a connectivity delay in the switch. When there is a directorship conflict detected as a result of ARP collision, the ASA with a low Media Access Control (MAC) address wins, while the ASA with a higher MAC address gives up the director device role.
Director Reelection Process
There are two situations that cause a reelection of the director device.
Director Device Removed from the Cluster
When you disable the feature on the ASA, a broadcast message is sent to all of the cluster members in order to inform of the change, and the previously described election process is performed.
Director Device does Not Respond to Cluster Member Hello Messages
If the director device does not respond to a cluster member Hello message, it takes an ASA cluster member approximately 20 seconds to detect that the director is no longer present. The Hello messages are sent every five seconds (not configurable). If cluster members do not receive a response from the director device after four Hello messages, then the election process is triggered.