A vulnerability in the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) version 2 (v2) fragmentation code of Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to cause a reload of the affected system.
The vulnerability is due to an improper handling of crafted, fragmented IKEv2 packets. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending crafted UDP packets to the affected system. An exploit could allow the attacker to cause a reload of the affected system.
Note: Only traffic directed to the affected system can be used to exploit this vulnerability. This vulnerability can be triggered by IPv4 and IPv6 traffic.
Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. This advisory is available at the following link:
This advisory is part of the March 23, 2016, release of the Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software Security Advisory Bundled Publication, which includes six Cisco Security Advisories that describe six vulnerabilities. All the vulnerabilities have a Security Impact Rating of "High." For a complete list of advisories and links to them, see Cisco Event Response: Semiannual Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software Security Advisory Bundled Publication.
This vulnerability affects products running a vulnerable version of Cisco IOS or Cisco IOS XE Software. For more information about which Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software releases are vulnerable, see the “Fixed Software” section of this advisory.
Vulnerable ProductsDevices running a vulnerable version of the software are affected if the following two conditions are verified:
- IKEv2 fragmentation is enabled
- The device is running Cisco IOS or Cisco IOS XE Software and is configured for any type of VPN based on IKEv2
Note: IKEv1-based VPNs are not affected by this vulnerability; however, in some cases, enabling IKEv1 will automatically enable IKEv2.
- LAN-to-LAN VPN
- Remote access VPN (excluding SSLVPN)
- Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN)
- Group Encrypted Transport VPN (GETVPN)
To verify whether IKEv2 fragmentation is enabled, use the show running-config | include crypto ikev2 fragmentation command and verify that it returns output.
The following example shows a device running Cisco IOS Software with crypto ikev2 fragmentation enabled:
router#show running-config | include crypto ikev2 fragmentation
crypto ikev2 fragmentation
The preferred method to determine whether a device has been configured for IKEv2 is to issue the show ip sockets or show udp EXEC command. If the device has UDP port 500 or UDP port 4500 open, it is processing IKE packets.
In the following example, the device is processing IKE packets on UDP port 500 and UDP port 4500, using either IP version 4 (IPv4) or IP version 6 (IPv6):
router# show udp Proto Remote Port Local Port In Out Stat TTY OutputIF 17 --listen-- 192.168.130.21 500 0 0 1001011 0 17(v6) --listen-- UNKNOWN 500 0 0 1020011 0 17 --listen-- 192.168.130.21 4500 0 0 1001011 0 17(v6) --listen-- UNKNOWN 4500 0 0 1020011 0 .
Determining the Cisco IOS or Cisco IOS XE Software Version
To determine which Cisco IOS Software release is running on a Cisco product, administrators can log in to the device, use the show version command in the command-line interface, and then refer to the system banner that appears. If the device is running Cisco IOS Software, the system banner displays text similar to Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software or Cisco IOS Software. The image name appears in parentheses followed by the Cisco IOS Software release number and release name. Some Cisco devices do not support the show version command or may provide different output.
The following example identifies a Cisco product that is running Cisco IOS Software Release 15.5(2)T1 with an installed image name of C2951-UNIVERSALK9-M:
Router> show version
Cisco IOS Software, C2951 Software (C2951-UNIVERSALK9-M), Version 15.5(2)T1, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2015 by Cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Mon 22-Jun-15 09:32 by prod_rel_team . . .
For information about the naming and numbering conventions for Cisco IOS Software releases, see White Paper: Cisco IOS and NX-OS Software Reference Guide.
Products Confirmed Not VulnerableNo other Cisco products are currently known to be affected by this vulnerability.
IKEv2 fragmentation can be disabled by using the no crypto ikev2 fragmentation command.
If IKEv2 fragmentation is needed, there is no workaround that mitigates this vulnerability.
Cisco has released free software updates that address the vulnerability described in this advisory. Customers may only install and expect support for software versions and feature sets for which they have purchased a license. By installing, downloading, accessing, or otherwise using such software upgrades, customers agree to follow the terms of the Cisco software license:
Additionally, customers may only download software for which they have a valid license, procured from Cisco directly, or through a Cisco authorized reseller or partner. In most cases this will be a maintenance upgrade to software that was previously purchased. Free security software updates do not entitle customers to a new software license, additional software feature sets, or major revision upgrades.
When considering software upgrades, customers are advised to consult the Cisco Security Advisories and Responses archive at http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt and review subsequent advisories to determine exposure and a complete upgrade solution.
In all cases, customers should ensure that the devices to upgrade contain sufficient memory and confirm that current hardware and software configurations will continue to be supported properly by the new release. If the information is not clear, customers are advised to contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) or their contracted maintenance providers.
Customers Without Service Contracts
Customers who purchase directly from Cisco but do not hold a Cisco service contract and customers who make purchases through third-party vendors but are unsuccessful in obtaining fixed software through their point of sale should obtain upgrades by contacting the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC):
Customers should have the product serial number available and be prepared to provide the URL of this advisory as evidence of entitlement to a free upgrade.
Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software
To help customers determine their exposure to vulnerabilities in Cisco IOS and IOS XE Software, Cisco provides a tool, the Cisco IOS Software Checker, that identifies any Cisco Security Advisories that impact a specific software release and the earliest release that fixes the vulnerabilities described in each advisory ("First Fixed"). If applicable, the tool also returns the earliest release that fixes all the vulnerabilities described in all the advisories identified ("Combined First Fixed").
Customers can use this tool to perform the following tasks:
- Initiate a search by choosing one or more releases from a drop-down menu or uploading a file from a local system for the tool to parse
- Enter the output of the show version command for the tool to parse
- Create a custom search by including all previously published Cisco Security Advisories, a specific advisory, or all advisories in the most recent bundled publication
To determine whether a release is affected by any published Cisco Security Advisory, use the Cisco IOS Software Checker on Cisco.com or enter a Cisco IOS or IOS XE Software release—for example, 15.1(4)M2 or 3.01.4S—in the following field:
For a mapping of Cisco IOS XE Software releases to Cisco IOS Software releases, refer to the Cisco IOS XE 2 Release Notes, Cisco IOS XE 3S Release Notes, or Cisco IOS XE 3SG Release Notes, depending on the Cisco IOS XE Software release.
The Cisco Product Security Incident Response Team (PSIRT) is not aware of any public announcements or malicious use of the vulnerability that is described in this advisory.
This issue was found during an investigation of a related issue reported by David Barksdale, Jordan Gruskovnjak, and Alex Wheeler of Exodus Intelligence.
To learn about Cisco security vulnerability disclosure policies and publications, see the Security Vulnerability Policy. This document also contains instructions for obtaining fixed software and receiving security vulnerability information from Cisco.
Version Description Section Status Date 1.0 Initial public release. — Final 2016-March-23
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