At its simplest, a data center is a physical facility that organizations use to house their critical applications and data. A data center's design is based on a network of computing and storage resources that enable the delivery of shared applications and data.
Modern data centers are very different than they were just a short time ago. Infrastructure has shifted from traditional on-premises physical servers to virtualized infrastructure that supports applications and workloads across pools of physical infrastructure and into a multicloud environment.
In this era, the modern data center is wherever its data and applications are. It stretches across multiple public and private clouds to the edge of the network via mobile devices and embedded computing. In this constantly shifting environment, the data center must reflect the intentions of users and applications.
In the world of enterprise IT, data centers are designed to support business applications and activities that include:
Data center design includes routers, switches, firewalls, storage systems, servers, and application delivery controllers. Because these components store and manage business-critical data and applications, data center security is critical in data center design. Together, they provide:
Network infrastructure. This connects servers (physical and virtualized), data center services, storage, and external connectivity to end-user locations.
Storage infrastructure. Data is the fuel of the modern data center. Storage systems are used to hold this valuable commodity.
Computing resources. Applications are the engines of a data center. These servers provide the processing, memory, local storage, and network connectivity that drive applications.
Data center services are typically deployed to protect the performance and integrity of the core data center components.
Network security appliances. These include firewall and intrusion protection to safeguard the data center.
Application delivery assurance. To maintain application performance, these mechanisms provide application resiliency and availability via automatic failover and load balancing.
Data center components require significant infrastructure to support the center's hardware and software. These include power subsystems, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), ventilation, cooling systems, fire suppression, backup generators, and connections to external networks.
The most widely adopted standard for data center design and data center infrastructure is ANSI/TIA-942. It includes standards for ANSI/TIA-942-ready certification, which ensures compliance with one of four categories of data center tiers rated for levels of redundancy and fault tolerance.
Tier 1: Basic site infrastructure. A Tier 1 data center offers limited protection against physical events. It has single-capacity components and a single, nonredundant distribution path.
Tier 2: Redundant-capacity component site infrastructure. This data center offers improved protection against physical events. It has redundant-capacity components and a single, nonredundant distribution path.
Tier 3: Concurrently maintainable site infrastructure. This data center protects against virtually all physical events, providing redundant- capacity components and multiple independent distribution paths. Each component can be removed or replaced without disrupting services to end users.
Tier 4: Fault-tolerant site infrastructure. This data center provides the highest levels of fault tolerance and redundancy. Redundant-capacity components and multiple independent distribution paths enable concurrent maintainability and one fault anywhere in the installation without causing downtime
Many types of data centers and service models are available. Their classification depends on whether they are owned by one or many organizations, how they fit (if they fit) into the topology of other data centers, what technologies they use for computing and storage, and even their energy efficiency. There are four main types of data centers:
These are built, owned, and operated by companies and are optimized for their end users. Most often they are housed on the corporate campus.
These data centers are managed by a third party (or a managed services provider) on behalf of a company. The company leases the equipment and infrastructure instead of buying it.
In colocation ("colo") data centers, a company rents space within a data center owned by others and located off company premises. The colocation data center hosts the infrastructure--building, cooling, bandwidth, security, etc. while the company provides and manages the components, including servers, storage, and firewalls.
In this off-premises form of data center, data and applications are hosted by a cloud services provider such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft (Azure), or IBM Cloud.
Discover more about data centers and what the future will bring to them and your network.