Writing the Classroom Rules:
An End-to-End Network for Delivering Broadband
in Primary and Secondary School Environments
Today, technology plays a central role in sparking the imagination, facilitating learning and creating new possibilities in education environments. In particular, networking technology can deliver to primary and secondary schools a wide range of vital broadband capabilities, such as e-learning and IP telephony, while making Internet access affordable in every classroom. This design guide discusses some of the most promising opportunities and offers suggestions to help educational institutions maximize application functionality using an integrated wired and wireless infrastructure.
The foundational requirements needed to achieve leading edge functionality for education include the advantages of high-speed local-area networks (LANs), the migration from hubs to switches in the wired environment, and the enhanced flexibility, mobility, portability, and scalability enabled by a combined wired and wireless infrastructure. Within this design guide is an overview of key Cisco switching and wireless LAN (WLAN) platforms, which together allow schools to build a robust, end-to-end network that meets the current and future needs of the entire educational community: students, faculty, administrators and parents. Also, sample network diagrams provide practical deployment strategies to help schools maximize resource utilization and to achieve the greatest benefits from the network.
Primary and secondary schools and school districts face enormous challenges developing and maintaining infrastructures that keep pace with the demands of today's high-tech society. Besides supporting administrative and faculty requirements, educational institutions must have the appropriate technology to prepare students to work, live, play, and learn effectively in the Internet economy. School administrators may understand what it takes to keep up, but limited staffing and financial resources can make it difficult to deliver the needed technical services.
The good news is that improvements in technology are addressing many of the needs and requirements of the education sector. Combined advances in switching technology and WLANs actually help financially constrained schools achieve more value and functionality within their existing budgets. For a very reasonable cost, schools can implement an infrastructure that is able to support a wide range of leading applications. These technologies enhance the way information is communicated and accessed, providing a more optimal learning experience for students and more efficient tools and resources for teachers and staff. Thus, these applications will deliver a host of new academic capabilities, making the lives of students, teachers and staff more efficient. A sampling of these applications include:
- e-Learninge-Learning has become a vital tool for education. Through e-learning, schools are providing students with tremendous flexibility, while extending their programs outside the classroom.
- Online ContentIn the school environment, online content is fast becoming the rule. This contentwhich may include curricula, tutorials, reference materials, and recordsmust be accessible to students and/or staff quickly and efficiently.
- Multimedia CapabilitiesFlat data files quickly are being replaced by rich multimedia content. Therefore, school system networks must be robust enough to support rich multimedia applications, as well as streaming media.
- Converged Voice, Video and Data ApplicationsConverged voice, video and data applications, like IP telephony, enable far greater interaction among students, educators and parents. Some of the wide-ranging capabilities of such applications might be used to facilitate better parent communication and involvement or help ensure student safety.
- Mobile Computer LabsIncreasingly, students need to access broadband applications outside of the computer room. Therefore, mobile computer labs are fast becoming popular in the school setting. With mobile computer labs, PCs and laptops are carted into individual classrooms, where students have full access to broadband capabilities through wireless connections.
These applications not only enrich students' educational experiences, but they also boost efficiency throughout the entire educational community, saving time and money for cash-strapped primary and secondary schools. To achieve these benefits, schools require the support of a robust, high-bandwidth network infrastructure. Fortunately, a cost-effective solution exists for all schools that can be deployed regardless of a school's existing wiring or installed devices.
High-speed LAN technologies deliver broadband capabilities to individual schools and entire school systems. Cisco solutions integrate broadband into any wired environmentwhether the media is Category 1, 2, or 3 copper telephone wire, Category 5 copper or fiber. Therefore, schools do not need to expend the time, expense and effort of rewiring their buildings to achieve tremendous bandwidth.
WLAN technology affordably extends your school network's flexibility when it is not practical to install cable or when flexible, mobile access solutions are required. Wired and wireless technologies each have a place in the school LAN and collectively deliver LAN-to-LAN capabilities.
These technologies allow schools to upgrade their networks for minimal incremental cost, enabling to meet today's demands with a robust, flexible infrastructure. They can use their network investments to streamline operations, deliver state-of-the-art content, and provide enhanced services to educators, students, and staffnow and in the future.
The wired LAN is the principal means of connection for the high-speed school LANeven in an integrated wired and wireless environment. Compared to wireless technology, the wired LAN offers significantly higher transfer rates over both short and long distances. However, steps must be taken to achieve maximum performance for your wired LAN. For instance, the network infrastructure must be optimized with a configuration that delivers sufficient bandwidth and intelligence to meet increasing traffic demands. In addition, your wired LAN should feature:
- Robust Quality of Service (QoS)QoS enhances bandwidth management so that high-priority traffic receives preference on the network. Cisco Catalyst® LAN switches support the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.1p standard, which enables prioritized Ethernet traffic. Cisco offers several other QoS features including Weighted Round Robin Scheduling and Strict Priority Scheduling. The switches also allow administrators to designate priority on a per port basis. Intelligent client devices, including the Cisco IP Phone 7960, further assure that high-priority traffic retains preferred treatment.
- Continual Network AvailabilityMaintaining high availability is vital for any mission-critical school LAN. Cisco recommends a network design that includes redundant components and connections to eliminate or minimize outages and performance degradations. Dual gigabit uplinks provide a redundant uplink in case the primary uplink goes down. Enhanced Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) convergence featuresincluding PortFast, UplinkFast, and Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST)enable LAN switches to be connected redundantly without creating broadcast storms that can slow response times.
- Easy, Integrated Web ManagementCisco management solutions operate end-to-end to alleviate management complexity. Users gain increased control of their networks with Cisco IOS® Intelligent Network Services, which offer advanced features including IP routing, advanced QoS and security, but enables users to manage their entire LAN with one robust toolthe Cisco Cluster Management Suite (CMS). Cisco CMS, embedded in its fixed configuration LAN switches, lets customers view and manage multiple stacks of switches using a single IP address.
- SecurityIn a common infrastructure, data and application access must be restricted and protected. Cisco desktop switches support port security, access authentication capabilities, and security and isolation between ports. The Cisco security features protect both sensitive data on the network and sensitive traffic, such as voice, which requires end-to-end privacy.
These features allow the infrastructure to support a broad range of Internet applications that require an integrated network, such as IP telephony, streaming video and audio, and broadcast. These are applications that most primary and secondary schools will want to implement now or in the near future to enhance the learning experience, as well as improve administrative efficiencies.
To support next-generation applications, most schools will need to upgrade their LANs. At the most basic level, they will need to migrate from shared hub technology to a switched infrastructure. Many schools also will want to use faster, more intelligent technologies, such as Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet. In addition, they may want to integrate wireless technology into their environments for greater user mobility and LAN accessibility. Below, are the steps that schools and school systems can take today to build a robust, high-performance LAN. With this functionality in place, the educational mission of the school can be taken quickly to the next level.
In preparing for next-generation applications, it is critical to replace 10 megabits per second (Mbps) shared-bandwidth hubs in the wiring closet with Ethernet/Fast Ethernet (10/100 Mbps) switches or Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) switches. These switches dedicate 10-, 100- or 1000-Mbps bandwidth to an individual LAN or WLAN node. Migration from 10-Mbps shared Ethernet hubs to 100- or 1000-Mbps Ethernet switches is now within reach of most school district budgets, and in most cases will deliver exponential performance boosts. Additionally, migration causes minimal disruption because the new switches are based on traditional Ethernet protocol and require no specialized expertise to deploy.
Unlike a hub, which forwards packets to all connected ports, a switch forwards packets only to one portthe one connected to the destination of the packet. This reduces the overall volume of packets on a network, and enhances overall security since packets are restricted to their designated ports. In addition, a switch provides higher bandwidth and greater intelligence than a hub. Switches also offer defined QoS levels. Hubs can neither decipher different types of traffic nor provide the necessary bandwidth and response times for strategic applications.
Depending on the infrastructure already in place, migrating from hubs to switches may simply require deploying the new switches over the existing wiring to handle the higher speeds provided by Fast or Gigabit Ethernet, or updating the physical cables. Again, a high-speed, robust LAN is necessary to fully take advantage of the increased speeds provided by Fast and Gigabit Ethernet switches. By configuring the appropriate switching device(s), schools can ensure that all ports and network segments will experience sufficient performance and responsiveness.
For many schools with hubs or Ethernet/Fast Ethernet switches, a migration to advanced, higher performance multilayer switches will also be necessary. The reason is simple, with the growth of multi-point traffic and the introduction of demanding, bandwidth-hungry applications, the network comes under more and more stress. Inevitably, bandwidth and intelligence must be increased at the backbone of the network or at the top of the stack. For most Ethernet environments, a migration to a multilayer Gigabit Ethernet aggregation switch is the next logical step. Originally, Gigabit Ethernet could run only on fiber-optic wiring, so buildings without fiber would incur the costs and time of rewiring. Today, Gigabit Ethernet can run standards-based 1000 Mbps over the same Category 5 copper cabling that supports 10BaseT and 100BaseT Ethernet. As a result, primary and secondary schools can add Gigabit Ethernet devices easily to their existing copper infrastructures without additional cabling costs. With the addition of Gigabit Ethernet switches, the network will deliver the services, the speed and the scalability that users require.
Before deciding to implement Gigabit Ethernet, schools should consider the following issues:
- Is my network optimized to handle an array of broadband services?
- Can my network adequately scale as users are added?
- As broadband services are introduced, will my network continue to be able to deliver top performance for all applications?
To answer these questions affirmatively, Gigabit Ethernet switches often must be integrated into a network. With the introduction of the Cisco Gigabit Ethernet switches, school networks benefit from:
- Exceptional PerformanceCisco switches feature wire-speed, performance on all ports, including Gigabit ports. Gigabit Ethernet gives schools 10 times the network performance as Fast Ethernet for little extra expense.
- Intelligent Network ServicesCisco incorporates Cisco IOS Intelligent Network Services into each of its network components to achieve true end-to-end services and manageability. These services include high availability, QoS, security and policy enforcement. Together, they ensure that school networks can support a variety of high-bandwidth applications.
- Superior ManageabilityThe 1000BaseT standard is an extension of Ethernet. Therefore, LAN administrators can continue to use their existing methods of network management. The revolutionary Cisco Switch Clustering technology allows schools to quickly expand and upgrade their networks across multiple wiring closets and various LAN media without having to add resources or replace existing switching equipment. In addition, the Cisco CMS enables schoolsfor the first timeto manage the entire LAN with one tool.
- Easy Migration1000BaseT network interface cards and switches support both 100/1000 and 10/100/1000 auto-negotiation between Ethernet/Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. Network managers can expand their networks easily by deploying Gigabit Ethernet incrementally into their networks.
Gigabit Ethernet switches help prevent traffic bottlenecks between the edge of a network and its core. A full line of Cisco switch products allows primary and secondary schools to select the right device for specific traffic and budget requirements and ensures a growth path to higher speeds and functionalities.
For many school environments, wireless technology is an important addition to the network. In a high-performance switching environment, wireless technology can deliver Ethernet-level speeds reaching 11 Mbps to open areas on the campus like informational kiosks in the quad or cafeteria. Typically, a wireless network cannot replace the wired LAN. However, it can dramatically improve the usability and scalability of the existing network. Many successful school implementations have shown that wireless technology delivers substantial administrative, learning, and cost-savings benefits.
Generally, wireless technology assumes three principal roles. First, schools add wireless to the LAN to give users greater mobility and flexibility in schools and school campuses. Secondly, wireless provides LAN access in buildings that are difficult to rewire for high-speed access. And, lastly, wireless bridges deliver LAN connectivity to remote sites and users. Each type of access can yield substantial benefits for students, faculty, and staff.
In a school setting, wireless technology allows users to achieve total PC portability and location independence. Wireless allows schools to put computer resources wherever they are needed without hardwired connections for every computer. With a WLAN, a single hardwired drop linked to a wireless access point in any classroom provides a network access point for multiple PCs equipped with WLAN adapters. This type of configuration eliminates the location constraints of hardwired structures, and maximizes utilization of PC resources. As a result, laptops can be taken along and used in any location. In fact, schools can even set up mobile computer labs, in which laptops or PCs are carted into individual classrooms on an as-needed basis. Wireless broadband technology then can be brought to every classroom and every student, greatly enriching the learning experience for all subjects. In the ever-changing school environment, wireless technology can also reduce the cost and complexity of facility reconfigurations.
Wireless technology also allows schools to provide broadband capabilities quickly and cost-effectivelywithout expensive rewiring. For many schools, providing ubiquitous Internet access in existing buildings (not wired for Category 5 cabling) is cost-prohibitive. Therefore, they face the high expense of installing higher grade copper or fiber wiring in old, brick buildings, as well as any extraordinary environmental costs, such as for asbestos removal. WLANs avert these problems by eliminating the need to install new wiring. WLANs also lower costs for administrative functions and yield improvements in faculty conveniences. With a WLAN in place, instructors can immediately share course materials, download quizzes, send e-mail, and more easily communicate with administrative offices. If a teacher wants to conduct a class outside an assigned room, wireless technology easily accommodates the change in venue without time delays, the high cost of installing new cable, or forfeiture of technical capabilities.
For remote sites, wireless technology can prove invaluable by connecting facilities within a region. Wireless bridges can be used to link hardwired Ethernet networks, providing fast, cost-efficient integration of remote sites and users. The technology provides line-of-sight bridging (up to 25 miles between antennas) and has a data transfer rate higher than T1/E1 lines between buildings. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, a wireless point-to-point or point-to-multipoint bridge can connect remote schools, portable classrooms, education boards, and even community facilities such as libraries to provide community-wide information and learning networks. Wireless bridges also allow multiple buildings to share one high-speed link to the Internet without using cables or dedicated lines. This capability is especially useful for schools that require location flexibility or that are expanding quickly, as temporary or portable classrooms can be added to the network very quickly.
Point-to-Point Wireless Bridges
Point-to-Multipoint Wireless Bridges
Moreover, wireless bridges lead to a significant reduction in recurring leased line expenses, thus providing tremendous financial benefits. In some cases, wireless technology provides a communications option where no feasible, cost-effective alternatives previously existedfor example, between buildings that are separated by bodies of waters, public spaces, or other virtually impassable physical barriers. Wireless bridges are not affected by bad weather and do not require an FCC (or applicable agency) license.
Wireless technologies are affordable and provide much-needed configuration freedom, especially in application environments characterized by unpredictable change and growth. In the primary and secondary school setting, where enrollment, facility changes, faculty requirements, and curriculum needs are difficult to forecast, wireless technology delivers flexibility and nearly instant scalability.
WLANs can utilize the standards-based, 128-bit wired equivalent privacy (WEP) to protect data traversing wireless links. For additional protection, NIST FIPS 140-1 certified routers, like the Cisco 2621, can be used. These routers can be used in conjunction with wireless bridges to provide data protection through IPSec-encrypted tunnels.
For effective operation and management, schools must view the IT infrastructure as an end-to-end fabricnot as separate wired and wireless entities. Any wireless technology should incorporate both the hardware and software functionality to support compatibility with the backbone, integrated network management to simplify operations and administration and security features that protect data and user privacy. End-to-end infrastructure visibility and manageability ensures a responsive, scalable, and highly maintainable network.
Delivering broadband can be a major step for primary and secondary schools. But Cisco makes it easy. Cisco offers end-to-end solutions for every point on the network: from the wiring closet to the backbone to the network core. Cisco wireless products even allow the network to be extended outside the wired LAN. Cisco has everything that a school needs to deliver broadband services quickly and affordably to the entire educational community.
Cisco offers a selection of switch solutions that simplify integration of next-generation applications and ensure cost-effective reliability and optimum performance across the entire network. Integrated Cisco IOS software provides built-in functionality for end-to-end integration, including bandwidth aggregation.
The Cisco Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet switches described below provide a combination of high data transfer rates, manageability, and expandability ideally suited for schools. Cisco switches also have the ability to support networks that integrate data, voice, and video applications, such as IP telephony. Support for new IP telephony applications, such as unified messaging, Web contact centers, and e-learning, requires fast LAN switches with QoS capabilities and high-availability components.
The Cisco Catalyst 2950 Series is a family of wire-speed Fast Ethernet desktop switches that deliver the next generation of performance and functionality for the LAN. These standalone, 10/100 autosensing switches provide enhanced QoS and multicast management features. Optimized for the wired LAN, they are managed with the easy-to-use Cisco CMS and integrated Cisco IOS software.
Catalyst 2950 Switches deliver maximum performance. They feature a switching fabric of 8.8 Gbps and a maximum forwarding bandwidth of 4.4 Gbps, providing wire-speed performance on all ports in connecting end stations and users to the school LAN. Easy-to-use management and security features include a Web-based interface, multilevel security, robust QoS, autoconfiguration capabilities and a broad range of standards-based connectivity. Importantly, Cisco Catalyst 2950 Switches provide easy migration to Gigabit Ethernet speeds.
The Cisco Catalyst 3500 XL is a scalable line of stackable 10/100 and Gigabit Ethernet switches that deliver premium performance, manageability, and flexibility, with unparalleled investment protection. These low-cost, high-performance switches are ideal for school networks deploying advanced Internet capabilities. Notably, one member of this product familythe Catalyst 3524-PWR XL desktop switchforms a foundation for supporting converged application traffic with the following features:
- Inline power for IP phones
- Redundant high-speed uplinks with load-balancing capabilities
- Capability to mark Ethernet packets with QoS priorities
The Cisco Catalyst 3550-12T Gigabit Ethernet Switch allows network managers to increase control of their LANs by combining the power of Cisco IOS Intelligent Network Services with the simplicity of Web-based management. This solution helps schools significantly improve their network availability, scalability, and security by deploying Cisco IOS Intelligent Network Services in either the network backbone or top-of-the-stack wiring closet aggregation using Category 5 copper cabling. The 12-port Catalyst 3550-12T features mission-critical multilayer services, such as IP routing, advanced QoS, IP security, and easy-to-use cluster management.
The Cisco Catalyst 2950 Series and Catalyst 3500 Series XL feature models that support Gigabit Ethernet connectivity, as well as Fast Ethernet. The Gigabit-over-copper Catalyst 2950T-24 switch offers 10/100/1000BaseT links, enhanced Cisco IOS services, advanced QoS, multicast management, high availability and security.
The Cisco Catalyst 3500 XL Switches also support robust Gigabit Ethernet connectivity with the use of Cisco Gigabit Interface Converters (GBICs). The Cisco 1000BaseT GBIC can be deployed in the Gigabit Ethernet GBIC ports of the Catalyst 3500 XL switches to provide Gigabit Ethernet connectivity over copper to high-end workstations or between wiring closets over the existing copper infrastructure. These built-in dual GBIC-based ports provide users with a flexible and scalable solution for Gigabit Ethernet uplinks and GigaStack GBIC stacking.
Cisco and Intel have teamed to further boost the usability, flexibility and ease of deployment of Cisco Gigabit Ethernet solutions. Now, the Cisco 1000BaseT Catalyst 2950 and 3550-12T switches offer seamless compatibility with the Intel® PRO/1000 T Server Adapter, a Gigabit Ethernet adapter, for Category 5 infrastructures. Schools now have ready access to all the tools they need for rapid network integration and a quick migration to Gigabit Ethernet performance with established industry leaders, Cisco and Intel.
Cisco wireless systems integrate seamlessly with wired network backbones, providing end-to-end management and performance visibility. Cisco wireless solutions are IEEE 802.11b and Wi-Fi compliant to interoperate with standards-based wireless networking products and with all major wired-network components. These products operate as extensions to a wired network or can be deployed to create freestanding all-wireless networks.
The Cisco Aironet 350 Series of WLAN products provides industry-leading performance, security, and reliability at a very reasonable cost. It is the first and only product to deliver a WLAN solution that offers scalable, centralized security, superior range, and affordability. The Cisco Aironet 350 features:
- Data rates up to 11 Mbps
- Support for inline power over Ethernet, simplifying and reducing the total cost of installation and ownership
- High-performance 100 Milliwatt radio design, with power management capabilities
- Future-proof architecture that can support additional software features
The Cisco Aironet 350 Series includes products tailored to in-building and building-to-building applications. The in-building products consist of access points and wireless client adapters, including peripheral component interconnect (PCI) adapters and PC cards. Equipped with PC cards, laptops, notebook PCs or PDAs can be moved freely around a primary and secondary school environment and still maintain connections to the network. Wireless PCI adapters allow desktop PCs to be added to the LAN quickly, easily, and inexpensively, without the need for additional cabling.
The Cisco Aironet 350 Series Access Point is a WLAN transceiver that can act as the hub of a standalone wireless network or as a bridge between wireless and wired networks. In large installations, the innovative roaming functionality provided by multiple access points lets wireless users move freely throughout a school environment while maintaining seamless, uninterrupted access to the network. Up to 128-bit wired equivalent privacy (WEP) encryption provides data security that is comparable to traditional wired LANs. The Aironet 350 Series also utilizes IEEE 802.1x-based extensible authentication protocol (EAP) to provide scalable, centralized security management and support dynamic single-session, single-user encryption keys integrated with network logon.
Cisco Aironet 350 Series wireless bridges connect line-of-sight buildings located up to 25 miles apart. Wireless bridges are ideal for connecting multiple buildings on a school campus or connecting portable classrooms. Sites are easily connected even when separated by obstacles. With no licensing required, no right-of-way issues and no recurring leased line charges, wireless bridges can be far less expensive than T1 lines or fiber-optic cable. Easy to install and configure, bridges can be implemented in a day or less. Operating in the 2.4 GHz band, Cisco Aironet 350 Series products operate reliably even in severe weather conditions. Configuration and management options include direct console or remote configuration via Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) or browser graphical user interface.
Cisco AVVID (Architecture for Voice, Video and Integrated Data) is the foundation of all Cisco products and the basis for converged network infrastructures. Through Cisco AVVID, primary and secondary schools are assured of an integrated, end-to-end family of networking products that guarantee forward and backward system compatibility. Cisco AVVID encompasses these elements:
- Infrastructure hardware and software
- Call processing
- Directory services and associated policy management capabilities
- Integrated data and voice applications
- A range of client devices, such as phones and PCs
- Service and support
Cisco AVVID enables schools to deploy IP-enabled applications, implement a standards-based open architecture, and migrate to a converged network in a customized timeframe.
A vital part of an overall network solution, Cisco service and support provides the expertise to respond to any needs that arise after the initial installation of a Cisco solution. Rapid deployment services are available through the Cisco Total Implementation Solutions (TIS) program. In addition, ongoing operational support, as well as advanced services to optimize the network for high-availability performance, is provided by Cisco through service offerings such as SMARTnet™ or SMARTnet Onsite.
Key Global Service Features and Benefits:
- TISIncludes offerings designed to address the challenges that organizations face when installing, implementing, and upgrading their networks. The program provides support where and when it is needed by the customers to support the rapid deployment of new technology.
- SMARTnetProvides enhancement and maintenance support resources during the operational lifetime of a customer's Cisco networking device. SMARTnet augments the resources of the customer's operations staff; it provides them with access to a wealth of expertise, both online and via telephone, the ability to refresh their system software at will, and a range of hardware advance replacement options.
- SMARTnet OnsiteProvides all SMARTnet services and complements the hardware advance replacement feature by adding the services of a field engineer (critical for those locations where staffing is insufficient or unavailable to perform parts replacement activities).
Customers interested in learning more about service should work with their Cisco Account Manager, Global Services Manager (GSM), or visit www.cisco.com.
Even with a simple infrastructure in place, schools can take advantage of a hierarchical switching architecture to intelligently manage users, servers, and links to the outside world. In Figure 3, high-performance, high-availability Layer 3 switches manage the network core functions and ensure an optimally performing backbone.
Individual or stacked desktop switches can be star-wired off the Layer 3 switch to deliver the access solutions for traditional user stations in fixed locations. For classrooms and other locations (for example, library, offices) that require flexible connection options, a single connection to a wireless access point can be installed in place of multiple cables to fixed stations. Schools gain the flexibility to take advantage of portable computers across multiple classrooms, each with access point coverage, or easily and quickly change the configuration in a classroom without changing the cabling.
Figure 3: Low-Cost Network Diagram for Primary and Secondary Schools
More complex district networks further benefit from the same hierarchical switched architecture and wireless overlays. As shown in Figure 4, a single T1 line at the district level can effectively provide Internet access for several schools, eliminating the need for multiple recurring monthly charges. Connecting to a new building or site can be accomplished using traditional wiring methods (for buildings that are located in close proximity), or by deploying line-of-sight point-to-point or point-to-multipoint wireless solutions to cost-effectively cover long or short distances (up to 15 miles at up to 11-Mbps rates, or 25 miles at up to 5.5-Mbps rates) or overcome obstacles such as rivers and highways. Within only three or four months, the investment for a line-of-sight, LAN-to-LAN connection will be recovered, compared with the ongoing monthly costs for an additional T1 connection.
One or more Layer 3 switches can provide a high-performance core layer. The stackable Layer 2 desktop switches can be deployed to segment access points. Multiple access points can be placed on the network to expand the wireless coverage area, allowing clients to roam. The networkwith high availability, integrated management, and securitycan support the full range of emerging next-generation applications and technologies. The hierarchical architecture simplifies the placement of wireless where flexible connections are required or where configurations are likely to change often.
High-Function Network Diagram for Primary and Secondary School District
Cisco provides numerous resources for educational institutions, including materials for every stage of infrastructure implementation. Visit www.cisco.com for a comprehensive listing of available materials. The following list provides a sampling of helpful resources.
- Networking Essentials Guide
This guide describes the primary building blocks of networks and the role each one plays. Find out about the most popular networking technologies or methods for moving data, and determine which approach to networking and which technologies are best for your educational facility. Topics include: basic network components, network technologies, education networking examples, network how-to's, network design considerations, and a "basics" checklist.
- Optimizing Your Network: Migrating from Hubs to Desktop Switches
This guide explains the advantages of upgrading from 10-Mbps, Ethernet-based LANs to 10/100-Mbps switching. Included is background on the traffic and bandwidth management features in 10/100 switches that help boost performance and accommodate a growing number of users, as well as suggestions for how to migrate a hub-centric LAN infrastructure to a switch-based environment for maximum effectiveness.
- Easy Migration to Gigabit Ethernet over Copper
This document discusses the benefits of migrating from a 10/100 Fast Ethernet network to a high-performance 1000BaseT Gigabit Ethernet network. Sample designs show how to upgrade networks to support Gigabit Ethernet speedsover the building's existing Category 5 copper cabling. Included is a discussion of the devices that comprise the Cisco Gigabit Ethernet over Copper solution.
- Cisco Catalyst 2950 Series Switches
- Cisco Catalyst 3550-12T Gigabit Ethernet Switch
- Cisco Catalyst 3500 Series XL Switches
- Cisco Aironet 350 Series Wireless Products
- Cisco Midmarket Business and Technology Solutions
- Cisco Education Ecosystem
A wireless LAN (WLAN) transceiver that acts as a center point in a wireless network and bridges between wireless and wired networks.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode. Under ATM, multiple traffic types (such as voice, video, or data) are conveyed in fixed-length cells (rather than the random-length "packets" moved by technologies such as Ethernet and Fiber Distributed Data Interface [FDDI]). This feature enables very high speeds, making ATM popular for demanding network backbones. With networking equipment that has recently become available, ATM will also support wide-area network (WAN) transmissions. This feature makes ATM valuable for large, dispersed organizations.
The part of a network that acts as the primary path for traffic moving between, rather than within, networks.
The "data-carrying" capacity of a network connection, used as an indication of speed. For example, an Ethernet link is capable of moving 10 million bits of data per second. A Fast Ethernet link can move 100 million bits of data per second10 times more bandwidth.
A device that passes packets between multiple network segments using the same communications media. If a packet is destined for a user within the sender's own network segment, the bridge keeps the packet local. If the packet is bound for another segment, the bridge passes the packet onto the network backbone.
A networked PC or terminal that shares "services" with other PCs. These services are stored on or administered by a server.
In a wireless network, a network interface card (NIC) that provides devices with wireless connectivity.
In Ethernet, the result of two nodes transmitting simultaneously. The frames from each device collide and are damaged when they meet on the physical media.
A popular LAN technology that uses CSMA/CD (collision detection) to move packets between workstations and runs over a variety of cable types at 10 Mbps.
Uses the same transmission method as 10-Mbps Ethernet (collision detection) but operates at 100 Mbps10 times faster. Fast Ethernet provides a smooth upgrade path for increasing performance in congested Ethernet networks, because it can use the same cabling (if Category 5 cabling is used), applications, and network management tools. Variations include 100Base-FX, 100Base-T4, and 100Base-TX.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface. A LAN technology based on a 100-Mbps, token-passing network running over fiber-optic cable. Usually reserved for network backbones in larger organizations.
A wide-area network (WAN) service that provides switched ("on-and-off") connections between distant locations.
File Transfer Protocol. A part of the chief Internet protocol "stack" or group (TCP/IP) used for transferring files from Internet servers to your computer.
Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3z) is an extension of the IEEE Ethernet standard, offering speeds of 1 Gbps (1,000 Mbps) or 100 times more than standard Ethernet (10 Mbps).
Hypertext Markup Language. Document-formatting language used for preparing documents to be viewed by a tool such as a World Wide Web browser.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Protocol that governs transmission of formatted documents over the Internet.
A device that interconnects clients and servers, repeating (or amplifying) the signals between them. Hubs act as wiring "concentrators" in networks based on star topologies (rather than bus topologies, in which computers are daisy-chained together).
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. A professional organization whose activities include the development of communications and network standards. IEEE LAN standards are the predominant LAN standards today.
The 11-Mbps, direct sequence spread spectrum standard for wireless LANs as defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
A massive global network, interconnecting tens of thousands of computers and networks worldwide. It is accessible from any computer with a modem or router connection and the appropriate software.
Integrated Services Digital Network. Communication protocol offered by telephone companies that permit high-speed connections between computers and networks in dispersed locations.
Local-area network. Typically, a network or group of network segments confined to one building or a campus. Compare to wide-area network (WAN).
A device that enables a computer to connect to other computers and networks using ordinary phone lines. Modems "modulate" the computer digital signals into analog signals for transmission, then "demodulate" the analog signals back into digital language that the computer on the other end can understand.
A block of data with a "header" attached that can indicate what the packet contains and the destination where it is headed. Think of a packet as a "data envelope," with the header acting as an address.
Plain old telephone service (POTS) and Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). General terms referring to the variety of telephone networks and services currently in place worldwide.
A device that handles multiple incoming calls from remote users who need access to central network resources. A remote-access server can allow users to dial into a network using a single phone number. The server then finds an open channel and makes a connection without returning a busy signal.
A device that moves data between different network segments and can look into a packet header to determine the best path for the packet to travel. Routers can connect network segments that use different protocols. They also allow all users in a network to share a single connection to the Internet or a wide-area network (WAN).
A computer or even a software program that provides clients with servicessuch as file storage (file server), programs (application server), printer sharing (print server), fax (fax server) or modem sharing (modem server). Also see "Client."
A device that improves network performance by segmenting the network and reducing competition for bandwidth. When a switch port receives data packets, it forwards those packets only to the appropriate port for the intended recipient. This capability further reduces competition for bandwidth between the clients, servers, or workgroups connected to each switch port.
LAN technology in which packets are conveyed between network end stations by a token moving continuously around a closed ring between all the stations. Runs at 4 or 16 Mbps.
Wide-area network. Typically refers to a network that connects devices over greater distances, such as geographical regions. WANs often connect two or more LANs together. Compare to LAN.
Wired equivalent privacy. Optional security mechanism defined within the IEEE 802.11 standard designed to make the link integrity of the wireless medium equal to that of a cable.