Cisco ONS 15454 Reference Manual, Release 3.4
Chapter 9, Circuits and Tunnels

Table Of Contents

Circuits and Tunnels

9.1 Creating Circuits and Viewing Circuit Information

9.1.1 Circuit Status

9.1.2 Circuit States

9.1.3 Circuit Protection Types

9.1.4 Viewing Circuit Information on the Edit Circuit Window

9.2 Cross-Connect Card Capacities

9.2.1 VT1.5 Cross-Connects

9.2.2 VT Tunnels

9.3 DCC Tunnels

9.4 Multiple Drops for Unidirectional Circuits

9.5 Monitor Circuits

9.6 UPSR Circuits

9.7 BLSR Protection Channel Circuits

9.8 Path Trace

9.9 Automatic Circuit Routing

9.9.1 Bandwidth Allocation and Routing

9.9.2 Secondary Sources and Drops

9.10 Manual Circuit Routing

9.11 Constraint-Based Circuit Routing


Circuits and Tunnels


This chapter explains Cisco ONS 15454 STS and VT circuits and VT and DCC tunnels. To provision circuits and tunnels, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 Procedure Guide.

Chapter topics include:

Creating Circuits and Viewing Circuit Information

Cross-Connect Card Capacities

DCC Tunnels

Multiple Drops for Unidirectional Circuits

Monitor Circuits

UPSR Circuits

BLSR Protection Channel Circuits

Path Trace

Automatic Circuit Routing

Manual Circuit Routing

Constraint-Based Circuit Routing

9.1 Creating Circuits and Viewing Circuit Information

You can create unidirectional or bidirectional, revertive or non-revertive circuits. You can have circuits routed automatically or you can manually route them. The auto range feature eliminates the need to individually build circuits of the same type; CTC can create additional sequential circuits if you specify the number of circuits you need and build the first circuit.

You can provision circuits either before or after cards are installed as long as the ONS 15454 slots are provisioned for the card that will carry the circuit. However, circuits will not carry traffic until the cards are installed and neither ports nor the circuits are in an OOS (out of service) state.

The ONS 15454 Circuits window ( Figure 9-1) is where you can view information about circuits, including:

Name—Name of the circuit. The circuit name can be manually assigned or automatically generated.

Type—Circuit types are: STS (STS circuit) VT (VT circuit), or VTT (VT tunnel).

Size—Circuit size. VT circuit is 1.5. STS circuit sizes can be 1, 3c, 6c, 9c, 12c, 14c, 48c and 192c.

Protection—Shows the type of circuit protection.

Direction—Shows the circuit direction, either two-way or one-way.

Status—Shows the circuit status. See the "Circuit Status" section.

Source—Shows the circuit source in the format: node/slot/STS/VT. Node and slot will always display; STS and VT may display, depending on the circuit type.

Destination—Shows the circuit destination in the node/slot/STS/VT format.

# of VLANS—Shows the number of VLANS used by an Ethernet circuit.

# of Spans—Shows the number of inter-node links that comprise the circuit.

State—Shows the circuit state. See the "Circuit Status" section.

Figure 9-1 ONS 15454 circuit window in network view

9.1.1 Circuit Status

The circuit statuses that display in the Circuit window Status column are generated by CTC based on an assessment of conditions along the circuit path. Table 9-1 shows the statuses that may appear in the Status column.

Table 9-1 ONS 15454 Circuit Status 

Status
Definition/Activity

CREATING

A CTC-created circuit is being created

ACTIVE

A CTC-created circuit is complete. All components are in place and a complete path exists from circuit source to destination.

DELETING

A circuit is being deleted

INCOMPLETE

A CTC-created circuit is missing a connection or circuit span (network link); a complete path from source to destination(s) does not exist, or an AIP (MAC address) change occurred on one of the circuit nodes and the circuit is in need of repair.

UPGRADABLE

A TL1-created circuit is complete and has upgradable connections. A complete path from source to destination(s) exists. The circuit may be upgraded.

INCOMPLETE_UPGRADABLE

A TL1-created circuit with upgradable connections is missing a connection or circuit span (network link), and a complete path from source to destination(s) does not exist. The circuit cannot be upgraded until missing components are in place.

NOT_UPGRADABLE

A TL1-created circuit is complete but has at least one non-upgradable connection. UPSR_HEAD, UPSR_EN, UPSR_DC, and UPSR_DROP connections are not upgradable, so all unidirectional UPSR circuits created with TL1 are not upgradable.

INCOMPLETE_NOT_UPGRADABLE

A TL1-created circuit with one or more non-upgradable connections is missing a connection or circuit span (network link); a complete path from source to destination(s) does not exist.


9.1.2 Circuit States

State is a user-assigned designation to indicate whether the circuit should be in or out of service. The states that you can assign to circuits are shown in Table 9-2. To carry traffic, circuits must have a status of Active and a state of IS, OOS_AINS, or OOS_MT, and the circuit source and destination ports must also be IS, OOS_AINS, or OOS_MT.


Note OOS_AINS and OOS_MT allow a signal to be carried, although alarms are suppressed.


You can assign a state to circuits at two points:

During circuit creation you assign a state to the circuit on the Create Circuit wizard.

After circuit creation, you can change a circuit state on the Edit Circuit window.

Table 9-2 Circuit States 

State
Definition

IS

In service; able to carry traffic.

OOS

Out of service; unable to carry traffic.

OOS-AINS

Out of service, auto inservice; will change to IS when a signal is received; traffic is carried, but alarms are suppressed and loopbacks are allowed.

OOS-MT

Out of service, maintenance; traffic is carried, but alarms are suppressed and loopbacks are allowed.


PARTIAL is appended to a circuit state whenever all circuit cross connects are not in the same state. Table 9-3 shows the partial circuit states that may display.

Table 9-3 Partial Circuit States

State
Definition

OOS_PARTIAL

At least one connection is OOS and at least one other is in some other state.

OOS_AINS_PARTIAL

At least one connection is OOS_AINS and at least one other is in IS state.

OOS_MT_PARTIAL

At least one connection is OOS_MT and at least one other is in some other state except OOS.


PARTIAL states may occur during automatic or manual transitions. OOS_AINS_PARTIAL displays if you assign OOS_AINS to a circuit with DS-1 or DS3XM cards as the source or destination. Some cross connects transition to IS, while others are OOS_AINS. PARTIAL may appear during a manual transition for some abnormal reason, such as a CTC crash, communication error, or one of the connections could not be changed. Refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 Troubleshooting Guide for troubleshooting procedures.

Circuits do not use the soak timer for transitional states, but ports do. When provisioned as OOS-AINS, the ONS 15454 monitors a circuit's cross-connects for an error-free signal. It changes the state of the circuit from OOS-AINS to IS or AINS-partial as each cross-connect assigned to the circuit path is completed. This allows you to provision a circuit using TL1, verify its path continuity, and prepare the port to go into service upon receipt of a signal monitored as being free of errors for a specified period of time. Two common examples of state changes you will see when provisioning DS1 and DS3 circuits using CTC are as follows:

When provisioning VT1.5 circuits and VT Tunnels as OOS-AINS, the circuit state transitions to IS shortly after the circuits are created with the circuit source and destination ports are IS, OOS_AINS, or OOS_MT. The source and destination ports on the VT1.5 circuits remain in OOS-AINS state until an alarm-free signal is received for the duration of the soak timer. Upon completion of the soak timer the VT1.5 source and destination ports states transition to IS.

When provisioning STS circuits as OOS-AINS, the circuit and source and destination ports states are OOS-AINS. As soon as an alarm-free signal is received the circuit state transitions to IS and the source and destination ports states remains OOS-AINS for the duration of the soak timer. Upon completion of the soak timer the STS source and destination ports states transition to IS.

9.1.3 Circuit Protection Types

The Protection column on the Circuit window shows the actual line and path protections used along the entire circuit, that is, the integrated circuit protection for all circuit paths. Table 9-4 shows the protection type indicators that you will see in this column.

Table 9-4 Circuit Protection Types

Protection Type
Description

none

The circuit has no protection.

2F BLSR

The circuit is protected by a 2 fiber BLSR.

4F BLSR

The circuit is protected by a 4 fiber BLSR.

BLSR

The circuit is protected by a both a 2 fiber and a 4 fiber BLSR.

UPSR

The circuit is protected by a UPSR.

1+1

The circuit is protected by a 1+1 protection group.

protected

The circuit is protected by diverse SONET topologies, for example, a BLSR and a UPSR, or a UPSR and 1+1.

2F-PCA

The circuit is routed on a protection channel access path on a 2-fiber BLSR. PCA circuits are unprotected.

4F-PCA

The circuit is routed on a protection channel access path on a 4-fiber BLSR. PCA circuits are unprotected.

PCA

The circuit is routed on a protection channel access path on both 2-fiber and 4-fiber BLSRs. PCA circuits are unprotected.

lostProtection

The circuit was created with Fully Protected Path chosen as a circuit attribute; a system change occurred and the protection is not available.

unknown

Circuit protection types display in the Protection column only when all circuit components are known, that is, when the circuit status is ACTIVE or UPGRADABLE. If the circuit is in some other status, protection type is displayed as "unknown."


9.1.4 Viewing Circuit Information on the Edit Circuit Window

The detailed circuit map displayed on the Edit Circuit window allows you to view information about ONS 15454 circuits in a graphical presentation. Routing information that is displayed includes:

Circuit direction (unidirectional/bidirectional)

The nodes, STSs, and VTs through which circuit passes including slots and port numbers

The circuit source and destination points

OSPF Area IDs

Link protection (UPSR, unprotected, BLSR, 1+1) and bandwidth (OC-N)

For BLSRs, the detailed map displays the number of BLSR fibers and the BLSR Ring ID. For UPSRs, the map shows the active and standby paths from circuit source to destination, and it also shows the working and protect paths.

Alarms and states can also be viewed on the circuit map, including:

Alarm states of nodes on the circuit route

Number of alarms on each node organized by severity

States of ports on the circuit route

Alarm state/color of most severe alarm on port

Service state of ports

Loopbacks

Path trace states

Path selectors states

Figure 9-2 shows a bidirectional STS circuit routed on a UPSR.

Figure 9-2 UPSR circuit displayed on the detailed circuit map

The working path is indicated by a green, bidirectional arrow, and the protect path is indicated by a purple, bidirectional arrow. Source and destination ports are shown as circles with a S and D, respectively. Port states are indicated by colors, shown in Table 9-5.

Table 9-5 Port State Color Indicators

Port Color
State

Green

IS

Grey

OOS

Purple

OOS-AINS

Cyan

OOS-MT


Notation within the squares on each node indicate ring switches and other conditions. For example, a UPSR Force switch is shown in Figure 9-3, and an active path trace is shown in Figure 9-4.

Figure 9-3 Detailed circuit map showing a UPSR circuit

Figure 9-4 Detailed circuit map showing a path trace

The detailed circuit map allows you to see facility loopbacks (shown in Figure 9-5) and terminal and facility loopbacks (shown in Figure 9-6).

Figure 9-5 Detailed circuit map showing a facility loopback

Figure 9-6 Detailed circuit map showing a terminal loopback

Moving the mouse cursor over nodes, ports, and spans displays tooltips with information including the number of alarms on a node (organized by severity), a port's state of service for that port (e.g.: in-service, out-of-service), and the protection topology. Figure 9-7 shows a tooltip displayed for a BLSR span.

Figure 9-7 Detailed circuit map showing BLSR span information

In addition to circuit information, the detailed circuit map allows you to initiate the actions by right-clicking a node, port, or span:

Right-clicking a unidirectional circuit destination node displays a menu that allows you to add a drop to the circuit.

Right-clicking a port containing a path trace capable card displays a menu that allows you to initiate the path trace.

Right-clicking a UPSR span displays a menu that allows you to change the state of the path selectors in the UPSR circuit.

Figure 9-8 shows an example of the information that can be displayed. From this example, you can determine:

The circuit has one source and one destination.

The circuit has three nodes in its route; the state of the most severe alarm can be determined.

The STSs and ports that the circuit passes through from source to destination.

The port states and severity of the most severe alarm on each port.

A facility loopback exists on the port at one end of the circuit; a terminal loopback exists at the other end port.

An automatic path trace exists on one STS end of the circuit; a manual path trace at the other STS end.

The circuit is UPSR-protected (by path selectors). One path selector is forced lockout of protect, one is forced, one is manual, and one is clear.

The working path (green) flows from dv9-41/s5/p1/S1 to dv9-241/s13/p1/S1 to tccp/s6/p1/vc3-3. The protect path (purple) is also visible.

On dv9-41, the active path is the working; on dv9-241, the active path on both selectors is the protect; on tccp, the active path is the working.

From the example, an operator could:

Display any port or node view by double-clicking it

Edit the path trace states of any port that supports path trace

Change the path selector state of any UPSR path selector

Figure 9-8 Detailed circuit map showing a terminal loopback

9.2 Cross-Connect Card Capacities

The ONS 15454 XC, XCVT, and XC10G cards perform port-to-port time-division multiplexing (TDM).

XCs perform STS switching

XCVTs and XC10Gs perform STS and VT1.5 switching

XCs and XCVTs have capacity to terminate 288 STSs, or 144 STS cross-connections (each STS cross-connection uses two STS ports on the cross-connect card STS matrix). XC10Gs have capacity for 1152 STSs or 576 STS cross-connections. Table 9-6 shows STS capacities for the XC, XCVT, and XC10G cards.

Table 9-6 XC, XCVT, and XC10G Card STS Cross-Connect Capacities

Card
Total STSs
STS Cross-connects

XC

288

144

XCVT

288

144

XC10G

1152

576


9.2.1 VT1.5 Cross-Connects

XCVTs and XC10Gs can map up to 24 STSs for VT1.5 traffic. Because one STS can carry 28 VT1.5s, the XCVT and XC10G cards can terminate up to 672 VT1.5s or 336 VT1.5 cross-connects. However, to terminate 336 VT1.5 cross-connects:

Each STS mapped for VT1.5 traffic must carry 28 VT1.5 circuits. If you assign each VT1.5 circuit to a different STS, the XCVT and XC10G VT1.5 cross-connect capacity will be reached after you create 12 VT1.5 circuits.

ONS 15454s must be in a bidirectional line switched ring (BLSR). Source and drop nodes in UPSR or 1+1 (linear) protection have capacity for only 224 VT1.5 cross-connects because an additional STS is used for the protect path.

Table 9-7 shows the VT1.5 capacities for ONS 15454 cross-connect cards. All capacities assume each VT1.5-mapped STS carries 28 VT1.5 circuits.

Table 9-7 XC, XCVT, and XC10G VT1.5 Capacities

Card
Total VT1.5s (BLSR)
VT1.5 Cross-Connect Capacity (BLSR)
VT1.5 Cross-Connect Capacity
(UPSR or 1+1)

XC

0

0

0

XCVT

672

336

224

XC10G

672

336

224


Figure 9-9 shows the logical flow of a VT1.5 circuit through the XCVT/XC10G STS and VT matrices at a BLSR node. The circuit source is an EC-1 card using STS-1. After the circuit is created:

Two of the 24 XCVT or XC10G STSs available for VT1.5 traffic are used (one STS for VT1.5 input into the VT matrix; one STS for VT1.5 output).

22 STSs are available for VT1.5 circuits.

The STS-1 from the EC-1 card has capacity for 27 more VT1.5 circuits.

Figure 9-9 Example #1: A VT1.5 circuit in a BLSR

In Figure 9-10, a second VT1.5 circuit is created from the EC-1 card. In this example, the circuit is assigned to STS-2:

Two more of the 24 STSs available for VT1.5 traffic are used.

20 STSs are available on the XCVT or XC10G for VT1.5 circuits.

STS-2 can carry 27 additional VT1.5 circuits.

Figure 9-10 Example #2: Two VT1.5 circuits in a BLSR

If you create VT1.5 circuits on nodes in a UPSR or 1+1 protection, an additional STS is used for the protect path at the source and drop nodes. Figure 9-11 shows a VT1.5 circuit at a UPSR source node. When the circuit is completed:

Three of the 24 STSs available for VT1.5 mapping on the XCVT or XC10G are used (one input and two outputs, one output for the working path and one output for the protect path).

21 STSs are available for VT1.5 circuits.

Figure 9-11 Example #3: VT1.5 circuit in a UPSR or 1+1 protection scheme

Figure 9-12 shows a second VT1.5 circuit that was created using STS-2. When the second VT1.5 circuit is created:

Three more VT1.5-mapped STSs are used.

18 STSs are available on the XCVT or XC10G for VT1.5 circuits.

Figure 9-12 Example #4: Two VT1.5 circuits in UPSR or 1+1 protection scheme

Unless you create VT tunnels (see the "VT Tunnels" section), VT1.5 circuits use STSs on the XCVT/XC10G VT matrix at each node that the circuit passes through.

Two STSs are used at each node in the Figure 9-9 example, and three STSs are used at each node in the Figure 9-11 example.

In the Figure 9-10 example, three STSs are used at the source and drop nodes and four STSs are used at pass-through nodes. In Figure 9-12, six STSs are used at the source and drop nodes and four
STSs at the pass-through nodes.

9.2.2 VT Tunnels

To maximize VT matrix resources, you can tunnel VT1.5 circuits through ONS 15454 pass-through nodes (nodes that are not a circuit source or drop). VT1.5 tunnels provide two benefits:

They allow you to route VT1.5 circuits through ONS 15454s that have XC cards. (VT1.5 circuits require XCVT or XC10G cards at circuit source and drop nodes.)

When tunneled through nodes with XCVT or XC10G cards, VT1.5 tunnels do not use VT matrix capacity, thereby freeing the VT matrix resources for other VT1.5 circuits.

Figure 9-13 shows a VT tunnel through the XCVT and XC10G matrices. No VT1.5-mapped STSs are used by the tunnel, which can carry 28 VT1.5s. However, the tunnel does use two STS matrix ports on each node that it passes through.

Figure 9-13 A VT1.5 tunnel

Figure 9-14 shows a six-node ONS 15454 ring with two VT tunnels. One tunnel carries VT1.5 circuits from Node 1 to Node 3. The second tunnel carries VT1.5 circuits from Node 1 to Node 4. Table 9-8 shows the VT1.5-mapped STS usage at each node in a ring based on protection scheme and use of VT tunnels. In the Figure 9-14 example, the circuit travels west through Nodes 2, 3, and 4. Subsequently, VT-mapped STS usage at these nodes is greater than at Nodes 5 and 6.

Figure 9-14 A six-node ring with two VT1.5 tunnels

Table 9-8 VT1.5-Mapped STS Use in Figure 6-6

Node
VT Tunnel (BLSR)
VT Tunnel (UPSR, 1+1)
No VT Tunnel (BLSR)
No VT Tunnel (UPSR)
No VT Tunnel (1+1)

1

4

6

4

6

3

2

0

0

4

2

4

3

2

3

4

3

5

4

2

3

2

3

3

5

0

0

0

2

0

6

0

0

0

2

0


When planning VT1.5 circuits, weigh the benefits of using tunnels with the need to maximize STS capacity. For example, a VT1.5 tunnel between Node 1 and Node 4 passing (transparently) through Nodes 2 and Node 3 is advantageous if a full STS is used for Node 1 - Node 4 VT1.5 traffic (that is, the number of VT1.5 circuits between these nodes is close to 28). A VT tunnel is required if:

Node 2 or Node 3 have XC cards, or

All VT1.5-mappable STSs at Node 2 and Node 3 are in use.

However, if the Node 1 - Node 4 tunnel will carry only a few VT1.5 circuits, creating a regular VT1.5 circuit between Nodes 1, 2, 3, and 4 might maximize STS capacity.

When you create a VT1.5 circuit, CTC determines whether a tunnel already exists between source and drop nodes. If a tunnel exists, CTC checks the tunnel capacity. If the capacity is sufficient, CTC routes the circuit on the existing tunnel. If a tunnel does not exist, or if an existing tunnel does not have sufficient capacity, CTC displays a dialog box asking whether you want to create a tunnel. Before you create the tunnel, review the existing tunnel availability, keeping in mind future bandwidth needs. In some cases, you may want to manually route a circuit rather than create a new tunnel.

9.3 DCC Tunnels

SONET provides four data communications channels (DCCs) for network element operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning: one on the SONET Section layer (DCC1) and three on the SONET Line layer (DCC2, DCC3, DCC4). The ONS 15454 uses the Section DCC for ONS 15454 management and provisioning.

You can use the three Line DCCs and the Section DCC (when not used for ONS 15454 DCC terminations) to tunnel third-party SONET equipment across ONS 15454 networks. A DCC tunnel end-point is defined by Slot, Port, and DCC, where DCC can be either the Section DCC or one of the Line DCCs. You can link a Section DCC to an Line DCC, and a Line DCC to a Section DCC. You can also link Line DCCs to Line DCCs and link Section DCCs to Section DCCs. To create a DCC tunnel, you connect the tunnel end points from one ONS 15454 optical port to another.

Each ONS 15454 can support up to 32 DCC tunnel connections. Table 9-9 shows the DCC tunnels that you can create.

Table 9-9 DCC Tunnels

DCC
SONET
Layer
SONET
Bytes
OC-3
(all ports)
OC-12, OC-48, OC-192

DCC1

Section

D1 - D3

Yes

Yes

DCC2

Line

D4 - D6

No

Yes

DCC3

Line

D7 - D9

No

Yes

DCC4

Line

D10 - D12

No

Yes


Figure 9-15 shows a DCC tunnel example. Third-party equipment is connected to OC-3 cards at Node 1/Slot 3/Port 1 and Node 3/Slot 3/Port 1. Each ONS 15454 node is connected by OC-48 trunk cards. In the example, three tunnel connections are created, one at Node 1 (OC-3 to OC-48), one at Node 2 (OC-48 to OC-48), and one at Node 3 (OC-48 to OC-3).

Figure 9-15 A DCC tunnel

When you create DCC tunnels, keep the following guidelines in mind:

Each ONS 15454 can have up to 32 DCC tunnel connections.

Each ONS 15454 can have up to 10 Section DCC terminations.

A Section DCC that is terminated cannot be used as a DCC tunnel end-point.

An Section DCC that is used as an DCC tunnel end-point cannot be terminated.

All DCC tunnel connections are bidirectional.

9.4 Multiple Drops for Unidirectional Circuits

Unidirectional circuits can have multiple drops for use in broadcast circuit schemes. In broadcast scenarios, one source transmits traffic to multiple destinations, but traffic is not returned back to the source.

When you create a unidirectional circuit, the card that does not have its backplane Rx input terminated with a valid input signal generates a loss of service (LOS) alarm. To mask the alarm, create an alarm profile suppressing the LOS alarm and apply it to the port that does not have its Rx input terminated.

9.5 Monitor Circuits

You can set up secondary circuits to monitor traffic on primary bidirectional circuits. Figure 9-16 shows an example of a monitor circuit. At Node 1, a VT1.5 is dropped from Port 1 of an EC1-12 card. To monitor the VT1.5 traffic, test equipment is plugged into Port 2 of the EC1-12 card and a monitor circuit to Port 2 is provisioned in CTC. Circuit monitors are one-way. The monitor circuit in Figure 9-16 is used to monitor VT1.5 traffic received by Port 1 of the EC1-12 card.

Figure 9-16 A VT1.5 monitor circuit received at an EC1-12 port


Note Monitor circuits cannot be used with EtherSwitch circuits.


9.6 UPSR Circuits

Use the Edit Circuits window to change UPSR selectors and switch protection paths ( Figure 9-17). In this window, you can:

View the UPSR circuit's working and protection paths

Edit the reversion time

Edit the Signal Fail/Signal Degrade thresholds

Change PDI-P settings, perform maintenance switches on the circuit selector, and view switch counts for the selectors

Figure 9-17 Editing UPSR selectors

9.7 BLSR Protection Channel Circuits

You can provision circuits to carry traffic on BLSR protection channels when conditions are fault-free. Traffic routed on BLSR protection channels, called extra traffic, has lower priority than the traffic on the working channels and has no means for protection. During ring or span switches, protection channel circuits are preempted and squelched. For example, in a 2-fiber OC-48 BLSR, STSs 25-48 can carry extra traffic when no ring switches are active, but protection channel circuits on these STSs are preempted when a ring switch occurs. When the conditions that caused the ring switch are remedied and the ring switch removed, protection channel circuits are restored (assuming the BLSR is provisioned as revertive).

Provisioning traffic on BLSR protection channels is performed during circuit provisioning. The protection channel checkbox displays whenever Fully Protected Path is deselected on the circuit creation wizard. Refer to the Cisco ONS Procedure Guide for more information. When provisioning protection channel circuits, two considerations are important to keep in mind:

If BLSRs are provisioned as non-revertive, protection channel circuits will not be restored following a ring or span switch until the BLSR is manually switched.

Protection channel circuits will be routed on working channels when you upgrade a BLSR, either from a a 2-fiber to a 4-fiber, or from one optical speed to a higher one. For example, if you upgrade a 2-fiber OC-48 BLSR to an OC-192, STSs 25-48 on the OC-48 BLSR become working channels on the OC-192 BLSR.

9.8 Path Trace

The SONET J1 Path Trace is a repeated, fixed-length string comprised of 64 consecutive J1 bytes. You can use the string to monitor interruptions or changes to circuit traffic. Table 9-10 shows the ONS 15454 cards that support path trace. DS-1 and DS-3 cards can transmit and receive the J1 field, while the EC-1, OC-3, OC-48AS, and OC-192 can only receive it. Cards not listed in the table do not support the J1 byte.

Table 9-10 ONS 15454 Cards Capable of Path Trace

J1 Function
Cards

Transmit and Receive

DS1-14, DS1N-14,

DS3-12E, DS3N-12E, DS3XM-6,

G1000-4

Receive Only

EC1-12

OC3 IR 4 1310

OC12/STM4-4

OC48 IR/STM16 SH AS 1310, OC48 LR/STM16 LH AS 1550

OC192 LR/STM64 LH 1550


The J1 path trace transmits a repeated, fixed-length string. If the string received at a circuit drop port does not match the string the port expects to receive, an alarm is raised. Two path trace modes are available:

Automatic—The receiving port assumes the first J1 string it receives is the baseline J1 string.

Manual—The receiving port uses a string that you manually enter as the baseline J1 string.

9.9 Automatic Circuit Routing

If you select automatic routing during circuit creation, Cisco Transport Controller (CTC) routes the circuit by dividing the entire circuit route into segments based on protection domains. For unprotected segments of protected circuits, CTC finds an alternate route to protect the segment in a virtual UPSR fashion. Each path segment is a separate protection domain, and each protection domain is protected in a specific fashion (virtual UPSR, BLSR, or 1+1).

The following list provides principles and characteristics of automatic circuit routing:

Circuit routing tries to use the shortest path within the user-specified or network-specified constraints. VT tunnels are preferable for VT circuits because VT tunnels are considered shortcuts when CTC calculates a circuit path in path-protected mesh networks.

If you do not choose Fully Path Protected during circuit creation, circuits may still contain protected segments. Because circuit routing always selects the shortest path, one or more links and/or segments may have some protection. CTC does not look at link protection while computing a path for unprotected circuits.

Circuit routing will not use links that are down. If you want all links to be considered for routing, do not create circuits when a link is down.

Circuit routing computes the shortest path when you add a new drop to an existing circuit. It tries to find a shortest path from the new drop to any nodes on the existing circuit.

If the network has a mixture of VT-capable nodes and nodes that are not VT capable, depending on the route found, CTC will automatically force creation of a VT tunnel. Otherwise, CTC asks you whether a VT tunnel is needed.

9.9.1 Bandwidth Allocation and Routing

Within a given network, CTC will route circuits on the shortest possible path between source and destination based on the circuit attributes, such as protection and type. CTC will consider using a link for the circuit only if the link meets the following requirements:

The link has sufficient bandwidth to support the circuit

The link does not change the protection characteristics of the path

The link has the required time slots to enforce the same time slot restrictions for BLSR

If CTC cannot find a link that meets these requirements, it displays an error

The same logic applies to VT circuits on VT tunnels. Circuit routing typically favors VT tunnels because, based on topology maintained by circuit routing, VT tunnels are shortcuts between a given source and destination. If the VT tunnel in the route is full (no more bandwidth), CTC asks whether you want to create an additional VT tunnel.

9.9.2 Secondary Sources and Drops

CTC supports secondary sources and drops. Secondary sources and drops typically interconnect two "foreign" networks, as shown in Figure 9-18. Traffic is protected while it goes through a network of ONS 15454s.

Figure 9-18 Secondary sources and drops

Several rules apply to secondary sources and drops:

CTC does not allow a secondary destination for unidirectional circuits because you can always specify additional destinations (drops) after you create the circuit

Primary and secondary sources should be on the same node

Primary and secondary destinations should be on the same node

The sources and drops cannot be DS-3, DS3XM, or DS-1 based STS-1s or VTs

Secondary sources and destinations are permitted only for regular STS/VT connections (not for VT tunnels and multicard EtherSwitch circuits)

For point-to-point (straight) Ethernet circuits, only SONET STS endpoints can be specified as multiple sources or drops

For bidirectional circuits, CTC creates a UPSR connection at the source node that allows traffic to be selected from one of the two sources on the ONS 15454 network. If you check the Fully Path Protected option during circuit creation, traffic is protected within the ONS 15454 network. At the destination, another UPSR connection is created to bridge traffic from the ONS 15454 network to the two destinations. A similar but opposite path exists for the reverse traffic flowing from the destinations to the sources.

For unidirectional circuits, a UPSR drop-and-continue connection is created at the source node.

9.10 Manual Circuit Routing

Routing circuits manually allows you to:

Choose a specific path, not just the shortest path chosen by automatic routing

Choose a specific STS/VT on each link along the route

Create a shared packet ring for Multicard EtherSwitch circuits

Choose a protected path for Multicard EtherSwitch circuits, allowing virtual UPSR segments

CTC imposes the following rules on manual routes:

All circuits, except Multicard EtherSwitch circuits in a shared packet ring, should have links with a direction that flows from source to destination. This is true for Multicard EtherSwitch circuits that are not in a shared packet ring.

If you enabled Fully Path Protected, choose a diverse protect (alternate) path for every unprotected segment ( Figure 9-19).

Figure 9-19 Alternate paths for virtual UPSR segments

For Multicard EtherSwitch circuits, the Fully Path Protected option is ignored.

For a node that has a UPSR selector based on the links chosen, the input links to the UPSR selectors cannot be 1+1 or BLSR protected (see Figure 9-20). The same rule applies at the UPSR bridge.

Figure 9-20 Mixing 1+1 or BLSR protected links with a UPSR

Choose the links of Multicard EtherSwitch circuits in a shared packet ring to route from source to destination back to source (see Figure 9-21). Otherwise, a route (set of links) chosen with loops is invalid.

Figure 9-21 Ethernet shared packet ring routing

Multicard EtherSwitch circuits can have virtual UPSR segments if the source or destination is not in the UPSR domain. This restriction also applies after circuit creation; therefore, if you create a circuit with UPSR segments, Ethernet node drops cannot exist anywhere on the UPSR segment (see Figure 9-22).

Figure 9-22 Ethernet and UPSR

VT tunnels cannot be an endpoint of a UPSR segment. A UPSR segment endpoint is where the UPSR selector resides.

If Fully Path Protected is chosen, CTC verifies that the route selection is protected at all segments. A route can have multiple protection domains with each domain protected by a different mechanism.

The following tables summarize the available node connections. Any other combination is invalid and will generate an error.

Table 9-11 Bidirectional STS/VT/Regular Multicard EtherSwitch/Point-to-Point (straight) Ethernet Circuits 

# of Inbound Links
# of Outbound Links
# of Sources
# of Drops
Connection Type

-

2

1

-

UPSR

2

-

-

1

UPSR

2

1

-

-

UPSR

1

2

-

-

UPSR

1

-

-

2

UPSR

-

1

2

-

UPSR

2

2

-

-

Double UPSR

2

-

-

2

Double UPSR

-

2

2

-

Double UPSR

1

1

-

-

Two Way

0 or 1

0 or 1

Ethernet Node Source

-

Ethernet

0 or 1

0 or 1

-

Ethernet Node Drop

Ethernet


Table 9-12 Unidirectional STS/VT Circuit 

# of Inbound Links
# of Outbound Links
# of Sources
# of Drops
Connection Type

1

1

-

-

One way

1

2

-

-

UPSR Head End

-

2

1

-

UPSR Head End

2

-

-

1+

UPSR drop and continue


Table 9-13 Multicard Group Ethernet Shared Packet Ring Circuit

# of Inbound Links
# of Outbound Links
# of Sources
# of Drops
Connection Type
At intermediate nodes only

2

1

-

-

UPSR

1

2

-

-

UPSR

2

2

-

-

Double UPSR

1

1

-

-

Two way

At source or destination nodes only

1

1

-

-

Ethernet


Table 9-14 Bidirectional VT Tunnels 

# of Inbound Links
# of Outbound Links
# of Sources
# of Drops
Connection Type
At intermediate nodes only

2

1

-

-

UPSR

1

2

-

-

UPSR

2

2

-

-

Double UPSR

1

1

-

-

Two way

At source nodes only

-

1

-

-

VT tunnel end point

At destination nodes only

1

-

-

-

VT tunnel end point


Although virtual UPSR segments are possible in VT tunnels, VT tunnels are still considered unprotected. If you need to protect VT circuits either use two independent VT tunnels that are diversely routed or use a VT tunnel that is routed over only 1+1 or BLSR (or a mix) links.

9.11 Constraint-Based Circuit Routing

When you create circuits, you can choose Fully Protected Path to protect the circuit from source to destination. The protection mechanism used depends on the path CTC calculates for the circuit. If the network is comprised entirely of BLSR and/or 1+1 links, or the path between source and destination can be entirely protected using 1+1 and/or BLSR links, no PPMN (virtual UPSR) protection is used.

If virtual UPSR (PPMN) protection is needed to protect the path, set the level of node diversity for the PPMN portions of the complete path on the Circuit Creation dialog box:

Required—Ensures that the primary and alternate paths of each PPMN domain in the complete path have a diverse set of nodes.

Desired—CTC looks for a node diverse path; if a node diverse path is not available, CTC finds a link diverse path for each PPMN domain in the complete path.

Don't Care—Creates only a link diverse path for each PPMN domain

When you choose automatic circuit routing during circuit creation, you have the option to require and/or exclude nodes and links in the calculated route. You can use this option to:

Simplify manual routing, especially if the network is large and selecting every span is tedious. You can select a general route from source to destination and allow CTC to fill in the route details.

Balance network traffic; by default CTC chooses the shortest path, which can load traffic on certain links while other links are either free or less used. By selecting a required node and/or a link, you force the CTC to use (or not use) an element, resulting in more efficient use of network resources.

CTC considers required nodes and links to be an ordered set of elements. CTC treats the source nodes of every required link as required nodes. When CTC calculates the path, it makes sure the computed path traverses the required set of nodes and links and does not traverse excluded nodes and links.

The required nodes and links constraint is only used during the primary path computation and only for PPMN domains/segments. The alternate path is computed normally; CTC uses excluded nodes/links when finding all primary and alternate paths on PPMNs.