Cisco ONS 15454 Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide, Release 3.1
Chapter 2, General Troubleshooting

Table Of Contents

General Troubleshooting

2.1 Problem List

2.2 Network Tests

2.2.1 Network Test Types

2.2.2 Network Test Procedures

2.2.3 Using the DS3XM-6 Card FEAC (Loopback) Functions

2.3 CTC Operation and Connectivity

2.3.1 Browser Stalls When Downloading jar File From TCC+

2.3.2 Browser Cache Points to an Invalid Directory

2.3.3 Clear the CTC Cache File

2.3.4 Node Icon is Grey on CTC Network View

2.3.5 CTC Cannot Launch Due to Applet Security Restrictions

2.3.6 Java Runtime Environment Incompatible

2.3.7 Different CTC Releases Do Not Recognize Each Other

2.3.8 Username or Password Do Not Match

2.3.9 No IP Connectivity Exists Between Nodes

2.3.10 DCC Connection Lost

2.3.11 Browser Login Does not Launch Java

2.3.12 Verify PC Connection to ONS 15454 (ping)

2.3.13 Calculate and Design IP Subnets

2.3.14 Ethernet Connections

2.3.15 VLAN Cannot Connect to Network Device from Untag Port

2.4 Circuits and Timing

2.4.1 AIS-V on DS3XM-6 Unused VT Circuits

2.4.2 Circuit Creation Error with VT1.5 Circuit

2.4.3 Unable to Create Circuit From DS-3 Card to DS3XM-6 Card

2.4.4 DS3 Card Does Not Report AIS-P From External Equipment

2.4.5 OC-3 and DCC Limitations

2.4.6 ONS 15454 Switches Timing Reference

2.4.7 Holdover Synchronization Alarm

2.4.8 Free-Running Synchronization Mode

2.4.9 Daisy-Chained BITS Not Functioning

2.5 Fiber and Cabling

2.5.1 Bit Errors Appear for a Line Card

2.5.2 Faulty Fiber-Optic Connections

2.5.3 Create CAT-5 Cables

2.5.4 Optical Card Transmit and Receive Levels

2.6 Power and LED Tests

2.6.1 Power Supply Problems

2.6.2 Power Consumption for Node and Cards

2.6.3 Lamp Test for Card LEDs


General Troubleshooting


This chapter provides solutions for the most common problems encountered when operating a Cisco ONS 15454. To troubleshoot specific ONS 15454 alarms, use Chapter 1, "Alarm Troubleshooting." The Problem List is an alphabetized list of the chapter's procedures and their page numbers. The problem areas are grouped by topic; if you cannot find what you are looking for in this chapter or Chapter 1, "Alarm Troubleshooting," contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368.

2.1 Problem List

Table 2-1 Type of Problem and Solution Location 

Problem Area
Section or Procedure
Network Tests
 
 

Perform a Facility Loopback on a Source DS-N Card

 

Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node

 

Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node

 

Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card

 

Perform a Facility Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card

 

Using the DS3XM-6 Card FEAC (Loopback) Functions

CTC Operation and Connectivity
 
 

Browser Stalls When Downloading jar File From TCC+

 

Browser Cache Points to an Invalid Directory

 

Clear the CTC Cache File

 

Node Icon is Grey on CTC Network View

 

CTC Cannot Launch Due to Applet Security Restrictions

 

Java Runtime Environment Incompatible

 

Different CTC Releases Do Not Recognize Each Other

 

Username or Password Do Not Match

 

No IP Connectivity Exists Between Nodes

 

DCC Connection Lost

 

Browser Login Does not Launch Java

 

Verify PC Connection to ONS 15454 (ping)

 

Calculate and Design IP Subnets

 

Ethernet Connections

 

VLAN Cannot Connect to Network Device from Untag Port

Circuits and Timing
 
 

Circuit Creation Error with VT1.5 Circuit

 

Unable to Create Circuit From DS-3 Card to DS3XM-6 Card

 

DS3 Card Does Not Report AIS-P From External Equipment

 

OC-3 and DCC Limitations

 

VLAN Cannot Connect to Network Device from Untag Port

 

ONS 15454 Switches Timing Reference

 

Holdover Synchronization Alarm

 

Free-Running Synchronization Mode

 

Daisy-Chained BITS Not Functioning

Fiber and Cabling
 
 

Bit Errors Appear for a Line Card

 

Create CAT-5 Cables

 

Faulty Fiber-Optic Connections

 

Replace Faulty Gigabit Interface Converters

 

Optical Card Transmit and Receive Levels

Power and LED Tests
 
 

Power Supply Problems

 

Power Consumption for Node and Cards

 

Lamp Test for Card LEDs


2.2 Network Tests

Use loopbacks and hairpins to test newly-created circuits before adding live traffic or to logically isolate the source of a network failure. All ONS 15454 line (traffic) cards, except Ethernet cards, allow loopbacks and hairpins.

2.2.1 Network Test Types

Facility loopbacks test the line interface unit (LIU) of a card, the EIA (electrical interface assembly), and cabling. You put a facility loopback on a card and use a test set to run traffic over the loopback. A successful facility loopback eliminates the LIU of the card, the EIA, or cabling plant as the cause or potential cause of a network problem. Figure 2-1 shows a facility loopback on a DS-N card.

Figure 2-1 The facility loopback process on a DS-N card

Terminal loopbacks test a circuit path through the cross-connect card and as it loops back from the line card being tested. Figure 2-2 shows a terminal loopback set on an OC-N card. The test set traffic comes in on the DS-N card and goes through the cross-connect card to the OC-N card. The terminal loopback on the OC-N card turns the signal around before it reaches the LIU and sends it through the cross-connect card to the DS-N card. This test verifies that the cross-connect card and circuit paths are valid, but does not test the LIU on the OC-N card. To test the LIU on an OC-N card, connect an optical test set to the OC-N card ports and perform a facility loopback or use a loopback or hairpin on a card that is farther along the circuit path.

Figure 2-2 The terminal loopback process on an OC-N card

Hairpin circuits bring traffic in and out on a DS-N port instead of sending the traffic onto the OC-N. A hairpin loops back only the specific STS or VT circuit and does not cause an entire OC-N port to loop back, which would drop all traffic on the OC-N port. The hairpin allows you to test a circuit on nodes running live traffic.

Figure 2-3 The hairpin circuit process on an OC-N card

2.2.2 Network Test Procedures

Facility loopbacks, terminal loopbacks, and hairpin circuits are often used together to test the circuit path through the network or to logically isolate a fault. Performing a network test at each point along the circuit path systematically eliminates possible points of failure. This example tests a DS-N circuit on a two-node bidirectional line switched ring (BLSR). Using a series of facility loopbacks, terminal loopbacks, and hairpins, the path of the circuit is traced and the possible points of failure eliminated.

A logical progression of five network test procedures apply to this scenario: a facility loopback on the source node DS-N card, a hairpin on the source node DS-N card, a hairpin on the destination node OC-N card, a terminal loopback to the destination node DS-N card, and a facility loopback to the destination DS-N card.

Procedure: Perform a Facility Loopback on a Source DS-N Card

The first loopback test is a facility test performed on the first card in the circuit; in this example, the DS1-14 card in source node. Completing a successful facility loopback on this card eliminates the cabling, the DS-N card, and the EIA as possible failure points.

Figure 2-4 Facility loopback on a source DS-N card


Caution Performing a loopback on an in-service circuit is service affecting.


Note Loopbacks operate only on in-service ports.



Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop.

To perform a hard loop, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with a cable and send traffic across this loop to ensure that the test set works.

Step 2 Use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals of the test set to the EIA connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port. Set up the test set accordingly.

Step 3 In node view, double-click the card where you will perform the loopback.

Step 4 Click the Maintenance > Loopback tabs.

Step 5 On the Loopback subtab, select Facility (Line) from the Loopback Type column for the port being tested. If this is a multiport card, such as the OC3, make sure to select the appropriate row for the desired port.

Step 6 Click Apply.

Step 7 On the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.


Note It is normal for an alarm to appear during loopback setup. The alarm clears when you remove the loopback.


Step 8 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 9 Examine the traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 10 If the test set indicates a good circuit:

a. Clear the Facility Loopback:

On the Loopback subtab, select None from the Loopback Type column.

Click Apply.

b. Skip to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node" procedure.

Step 11 A faulty circuit signifies a problem with the DS-N card, the cabling from the DS-N card to the DSx panel, or the EIA. Test the DS-N cabling, the DS-N card, and then the EIA.

Step 12 To test the cabling:

a. Replace the suspect cabling (the cables from the test set to the EIA ports) with a known good cable.

b. If a known good cable is not available, test the suspect cable with a test set. Remove the suspect cable from the EIA and connect the cable to the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals of the test set. Run traffic to determine whether the cable is good or suspect.

c. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good cable installed.

d. If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective cable. Replace this cable and skip to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" procedure.

Step 13 To test the card:

a. Replace the suspect card with a known good card.

b. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good card.

c. If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective card. Replace the suspect card and skip to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" procedure.

d. Return the defective card to Cisco through the returned materials authorization (RMA) process. Call the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

Step 14 If the loopback test fails with a known good cable and a known good card, then the EIA is suspect. The EIA may not be seated properly; for example, screws may be loose or missing. Remove and reinstall the EIA to ensure a proper seating.

a. Remove the lower backplane cover, loosen the five screws that secure it to the ONS 15454 and pull it away from the shelf assembly.

b. Loosen the nine perimeter screws that hold the backplane sheet metal cover(s) in place.

c. Lift the EIA panel by the bottom to remove it from the shelf assembly.

d. Follow the installation procedure for the appropriate EIA. Refer to the "EIA Replacement Procedures" section on page 3-32.

Step 15 Repeat the facility loopback test for the DS-N card. If the test fails with the reinstalled EIA, call the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case for the EIA.

Step 16 Replace the EIA with a new EIA.

Step 17 Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with known good cabling, a known good card, and the replacement EIA.

Step 18 If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective EIA. Skip to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node" procedure.

Step 19 Clear any loopback before testing the next segment of the circuit path.


Procedure: Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card

This test is a terminal loopback performed on the fourth line card in the circuit; in the following example the DS-N card in the destination node. First create a bidirectional circuit that starts on the source node DS-N port and terminates on the destination node DS-N port, then proceed with the terminal loopback test. Completing a successful terminal loopback to a destination node DS-N card verifies that the circuit is good up to the destination DS-N.

Figure 2-5 Terminal loopback on a destination DS-N card


Caution Performing a loopback on an in-service circuit is service affecting.


Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop if you have not already done so.

To perform a hard loop, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with an appropriate cable and send traffic across the loop to ensure the test set works.

Step 2 If you are starting the current procedure with the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card in the source node, leave the test set hooked up.

Step 3 If you are starting the current procedure without the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card in the source node, use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals to the EIA connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) cables connect to the same port. Set up the test set accordingly.

Step 4 Click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

Step 5 Give the circuit an easily-identifiable name, such as DSNtoDSN.

Step 6 Set Circuit Type and Size to your normal preferences.

Step 7 Leave the Bidirectional check box checked and click Next.

Step 8 In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the same card and port where you performed the first loopback test (the DS-N card in the source node).

Step 9 Click Next.

Step 10 In the Circuit Destination dialog box, use the DS-N card and port in the destination node.

Step 11 Click Finish.

Step 12 Confirm that the newly created circuit appears on a Circuits screen row with a direction column that shows a 2-way circuit.

Step 13 In node view, double-click the card that requires the loopback. In this example, the DS-N card in the destination node.

Step 14 Click the Maintenance > Loopback tabs.

Step 15 On the Loopback subtab, select Terminal (Inward) from the Loopback Type column. If this is a multiport card, such as the OC3 IR 4 1310, make sure to select the row appropriate for the desired port.

Step 16 Click Apply.

Step 17 On the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.


Note Loopbacks operate only on in-service ports.



Note It is normal for an alarm to appear during a loopback setup. The alarm clears when you remove the loopback.


Step 18 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 19 Examine the test traffic being received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 20 If the test set indicates a good circuit, proceed to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node" procedure.

Step 21 If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality, then test the DS-N card.

a. Replace the suspect card with a known good card.

b. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good card.

c. If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective card. Replace the suspect card and return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.


Procedure: Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node

The second loopback test is a hairpin circuit performed on the first cross-connect card in the circuit. A hairpin circuit uses the same port for both source and destination. Completing a successful hairpin through this card eliminates the possibility that the source cross-connect card is the cause of the faulty circuit.

Figure 2-6 Hairpin on a source node


Note The ONS 15454 does not support simplex operation on the cross-connect card. Two cross-connect cards of the same type must be installed for each node.



Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop if you have not already done so.

To perform a hard loop, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with a cable and send traffic across this loop to make the test set work.

Step 2 If you just completed the "Perform a Facility Loopback on a Source DS-N Card" procedure, leave the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card.

Step 3 If you are starting the current procedure without the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card, use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals to the EIA connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port. Set up the test set accordingly.

Step 4 Click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

Step 5 Give the circuit an easily-identifiable name, such as hairpin1.

Step 6 Set the Circuit Type and Size to your normal preferences.

Step 7 Uncheck the Bidirectional check box and click Next.

Step 8 In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the same card and port where you performed the first loopback test. The DS-N card in the source node.

Step 9 Click Next.

Step 10 In the Circuit Destination dialog box, use the same card and port used for the source information.

Step 11 Click Finish.

Step 12 Confirm that the newly-created circuit appears with a direction column noting that this circuit is 1-way.

Step 13 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 14 Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 15 If the test set indicates a good circuit, skip to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node" procedure.

Step 16 If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality, there may be a problem with the cross-connect card.


Caution Cross-connect manual switches (side switches) are service-affecting. Any live traffic on any card in the node endures a hit of up to 50 ms.

Step 17 Perform a software reset on the standby cross-connect card:

a. Determine the standby cross-connect card. On both the physical node and the CTC screen, the ACT/STBY LED of the standby cross-connect card is amber, and the ACT/STBY LED of the active cross-connect card is green.

b. Position the cursor over the standby cross-connect card.

c. Right-click to choose RESET CARD.

Step 18 Do a manual switch (side switch) of the cross-connect cards before retesting the circuit:

a. Determine the standby cross-connect card. The ACT/STBY LED of the standby cross-connect card is amber, and the ACT/STBY LED of the active cross-connect card is green.


Note Place the cursor on top of the card graphic to display a dialog. This display identifies the card as XC: Active or XC: Standby.


b. In the node view, select the Maintenance > XC Cards tabs.

c. From the Cross Connect Cards menu, choose Switch.

d. Click Yes on the Confirm Switch dialog box.


Note After the active cross-connect goes into standby, the original standby slot becomes active. This causes the ACT/STBY LED to become green on the former standby card.


Step 19 Retest the circuit:

a. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

The test set traffic now travels through the alternate cross-connect card.

b. Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

c. If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, assume the cross-connect card is not causing the problem. Proceed to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node" procedure.

Step 20 If the circuit is now good, the problem could be a defective card. To confirm a defective original cross-connect card:

a. Redo the manual switch (side switch) procedure to make the original active cross-connect card again the active card.

b. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

c. If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

Step 21 If the circuit is now good, the cross-connect card may have had a temporary problem that was cleared by the side switch.

Step 22 Replace the defective cross-connect card.

Step 23 Click the Circuits tab.

Step 24 Highlight the newly-created hairpin circuit and click Delete.

Step 25 Proceed to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node" procedure.


Procedure: Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node

The third test is a hairpin circuit on the cross-connect card in the destination node. To perform this test, you must also create a bidirectional circuit from the source DS-N card to the source OC-N node in the transmit direction. Creating the bidirectional circuit and completing a successful hairpin eliminates the possibility that the source and destination OC-N cards, the source and destination cross-connect card, or the fiber span is responsible for the faulty circuit.

Figure 2-7 Hairpin on a destination node


Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop if you have not done so.


Note To perform a hard loop, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with an appropriate cable and send traffic across this loop to ensure the test set works.


Step 2 If you are starting the current procedure with the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card, leave the test set hooked up.

Step 3 If you are starting the current procedure without the electrical test set hooked up to the DS-N card, use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals to the EIA connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port. Set up the test set accordingly.

Step 4 To create the first circuit, click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

Step 5 Give the circuit an easily-identifiable name, such as bidirectional1.

Step 6 Select the appropriate circuit type, VT or STS-1.

Step 7 Leave the Bidirectional check box checked and click Next.

Step 8 In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the same card and port where you performed the first loopback test (the DS-N card in the source node).

Step 9 Click Next.

Step 10 In the Circuit Destination dialog box, use the source node OC-N card and port.

Step 11 Click Next and Finish.

Step 12 Confirm that the newly-created circuit appears with a direction column showing a 2-way circuit.

Step 13 Log into the destination node.

Step 14 For the second circuit, click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

Step 15 Give the circuit an easily-identifiable name, such as hairpin2.

Step 16 Set Circuit Type and Size to your normal preferences.

Step 17 Uncheck the Bidirectional check box and click Next.

Step 18 In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the destination OC-N card and port.

The OC-N card must be the other end of the fiber span originating from the OC-N card in Step 10. For example in a typical east-to-west slot configuration, a slot 6 OC-N card on the source node is one end of the fiber span, and the slot 12 OC-N card on the destination node is the other end. Figure 2-7 illustrates the slot to fiber span relationship.

Step 19 Click Next.

Step 20 In the Circuit Destination dialog box, use the same card and port from the Circuit Source dialog box.

Step 21 Click Finish.

Step 22 Confirm that the second newly-created circuit appears with a direction column noting a 1-way circuit.

Step 23 Double-click the circuit to display the network view.

Step 24 Verify that the circuits connect to the correct slots. For example, source node/Slot 6 (east slot) to destination node/Slot 12(west slot). If two east or two west slots are connected, the circuit will not work. Except for the distinct slots, all other circuit information, such as ports, should be identical.

Step 25 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 26 Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information indicated by the test set.

Step 27 If the test set indicates a good circuit, skip to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" procedure.

Step 28 If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality, a problem may exist with the destination cross-connect card, the source or destination OC-N card, or the fiber span. Test the destination cross-connect card, then the OC-N cards, and then test the fiber span.


Caution Cross-connect manual switches (side switches) are service-affecting. Any live traffic on any card in the node will endure a hit of up to 50 ms.

Step 29 Perform a software reset on the standby cross-connect card:

a. Determine the standby cross-connect card. On both the physical node and the CTC screen, the ACT/STBY LED of the standby cross-connect card is amber, and the ACT/STBY LED of the active cross-connect card is green.

b. Position the cursor over the standby cross-connect card.

c. Right-click to choose RESET CARD.

Step 30 Do a manual switch (side switch) of the cross-connect cards before retesting the circuit:

a. In the node view, select the Maintenance > XC Cards tabs.

b. From the Cross Connect Cards menu, choose Switch.

c. Click Yes on the Confirm Switch dialog box.


Note After the active cross-connect goes into standby, the original standby slot becomes active. This causes the ACT/STBY LED to become green on the former standby card.


Step 31 Retest the circuit:

a. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

The test set traffic routes through the alternate cross-connect card.

b. Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

c. If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, assume the cross-connect card is not causing the problem. Skip to Step k of this procedure.

Step 32 If the circuit is now good, the problem could be a defective card. To confirm a defective original cross-connect card:

a. Redo the manual switch (side switch) procedure to make the original active cross-connect card again the active card.

b. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

c. If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

d. Replace the defective cross-connect card.

If the circuit is now good, the cross-connect card may have had a temporary problem that was cleared by the side switch.

Step 33 Click the Circuits tab.

Step 34 Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

The test set traffic routes through the alternate cross-connect card rather than the original cross-connect card.

Step 35 Examine the received test set traffic. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 36 If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, assume the problem does not lie in a faulty cross-connect card and skip to Step 39 of this procedure.

Step 37 If the circuit is now good, the problem could be a defective card. To confirm a defective alternate cross-connect card:

a. Repeat the manual switch (side switch) procedure to make the original active cross-connect card again the active card.

b. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

c. If the signal received by the test set is still faulty or non-existent, return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

d. Replace the defective cross-connect card.

e. If the circuit is now good, the cross-connect card may have had a temporary problem that is now cleared by the side switch.

Step 38 Click Apply and click the Circuits tab.

Step 39 To eliminate the possibility of faulty OC-N cards:

a. Replace the suspect source OC-N card with a known good card.

b. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good card.

c. If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective card. Return the defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

d. Repeat steps a - b for the suspect destination OC-N card.

e. If the circuit is now good, skip to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" procedure.

If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality and the OC-N card is a known good card, then the fiber span is suspect.

Step 40 To test a suspect fiber span, see the "Faulty Fiber-Optic Connections" section and return to Step 41.

Step 41 If you now have a valid fiber span, resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 42 Examine the test traffic being received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 43 If you do not have a valid test signal or a valid fiber span, try to obtain access to another known good span, hook the source and destination OC-N cards to the known good span, and resend the test signal.

Step 44 If you do not have a valid signal with a known good span, valid OC-N cards, and a valid cross-connect card, repeat the "Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node" procedure to try and determine the problem, or call the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 and explain the situation.

Step 45 If you have a valid test signal with the known good span, replace or fix the original fiber span to obtain a valid circuit. Next go to "Perform a Hairpin on a Destination Node" procedure.

Step 46 Highlight the newly-created hairpin circuit.

Step 47 Click Delete.

Step 48 Proceed to the "Perform a Facility Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card" procedure.


Procedure: Perform a Facility Loopback on a Destination DS-N Card

The final test is a facility loopback performed on the last card in the circuit; in this case the DS-N card in the destination node. Completing a successful facility loopback on this card eliminates the possibility that the destination node cabling, DS-N card, LIU, or EIA is responsible for a faulty circuit.

Figure 2-8 Facility loopback on a destination DS-N card


Caution Performing a loopback on an in-service circuit is allowed but is service affecting.


Note Loopbacks operate only on in-service ports.



Step 1 Test the test set with a hard loop if you have not already done so.

To perform a hard loop on the test set, bridge the test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals with an appropriate cable and send traffic across this loop to make sure the test set works properly.

Step 2 Use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals to the EIA connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port. Set up your test set accordingly.

Step 3 In node view, double-click the card where you will perform the loopback.

Step 4 Click the Maintenance > Loopback tabs.


Note Loopbacks operate only on in-service ports.


Step 5 On the Loopback subtab, select Facility (Line) from the Loopback Type column for the port being tested. If this is a multiport OC-N card, such as the OC3 IR 4 1310, make sure to select the row appropriate for the desired port.

Step 6 Click Apply.

Step 7 On the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.


Note It is normal for an alarm to appear during loopback. The alarm clears when you remove the loopback.


Step 8 If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test set traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 9 Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 10 If the test set indicates a clean circuit:

a. Clear the facility loopback:

On the Loopback subtab, select None from the Loopback Type column.

Click Apply.

b. The entire DS-N circuit path has now passed its comprehensive series of loopback tests. This circuit qualifies to carry live traffic.

Step 11 If the test traffic is not received or is poor quality, there is a problem with the DS-N card, the cabling from the DS-N card, or the EIA. Test the DS-N cabling first, the DS-N card next, and the EIA last.

Step 12 To test the cabling:

a. Replace the suspect cabling (the cables from the test set to the EIA ports) with a known good cable.

b. If a known good cable is not available, you can test the suspect cable with a test set. Remove the suspect cable from the EIA and connect the cable to the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals of the test set. Run traffic to determine whether this is a good cable.

c. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good cable installed.

d. If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective cable. Replace this cable.

e. Skip to Step 18.

Step 13 To test the card:

a. Replace the suspect card with a known good card.

b. Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with a known good card.

c. If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective card. Replace the defective card.

d. Return your defective card to Cisco. Call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case.

Step 14 If the loopback test fails with a known good cable and a known good card, then the EIA is suspect. The EIA may not be seated properly, for example, screws may be loose or missing. Remove and reinstall the EIA to ensure a proper seating.

a. Remove the lower backplane cover, loosen the five screws that secure it to the ONS 15454 and pull it away from the shelf assembly.

b. Loosen the nine perimeter screws that hold the backplane sheet metal cover(s) in place.

c. Lift the EIA panel by the bottom to remove it from the shelf assembly.

d. Follow the installation procedure for the appropriate EIA. Refer to the "EIA Replacement Procedures" section on page 3-32.

Step 15 Repeat the facility loopback test for the DS-N card. If the test fails with the reinstalled EIA, call the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 to open an RMA case for the EIA.

Step 16 Replace the EIA.

Step 17 Resend test set traffic on the loopback circuit with known good cabling, a known good card, and the replacement EIA. If the circuit is now good, the problem was probably the defective EIA.

Step 18 The entire DS-N circuit path has now passed its comprehensive series of loopback tests. This circuit qualifies to carry live traffic.


2.2.3 Using the DS3XM-6 Card FEAC (Loopback) Functions

The DS3XM-6 card supports FEAC (Far End Action Code) features that are not available on basic DS-3 cards. Click the Maintenance tab at the DS3XM-6 card-level view to reveal the two additional DS3XM-6 columns. Figure 2-9 shows the DS3 subtab and the additional Send Code and Inhibit Lbk columns.

Figure 2-9 Accessing FEAC functions on the DS3XM-6 card

The far end in FEAC refers to the piece of equipment that is connected to the DS3XM-6 card and not the far end of a circuit. In Figure 2-10 below, if a DS3XM-6 (near-end) port is configured to send a Line Loop Code, the code will be sent to the connected test set, not the DS3XM-6 (far-end) port.

Figure 2-10 Diagram of far end action code

2.2.3.1 FEAC Send Code

The Send Code column on the maintenance tab of a DS3XM-6 port only applies to In-Service ports configured for CBIT framing. The column lets a user select No Code (the default) or Line Loop Code. Selecting Line Loop Code inserts a line loop activate FEAC (Far End Action Code) in the CBIT overhead transmitting to the connected facility. This code initiates a loopback from the facility to the ONS 15454. Selecting No Code sends a line loop deactivate FEAC code to the connected equipment, which will remove the loopback. You can also insert a FEAC for the 28 individual DS-1 circuits transmuxed into a DS-3 circuit.

2.2.3.2 FEAC Inhibit Loopback

The DS3XM-6 ports and transmuxed DS-1s initiate loopbacks when they receive FEAC Line Loop codes. If the Inhibit Loopback checkbox is checked for a DS-3 port, then that port will ignore any received FEAC Line Loop codes and will not loop back. The port can still be put into loopback manually using the Loopback Type column even if the Inhibit Loopback box is selected. Only DS-3 ports can be configured to inhibit responding to FEAC loopback commands, individual DS-1 ports cannot.

2.2.3.3 FEAC Alarms

A LPBKDS3FEAC-CMD or LPBKDS1FEAC-CMD alarm on the ONS 15454 port if a DS-3 or DS-1 FEAC loopback code has been sent to the far end.

If the ONS 15454 port is in loopback from having received a loopback activate FEAC code, a LPBKDS3FEAC or LPBKDS1FEAC alarm occurs. The alarm will clear when a loopback deactivate FEAC command is received on that port.

A DS3E card will respond to, and can inhibit, received FEAC DS3 level loopback codes. A DS3E card cannot be configured to send FEAC codes.

2.3 CTC Operation and Connectivity

This section contains troubleshooting procedures for CTC log-in or operation errors and PC and network connectivity. For a list of the procedures in this section, see Table 2-1.

2.3.1 Browser Stalls When Downloading jar File From TCC+

If the browser stalls or hangs when downloading a jar file from the TCC+ card, VirusScan software may be interfering with the operation. The problem occurs when the VirusScan Download Scan is enabled on McAfee VirusScan 4.5 or later. To correct the problem, disable the Download Scan feature.

Procedure: Disable the VirusScan Download Scan


Step 1 From the Windows start menu, select Programs > Network Associates > VirusScan Console.

Step 2 Double-click the VShield icon listed in the VirusScan Console dialog box.

Step 3 Click the Configure button on the lower part of the Task Properties window.

Step 4 Click the Download Scan icon on the left of the System Scan Properties dialog box.

Step 5 Uncheck the Enable Internet download scanning box.

Step 6 Click Yes when the warning message appears.

Step 7 Click OK on the System Scan Properties dialog box.

Step 8 Click OK on the Task Properties window.

Step 9 Close the McAfee VirusScan window.


2.3.2 Browser Cache Points to an Invalid Directory

When the Netscape cache points to an invalid directory, CTC does not launch. Usually an error message appears before the purple login screen displays.

Procedure: Redirect the Netscape Cache to a Valid Directory


Step 1 Launch Netscape.

Step 2 Display the Edit menu.

Step 3 Select Preferences.

Step 4 Under the Category column on the left-hand side, go to Advanced and select the Cache tab.

Step 5 Change your Disk Cache folder to point to the cache file location.

The cache file location is usually C:\ProgramFiles\Netscape\Users\<yourname>\cache. The <yourname> segment of the file location is often the same as your e-mail username, but you can select any other valid location on the hard drive.


2.3.3 Clear the CTC Cache File

If you experience sluggish CTC operation or have problems logging into CTC, clearing the CTC cache file often helps solve these and other problems. This operation forces the ONS 15454 to download a new set of jar files to your computer hard drive.

You can delete the cache automatically with the Delete CTC Cache button or delete them manually. For CTC releases prior to 2.2, automatic deletion is unavailable.

Procedure: Delete the CTC Cache File Automatically


Step 1 Enter an ONS 15454 IP address into the browser URL field. The initial browser window shows a Delete CTC Cache button.

Step 2 Close all open CTC sessions. The PC operating system will not allow you to delete files that are in use.

Step 3 Click the Delete CTC Cache button on the initial browser window to clear the CTC cache.

Figure 2-11 Deleting the CTC cache


Procedure: Delete the CTC Cache File Manually


Step 1 To delete the jar files manually, from the Windows start menu select Find > Files and Folders.

Step 2 Enter *.jar in the Named field on the Find dialog box and click Find Now.

Step 3 Click the Modified column on the Find dialog box to find the jar files that match the date when you downloaded the files from the TCC+.

Step 4 Highlight the files and press the keyboard Delete key.

Step 5 Click Yes at the Confirm dialog box.


2.3.4 Node Icon is Grey on CTC Network View

Occasionally, the CTC network view shows one or more node icons as grey in color and without a node name. This can be caused by different CTC releases not recognizing each other, the username/password on the gray nodes not matching, no IP connectivity existing between nodes, or a lost DCC connection.

2.3.5 CTC Cannot Launch Due to Applet Security Restrictions

If the error message "Unable to launch CTC due to applet security restrictions" appears after you enter the IP address in the browser window:


Step 1 Verify that you have executed the javapolicyinstall.bat file on the ONS 15454 software CD. This file is installed when you run the CTC Setup Wizard (see the software installation information in the Cisco ONS 15454 Installation and Operations Guide for instructions).

Step 2 If you ran the BAT file but still receive the error message, you must manually edit the java.policy file on your computer. Search your computer for this file and open it with a text editor (Notepad or Wordpad). Verify that the end of this file has the following lines:

		// Insert this into the system-wide or a per-user java.policy file.
	// DO NOT OVERWRITE THE SYSTEM-WIDE POLICY FILE--ADD THESE LINES!

	grant codeBase "http://*/fs/LAUNCHER.jar" {
permission java.security.AllPermission;
	};

Step 3 If these five lines are not in the file, enter them manually.

Step 4 Save the file and re-start Netscape.

CTC should now start correctly.

Step 5 If the error message is still reported, save the java.policy file as .java.policy. On Win95/98/2000 PCs, save the file to the C:\Windows folder. On WinNT4.0 PCs, save the file to all of the user folders on that PC, for example, C:\Winnt\profiles\joeuser.


2.3.6 Java Runtime Environment Incompatible

The Java® 2 Runtime Environment (JRE) contains the Java virtual machine, runtime class libraries, and Java application launcher that are necessary to run programs written in the Java programming language.

The ONS 15454 CTC is a Java application. A Java application, unlike an applet, cannot rely completely on a web browser for installation and runtime services. When you run an application written in the Java programming language, you need the correct JRE installed. The correct JRE for each CTC software release is included on the Cisco ONS 15454 software CD and on the Cisco ONS 15454 documentation CD.

If you are running multiple CTC software releases on a network, the JRE installed on the computer must be compatible with the different software releases. Table 2-2 shows JRE compatibility with ONS software releases.

Table 2-2 JRE Compatibility 

ONS Software Release
JRE 1.2.2 Compatible
JRE 1.3 Compatible

ONS 15327 Release 1.0

Yes

No

ONS 15454 Release 2.2.1 and earlier

Yes

No

ONS 15454 Release 2.2.2

Yes

Yes

ONS 15454 Release 3.0

Yes

Yes

ONS 15454 Release 3.1

Yes

Yes


2.3.7 Different CTC Releases Do Not Recognize Each Other

This situation is often accompanied by the INCOMPATIBLE-SW alarm. The software loaded on the connecting workstation and the software on the TCC+ card are incompatible. This occurs when the TCC+ software is upgraded but the PC has not yet upgraded the compatible CTC jar file. It also occurs on log-in nodes with compatible software that encounter other nodes in the network that have a newer software version.


Note Remember to always log into the ONS node with the latest CTC core version first. If you initially log into an ONS node running a CTC core version of 2.2 or lower and then attempt to log into another ONS node in the network running a higher CTC core version, the lower version node will not recognize the new node.


Procedure: Launch CTC to Correct the Core Version Build


Step 1 Exit the current CTC session and completely close the browser.

Step 2 Start the browser.

Step 3 Type the ONS 15454 IP address of the node that reported the alarm. This can be the original IP address you logged on with or an IP address other than the original.

Step 4 Log into CTC. The browser will download the jar file from CTC.


Note After Release 2.2.2, the single CMS .jar file evolved into core and element files. Core files are common to both the ONS 15454 and ONS 15327, while the element files are unique to the particular product. For example, the ONS 15327 Release 1.0 uses a 2.3 core build and a 1.0 element build. To display the CTC Core Version number, from the CTC menu bar click Help > About CTC. This lists the Core and Element builds discovered on the network.



2.3.8 Username or Password Do Not Match

A mismatch often occurs concurrently with a NOT-AUTHENTICATED alarm. The username or password entered do not match the information stored in the TCC+. All ONS nodes must have the same username and password created to display every ONS node in the network. You can also be locked out of certain ONS nodes on a network if your username and password were not created on those specific ONS nodes.

For initial logon to the ONS 15454, type the CISCO15 user name in capital letters and click Login (no password is required). If you are using a CTC software release prior to 3.0 and CISCO15 does not work, type cerent454 for the user name.

Procedure: Verify Correct Username and Password


Step 1 Ensure that your keyboard Caps Lock is not turned on and affecting the case-sensitive entry of the username and password.

Step 2 Contact your system administrator to verify the username and password.

Step 3 Call Cisco TAC at 1-877-323-7368 to have them enter your system and create a new user name and password.


2.3.9 No IP Connectivity Exists Between Nodes

See the "Ethernet Connections" section.

2.3.10 DCC Connection Lost

See the "EOC" section on page 1-28.

2.3.11 Browser Login Does not Launch Java

If the message "Loading Java Applet" does not appear and the JRE does not launch during the initial login, you must reconfigure the PC operating system and the browser.


Step 1 From the Windows start menu, click Programs > Java Plug-in Control Panel.

Step 2 If Java Plug-in Control Panel does not appear, the JRE may not be installed on your PC.

a. Run the Cisco ONS 15454 software CD.

b. Open the CD:\Windows\jrel1.2.2_05 folder.

c. Double-click the jre-1_2_2_005-win icon to run the JRE installation wizard.

d. Follow the JRE installation wizard steps.

Step 3 Click Advanced on the Java Plug-in Control Panel.

Step 4 From the Java Run Time Environment menu, select JRE 1.2 in C:\ProgramFiles\JavaSoft\JRE\1.2.

Step 5 Click Apply.

Step 6 On Netscape Navigator, click Edit > Preferences.

Step 7 Click Advanced > Proxies > Direct connection to the Internet > OK.

Step 8 Again on Netscape Navigator, click Edit > Preferences.

Step 9 Click Advanced > Cache.

Step 10 Confirm that the Disk Cache Folder field shows C:\ProgramFiles\Netscape\Communicator\cache for Windows 95/98/ME

or C:\ProgramFiles\Netscape\<username>\Communicator\cache for Windows NT/2000.

Step 11 If the Disk Cache Folder field is not correct, click Choose Folder.

Step 12 Navigate to the file listed in Step 10 and click OK.

Step 13 Click OK on the Preferences window and exit the browser.

Step 14 Temporarily disable any virus scanning software on the computer. Refer to "Browser Stalls When Downloading jar File From TCC+" section.

Step 15 Verify that the computer does not have two NIC cards installed. If the computer does have two NIC cards, remove one.

Step 16 Restart the browser and log into the ONS 15454.


2.3.12 Verify PC Connection to ONS 15454 (ping)

Use a standard ping command to verify the TCP/IP connection between the PC and the ONS 15454 TCC+ card. A ping command will work if the PC connects directly to the TCC+ card or uses a LAN to access the TCC+ card. If the TCP/IP connection was established and then lost, a DISCONNECTED alarm will appear on CTC.


Note Software Release 3.0 requires the TCC+ card and does not support the TCC card. Releases 2.2, 2.2.1, and 2.2.2 support the TCC and the TCC+ cards.


Procedure: Ping the ONS 15454


Step 1 Display the command prompt:

If you are using a Microsoft Windows operating system, from the Start Menu choose Programs > Command Prompt.

If you are using a Sun Solaris operating system, from the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) click the Personal Application tab and click Terminal.

Step 2 For both the Sun and Microsoft operating systems, at the prompt type:

ping [ONS 15454 IP address]  
For example, ping 192.1.0.2.

Step 3 If the workstation has connectivity to the ONS 15454, the ping is successful and displays a reply from the IP address. If the workstation does not have connectivity, a "Request timed out" message displays.

Step 4 If the ping is successful, an active TCP/IP connection exists. Restart CTC.


2.3.13 Calculate and Design IP Subnets

Cisco provides a free online tool to calculate and design IP subnets. Go to http://www.cisco.com/techtools/ip_addr.html. For information about ONS 15454 IP capability, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 Installation and Operations Guide.

2.3.14 Ethernet Connections

You can fix most connectivity problems in an Ethernet network by following a few guidelines. See Figure 2-12 when consulting the steps in the following procedure.

Figure 2-12 Ethernet connectivity reference

Procedure: Verify Ethernet Connections


Step 1 Check for SONET alarms on the STS-N that carries the VLAN #1 Ethernet circuit. Clear any alarms by looking them up in the "Alarm Troubleshooting" chapter.

Step 2 Check for Ethernet-specific alarms. Clear any present alarms by looking up that alarm in the "Alarm Troubleshooting" chapter.

Step 3 Verify that the ACT LED on the Ethernet card is green.

Step 4 Verify that Ports 1 and 3 on ONS 15454 #1 and Ports 1 and 2 on ONS 15454 #2 have green link-integrity LEDs.

Step 5 If no green link-integrity LED exists for any of these ports:

a. Verify physical connectivity between the ONS 15454s and the attached device.

b. Verify that the ports are enabled on the Ethernet cards.

c. Verify that you are using the proper Ethernet cable and that it is wired correctly, or replace the cable with a reliable straight-through Ethernet cable.

d. Check the Status LED on the Ethernet card faceplate to ensure the card booted up properly. This LED should be steady green. If necessary, remove and reinsert the card and allow it to reboot.

e. It is possible that the Ethernet port is functioning properly but the LNK LED itself is broken. Run the procedure in the "Lamp Test for Card LEDs" section.

Step 6 Verify connectivity between device A and device C by pinging between these locally-attached devices (see the "Verify PC Connection to ONS 15454 (ping)" section). If the ping is unsuccessful:

a. Verify that device A and device C are on the same IP subnet.

b. At the card view in CTC, display the Ethernet card and click the Provisioning > VLAN tabs to verify that both Port 1 and Port 3 on the card are assigned to the same VLAN.

c. If a port is not assigned to the correct VLAN, click that port column in the VLAN row and set the port to Tagged or Untag. Click Apply.

Step 7 Repeat Step 6 for devices B and D.

Step 8 Verify that the Ethernet circuit that carries VLAN #1 is provisioned and that ONS 15454 #1 and ONS 15454 #2 are included in circuit VLAN #1.


2.3.15 VLAN Cannot Connect to Network Device from Untag Port

Networks that have a VLAN with one ONS 15454 Ethernet card port set to Tagged and one ONS 15454 Ethernet card set to Untag may have difficulty implementing Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for a network device attached to the Untag port. They may also see a higher than normal runt packets count at the network device attached to the Untag port.

This implementation problem occurs because the port of the ONS 15454 Ethernet card that is set to Tagged adds the 802.1Q tag, which is four bytes long, to a 60-byte packet and sends the packet to the ONS 15454 with the Ethernet card port set to Untag. The second ONS 15454 removes the 4-byte 802.1 Q-tag and does not stuff the packet with four replacement bytes. This 64-byte packet drops in size to 60 bytes, which makes it a runt or illegal Ethernet packet. The NIC of the network device categorizes the packet as a runt and drops the packet.

Figure 2-13 A VLAN with Ethernet ports at Tagged And Untag

Dropped packets can occur when ARP attempts to match the IP address of the network device attached to the Untag port with the physical MAC address required by the network access layer. ARP uses broadcast data packets which are often 60 bytes plus an additional 4 bytes of 802.1 Q-tag information. This makes ARP especially vulnerable to the runt problem.

The solution is to set both ports in the VLAN to Tagged (detailed in the following procedure). Setting both ports in the VLAN to Tagged stops the stripping of the 4 bytes from the data packet and prevents the NIC card in the network access device from recognizing the packet as a runt and dropping it. Network devices with 802.1Q-compliant NIC cards will accept the tagged packets. Network devices with non-802.1Q compliant NIC cards will still drop these tagged packets. The solution may require upgrading network devices with non-802.1Q compliant NIC cards to 802.1Q-compliant NIC cards. You can also set both ports in the VLAN to Untag, but you will lose 802.1Q compliance.

Procedure: Change VLAN Port Tag and Untagged Settings


Step 1 Display the CTC card view for the Ethernet card involved in the problem VLAN.

Step 2 Click the Provisioning > VLAN tabs ( Figure 2-14).

Figure 2-14 Configuring VLAN membership for individual Ethernet ports

Step 3 If the port is set to Tagged, continue to look at other cards and their ports in the VLAN until you find the port that is set to Untag.

Step 4 At the VLAN port set to Untag, click the port and choose Tagged.


Note The attached external devices must recognize IEEE 802.1Q VLANs.


Step 5 After each port is in the appropriate VLAN, click Apply.


2.4 Circuits and Timing

This section provides solutions to circuit creation and reporting errors, as well as common timing reference errors and alarms.

2.4.1 AIS-V on DS3XM-6 Unused VT Circuits

An incomplete circuit path causes an alarm indications signal (AIS); for example, when the port on the reporting node is in-service but a node upstream on the circuit does not have an OC-N port in-service. An AIS-V indicates that an upstream failure occurred at the virtual tributary (VT) layer. AIS-V alarms also occur on DS3XM-6 VT circuits that are not carrying traffic and on stranded bandwidth.

Procedure: Clear AIS-V on DS3XM-6 Unused VT Circuits


Step 1 Determine the affected port.

Step 2 Record the node ID, slot number, port number, or VT number.

Step 3 Create a unidirectional VT circuit from the affected port back to itself. For example, Source node/Slot 2/Port 2/VT 13 cross connected to Source node/Slot 2/Port 2/VT 13.

Step 4 Uncheck the bidirectional box in the circuit creation window.

Step 5 Give the unidirectional VT circuit an easily recognizable name, such as delete me.

Step 6 Display the DS3XM-6 card in CTC card view. Click the Maintenance > DS1 tabs.

Step 7 Locate the VT that is reporting the alarm (for example, DS3 #2, DS1 #13).

Step 8 From the Loopback Type list, choose Facility (line) and click Apply.

Step 9 Click Circuits.

Step 10 Find the one-way circuit you created in Step 2. Select the circuit and click Delete.

Step 11 Click Yes in the Delete Confirmation box.

Step 12 Display the DS3XM-6 card in CTC card view. Click Maintenance > DS1.

Step 13 Locate the VT in Facility (line) Loopback.

Step 14 From the Loopback Type list, choose None and then click Apply.

Step 15 Click the Alarm tab and verify that the AIS-V alarms have cleared.

Step 16 Repeat the above steps for all the AIS-V alarms on the DS3XM-6 cards.


2.4.2 Circuit Creation Error with VT1.5 Circuit

You might receive an "Error while finishing circuit creation. Unable to provision circuit. Unable to create connection object at <node name>" message when trying to create a VT1.5 circuit in CTC.

You may have run out of bandwidth on the VT cross-connect matrix at the ONS 15454 indicated in the error message. The matrix has a maximum capacity of 336 bidirectional VT1.5 cross-connects. Certain configurations will exhaust VT capacity with less than 336 bidirectional VT1.5s. Refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 Installation and Operations Guide for more information.

2.4.3 Unable to Create Circuit From DS-3 Card to DS3XM-6 Card

A circuit cannot be created from a DS-3 card to a DS3XM-6 card because the cards have different functions. DS3XM-6 converts each of its six DS-3 interfaces into 28 DS-1s for cross-connection through the network. Thus you can create a circuit from a DS3XM-6 card to a DS-1 card, but not from a DS3XM-6 card to a DS-3 card. These differences are evident in the STS path overhead. The DS-3 card uses asynchronous mapping for DS-3, which is indicated by the C2 byte in the STS path overhead that has a hex code of 04. A DS3XM-6 has a VT payload with a C2 hex value of 02.


Note You can find instructions for creating circuits in the Cisco ONS 15454 Installation and Operations Guide.


2.4.4 DS3 Card Does Not Report AIS-P From External Equipment

A DS3-12/DS3N-12/DS3-12E/DS3N-12E card does not report STS AIS-P from the external equipment/line side. The card is functioning as designed. This card terminates the port signal at the backplane so STS AIS-P is not reported from the external equipment/line side.

DS3-12/DS3N-12E cards do have DS3 header monitoring functionality, which allows you to view performance monitoring (PM) on the DS3 path. Nevertheless, you cannot view AIS-P on the STS path. For more information on the PM capabilities of the DS3-12E/DS3N-12E cards, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 Installation and Operations Guide.

2.4.5 OC-3 and DCC Limitations

For an explanation of OC-3 and DCC limitations, see the DCC Tunnels section of the Cisco ONS 15454 Installation and Operations Guide.

2.4.6 ONS 15454 Switches Timing Reference

Timing references switch when one or more of the following problems occur:

The optical or BITS input is receiving LOS, LOF, or AIS signals from another node.

The optical or BITS input is not functioning.

Sync Status Messaging (SSM) message is set to Don't Use for Sync (DUS).

SSM indicates a Stratum 3 or lower clock quality.

The input frequency is off by more than 15 ppm.

The input clock wanders and has more than three slips in 30 seconds.

A bad timing reference existed for at least two minutes.

The ONS 15454 internal clock operates at a Stratum 3 level of accuracy. This gives the ONS 15454 a free-running synchronization accuracy of ┬▒ 4.6 ppm and a holdover stability of less than 255 slips in the first 24 hours or 3.7x10-7/day, including temperature.

ONS 15454 free running synchronization relies on the Stratum 3 internal clock. Over an extended time period, using a higher quality Stratum 1 or Stratum 2 timing source results in fewer timing slips than a lower quality Stratum 3 timing source.

2.4.7 Holdover Synchronization Alarm

The clock is running at the frequency of the last known good reference input. This alarm is raised when the last reference input fails. See the "HLDOVERSYNC" section on page 1-43 for a detailed description of this alarm.


Note The ONS 15454 supports holdover timing per Telcordia standard GR-4436 when provisioned for external (BITS) timing.


2.4.8 Free-Running Synchronization Mode

The clock is using the internal oscillator as its only frequency reference. This occurs when no reliable, prior timing reference is available. See the "FRNGSYNC" section on page 1-42 for a detailed description of this alarm.

2.4.9 Daisy-Chained BITS Not Functioning

Daisy chaining BITS causes additional wander buildup in the network and is therefore not supported. Instead, use a timing signal generator to create multiple copies of the BITS clock and separately link them to each ONS 15454.

2.5 Fiber and Cabling

This section explains problems typically caused by cabling connectivity errors. It also includes instructions for creating Cat-5 cable and lists the optical fiber connectivity levels.

2.5.1 Bit Errors Appear for a Line Card

Bit errors on line (traffic) cards usually originate from cabling problems or low optical-line levels. The errors can be caused by synchronization problems, especially if PJ (pointer justification) errors are reported. Moving cards into different error-free slots will isolate the cause. Use a test set whenever possible because the cause of the errors could be external cabling, fiber, or external equipment connecting to the ONS 15454. Troubleshoot cabling problems using the "Network Tests" section. Troubleshoot low optical levels using the "Faulty Fiber-Optic Connections" section.

2.5.2 Faulty Fiber-Optic Connections

Faulty fiber-optic connections can be the source of SONET alarms and signal errors.


Warning Follow all directions and warning labels when working with optical fibers. To prevent eye damage, never look directly into a fiber or connector. Class IIIb laser. Danger, laser radiation when open. The OC-192 laser is off when the safety key is off (labeled 0). The laser is on when the card is booted and the safety key is in the on position (labeled 1). The port does not have to be in service for the laser to be on. Avoid direct exposure to the beam. Invisible radiation is emitted from the aperture at the end of the fiber optic cable when connected, but not terminated.


Procedure: Verify Fiber-Optic Connections


Step 1 Ensure that a single-mode fiber connects to the ONS 15454 OC-N card.

SM or SM Fiber should be printed on the fiber span. ONS 15454 OC-N cards do not use multimode fiber.

Step 2 Check that the connector keys on the SC fiber connector are properly aligned and locked.

Step 3 Check that the single-mode fiber power level is within the specified range:

a. Remove the receive (Rx) end of the suspect fiber.

b. Connect the receive end of the suspect fiber to a fiber-optic power meter, such as a GN Nettest LP-5000.

c. Determine the power level of fiber with the fiber-optic power meter.

d. Verify that the power level falls within the range specified for the card; see the "Optical Card Transmit and Receive Levels" section.

Step 4 If the power level falls below the specified range:

a. Clean or replace the fiber patch cords. If possible, do this for the OC-N card you are working on and the far-end card.

b. Clean the optical connectors on the card. If possible, do this for the OC-N card you are working on and the far-end card.

c. Ensure that the far-end transmitting card is not an ONS intermediate range (IR) card when an ONS long range (LR) card is appropriate.

IR cards transmit a lower output power than LR cards.

d. Replace the far-end transmitting OC-N card to eliminate the possibility of a degrading transmitter on this OC-N card.

e. If the power level still falls below the specified range with the replacement fibers and replacement card, check for one of these three factors that attenuate the power level and affect link loss (LL):

Excessive fiber distance; single-mode fiber attenuates at approximately 0.5 dB/km.

Excessive number or fiber connectors; connectors take approximately 0.5 dB each.

Excessive number of fiber splices; splices take approximately 0.5 dB each.


Note These are typical attenuation values. Refer to the specific product documentation for the actual values or use an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) to establish precise link loss and budget requirements.


Step 5 If no power level shows on the fiber, the fiber is bad or the transmitter on the optical card failed.

a. Check that the Transmit (Tx) and Receive (Rx) fibers are not reversed. LOS and EOC alarms normally accompany reversed Tx and Rx fibers. Switching reversed Tx and Rx fibers clears the alarms and restores the signal.

b. Clean or replace the fiber patch cords. If possible, do this for the OC-N card you are working on and the far-end card.

c. Retest the fiber power level.

d. If the replacement fiber still shows no power, replace the optical card.

Step 6 If the power level on the fiber is above the range specified for the card, ensure that an ONS long range (LR) card is not being used when an ONS intermediate range (IR) card is appropriate.

LR cards transmit a higher output power than IR cards. When used with short runs of fiber, an LR transmitter will be too powerful for the receiver on the receiving OC-N card.

Receiver overloads occur when maximum receiver power is exceeded.


Tip To prevent overloading the receiver, use an attenuator on the fiber between the ONS OC-N card transmitter and the receiver. Place the attenuator on the receive transmitter of the ONS OC-N cards. Refer to the attenuator documentation for specific instructions.



Tip Most fiber has text printed on only one of the two fiber strands. This can help clarify which strand is Tx and which is Rx.



Procedure: Replace Faulty Gigabit Interface Converters

Gigabit interface converters (GBICs) are hot-swappable input/output devices that plug into a Gigabit Ethernet port to link the port with the fiber-optic network. Cisco provides two GBIC models: one for short reach applications, 15454-GBIC-SX, and one for long reach applications, 15454-GBIC-LX. The short reach, or "SX" model, connects to multimode fiber and has a maximum cabling distance of 1804 feet. The long reach, or "LX" model, requires single-mode fiber and has a maximum cabling distance of 32,810 feet.

GBICs are hot-swappable and can therefore be installed or removed while the card and shelf assembly are powered and running. GBIC transmit failure is characterized by a steadily blinking Fail LED on the Gigabit Ethernet (E1000-2/E1000-2-G) card. Figure 2-15 shows a GBIC.

Figure 2-15 A gigabit interface converter (GBIC)


Warning Class 1 laser product



Warning Invisible laser radiation may be emitted from the aperture ports of single-mode fiber optic modules when a cable is not connected. Avoid exposure and do not stare into open apertures.



Step 1 Disconnect the network interface fiber-optic cable from the GBIC SC connector and replace the protective plug.

Step 2 Release the GBIC from the card-interface by simultaneously squeezing the two plastic tabs (one on each side of the GBIC).

Step 3 Slide the GBIC out of the Gigabit Ethernet front-panel slot.


Note A flap closes over the GBIC slot to protect the connector on the Gigabit Ethernet (E1000-2/E1000-2-G) card.


Step 4 Remove the new GBIC from its protective packaging.

Step 5 Check the part number to verify that the GBIC is the correct type for your network.


Caution Check the label on the GBIC carefully, the two GBIC models look similar.

Step 6 Grip the sides of the GBIC with your thumb and forefinger and insert the GBIC into the slot on the front panel of the Gigabit Ethernet (E1000-2/E1000-2-G) card.


Note GBICs are keyed to prevent incorrect installation.


Figure 2-16 Installing a GBIC on the E1000-2/E1000-2-G card

Step 7 Slide the GBIC through the front flap until you hear a click.

The click indicates that the GBIC is locked into the slot.

Step 8 When you are ready to attach the network interface fiber-optic cable, remove the protective plug from the GBIC and save the plug for future use.


2.5.3 Create CAT-5 Cables

You can manufacture your own CAT-5 cables for use with the ONS 15454. Use a cross-over cable when connecting an ONS 15454 to a router, hub, LAN modem, or switch, and use a straight-through cable when connecting an ONS 15454 to a workstation. Use CAT 5 cable RJ-45 T-568B, Color Code (100 Mbps).

Figure 2-17 RJ-45 pin numbers

Figure 2-18 A straight-through cable layout

Table 2-3 Straight-Through Cable for Both Ends and Cross-Over Cable for First End

Pin
Color
Pair
Name

1

white/orange

2

Transmit Data +

2

orange

2

Transmit Data -

3

white/green

3

Receive Data +

4

blue

1

 

5

white/blue

1

 

6

green

3

Receive Data -

7

white/brown

4

 

8

brown

4

 

Figure 2-19 A cross-over cable layout

Table 2-4 Second End of Cross-over Cable 

Pin
Color
Pair
Name

1

white/green

3

RecvData +

2

green

3

RecData -

3

white/orange

2

TxData +

4

blue

1

 

5

white/blue

1

 

6

orange

2

TxData -

7

white/brown

4

 

8

brown

4

 


Note Odd numbered pins always connect to a white wire with a colored stripe.


2.5.4 Optical Card Transmit and Receive Levels

Each OC-N card has a transmit and receive connector on its faceplate.

Table 2-5 Optical Card Transmit and Receive Levels

Optical card
Rx
Tx

OC3 IR 1310

-8 to -28 dBm

-8 to -15 dBm

OC12 IR 1310

-8 to -28 dBm

-8 to -15 dBm

OC12 LR 1310

-8 to -28 dBm

+2 to -3 dBm

OC12 LR 1550

-8 to -28 dBm

+2 to -3 dBm

OC48 IR 1310

0 to -18 dBm

0 to -5 dBm

OC48 LR 1550

-8 to -28 dBm

+3 to -2 dBm

OC48 AS LR 1550

-8 to -28 dBm

+3 to -2 dBm

OC48 ELR DWDM

-8 to -28 dBm

0 to -2 dBm

OC192 LR 1550

-9 to -17 dBm

+10 to +7 dBm


2.6 Power and LED Tests

This section provides the "Power Supply Problems" section, the "Power Consumption for Node and Cards" section, and the "Lamp Test for Card LEDs" section.

2.6.1 Power Supply Problems

The ONS 15454 requires a constant source of DC power to properly function. Input power is -48 VDC. Power requirements range from -42 VDC to -57 VDC.

A newly installed ONS 15454 that is not properly connected to its power supply will not operate. Power problems can be confined to a specific ONS 15454 or affect several pieces of equipment on the site.

A loss of power or low voltage can result in a loss of traffic and causes the LCD clock on the ONS 15454 to default to January 1, 1970, 00:04:15. For clock reset instructions, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 Installation and Operations Guide.


Caution Operations that interrupt power supply or short the power connections to the ONS 15454 are service affecting.


Warning When working with live power, always use proper tools and eye protection.



Warning Always use the supplied electrostatic discharge (ESD) wristband when working with a powered ONS 15454. Plug the wristband cable into the ESD jack located on the lower-right outside edge of the shelf assembly.


Procedure: Isolate the Cause of Power Supply Problems


Step 1 If a single ONS 15454 show signs of fluctuating power or power loss:

a. Check that the -48 VDC #8 power terminals are properly connected to a fuse panel. These power terminals are located on the lower section of the backplane EIA under the clear plastic cover.

b. Check that the power cable is #12 or #14 AWG and in good condition.

c. Check for properly crimped power cable connections. Stranded #12 or #14 AWG does not always crimp properly with Staycon type connectors.

d. Check that 20A fuses are used in the fuse panel.

e. Check that the fuses are not blown.

f. Check that a rack ground cable attaches to the frame ground terminal (FGND) on the right side of the ONS 15454 EIA. Connect this cable to the ground terminal according to local site practice.

g. Check that the DC power source has enough capacity to carry the power load.

h. If the DC power source is battery based:

Check that the output power is high enough. Power requirements range from -42 VDC to -57
VDC.

Check the age of the batteries. Battery performance decreases with age.

Check for opens and shorts in batteries, which may affect power output.

If brownouts occur, the power load and fuses may be too high for the battery plant.

Step 2 If multiple pieces of site equipment show signs of fluctuating power or power loss:

a. Check the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or rectifiers that supply the equipment. Refer to the UPS manufacturer's documentation for specific instructions.

b. Check for excessive power drains caused by other equipment, such as generators.

c. Check for excessive power demand on backup power systems or batteries when alternate power sources are used.


2.6.2 Power Consumption for Node and Cards

Refer to the "Card and Fan-Tray Assembly Power Requirements" section on page 4-5.

2.6.3 Lamp Test for Card LEDs

A lamp test verifies that all the card LEDs work. Run this diagnostic test as part of the initial ONS 15454 turn-up, a periodic maintenance routine, or any time you question whether an LED is in working order.

Procedure: Verify Card LED Operation


Step 1 Click the Maintenance > Diagnostic tabs.

Step 2 Click Lamp Test.

Step 3 Watch to make sure all the LEDs on the physical cards light up for several seconds.

Step 4 Click OK on the Lamp Test Run dialog box.

If a LED does not light up, the LED is faulty. Call the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-877-323-7368 and fill out an RMA to return the card.