Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide, Release 3.3
Chapter 2, General Troubleshooting

Table of Contents

General Troubleshooting
2.1 Network Troubleshooting Tests
2.2 Identify Points of Failure on a Circuit Path
2.2.1 Perform a Facility Loopback on a Source E3-12 Card
2.2.2 Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node
2.2.3 Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card
2.2.4 Perform a Facility Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card
2.3 CTC Operation and Connectivity
2.3.1 Operation: Unable to Change Node View to Network View
2.3.2 Operation: Browser Stalls When Downloading jar File From TCC-I
2.3.3 Operation: CTC Does Not Launch
2.3.4 Operation: Sluggish CTC Operation or Login Problems
2.3.5 Operation: Node Icon is Grey on CTC Network View
2.3.6 Operation: CTC Cannot Launch Due to Applet Security Restrictions
2.3.7 Operation: Java Runtime Environment Incompatible
2.3.8 Operation: Username or Password Does Not Match
2.3.9 Operation: No IP Connectivity Exists Between Nodes
2.3.10 Operation: DCC Connection Lost
2.3.11 Operation: Browser Login Does Not Launch Java
2.3.12 Connectivity: Verify PC Connection to ONS 15454 SDH (ping)
2.3.13 Calculate and Design IP Subnets
2.3.14 Ethernet Connections
2.3.15 VLAN Cannot Connect to Network Device from Untag Port
2.4 Circuits and Timing
2.5 Fiber and Cabling
2.6 Power and LED Tests

General Troubleshooting


This chapter provides procedures for troubleshooting the most common problems encountered when operating a Cisco ONS 15454 SDH. To troubleshoot specific ONS 15454 SDH alarms, see "Alarm Index." If you cannot find what you are looking for in this chapter or "Alarm Index," contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-800-553-2447 or login to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml to obtain a directory of Cisco TAC toll-free numbers for your country to obtain more information.

This chapter begins with the following sections on network problems:

The remaining sections describe symptoms, problems, and solutions that are categorized according to the following topics:

  • CTC Operation and Connectivity—Provides troubleshooting procedures for CTC log-in or operation errors and PC and network connectivity.
  • Circuits and Timing—Provides troubleshooting procedures for circuit creation, error reporting, and timing reference errors and alarms.
  • Fiber and Cabling—Provides troubleshooting procedures for fiber and cabling connectivity errors.

2.1 Network Troubleshooting Tests

Use loopbacks and hairpins to test newly created circuits before running live traffic or to logically locate the source of a network failure. All ONS 15454 SDH line (traffic) cards, except Ethernet cards, allow loopbacks and hairpins.


Caution   On multiport STM-N cards, a loopback applies to the entire card and not an individual circuit. Exercise caution when using loopbacks on an STM-N card carrying live traffic.

A facility loopback tests the line interface unit (LIU) of a card, the FMEC, and related cabling. After applying a facility loopback on a card, use a test set to run traffic over the loopback. A successful facility loopback eliminates the LIU, FMEC, or cabling as the potential cause of a network problem. Figure 2-1 shows a facility loopback on a E3-12 card.


Figure 2-1   The facility loopback process on an E3-12 card


Figure 2-2 shows a facility loopback on a STM-N card.


Caution   Before performing a facility loopback on an STM-N card, make sure the card contains at least two SDCC paths to the node where the card is installed. A second SDCC path provides a non-looped path to log into the node after the loopback is applied, thus enabling you to remove the facility loopback. Ensuring a second SDCC is not necessary if you are directly connected to the ONS 15454 SDH containing the loopback OC-N.


Figure 2-2   The facility loopback process on a STM-N card


A terminal loopback tests a circuit path as it passes through the cross-connect card (XC10G) and as it loops back from the card being tested. Figure 2-3 shows a terminal loopback on an STM-N card. The test-set traffic comes in on the E3-12 card and goes through the cross-connect card to the STM-N card. The terminal loopback on the STM-N card turns the signal around before it reaches the LIU and sends it through the cross-connect card to the E3-12 card. This test verifies that the cross-connect card and circuit paths are valid, but does not test the LIU on the STM-N card.


Figure 2-3   The terminal loopback process on an STM-N card


To test the LIU on an STM-N card, connect an optical test set to the STM-N card ports and perform a facility loopback or use a loopback or hairpin on a card that is farther along the circuit path. Figure 2-4 shows a terminal loopback on an E3-12 card. The test-set traffic comes in on the STM-N card and goes through the cross-connect card to the E3-12 card. The terminal loopback on the E3-12 card turns the signal around before it reaches the LIU and sends it through the cross-connect card to the STM-N card. This test verifies that the cross-connect card and circuit paths are valid, but does not test the LIU on the E3-12 card.


Figure 2-4   The terminal loopback process on an E3-12 card


A hairpin circuit brings traffic in and out on an E3-12 port rather than sending the traffic onto the STM-N card. A hairpin loops back only the specific E3 circuit and does not cause an entire STM-N port to loop back, thus preventing a drop of all traffic on the STM-N port. The hairpin allows you to test a circuit on nodes running live traffic.


Figure 2-5   The hairpin circuit process on an E3-12 card


2.2 Identify Points of Failure on a Circuit Path

Facility loopbacks, terminal loopbacks, and hairpin circuits are often used together to test the circuit path through the network or to logically isolate a fault. Performing a network test at each point along the circuit path systematically eliminates possible points of failure. The example in this section tests an E3-12 circuit on a two-node MS-SPRing. Using a series of facility loopbacks, terminal loopbacks, and hairpins, the path of the circuit is traced and the possible points of failure eliminated.

A logical progression of four network test procedures apply to this scenario:


Note    The test sequence for your circuits will differ according to the type of circuit and network topology.

1. A facility loopback on the source-node E3-12 card

2. A hairpin on the source-node E3-12 card

3. A terminal loopback to the destination-node E3-12 card

4. A facility loopback to the destination E3-12 card


Note    All loopback tests require on-site personnel.

2.2.1 Perform a Facility Loopback on a Source E3-12 Card

The facility loopback test is performed on the source card in the network circuit, in this example, the source traffic card in the source node. Completing a successful facility loopback on this card eliminates the cabling, the E3-12 card, and the FMEC as possible failure points. Figure 2-6 shows an example of a facility loopback.


Figure 2-6   A facility loopback on a circuit source E3-12 card



Caution   Performing a loopback on an in-service circuit is service-affecting.

Procedure: Create the Facility Loopback on the Source E3-12 Card


Step 1   Connect an electrical test set to the port you are testing.

a. Use appropriate cabling to attach the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals of the electrical test set to the FMEC connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. The transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals connect to the same port.

b. Adjust the test set accordingly.

Step 2   Use CTC to create the facility loopback circuit on the port being tested:

a. In node view, double-click the card where you will perform the loopback.

b. Click the Maintenance > Loopback tabs.

c. Choose Facility (Line) from the Loopback Type column for the port being tested. If this is a multiport card, select the appropriate row for the desired port.

d. Click Apply.

e. On the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.


Note    It is normal for an alarm to appear during loopback setup. The alarm clears when you remove the loopback.

Proceed to the "Test the Facility Loopback Circuit" section.





Procedure: Test the Facility Loopback Circuit


Step 1   If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 2   Examine the traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a good circuit, no further testing is necessary with the facility loopback:

a. Clear the loopback circuit before testing the next segment of the network circuit path.

b. Proceed to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node" section.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, the problem may be a faulty E3-12 card, faulty cabling from the E3-12 card to the DSx panel or the FMEC, or a faulty FMEC.

Proceed to the "Test the E3-12 Cabling" section.





Procedure: Test the E3-12 Cabling


Step 1   Replace the suspect cabling (the cables from the test set to the DSx panel or the FMEC ports) with a known-good cable.

Step 2   If a known-good cable is not available, test the suspect cable with a test set. Remove the suspect cable from the DSx panel or the FMEC and connect the cable to the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals of the test set. Run traffic to determine whether the cable is good or suspect.

Step 3   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit with a known-good cable installed.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the problem was probably the defective cable.

a. Replace the defective cable.

b. Clear the loopback circuit before testing the next segment of the network circuit path.

c. Proceed to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node" section.

Step 5   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, the problem may be a faulty card or a faulty FMEC.

Proceed to the "Test the E3-12 Card" section.





Procedure: Test the E3-12 Card


Step 1   Replace the suspect card with a known-good card.


Caution   Removing a card that currently carries traffic on one or more ports can cause a traffic hit. To avoid this, perform an external switch if a switch has not already occurred. Consult "Maintenance," for information.

Step 2   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit with a known-good card installed.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the problem was probably the defective card.

a. Return the defective card to Cisco through the returned materials authorization (RMA) process. Call the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 1-800-553-2447 or login to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml to obtain a directory of Cisco TAC toll-free numbers for your country to obtain more information to open an RMA case.

b. Replace the faulty card.

c. Clear the loopback circuit before testing the next segment of the network circuit path.

d. Proceed to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node" section.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, the problem may be a faulty FMEC.

Proceed to the "Test the FMEC Card" section.





Procedure: Test the FMEC Card


Step 1   Replace the suspect card with a known-good card.


Caution   Removing a card that currently carries traffic on one or more ports can cause a traffic hit. To avoid this, perform an external switch if a switch has not already occurred. Consult "Maintenance," for information.

Step 2   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit with a known-good card installed.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, repeat all of the facility loopback procedures.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the problem was probably the defective FMEC card.

a. Return the defective card to Cisco through the RMA process. Call the Cisco TAC at 1-800-553-2447 or login to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml to obtain a directory of Cisco TAC toll-free numbers for your country to obtain more information to open an RMA case.

b. Replace the faulty card.

c. Clear the loopback circuit before testing the next segment of the circuit path.

Proceed to the "Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node" section.





2.2.2 Perform a Hairpin on a Source Node

The hairpin circuit test is performed on the cross-connect card in the network circuit. A hairpin circuit uses the same port for both source and destination. Completing a successful hairpin through the card eliminates the possibility that the cross-connect card is the cause of the faulty circuit. Figure 2-7 shows an example of a hairpin.


Figure 2-7   Hairpin on a source node



Note   The ONS 15454 SDH does not support simplex operation on the cross-connect card. Each ONS 15454 SDH requires Two XC10G cards.

Procedure: Create the Hairpin on the Source Node


Step 1   Connect an electrical test set to the port you are testing.

a. If you just completed the "Perform a Facility Loopback on a Source E3-12 Card" section, leave the electrical test set hooked up to the E3-12 card.

b. If you are starting the current procedure without the electrical test set hooked up to the E3-12 card, use appropriate cabling to attach the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals of the electrical test set to the DSx panel or the FMEC card connectors for the port you are testing. The transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals connect to the same port.

c. Adjust the test set accordingly.

Step 2   Use CTC to set up the hairpin on the port being tested:

a. Click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

b. Give the circuit an easily identifiable name, such as hairpin1.

c. Set the Circuit Type and Size to the normal preferences.

d. Uncheck the Bidirectional checkbox and click Next.

e. In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the same card and port where the facility loopback test (E3-12 card in the source node) was performed and click Next.

f. In the Circuit Destination dialog box, use the same card and port used for the Circuit Source dialog box and click Finish.

Step 3   Confirm that the newly created circuit appears with a direction column indicating that this circuit is one-way.

Proceed to the "Test the Hairpin Circuit" section.





Procedure: Test the Hairpin Circuit


Step 1   If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 2   Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a good circuit, no further testing is necessary with the hairpin circuit.

a. Clear the hairpin circuit before testing the next segment of the network circuit path.

b. Proceed to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card" section.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, there may be a problem with the cross-connect card.

Proceed to the "Test the Alternate Cross-Connect Card" section.





Procedure: Test the Alternate Cross-Connect Card


Step 1   Perform a reset on the standby cross-connect card:

a. Determine the standby cross-connect card. On both the physical node and the CTC screen, the ACT/STBY LED of the standby cross-connect card is amber and the ACT/STBY LED of the active cross-connect card is green.

b. Position the cursor over the standby cross-connect card.

c. Right-click to choose RESET CARD.

Step 2   Do a manual switch (side switch) of the cross-connect cards before retesting the loopback circuit:


Caution   Cross-connect manual switches (side switches) are service-affecting. Any live traffic on any card in the node endures a hit of up to 50 ms.

a. Determine the standby cross-connect card. The ACT/STBY LED of the standby cross-connect card is amber and the ACT/STBY LED of the active cross-connect card is green.

b. In the node view, select the Maintenance > XC Cards tabs.

c. From the Cross Connect Cards menu, choose Switch.

d. Click Yes on the Confirm Switch dialog box.


Note    After the active cross-connect goes into standby, the original standby slot becomes active. This causes the ACT/STBY LED to become green on the former standby card.

Step 3   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit.

The test traffic now travels through the alternate cross-connect card.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, assume the cross-connect card is not causing the problem.

a. Clear the loopback circuit before testing the next segment of the network circuit path.

b. Proceed to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card" section.

Step 5   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the problem may be a defective card.

To confirm a defective original cross-connect card, proceed to the "Retest the Original Cross-Connect Card" section.





Procedure: Retest the Original Cross-Connect Card


Step 1   Do a manual switch (side switch) of the cross-connect cards to make the original cross-connect card the active card.

a. Determine the standby cross-connect card. The ACT/STBY LED of the standby cross-connect card is amber and the ACT/STBY LED of the active cross-connect card is green.

b. In node view, select the Maintenance > XC Cards tabs.

c. From the Cross Connect Cards menu, choose Switch.

d. Click Yes on the Confirm Switch dialog box.

Step 2   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, the problem is probably the defective card.

a. Return the defective card to Cisco through the RMA process. Call the Cisco TAC at 1-800-553-2447 or login to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml to obtain a directory of Cisco TAC toll-free numbers for your country to obtain more information to open an RMA case.

b. Replace the defective cross-connect card.

c. Clear the loopback circuit before testing the next segment of the network circuit path.

d. Proceed to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card" section.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the cross-connect card may have had a temporary problem that was cleared by the side switch.

a. Clear the loopback circuit before testing the next segment of the network circuit path.

b. Proceed to the "Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card" section.





2.2.3 Perform a Terminal Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card

This test is a terminal loopback performed on the fourth traffic card in the circuit, in the following example the E3-12 card in the destination node is the test card. First, create a bidirectional circuit that starts on the source node E3-12 port and terminates on the destination node E3-12 port. Then, proceed with the terminal loopback test. Completing a successful terminal loopback to a destination node E3-12 card verifies that the circuit is good up to the destination E3-12. Figure 2-8 shows an example of a terminal loopback on a destination E3-12 card.


Figure 2-8   Terminal loopback on a destination E3-12 card



Caution   Performing a loopback on an in-service circuit is service affecting.

Procedure: Create the Terminal Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card


Step 1   Connect an electrical test set to the port you are testing:

a. If you are starting the current procedure with the electrical test set hooked up to the E3-12 card in the source node, leave the test set hooked up.

b. If you are starting the current procedure without the electrical test set hooked up to the E3-12 card in the source node, use appropriate cabling to attach the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals of the electrical test set to the DSx panel or the FMEC card connectors for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) cables connect to the same port. Set up the test set accordingly.

Step 2   Use CTC to set up the terminal loopback circuit on the port being tested.

a. Click the Circuits tab and click the Create button.

b. Give the circuit an easily identifiable name, such as E312toE312.

c. Set Circuit Type and Size to the normal preferences.

d. Leave the Bidirectional checkbox checked and click Next.

e. In the Circuit Source dialog box, fill in the same card and port where the facility loopback test (the E3-12 card in the source node) was performed and click Next.

f. In the Circuit Destination dialog box, fill in the destination card and port (the E3-12 card in the destination node) and click Finish.

Step 3   Confirm that the newly created circuit appears on a Circuits screen row with a direction column that shows a two-way circuit.


Note    It is normal for an alarm to appear during a loopback setup. The alarm clears when you remove the loopback.

Step 4   Create the loopback circuit on the destination card and port being tested:

a. In node view, double-click the card that requires the loopback, such as the E3-12 card in the destination node.

b. Click the Maintenance > Loopback tabs.

c. Select Terminal (Inward) from the Loopback Type column. If this is a multiport card, select the row appropriate for the desired port.

d. Click Apply.

e. On the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.

Proceed to the "Test the Terminal Loopback Circuit on the Destination E3-12 Card" section.





Procedure: Test the Terminal Loopback Circuit on the Destination E3-12 Card


Step 1   If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 2   Examine the test traffic being received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a good circuit, no further testing is necessary on the loopback circuit.

a. Clear the loopback circuit before testing the next segment of the network circuit path.

b. Proceed to the "Perform a Facility Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card" section.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, the problem may be a faulty card.

Proceed to the "Test the Destination E3-12 Card" section.





Procedure: Test the Destination E3-12 Card


Step 1   Replace the suspect card with a known-good card.


Caution   Removing a card that currently carries traffic on one or more ports can cause a traffic hit. To avoid this, perform an external switch if a switch has not already occurred. Consult "Maintenance," for information.

Step 2   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit with a known-good card.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the problem was probably the defective card.

a. Return the defective card to Cisco through the RMA process. Call the Cisco TAC at 1-800-553-2447 or login to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml to obtain a directory of Cisco TAC toll-free numbers for your country to obtain more information to open an RMA case.

b. Replace the defective E3-12 card.

Proceed to the "Perform a Facility Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card" section.





2.2.4 Perform a Facility Loopback on a Destination E3-12 Card

The final test is a facility loopback performed on the destination traffic card in the circuit, in this case the E3-12 card in the destination node. Completing a successful facility loopback on this card eliminates the possibility that the destination node cabling, E3-12 card, LIU, or FMEC card is responsible for a faulty circuit. Figure 2-9 shows an example of a facility loopback on a destination E3-12 card.


Figure 2-9   Facility loopback on a destination E3-12 card



Caution   Performing a loopback on an in-service circuit is service-affecting.

Procedure: Create a Facility Loopback Circuit on a Destination E3-12 Card


Step 1   Connect an electrical test set to the port you are testing:

a. Use appropriate cabling to attach the electrical test set transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals to the FMEC card connectors or DSx panel for the port you are testing. Both transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) connect to the same port.

b. Set up your test set accordingly.

Step 2   Use CTC to create the facility loopback circuit on the port being tested:

a. In node view, double-click the card where the loopback will be performed.

b. Click the Maintenance > Loopback tabs.

c. Select Facility (Line) from the Loopback Type column for the port being tested. If this is a multiport card, select the row appropriate for the desired port.

d. Click Apply.

e. On the confirmation dialog box, click Yes.


Note    It is normal for an alarm to appear during loopback setup. The alarm clears when you remove the loopback.

Proceed to the "Test the Facility Loopback Circuit" section.





Procedure: Test the Facility Loopback Circuit


Step 1   If the test set is not already sending traffic, send test traffic on the loopback circuit.

Step 2   Examine the test traffic received by the test set. Look for errors or any other signal information that the test set is capable of indicating.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a good circuit, no further testing is necessary with the loopback circuit.

a. Clear the facility loopback.

b. The entire E3-12 circuit path has now passed its comprehensive series of loopback tests. This circuit qualifies to carry live traffic.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, the problem may be a faulty E3-12 card, faulty cabling from the E3-12 card to the DSx panel or the FMEC card, or a faulty FMEC card.

Proceed to the "Test the E3-12 Cabling" section.





Procedure: Test the E3-12 Cabling


Step 1   Replace the suspect cabling (the cables from the test set to the DSx panel or the FMEC card ports) with a known-good cable.

Step 2   If a known-good cable is not available, test the suspect cable with a test set. Remove the suspect cable from the DSx panel or the FMEC card and connect the cable to the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) terminals of the test set. Run traffic to determine whether the cable is good or suspect.

Step 3   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit with a known-good cable installed.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the problem was probably the defective cable.

a. Replace the defective cable.


Caution   Removing a card that currently carries traffic on one or more ports can cause a traffic hit. To avoid this, perform an external switch if a switch has not already occurred. Consult "Maintenance," for information.

b. Clear the loopback circuit.

c. The entire E3-12 circuit path has now passed its comprehensive series of loopback tests. This circuit qualifies to carry live traffic.

Step 5   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, the problem may be a faulty card or a faulty FMEC card.

Proceed to the "Test the E3-12 Card" section.





Procedure: Test the E3-12 Card


Step 1   Replace the suspect card with a known-good card.


Caution   Removing a card that currently carries traffic on one or more ports can cause a traffic hit. To avoid this, perform an external switch if a switch has not already occurred. Consult "Maintenance," for information.

Step 2   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit with a known-good card installed.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the problem was probably the defective card.

a. Return the defective card to Cisco through the RMA process. Call the Cisco TAC at 1-800-553-2447 or login to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml to obtain a directory of Cisco TAC toll-free numbers for your country to obtain more information to open an RMA case.

b. Replace the faulty card.

c. Clear the loopback circuit.

d. The entire E3-12 circuit path has now passed its comprehensive series of loopback tests. This circuit qualifies to carry live traffic.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, the problem may be a faulty FMEC card.

Proceed to the "Test the FMEC Card" section.





Procedure: Test the FMEC card


Step 1   Remove and reinstall the FMEC card to ensure a proper seating:

a. Remove the lower backplane cover, loosen the five screws that secure it to the ONS 15454 SDH, and pull it away from the shelf assembly.

b. Loosen the nine perimeter screws that hold the backplane rear cover in place.

c. Lift the FMEC card panel by the bottom to remove it from the shelf assembly.

d. Follow the installation procedure for the appropriate FMEC card.

Step 2   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit with known-good cabling, a known-good card, and the reinstalled FMEC card.

Step 3   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the problem was probably an improperly seated FMEC card.

a. Clear the loopback circuit.

b. The entire E3-12 circuit path has now passed its comprehensive series of loopback tests. This circuit qualifies to carry live traffic.

Step 4   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, the problem is probably the defective FMEC card.

a. Return the defective card to Cisco through the RMA process. Call the Cisco TAC at 1-800-553-2447 or login to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml to obtain a directory of Cisco TAC toll-free numbers for your country to obtain more information to open an RMA case.

b. Replace the faulty FMEC card.

Step 5   Resend test traffic on the loopback circuit with known-good cabling, a known-good card, and the replacement FMEC card.

Step 6   If the test set indicates a faulty circuit, repeat all of the facility loopback procedures.

If faulty circuit still persists, contact Cisco TAC at 1-800-553-2447 for assistance.

Step 7   If the test set indicates a good circuit, the problem was probably the defective FMEC card.

a. Clear the loopback circuit.

b. The entire E3-12 circuit path has now passed its comprehensive series of loopback tests. This circuit qualifies to carry live traffic.





2.3 CTC Operation and Connectivity

This section contains troubleshooting procedures for CTC login or operation errors and PC and network connectivity.

2.3.1 Operation: Unable to Change Node View to Network View

Symptom: When activating a large, multi node MS-SPRing from Software Release 3.2 to Software Release 3.3, some of the nodes appear grayed out. Logging into the new CTC, the user is unable to change node view to network view on any and all nodes, from any workstation. This is accompanied by an "Exception occurred during event dispatching: java.lang.OutOfMemoryError" in the java window.

Table 2-1 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-1   Browser Stalls When Downloading jar File From TCC+

Possible Problem  Solution 

The large, multi node BLSR requires more memory for the GUI environment variables.

Reset the system or user CTC_HEAP environment variable to increase the memory limits.

See the "Reset the CTC_HEAP Environment Variable for Windows" section or the "Reset the CTC_HEAP Environment Variable for Solaris" section to enable the CTC_HEAP variable change.

Note This problem typically affects large networks where additional memory is required to manage large numbers of nodes and circuits.

Procedure: Reset the CTC_HEAP Environment Variable for Windows


Step 1   Exit any and all open and running CTC and Netscape applications.

Step 2   From the Windows Desktop, right-click on My Computer and select Properties in the pop-up menu.

Step 3   In the System Properties window, click on the Advanced tab.

Step 4   Click the Environment Variables button to open the Environment Variables window.

Step 5   Click the New button under the User variables field or the System variables field.

Step 6   Type CTC_HEAP in the Variable Name field.

Step 7   Type 256 in the Variable Value field, and then click the OK button to create the variable.

Step 8   Click the OK button in the Environment Variables window to accept the changes.

Step 9   Click the OK button in the System Properties window to accept the changes.

You may now restart the browser and CTC software.





Procedure: Reset the CTC_HEAP Environment Variable for Solaris


Step 1   From the user shell window, kill any CTC applications.

Step 2   Kill any Netscape applications.

Step 3   In the user shell window, set the environment variable to increase the heap size: % setenv CTC_HEAP 256
You may now restart the browser and CTC software in the same user shell window.





2.3.2 Operation: Browser Stalls When Downloading jar File From TCC-I

Symptom: The browser stalls or hangs when downloading a jar file from the TCC-I card.

Table 2-2 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-2   Browser Stalls When Downloading jar File From TCC-I

Possible Problem  Solution 

McAfee VirusScan software may be interfering with the operation. The problem occurs when the VirusScan Download Scan is enabled on McAfee VirusScan 4.5 or later.

Disable the McAfee VirusScan Download Scan feature. See the "Disable the VirusScan Download Scan" section

Procedure: Disable the VirusScan Download Scan


Step 1   From the Windows start menu, select Programs > Network Associates > VirusScan Console.

Step 2   Double-click the VShield icon listed in the VirusScan Console dialog box.

Step 3   Click the Configure button on the lower part of the Task Properties window.

Step 4   Click the Download Scan icon on the left of the System Scan Properties dialog box.

Step 5   Uncheck the Enable Internet download scanning checkbox.

Step 6   Click Yes when the warning message appears.

Step 7   Click OK on the System Scan Properties dialog box.

Step 8   Click OK on the Task Properties window.

Step 9   Close the McAfee VirusScan window.





2.3.3 Operation: CTC Does Not Launch

Symptom: CTC does not launch, usually an error message appears before the login screen displays.

Table 2-3 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-3   CTC Does Not Launch

Possible Problem  Solution 

The Netscape browser cache may point to an invalid directory.

Redirect the Netscape cache to a valid directory. See the "Redirect the Netscape Cache to a Valid Directory" section.

Procedure: Redirect the Netscape Cache to a Valid Directory


Step 1   Launch Netscape.

Step 2   Display the Edit menu.

Step 3   Choose Preferences.

Step 4   Under the Category column on the left-hand side, go to Advanced and select the Cache tab.

Step 5   Change your disk cache folder to point to the cache file location.

The cache file location is usually C:\ProgramFiles\Netscape\Users\<yourname>\cache. The <yourname> segment of the file location is often the same as the user name.





2.3.4 Operation: Sluggish CTC Operation or Login Problems

Symptom: You experience sluggish CTC operation or have problems logging into CTC.

Table 2-4 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-4   Sluggish CTC Operation or Login Problems

Possible Problem  Solution 

The CTC cache file may be corrupted.

Delete the CTC cache file. This operation forces the ONS 15454 SDH to download a new set of jar files to your computer hard drive. See the "Delete the CTC Cache File Automatically" section or the "Delete the CTC Cache File Manually" section.

Procedure: Delete the CTC Cache File Automatically


Step 1   Enter an ONS 15454 SDH IP address into the browser URL field. The initial browser window shows a Delete CTC Cache button.

Step 2   Close all open CTC sessions and browser windows. The PC operating system will not allow you to delete files that are in use.

Step 3   Click the Delete CTC Cache button on the initial browser window to clear the CTC cache. Figure 2-10 shows the Delete CTC Cache screen.


Figure 2-10   Deleting the CTC cache






Procedure: Delete the CTC Cache File Manually


Step 1   To delete the jar files manually, from the Windows Start menu choose Search > For Files or Folders.

Step 2   Enter *.jar in the Search for files or folders named field on the Search Results dialog box and click Search Now.

Step 3   Click the Modified column on the Search Results dialog box to find the jar files that match the date when you downloaded the files from the TCC-I. These files may include CTC*.jar, CMS*.jar, and jar_cache*.tmp.

Step 4   Highlight the files and press the keyboard Delete key.

Step 5   Click Yes at the Confirm dialog box.





2.3.5 Operation: Node Icon is Grey on CTC Network View

Symptom   The CTC network view shows one or more node icons as grey in color and without a node name.

Table 2-5 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-5   Node Icon is Grey on CTC Network View

Possible Problem  Solution 

A username/password mismatch.

Usually accompanied by a NOT-AUTHENTICATED alarm. Correct the username and password as described in the "Operation: Username or Password Does Not Match" section.

No IP connectivity between nodes.

Usually accompanied by Ethernet-specific alarms. Verify the Ethernet connections as described in the "Ethernet Connections" section.

A lost DCC connection.

Usually accompanied by an EOC alarm. Clear the EOC alarm and verify the DCC connection as described in the "EOC" section.

2.3.6 Operation: CTC Cannot Launch Due to Applet Security Restrictions

Symptom   The error message "Unable to launch CTC due to applet security restrictions" appears after you enter the IP address in the browser window.

Table 2-6 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-6   CTC Cannot Launch Due to Applet Security Restrictions

Possible Problem  Solution 

Did not execute the javapolicyinstall.bat file, or the java.policy file may be incomplete.

1. Verify that you have executed the javapolicyinstall.bat file on the ONS 15454 SDH software CD. This file is installed when you run the CTC Setup Wizard (see the CTC installation information in the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Installation and Operations Guide for instructions).

2. If you ran the javapolicyinstall.bat file but still receive the error message, you must manually edit the java.policy file on your computer. See the "Manually Edit the java.policy File" section.

Procedure: Manually Edit the java.policy File


Step 1   Search your computer for the java.policy file and open it with a text editor (Notepad or Wordpad).

Step 2   Verify that the end of this file has the following lines:

// Insert this into the system-wide or a per-user java.policy file.
// DO NOT OVERWRITE THE SYSTEM-WIDE POLICY FILE--ADD THESE LINES!

grant codeBase "http://*/fs/LAUNCHER.jar" {
permission java.security.AllPermission;
};

Step 3   If these five lines are not in the file, enter them manually.

Step 4   Save the file and restart Netscape.

CTC should now start correctly.

Step 5   If the error message is still reported, save the java.policy file as .java.policy.

On Win95/98/2000 PCs, save the file to the C:\Windows folder. On WinNT4.0 PCs, save the file to all of the user folders on that PC, for example, C:\Winnt\profiles\joeuser.





2.3.7 Operation: Java Runtime Environment Incompatible

Symptom   The CTC application will not run properly.

Table 2-7 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-7   Java Runtime Environment Incompatible

Possible Problem  Solution 

Do not have the compatible JRE installed.

The Java 2 Runtime Environment (JRE) contains the Java virtual machine, runtime class libraries, and Java application launcher that are necessary to run programs written in the Java programming language.

The ONS 15454 SDH CTC is a Java application. A Java application, unlike an applet, cannot rely completely on a web browser for installation and runtime services. When you run an application written in the Java programming language, you need the correct JRE installed. The correct JRE for each CTC software release is included on the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH software CD and on the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH documentation CD.

Procedure: Launch CTC to Correct the Core Version Build


Step 1   Exit the current CTC session and completely close the browser.

Step 2   Start the browser.

Step 3   Type the ONS 15454 SDH IP address of the node that reported the alarm. This can be the original IP address you logged on with or an IP address other than the original.

Step 4   Log into CTC. The browser will download the jar file from CTC.





2.3.8 Operation: Username or Password Does Not Match

Symptom   A mismatch often occurs concurrently with a NOT-AUTHENTICATED alarm.

Table 2-8 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-8   Username or Password Do Not Match

Possible Problem  Solution 

The username or password entered do not match the information stored in the TCC-I.

All ONS nodes must have the same username and password created to display every ONS node in the network. You can also be locked out of certain ONS nodes on a network if your username and password were not created on those specific ONS nodes.

For initial logon to the ONS 15454 SDH, type the CISCO15 user name in capital letters and click Login (no password is required).

See the "Verify Correct Username and Password" section.

Procedure: Verify Correct Username and Password


Step 1   Ensure that your keyboard Caps Lock key is not turned on and affecting the case-sensitive entry of the username and password.

Step 2   Contact your system administrator to verify the username and password.

Step 3   Call Cisco TAC at 1-800-553-2447 or login to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml to obtain a directory of Cisco TAC toll-free numbers for your country to obtain more information to have them enter your system and create a new user name and password.





2.3.9 Operation: No IP Connectivity Exists Between Nodes

Symptom   The nodes have a grey icon and is usually accompanied by alarms.

Table 2-9 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-9   No IP Connectivity Exists Between Nodes

Possible Problem  Solution 

A lost Ethernet connection.

Usually is accompanied by Ethernet-specific alarms. Verify the Ethernet connections as described in the "Ethernet Connections" section.

2.3.10 Operation: DCC Connection Lost

Symptom   The node is usually accompanied by alarms and the nodes in the network view have a grey icon. This symptom is usually accompanied by an EOC alarm.

Table 2-10 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-10   DCC Connection Lost

Possible Problem  Solution 

A lost DCC connection.

Usually is accompanied by an EOC alarm. Clear the EOC alarm and verify the DCC connection as described in the "EOC" section.

2.3.11 Operation: Browser Login Does Not Launch Java

Symptom   The message "Loading Java Applet" does not appear and the JRE does not launch during the initial login.

Table 2-11 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-11   Browser Login Does Not Launch Java

Possible Problem  Solution 

The PC operating system and browser are not properly configured.

Reconfigure the PC operating system and the browser.

See the "Reconfigure the PC Operating System and the Browser" section.

Procedure: Reconfigure the PC Operating System and the Browser


Step 1   From the Windows start menu, click Programs > Java Plug-in Control Panel.

Step 2   If Java Plug-in Control Panel does not appear, the JRE may not be installed on your PC.

a. Run the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH software CD.

b. Open the [CD drive]:\Windows\j2rel1_3_1_02 folder.

c. Double-click the j2rel1_3_1_02 icon to run the JRE installation wizard.

d. Follow the JRE installation wizard steps.

Step 3   Click Advanced on the Java Plug-in Control Panel.

Step 4   From the Java Run Time Environment menu, select JRE 1.3.1 in C:\ProgramFiles\JavaSoft\JRE\1.3.1

Step 5   Click Apply.

Step 6   On Netscape Navigator, click Edit > Preferences.

Step 7   Click Advanced > Proxies > Direct connection to the Internet > OK.

Step 8   Again on Netscape Navigator, click Edit > Preferences.

Step 9   Click Advanced > Cache.

Step 10   Confirm that the Disk Cache Folder field shows C:\ProgramFiles\Netscape\Communicator\cache for Windows 95/98/ME

or C:\ProgramFiles\Netscape\<username>\Communicator\cache for Windows NT/2000.

Step 11   If the Disk Cache Folder field is not correct, click Choose Folder.

Step 12   Navigate to the file listed in Step 10 and click OK.

Step 13   Click OK on the Preferences window and exit the browser.

Step 14   Temporarily disable any virus-scanning software on the computer. See the "Operation: Browser Stalls When Downloading jar File From TCC-I" section.

Step 15   Verify that the computer does not have two network interface cards (NICs) installed. If the computer does have two NICs, remove one.

Step 16   Restart the browser and log into the ONS 15454 SDH.





2.3.12 Connectivity: Verify PC Connection to ONS 15454 SDH (ping)

Symptom   The TCP/IP connection was established and then lost, and a DISCONNECTED alarm appears on CTC.

Table 2-12 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-12   Verify PC connection to ONS 15454 (ping)

Possible Problem  Solution 

A lost connection between the PC and the ONS 1554.

Use a standard ping command to verify the TCP/IP connection between the PC and the ONS 15454 TCC-I card. A ping command will work if the PC connects directly to the TCC-I card or uses a LAN to access the TCC-I card.

See the "Ping the ONS 15454 SDH" section.

Procedure: Ping the ONS 15454 SDH


Step 1   Display the command prompt:

a. If you are using a Microsoft Windows operating system, from the Start Menu choose Run, type command prompt in the Open field of the Run dialog box, and click OK.

b. If you are using a Sun Solaris operating system, from the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) click the Personal Application tab and click Terminal.

Step 2   For both the Sun and Microsoft operating systems, at the prompt type:

ping [IP address] 
For example, ping 192.1.0.2.

Step 3   If the workstation has connectivity to the ONS 15454 SDH, the ping is successful and displays a reply from the IP address. If the workstation does not have connectivity, a "Request timed out" message displays.

Step 4   If the ping is successful, an active TCP/IP connection exists. Restart CTC.

Step 5   If the ping is not successful, and the workstation connects to the ONS 15454 SDH through a LAN, check that the workstation's IP address is on the same subnet as the ONS node.

Step 6   If the ping is not successful and the workstation connects directly to the ONS 15454 SDH, check that the link light on the workstation's NIC is illuminated.





2.3.13 Calculate and Design IP Subnets

Symptom   You cannot properly calculate or design IP subnets on the ONS 15454 SDH.

Table 2-13 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-13   Calculate and Design IP Subnets

Possible Problem  Solution 

The IP capabilities of the ONS 15454 SDH require specific calculations to properly design IP subnets.

Cisco provides a free online tool to calculate and design IP subnets. Go to http://www.cisco.com/techtools/ip_addr.html. For information about ONS 15454 IP capability, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Installation and Operations Guide.

2.3.14 Ethernet Connections

Symptom   Ethernet connections appear to be broken or are not working properly.

Table 2-14 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-14   Calculate and Design IP Subnets

Possible Problem  Solution 

Improperly seated connections.

You can fix most connectivity problems in an Ethernet network by following a few guidelines. See Figure 2-11 when consulting the steps in the "Verify Ethernet Connections" section.

Incorrect connections.


Figure 2-11   Ethernet connectivity reference


Procedure: Verify Ethernet Connections


Step 1   Check for SONET alarms on the STS-N that carries the VLAN #1 Ethernet circuit. Clear any alarms by looking them up in "Alarm Index."

Step 2   Check for Ethernet-specific alarms. Clear any raised alarms by looking up that alarm in "Alarm Index."

Step 3   Verify that the ACT LED on the Ethernet card is green.

Step 4   Verify that Ports 1 and 3 on ONS 15454 SDH #1 and Ports 1 and 2 on ONS 15454 SDH #2 have green link-integrity LEDs illuminated.

Step 5   If no green link-integrity LED is illuminated for any of these ports:

a. Verify physical connectivity between the ONS 15454 SDHs and the attached device.

b. Verify that the ports are enabled on the Ethernet cards.

c. Verify that you are using the proper Ethernet cable and that it is wired correctly, or replace the cable with a known-good Ethernet cable.

d. Check the status LED on the Ethernet card faceplate to ensure the card booted up properly. This LED should be steady green. If necessary, remove and reinsert the card and allow it to reboot.

e. It is possible that the Ethernet port is functioning properly but the link LED itself is broken. Run the procedure in the "Lamp Test for Card LEDs" section.

Step 6   Verify connectivity between device A and device C by pinging between these locally attached devices (see the "Connectivity: Verify PC Connection to ONS 15454 SDH (ping)" section). If the ping is unsuccessful:

a. Verify that device A and device C are on the same IP subnet.

b. Display the Ethernet card in CTC card view and click the Provisioning > VLAN tabs to verify that both Port 1 and Port 3 on the card are assigned to the same VLAN.

c. If a port is not assigned to the correct VLAN, click that port column in the VLAN row and set the port to Tagged or Untag. Click Apply.

Step 7   Repeat Step 6 for devices B and D.

Step 8   Verify that the Ethernet circuit that carries VLAN #1 is provisioned and that ONS 15454 SDH #1 and ONS 15454 SDH #2 ports also use VLAN #1.





2.3.15 VLAN Cannot Connect to Network Device from Untag Port

Symptom   Networks that have a VLAN with one ONS 15454 SDH Ethernet card port set to Tagged and one ONS 15454 SDH Ethernet card set to Untag may have difficulty implementing Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for a network device attached to the Untag port (Figure 2-12). They may also see a higher than normal runt packets count at the network device attached to the Untag port.


Figure 2-12   A VLAN with Ethernet ports at Tagged and Untag


Table 2-15 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-15   Verify PC connection to ONS 15454 SDH (ping)

Possible Problem  Solution 

The Tagged ONS 15454 SDH adds the 802.1Q tag and the Untag ONS 15454 SDH removes the Q-tag without replacing the bytes. The NIC of the network device categorizes the packet as a runt and drops the packet.

The solution is to set both ports in the VLAN to Tagged to stop the stripping of the 4 bytes from the data packet and prevent the NIC in the network access device from recognizing the packet as a runt and dropping it. Network devices with 802.1Q-compliant NIC cards will accept the tagged packets. Network devices with non-802.1Q compliant NIC cards will still drop these tagged packets. The solution may require upgrading network devices with non-802.1Q compliant NIC cards to 802.1Q-compliant NIC cards. You can also set both ports in the VLAN to Untag, but you will lose 802.1Q compliance.

Dropped packets can occur when ARP attempts to match the IP address of the network device attached to the Untag port with the physical MAC address required by the network access layer.

Procedure: Change VLAN Port Tag and Untagged Settings


Step 1   Display the CTC card view for the Ethernet card involved in the problem VLAN.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > VLAN tabs (Figure 2-13).


Figure 2-13   Configuring VLAN membership for individual Ethernet ports


Step 3   If the port is set to Tagged, continue to look at other cards and their ports in the VLAN until you find the port that is set to Untag.

Step 4   At the VLAN port set to Untag, click the port and choose Tagged.


Note    The attached external devices must recognize IEEE 802.1Q VLANs.

Step 5   After each port is in the appropriate VLAN, click Apply.





2.4 Circuits and Timing

This section provides solutions to circuit creation and reporting errors, as well as common timing reference errors and alarms.

2.4.1 TU-AIS on Unused VC Circuits

Symptom   An incomplete circuit path causes a tributary unit alarm indications signal (TU-AIS).

Table 2-16 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-16   TU-AIS on Unused VC Circuits

Possible Problem  Solution 

The port on the reporting node is in-service but a node upstream on the circuit does not have an STM-N port in service.

A TU-AIS indicates that an upstream failure occurred at the virtual channel (VC) layer. TU-AIS alarms also occur on VC circuits that are not carrying traffic and on stranded bandwidth.

Perform the "Clear TU-AIS on Unused VC Circuits" section.

Procedure: Clear TU-AIS on Unused VC Circuits


Step 1   Determine the affected port.

Step 2   Record the node ID, slot number, port number, or VC number.

Step 3   Create a unidirectional VC circuit from the affected port back to itself, such as Source node/Slot 2/Port 2/VC11 cross connected to Source node/Slot 2/Port 2/VC11.

Step 4   Uncheck the bidirectional box in the circuit creation window.

Step 5   Give the unidirectional VC circuit an easily recognizable name, such as delete me.

Step 6   Display the DS3IN card in CTC card view. Click the Maintenance > DS1 tabs.

Step 7   Locate the VC that is reporting the alarm (for example, DS3 #2, DS1 #13).

Step 8   From the Loopback Type list, choose Facility (line) and click Apply.

Step 9   Click Circuits.

Step 10   Find the one-way circuit you created in Step 2. Select the circuit and click Delete.

Step 11   Click Yes in the Delete Confirmation box.

Step 12   Display the DS3IN card in CTC card view. Click Maintenance > DS1.

Step 13   Locate the VC in Facility (line) Loopback.

Step 14   From the Loopback Type list, choose None and then click Apply.

Step 15   Click the Alarm tab and verify that the TU-AIS alarms have cleared.

Step 16   Repeat this procedure for all the TU-AIS alarms on the DS3IN cards.





2.4.2 Circuit Creation Error with VC Circuit

Symptom   You might receive an "Error while finishing circuit creation. Unable to provision circuit. Unable to create connection object at <node name>" message when trying to create a VC circuit in CTC.

Table 2-17 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-17   Circuit Creation Error with VC Circuit

Possible Problem  Solution 

You may have run out of bandwidth on the VC cross-connect matrix at the ONS 15454 SDH indicated in the error message.

The matrix has a maximum capacity of 336 bidirectional VC cross-connects. Certain configurations will exhaust VC capacity with less than 336 bidirectional VCs in a MS-SPRing or less than 224 bidirectional VCs in SNCP or 1+1 protection. Refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Installation and Operations Guide for more information.

2.4.3 ONS 15454 SDH Switches Timing Reference

Symptom   Timing references switch when one or more problems occur.

Table 2-18 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-18   ONS 15454 SDH Switches Timing Reference

Possible Problem  Solution 

The optical or SETS input is receiving loss of signal (LOS), loss of frame (LOF), or AIS alarms from its timing source.

The ONS 15454 SDH internal clock operates at a Stratum 3 level of accuracy. This gives the ONS 15454 SDH a free-running synchronization accuracy of ± 4.6 ppm and a holdover stability of less than 255 slips in the first 24 hours or 3.7x10-7/day, including temperature.

ONS 15454 SDH free-running synchronization relies on the Stratum 3 internal clock. Over an extended time period, using a higher quality Stratum 1 or Stratum 2 timing source results in fewer timing slips than a lower quality Stratum 3 timing source.

The optical or SETS input is not functioning.

Sync Status Messaging (SSM) message is set to Don't Use for Sync (DUS).

SSM indicates a Stratum 3 or lower clock quality.

The input frequency is off by more than 15 ppm.

The input clock wanders and has more than three slips in 30 seconds.

A bad timing reference existed for at least two minutes.

2.4.4 Holdover Synchronization Alarm

Symptom   The clock is running at a different frequency than normal and the HLDOVERSYNC alarm appears.

Table 2-19 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-19   Holdover Synchronization Alarm

Possible Problem  Solution 

The last reference input has failed.

The clock is running at the frequency of the last known-good reference input. This alarm is raised when the last reference input fails. See the "HLDOVERSYNC" section for a detailed description of this alarm.

2.4.5 Free-Running Synchronization Mode

Symptom   The clock is running at a different frequency than normal and the FRNGSYNC alarm appears.

Table 2-20 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-20   Free-Running Synchronization Mode

Possible Problem  Solution 

No reliable reference input is available.

The clock is using the internal oscillator as its only frequency reference. This occurs when no reliable, prior timing reference is available. See the "FRNGSYNC" section for a detailed description of this alarm.

2.4.6 Daisy-Chained SETS Not Functioning

Symptom   You are unable to daisy-chain the SETS.

Table 2-21 outlines the problem that might cause this symptom and describes solutions to the problem.

Table 2-21   Daisy-Chained SETS Not Functioning

Possible Problem  Solution 

Daisy-chaining SETS is not supported on the ONS 15454 SDH.

Daisy-chaining SETS causes additional wander buildup in the network and is therefore not supported. Instead, use a timing signal generator to create multiple copies of the SETS clock and separately link them to each ONS 15454 SDH.

2.5 Fiber and Cabling

This section explains problems typically caused by cabling connectivity errors. It also includes instructions for crimping Cat 5 cable and lists the optical fiber connectivity levels.

2.5.1 Bit Errors Appear for a Traffic Card

Symptom   A traffic card has multiple Bit errors.

Table 2-22 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-22   Bit Errors Appear for a Line Card

Possible Problem  Solution 

Faulty cabling or low optical-line levels.

Bit errors on line (traffic) cards usually originate from cabling problems or low optical-line levels. The errors can be caused by synchronization problems, especially if PJ (pointer justification) errors are reported. Moving cards into different error-free slots will isolate the cause. Use a test set whenever possible because the cause of the errors could be external cabling, fiber, or external equipment connecting to the ONS 15454 SDH. Troubleshoot cabling problems using the "Network Troubleshooting Tests" section. Troubleshoot low optical levels using the "Faulty Fiber-Optic Connections" section.

2.5.2 Faulty Fiber-Optic Connections

Symptom   A line card has multiple SONET alarms and/or signal errors.

Table 2-23 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-23   Faulty Fiber-Optic Connections

Possible Problem  Solution 

Faulty fiber-optic connections.

Faulty fiber-optic connections can be the source of SONET alarms and signal errors. Refer to the "Verify Fiber-Optic Connections" section.

Faulty gigabit interface connectors.

Faulty gigabit interface converters can be the source of SONET alarms and signal errors. Refer to the "Replace Faulty Gigabit Interface Converters" section.

Faulty CAT-5 cables.

Faulty CAT-5 cables can be the source of SONET alarms and signal errors. Refer to the "Crimp Replacement CAT-5 Cables" section.


Warning Follow all directions and warning labels when working with optical fibers. To prevent eye damage, never look directly into a fiber or connector. Class IIIb laser. Danger, laser radiation when open. The OC-192 laser is off when the safety key is off (labeled 0). The laser is on when the card is booted and the safety key is in the on position (labeled 1). The port does not have to be in service for the laser to be on. Avoid direct exposure to the beam. Invisible radiation is emitted from the aperture at the end of the fiber optic cable when connected, but not terminated.

Procedure: Verify Fiber-Optic Connections


Step 1   Ensure that a single-mode fiber connects to the ONS 15454 SDH STM-N card.

SM or SM fiber should be printed on the fiber span cable. ONS 15454 SDH STM-N cards do not use multimode fiber.

Step 2   Ensure that the connector keys on the SC fiber connector are properly aligned and locked.

Step 3   Check that the single-mode fiber power level is within the specified range:

a. Remove the receive (Rx) end of the suspect fiber.

b. Connect the receive end of the suspect fiber to a fiber-optic power meter, such as a GN Nettest LP-5000.

c. Determine the power level of fiber with the fiber-optic power meter.

d. Verify the power meter is set to the appropriate wavelength for the optical card being tested (either 1310 nm or 1550 nm depending on the specific card).

e. Verify that the power level falls within the range specified for the card; see the "Optical Card Transmit and Receive Levels" section.

Step 4   If the power level falls below the specified range:

a. Clean or replace the fiber patch cords. If possible, do this for the STM-N card you are working on and the far-end card.

b. Clean the optical connectors on the card. If possible, do this for the STM-N card you are working on and the far-end card.

c. Ensure that the far-end transmitting card is not an ONS intermediate range (IR) card when an ONS long range (LR) card is appropriate.

IR cards transmit a lower output power than LR cards.

d. Replace the far-end transmitting STM-N card to eliminate the possibility of a degrading transmitter on this STM-N card.


Caution   Removing a card that currently carries traffic on one or more ports can cause a traffic hit. To avoid this, perform an external switch if a switch has not already occurred. Consult "Maintenance," for information.

e. If the power level still falls below the specified range with the replacement fibers and replacement card, check for one of these three factors that attenuate the power level and affect link loss (LL):

  • Excessive fiber distance; single-mode fiber attenuates at approximately 0.5 dB/km.
  • Excessive number or fiber connectors; connectors take approximately 0.5 dB each.
  • Excessive number of fiber splices; splices take approximately 0.5 dB each.

Note    These are typical attenuation values. Refer to the specific product documentation for the actual values or use an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) to establish precise link loss and budget requirements.

Step 5   If no power level shows on the fiber, the fiber is bad or the transmitter on the optical card failed.

a. Check that the Transmit (Tx) and Receive (Rx) fibers are not reversed. LOS and EOC alarms normally accompany reversed Tx and Rx fibers. Switching reversed Tx and Rx fibers clears the alarms and restores the signal.

b. Clean or replace the fiber patch cords. If possible, do this for the STM-N card you are working on and the far-end card.

c. Retest the fiber power level.

d. If the replacement fiber still shows no power, replace the optical card.

Step 6   If the power level on the fiber is above the range specified for the card, ensure that an ONS long-range (LR) card is not being used when an ONS intermediate-range (IR) card is appropriate.

LR cards transmit a higher output power than IR cards. When used with short runs of fiber, an LR transmitter will be too powerful for the receiver on the receiving STM-N card.

Receiver overloads occur when maximum receiver power is exceeded.


Tip To prevent overloading the receiver, use an attenuator on the fiber between the ONS STM-N card transmitter and the receiver. Place the attenuator on the receive transmitter of the ONS STM-N cards. Refer to the attenuator documentation for specific instructions.


Tip Most fiber has text printed on only one of the two fiber strands. Use this to identify which fiber is connected to Tx and which fiber is connected to Rx.





Procedure: Replace Faulty Gigabit Interface Converters

Gigabit interface converters (GBICs) are hot-swappable input/output devices that plug into a Gigabit Ethernet port to link the port with the fiber-optic network. Cisco provides two GBIC models: one for short-reach applications, 15454-GBIC-SX, and one for long-reach applications, 15454-GBIC-LX. The short-reach, or "SX" model, connects to multimode fiber and has a maximum cabling distance of 1804 feet. The long-reach, or "LX" model, requires single-mode fiber and has a maximum cabling distance of 10000.5 metres (32,810 feet).

GBICs can be installed or removed while the card and shelf assembly are powered and running. GBIC transmit failure is characterized by a steadily blinking Fail LED on the Gigabit Ethernet (E1000-2/E1000-2-G) card. Figure 2-14 shows a GBIC.


Figure 2-14   A gigabit interface converter (GBIC)



Warning Class 1 laser product


Warning Invisible laser radiation may be emitted from the aperture ports of single-mode fiber optic modules when a cable is not connected. Avoid exposure and do not stare into open apertures.


Step 1   Disconnect the network interface fiber-optic cable from the GBIC SC connector and replace the protective plug.

Step 2   Release the GBIC from the card interface by simultaneously squeezing the two plastic tabs, one on each side of the GBIC.

Step 3   Slide the GBIC out of the Gigabit Ethernet front-panel slot.


Note    A flap closes over the GBIC slot to protect the connector on the Gigabit Ethernet (E1000-2/E1000-2-G) card.

Step 4   Remove the new GBIC from its protective packaging.

Step 5   Check the part number to verify that the GBIC is the correct type for your network.


Caution   Check the label on the GBIC carefully. The two GBIC models look similar.

Step 6   Grip the sides of the GBIC with your thumb and forefinger and insert the GBIC into the slot on the front panel of the Gigabit Ethernet (E1000-2/E1000-2-G) card (see Figure 2-15).


Note    GBICs are keyed to prevent incorrect installation.


Figure 2-15   Installing a GBIC on the E1000-2/E1000-2-G card


Step 7   Slide the GBIC through the front flap until you hear a click.

The click indicates that the GBIC is locked into the slot.

Step 8   When you are ready to attach the network interface fiber-optic cable, remove the protective plug from the GBIC and save the plug for future use.





Procedure: Crimp Replacement CAT-5 Cables

You can crimp your own CAT-5 cables for use with the ONS 15454 SDH. Use a cross-over cable when connecting an ONS 15454 SDH to a hub, LAN modem, or switch, and use a straight-through cable when connecting an ONS 15454 SDH to a router or workstation. Use CAT 5 cable RJ-45 T-568B, Color Code (100 Mbps), and a crimping tool.


Figure 2-16   RJ-45 pin numbers



Figure 2-17   A straight-through cable layout


Table 2-24   Straight-through cable pinout

Pin  Color  Pair  Name  Pin 

1

white/orange

2

Transmit Data +

1

2

orange

2

Transmit Data -

2

3

white/green

3

Receive Data +

3

4

blue

1

 

4

5

white/blue

1

 

5

6

green

3

Receive Data -

6

7

white/brown

4

 

7

8

brown

4

 

8


Figure 2-18   A cross-over cable layout


Table 2-25   Cross-over cable pinout

Pin  Color  Pair  Name  Pin 

1

white/orange

2

Transmit Data +

3

2

orange

2

Transmit Data -

6

3

white/green

3

Receive Data +

1

4

blue

1

 

4

5

white/blue

1

 

5

6

green

3

Receive Data -

2

7

white/brown

4

 

7

8

brown

4

 

8


Note   Odd-numbered pins always connect to a white wire with a colored stripe.

2.5.3 Optical Card Transmit and Receive Levels

Each STM-N card has a transmit and receive connector on its faceplate.

Table 2-26   Optical Card Transmit and Receive Levels

Optical card  Rx  Tx 

4/STM1 LH 1310

-8 to -28 dBm

-8 to -15 dBm

STM4 SH 1310

-8 to -28 dBm

-8 to -15 dBm

STM4 LH 1310

-8 to -28 dBm

+2 to -3 dBm

STM4 LH 1550

-8 to -28 dBm

+2 to -3 dBm

STM16 SH 1310

-8 to -28 dBm

+3 to -2 dBm

STM16 LH 1550

-8 to -28 dBm

+3 to -2 dBm

STM16 EH 100GHz

-8 to -28 dBm

0 to -2 dBm

STM64 LH 1550

-9 to -17 dBm

+10 to +7 dBm

2.6 Power and LED Tests

This section provides the "Power Supply Problems" section, the "Power Consumption for Node and Cards" section, and the "Lamp Test for Card LEDs" section.

2.6.1 Power Supply Problems

Symptom   Loss of power or low voltage resulting in a loss of traffic and causing the LCD clock to reset to the default date and time.

Table 2-27 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-27   Power Supply Problems

Possible Problem  Solution 

Loss of power or low voltage.

The ONS 15454 SDH requires a constant source of DC power to properly function. Input power is -48 VDC. Power requirements range from -42 VDC to -57 VDC.

A newly installed ONS 15454 SDH that is not properly connected to its power supply will not operate. Power problems can be confined to a specific ONS 15454 SDH or affect several pieces of equipment on the site.

A loss of power or low voltage can result in a loss of traffic and causes the LCD clock on the ONS 15454 SDH to default to January 1, 1970, 00:04:15. For clock reset instructions, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Installation and Operations Guide.

Refer to the "Isolate the Cause of Power Supply Problems" section.

Improperly connected power supply.


Caution   Operations that interrupt power supply or short the power connections to the ONS 15454 SDH are service-affecting.


Warning When working with live power, always use proper tools and eye protection.


Warning Always use the supplied electrostatic discharge (ESD) wristband when working with a powered ONS 15454 SDH. Plug the wristband cable into the ESD jack located on the lower-right outside edge of the shelf assembly.

Procedure: Isolate the Cause of Power Supply Problems


Step 1   If a single ONS 15454 SDH show signs of fluctuating power or power loss:

a. Verify that the -48 VDC #8 power terminals are properly connected to a fuse panel. These power terminals are located on the lower section of the backplane FMEC card under the clear plastic cover.

b. Verify that the power cable is #12 or #14 AWG and in good condition.

c. Verify that the power cable connections are properly crimped. Stranded #12 or #14 AWG does not always crimp properly with Staycon type connectors.

d. Verify that 20A fuses are used in the fuse panel.

e. Verify that the fuses are not blown.

f. Verify that a rack-ground cable attaches to the frame-ground terminal (FGND) on the right side of the ONS 15454 SDH FMEC card. Connect this cable to the ground terminal according to local site practice.

g. Verify that the DC power source has enough capacity to carry the power load.

h. If the DC power source is battery-based:

  • Check that the output power is high enough. Power requirements range from -42 VDC to -57
    VDC.
  • Check the age of the batteries. Battery performance decreases with age.
  • Check for opens and shorts in batteries, which may affect power output.
  • If brownouts occur, the power load and fuses may be too high for the battery plant.

Step 2   If multiple pieces of site equipment show signs of fluctuating power or power loss:

a. Check the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or rectifiers that supply the equipment. Refer to the UPS manufacturer's documentation for specific instructions.

b. Check for excessive power drains caused by other equipment, such as generators.

c. Check for excessive power demand on backup power systems or batteries when alternate power sources are used.





2.6.2 Power Consumption for Node and Cards

Symptom   You are unable to power up a node or the cards in a node.

Table 2-28 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-28   Power Consumption for Node and Cards

Possible Problem  Solution 

Improper power supply.

Refer to power information in the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Installation and Operations Guide.

2.6.3 Lamp Test for Card LEDs

Symptom   Card LED will not light or you are unsure if LEDs are working properly.

Table 2-29 describes the potential cause(s) of the symptom and the solution(s).

Table 2-29   Lamp Test for Card LEDs

Possible Problem  Solution 

Faulty LED

A lamp test verifies that all the card LEDs work. Run this diagnostic test as part of the initial ONS 15454 SDH turn-up, a periodic maintenance routine, or any time you question whether an LED is in working order.

See the "Verify Card LED Operation" section.

Procedure: Verify Card LED Operation


Step 1   Click the Maintenance > Diagnostic tabs.

Step 2   Click Lamp Test.

Step 3   Watch to make sure all the LEDs on the cards illuminate for several seconds.

Step 4   Click OK on the Lamp Test Run dialog box.

If an LED does not illuminate, the LED is faulty. Call the Cisco TAC at 1-800-553-2447 and fill out an RMA to return the card.