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Cisco ONS 15200 Series DWDM Systems

Release Notes for ONS 15216 EDFA2, Release 2.3.0

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Release Notes for ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.3.0

What's New in Release 2.3.0

Closed Caveats—ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.3.0

Open Caveats—ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.3.0

Special Instructions

ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Upgrade Using TL1 Shell

ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Upgrade Using ASH Shell

ONS 15216 EDFA2 Firmware Upgrade Using ASH Shell

ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Uninstall Using TL1 Shell

ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Uninstall Using ASH Shell

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Release Notes for ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.3.0


These release notes support the 2.3.0 product release of the Cisco ONS 15216 EDFA2. The contents include closed caveats (resolved bugs) since the previous 2.2.1 release, open caveats tracked in Cisco DDTS, notes of documentation changes and errors, software upgrade and uninstall procedures, and a firmware upgrade procedure.

The 2.3.0 software release is compatible with all hardware revisions of the ONS 15216 EDFA2, provided that the software and firmware are upgraded in sequential steps in the order released.

What's New in Release 2.3.0

The 2.3.0 product release of the Cisco ONS 15216 EDFA2 is different than the 2.2.1 product release mainly in the addition of a system configuration backup and restore feature:

A system configuration backup and restore feature is available using TL1, ASH, and SNMP.

A new revision of the ONS 15216 EDFA2 hardware (PCA Number 74-2256-04) allows the power bus alarm to function with a common ground (RTN) and detect a loss of power to either the -48VDC A or B power terminals (when independently powered in duplex mode).


Note To determine the revision of hardware, use the ASH shell command srom id display. The PCA Number for hardware with the common ground power bus modification is 74-2256-04 and above.


The first power bus alarm is Minor in severity in TL1, ASH, and SNMP. In duplex mode, a second, concurrent power bus alarm is delivered as Critical in severity.

The RTRV-DWDM command shows the configured gain value, as well as the actual gain value.

The SNMP sysName value maps to SID/TID in TL1.

The password special characters are limited to plus (+), pound (#), and percent-sign (%).

A new CERENT-15216-EDFA-MIB.mib file goes with Release 2.3.0.


Note To determine if a MIB is the new version for Release 2.3.0, check that the cerent15216EdfaOpGroup table supports the backup and restore operation (see the open caveat "CSCec12369").


New firmware, version 2.3.15, is required to fix the closed caveat "CSCdz55032" listed below.

A number of miscellaneous minor bugs were fixed, as described in the "Closed Caveats" section of this document.

Closed Caveats—ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.3.0

CSCdy06120 and CSCdy15422

Issue: The password format does not conform to TL1 requirements.

Description: According to Telcordia TR-835, a password can be up to 10 characters with at least 2 alphanumeric and 1 special character (plus (+), pound (#), or percent-sign (%)), and optionally any digits. The ONS 15216 EDFA2 does not fully conform to these rules because it accepts additional special characters such as ~, @, and $.

Resolution: Only plus (+), pound (#), and percent-sign (%) are accepted as special characters when entering a new password.

CSCdz52026 and CSCdz53900

Issue: manufacturer restore defaults all command does not reset the power bus settings.

Description: The power bus setting for mode and minimum and maximum threshold values are not reset to manufacturer defaults by the manufacturer restore defaults all command.

Resolution: The command restores the manufacturer default power bus settings.

CSCdz55032

Issue: Rolling reboot occurs when booting from an incomplete image.

Description: If an image is partially downloaded and gets set as the first boot entry, the system will continuously try to reboot from that image without switching to the second boot entry as it should.

Resolution: Rolling reboot does not occur if the ONS 15216 EDFA2 uses firmware version 2.3.15.

CSCea19310

Issue: Using ED-DWDM to change the pump control mode to GAINTEMP while setting the overall gain at the same time fails.

Description: If the pump control mode is not GAINTEMP and ED-DWDM is used to change the pump control mode to GAINTEMP and set the overall gain (on the same command), the command returns "command execution failed."

Resolution: ED-DWDM allows user to simultaneously change the pump control mode and set the overall gain value.

CSCea83531

Issue: Power Bus alarm severity reported as Major instead of Minor in the SNMP Alarm Entry table.

Description: The severity for PWRBUS alarm should be Minor, and the ONS 15216 EDFA2 reports it as MN in TL1, but the SNMP cerent15216EdfaAlarmEntry table reports it as Major.

Resolution: A Power Bus alarm is correctly displayed as Minor in the SNMP Alarm Entry table. Note that a second Power Bus alarm is Critical in Release 2.3.0 software.

CSCeb32093

Issue: RTRV-DWDM does not show the provisioned gain value.

Description: The ED-DWDM command uses the OVERALLGAIN parameter to set the ONS 15216 EDFA2 gain, but there is no corresponding parameter in the RTRV-DWDM response. The user should be able to retrieve the provisioned gain value.

Resolution: RTRV-DWDM shows the configured gain as well as the measured gain.

CSCeb39064

Issue: ED-PID command accepts asterisks in a password.

Description: The asterisk is accepted as a special character in the ED-PID command. Per GR-831, only the special characters +, #, and % should be accepted. This leads to a problem if the ED-PID command is copied and pasted. Since the password is hidden by asterisks, the pasted password may be changed to all asterisks.

Resolution: Asterisks are not accepted when passwords are created.

CSCeb54096

Issue: The TL1 SID/TID name and the SNMP sysName are different.

Description: SID/TID name from TL1 should be the same as sysName in SNMP.

Resolution: These names are now the same (and restricted to 20 characters in length).

CSCeb84408

Issue: A response is not received for a cerent15216EdfaOpLoad(perform) set-Req.

Description: A set request for cerent15216EdfaOpLoad(perform) to start a software download is not received. Instead it times out.

Resolution: The set request for cerent15216EdfaOpLoad(perform) is received.

Open Caveats—ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.3.0

New Open Caveats

The following open caveats have been discovered since the publication of the Release Notes for ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.2.1.

CSCdy73907

Issue: The Power Bus failure alarm is reported as an Environmental alarm in TL1.

Description: The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should report the DC Power Failure alarms as Common Equipment (COM) alarms, not as Environmental (ENV) alarms. This issue is broad in scope because the messages REPT EVT ENV and REPT ALM ENV as well as the commands RTRV-ALM-ENV and RTRV-COND-ENV need to be changed to show COM. The AID needs to be replaced with COM as well.

Workaround: The Power Bus failure alarm is available as an Environmental alarm.

CSCeb44850

Issue: The SNMP entPhysicalName should be Read Only.

Description: The ONS 15216 EDFA2 allows the user to set, for management purposes, the object cerent15216EdfaSromIpMgmtHostName. But after a soft reset, entPhysicalName gets changed to the value set for cerent15216EdfaSromIpMgmtHostName. This is incorrect since entPhysicalName is defined as Read Only in RFC-2737; it is meant to be a hard-wired name given to the physical components of the device.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCeb79455

Issue: Parameters that are not for the active mode are not backed up.

Description: While backing up the configuration database, only the parameters that are part of the active mode are backed up. Therefore, only active values can be restored. For example, if the pump control mode is constCurrent when the backup is created, then only the constCurrent control values are backed up and restored.

Workaround: Make sure that the pump mode and pump control values are the desired values before doing a database backup. All non-configuration related variables are not backed up. After restoring the system configuration, make any desired changes to inactive mode settings.

CSCeb84303

Issue: Pump control values are not restored if the value is zero.

Description: Pump control values are not restored if the value of the attributes on the unit being restored are zero. That is, if the control mode is constCurrent and all the pump values are zero, then restoring the configuration with non-zero values does not work.

Workaround: After a database restore operation, before doing a processor reset, read the pump mode and pump control values and if the mode is not Constant Gain, re-enter the pump control mode and values.

CSCeb86286

Issue: Authentication Failure trap is not generated.

Description: A set-Req with Read-Only CommunityString does not generate an Authentication Failure notification. The request is timed out. Since there is no response for the set-Req, the management system has no information to handle the situation.

Workaround: Authentication Failure traps must be enabled using the attribute snmpEnableAuthenTraps for the traps to be generated.

CSCeb87365

Issue: No standing condition is raised at the start of a configuration database backup.

Description: The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should raise a standing condition in the system and indicate to all interfaces that it is backing up or restoring the database.

Workaround: The system allows only one backup/restore operation to be performed at a time, so the standing condition message is not required to prevent a concurrent backup or restore.

CSCec03848

Issue: Users should be able to change passwords and access level privileges without changing the user identification (UID).

Description: ED-USER-SECU should allow a RWA user to change their or another user's attributes like password and access level (R/RW/RWA) without having to necessarily change the UID. The ONS 15216 EDFA2 allows a change of password or access level only if a new UID is also being defined.

Workaround: Execute two commands, changing back the UID with the second:

ED-USER-SECU::SVTDB2:f1::SVTDB2b,SVTDB2%,,RWA; (to change password and access level)
ED-USER-SECU::SVTDB2b:f1::SVTDB2,SVTDB2%,,RWA; (to change user id back to the original)

CSCec03979

Issue: Inconsistency between TL1 and SNMP/CLI in displaying Gain alarm status.

Description: CLI and SNMP can show "Gain Out of Range" alarm as active when TL1 does not.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCec07681

Issue: An OpCutOver action does not generate an OpFinished notification.

Description: An OpCutOver action does not generate an OpFinished notification.

Workaround: The OpCutOver operation returns a result when the operation is completed.

CSCec12369

Issue: Incorrect MIB module identity date.

Description: The MIB integrated into the Release 2.3.0 software image is dated 2002/Oct/24, which is the same date as the MIB for Release 2.2.1 software, even though the MIB has been revised.

Workaround: Ignore the MIB date. To determine if a MIB is the new version for Release 2.3.0, perform a get on the cerent15216EdfaOpGroup table and check that it supports the backup and restore operation.

CSCuk45624

Issue: If a configuration database restore fails, an ASH shell user can not retry it.

Description: If a database restore operation fails, an ASH shell user can not delete the .tmp file created in the FFS and can not re-perform the restore system command.

Workaround: Delete the file using TL1, then re-enter the restore system command using the ASH shell.

CSCuk45626

Issue: REPT EVT FXFR message is sent only to the local session.

Description: When starting COPY-RFILE command, the related REPT EVT FXFR autonomous messages is sent only to the local session. Other users logged in the same ONS 15216 EDFA2 are not notified.

Workaround: The other users can retrieve the event information using RTRV-AO.

CSCuk45632

Issue: SNMP shows an incorrect severity for the Case Temperature alarm.

Description: The SNMP trap reports a Case Temperature alarm as Major severity instead of Minor.

Workaround: This is not service affecting. Ignore the severity of the case temperature alarm.

CSCuk45777

Issue: The snmpInBadCommunityUses counter does not increment.

Description: The snmpInBadCommunityUses counter always returns zero. It should increment by the number of SNMP-Set requests sent with a community name not valid for the same operation.

Workaround: Check the snmpInBadCommunityNames counter, which provides the information as to why the operation failed (incorrect community).

CSCuk45779

Issue: The ifTableLastChange and ifStackLastChange cannot be retrieved.

Description: The ONS 15216 EDFA2 does not allow a user to retrieve ifTableLastChange and ifStackLastChange. They should be Read Only.

Workaround: The operation is not supported and it is considered to be non-service affecting.

CSCuk45821

Issue: No SNMP trap is sent on a database backup or restore failure.

Description: When a database backup or restore operation fails, a message should be displayed to the user. When such a failure occurs, TL1 correctly generates an autonomous message, but SNMP does not deliver a corresponding trap. This is observed when starting a database backup through TL1 while another backup is already in progress through TL1.

Workaround: Use the TL1 RTRV-AO command to retrieve latest events generated by the ONS 15216 EDFA2.

General Caveats

The following open caveats relate to the ONS 15216 EDFA2 in general.

CSCdx41604

Issue: Ethernet activity LED initialization.

Description: When powered up without an Ethernet cable, the activity light remains on.

Workaround: The Ethernet activity light works correctly when connected to the network.

CSCdy79325

Issue: The default administrative user can be deleted.

Description: All users with RWA (read_write_admin) access privileges can be deleted using the DLT-USER-SECU or user entry delete command, leaving the system with no administration level access.

Workaround: Use the "recover default password" procedure in the Cisco ONS 15216 EDFA2 Operations Guide to create a user with RWA access. Note that this procedure is service affecting.

CSCea19177

Issue: Gain changes in constGainTempComp/GAINTEMP mode when input power goes above the range.

Description: If the pump is in constGainTempComp/GAINTEMP mode and the input power goes above the maximum input power and remains in that condition, the measured gain goes lower than the set value. Also, if the input power comes down within the range again, the gain may not remain fixed.

Workaround: Reapply the target gain when the input power is within range.

TL1 Caveats

The following open caveats relate to TL1.

CSCdy06088

Issue: Incorrect error message for input commands with wrong target identifier (TID).

Description: If an incorrect TID is used, the command is denied with a "Gateway forwarding failed" message. However, per GR-831, the command should be denied with an IITA "Invalid Target Identifier" error code and message instead. Note that the ONS 15216 EDFA2 does not operate as a gateway network element (GNE).

Workaround: Not required because the ONS 15216 EDFA2 does not operate as a gateway network element.

CSCdy06097, CSCdy07176, and CSCdy09548

Issue: General Block should not be supported for certain commands.

Description: The General Block mostly has not been implemented in the ONS 15216 EDFA2 commands. Therefore unless expressly specified in the command syntax, it should not be supported, e.g., for the following commands: ACT-USER, DLT-RFILE, ED-DWDM, ED-ENV, RTRV-ALM-ALL, RTRV-ALM-DWDM, RTRV-ALM-ENV, RTRV-AO, RTRV-COND-ALL, RTRV-COND-DWDM, RTRV-COND-ENV, RTRV-DWDM, RTRV-ENV, RTRV-HDR, RTRV-NE-GEN, RTRV-RFILE, RTRV-TH-ENV, SET-TH-ENV.

Workaround: Do not attempt to use the general block where it is not supported.

CSCdy06100

Issue: Subsequent logins with same user name get completed.

Description: Multiple logins with the same user name are accepted.

Workaround: No work around is available.

CSCdy07244

Issue: No check is performed on BootRecordType field with ED-NE-GEN.

Description: There is no validity check performed on the NAME and BOOTIPADDR1 fields when the ED-NE-GEN command is entered.

Workaround: Manually verify with RTRV-NE-GEN that the intended NAME and BOOTIPADDR fields are correct.

CSCdy10646

Issue: Incorrect behavior of RTRV-AO command.

Description: RTRV-AO returns AO log even if ATAGSEQ, MSGTYPE, and DBCHGSEQ are not specified.

Workaround: This behavior does not prevent the RTRV-AO command from retrieving the required data.

CSCdy12948

Issue: Incorrect autonomous message implemented for timeout of session.

Description: The correct message should be CANC, but the ONS 15216 EDFA2 gives CANC-USER.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdy12968

Issue: Incorrect error code for DLT-USER-SECU if user does not exist.

Description: If the DLT-USER-SECU command is executed for a non-existing user, then the ONS 15216 EDFA2 should return a PICC (Privilege, Illegal Command Code) error code, as per Telcordia TR-835. Instead the ONS 15216 EDFA2 returns an FCEX error code.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdy12978

Issue: DLT-USER-SECU does not terminate the active session.

Description: The DLT-USER-SECU command does not terminate the active session of a user ID that is deleted.

Workaround: Ensure that a user is not logged on before using the DLT-USER-SECU command.

CSCdy14134

Issue: REPT EVT DWDM for "LOS Threshold Changed" is not always dispatched.

Description: Further to a LOS Threshold Change done through ASH CLI, the TL1 does not return the related REPT EVT DWDM autonomous message unless the threshold changes very much (e.g., 150, which would be 150*100 dBm). Note that if the threshold change is done through TL1, it gets immediately notified with the REPT EVT DWDM message.

Workaround: Use TL1 to change the LOS Threshold.

CSCdy15392

Issue: Users defined in ASH CLI do not comply with TL1 rules.

Description: User names can be entered using the ASH CLI that are not valid TL1 user names.

Workaround: Use TL1 to create user names.

CSCdy68876

Issue: Incorrect response for subsequent ALW-MSG-ALL or INH-MSG-ALL commands.

Description: ALW-MSG-ALL and INH-MSG-ALL should return a DENY if executed twice subsequently, but it does not.

Workaround: Be aware that the system does not respond as expected in this situation.

CSCdz53844

Issue: Downloading files to a full flash memory can falsely return success message.

Description: When using the COPY-RFILE command to FTP download to the flash when it is almost full, the system may return a REPT EVT FXFR autonomous message showing SUCCESS even though the download failed to complete.

Workaround: Ensure that the correct number of bytes have been transferred.

CSCdz55020

Issue: Line wrapping problems with some TL1 commands.

Description: Some commands do not line wrap correctly when typing in the command line interface. For ED-DWDM, for example, the cursor doesn't move to a second line when it completes the first line, but instead writes over the line just entered.

Workaround: This is an intermittent problem. When this occurs, abort the command and enter the command again.

CSCea02833

Issue: Incompatible pump control modes are allowed.

Description: The system allows certain pump mode configurations that are defined as not allowed in the Cisco ONS 15216 EDFA2 Operations Guide. First, for CRNT Constant Pump Current mode (cerent15216EdfaPumpCfgControlMode set to constCurrent), the document indicates that pump 1 and pump 2 must be set to this mode at the same time, but actually the two modes can be set independently. Second, for OPWR Constant Output Power mode (cerent15216EdfaPumpCfgControlMode set to constOutputPower), the document indicates that this is not a valid mode for pump 1 and if pump 2 is set to OPWR, pump 1 gets automatically set to PWR with a value of 75 mW. But actually setting pump 1 to OPWR (which should not be allowed) result in a completed command. Third, for GAINTEMP Constant Gain Temperature Compensated mode (cerent15216EdfaPumpCfgControlMode set to constGainTempComp), the document indicates that if one pump is set to GAINTEMP, the other pump automatically gets set to GAINTEMP also, but actually no such control is in place.

Workaround: Manually comply with the pump control rules as described in the Cisco ONS 15216 EDFA2 Operations Guide for software version 2.2.1 and 2.3.0.

CSCea65976

Issue: File downloads using COPY-RFILE get aborted if performed using a serial connection and after sending a Ctrl-c.

Description: This problem has only been observed when doing FTP downloads via the RS-232 (EIA/TIA-232) port when the shell is TL1. Even then, it only occurs when a Ctrl-c interrupt precedes the COPY-RFILE command. Once the command is issued, the system returns a COMPLD message and then a file transfer START message, but a third message shows that only 1024 bytes have been transferred and the download failed. Subsequent attempts to download using the same command get completed successfully.

Workaround: If the download fails in this situation, perform the COPY-RFILE command again.

SNMP and ASH Caveats

The following open caveats relate to SNMP and commands in the ASH shell.

CSCdw47424

Issue: ifInOctets always returns a zero.

Description: Instead of counting the number of octets coming in to its Ethernet interface, ifInOctets always returns a zero.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdw47428

Issue: ipDefaultTTL always returns a zero.

Description: ipDefaultTTL is Read Only and returns a zero instead of 64.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdw50831

Issue: ifOutOctets always returns a zero.

Description: Instead of counting the number of octets transmitted out of the interface, the attribute ifOutOctets always returns a zero for the Ethernet interface.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting

CSCdw51339

Issue: snmpInTraps does not increase.

Description: When a trap is received, the counter SnmpInTraps does not increment.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdx41575

Issue: OpFinished trap notification is sent before OpReset is completed.

Description: The cerent15216EdfaOpFinished notification trap, in the case of cerent15216EdfaOpReset, indicates that the operation is about to be performed. Instead, this notification should indicate that the operation has successfully completed.

Workaround: Must manually check that the operation has been performed.

CSCdy19014

Issue: Handling of GET-BULK requests.

Description: For GET-BULK requests with particular values of "Non-repeaters" and "Max repetitions" fields, the operation does not return exactly the expected outcome (zero variables). E.g., if non-repeaters = 0 and max-repetitions < 0, the GET-BULK returns all of them.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdy20159 and CSCdz63745

Issue: Incorrect error-status for some Read-Write variables.

Description: The implementation of the Ethernet and RS-232 interfaces for the ONS 15216 EDFA2 does not allow the administration status ifAdminStatus, which indicates the desired status of an interface (up, down, or testing), to be changed.

Workaround: None. This feature is not available.

CSCdy21361

Issue: snmpInASNParseErrs does not get incremented.

Description: The counter snmpInASNParseErrs, which indicates the total number of ASN.1 or BER errors encountered when decoding received SNMP Messages, does not increment if an invalid message is sent to the agent.

Workaround: An error will be returned for the offending SNMP message.

CSCdy21381

Issue: ipInReceives returns an inconsistent value.

Description: The counter ipInReceives, which indicates the total number of input packets received from interfaces, including those received in error, is not equal to the sum of the counters ipInAddrErrors, ipForwDatagrams, ipInUnknownProtos, ipInDiscards, and ipInDelivers.

Workaround: Manually sum the individual counters to obtain the InReceive count.

CSCdy21386

Issue: ipFragCreates does not increment as expected.

Description: The counter ipFragCreates, which indicates the number of IP packet fragments generated when a packet fragmentation has happened, does not increment.

Workaround: Use packet counters to obtain IP performance statistics.

CSCdy22384

Issue: tcpOutRsts counter does not increment.

Description: When a connection is attempted to any port not represented in the tcpConnTable as available for connection, the expected outcome is for all the attempts to be denied, and for tcpOutRsts to increment. The connections are correctly denied but the counter tcpOutRsts, which keep track of the number of resets generated by a TCP, does not increment as it should.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdy22389

Issue: snmpInTotalReqVars counter increments during GET.

Description: The counter snmpInTotalReqVars represents the total number of objects successfully retrieved as the result of receiving valid Get- and Get-Next requests. The agent does not increment this counter in the middle of a GET request. E.g., if is issued a GET containing two instances of snmpInTotalReqVars separated by an instance of sysDescr.0., the expected outcome is for both values in the response to be equal but actually they are different.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdy26021

Issue: tcpPassiveOpens counter does not increment.

Description: The counter tcpPassiveOpens does not increment when a TCP connection is formed with the agent.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdy26028

Issue: snmpOutTooBigs counter does not increment.

Description: The counter snmpOutTooBigs, which indicates the total number of SNMP messages generated by the SNMP protocol entity and for which the value of the error-status field is "tooBig," does not increment.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdy34034

Issue: tcpActiveOpens does not increment.

Description: The counter tcpActiveOpens should increment if an outbound TCP connection is created. Instead it remains constant.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdy34039

Issue: tcpAttemptFails does not increment.

Description: tcpAttempFails counts the failed TCP connection attempts (e.g., a Telnet or FTP to an unreachable IP address either through or from the device). The counter tcpAttemptFails does not increment after the attempt.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCdz53836

Issue: TFTP downloads interrupt some command line activity.

Description: TFTP downloads using the cerent15216Edfa MIB causes the ASH session to be blocked from further activity and new ASH and TL1 sessions cannot be established while the download is in progress.

Workaround: TFTP is not commonly used for file down loads. FTP is the recommended protocol for downloading files.

CSCdz53923

Issue: MIB entry for default Power Bus mode is incorrect.

Description: MIB value for default Power Bus mode is simplex when the specification and system uses duplex as the default value.

Workaround: Manually ensure that the Power Bus mode setting is correct.

CSCdz55040

Issue: snmp row set command is not allowed for cerent15216EdfaConstGainOverallGain.

Description: Since cerent15216EdfaVariableGainPreAttenuation cannot be changed in constGainTempComp mode, it does not allow use of the snmp row set command to change cerent15216EdfaConstGainOverallGain.

Workaround: Use snmp attribute set command to set cerent15216EdfaConstGainOverallGain.

CSCdz63609

Issue: The sysServices object should have value 1 for the ONS 15216 EDFA2, but instead it shows 0.

Description: The value of sysServices object indicates the set of services that the ONS 15216 EDFA2 offers. Its value should be 1 since the ONS 15216 EDFA2 is an amplifier and as such works at layer 1 of the Internet suite of protocol as defined in RFC1213. Instead sysServices shows a value of 0.

Workaround: None. This is not service affecting.

CSCea19265

Issue: No error message for blank password while editing password.

Description: If changing the password using user entry edit command, no error message is displayed if no password (blank) is entered.

Workaround: Ensure that a password is entered while changing a user password.

Special Instructions

This section provides the software and firmware upgrade procedures for upgrading an ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.2.1 to Release 2.3.0 using either the TL1 or ASH shell. It also includes a software uninstall procedure to return to Release 2.2.1.

ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Upgrade Using TL1 Shell

The following procedure is used to upgrade the software image from Release 2.2.1 to Release 2.3.0 using TL1 commands. This procedure is not service affecting. A firmware image upgrade (using ASH shell) is required after the software has been upgraded to fix "CSCdz55032".

To upgrade using ASH shell commands, see "ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Upgrade Using ASH Shell" section.


Note For correct operation of your ONS 15216 EDFA2, you must have already upgraded to software Release 2.2.1 before performing this procedure. To upgrade from software Release 2.1.0 to 2.2.1, see the upgrade procedure in Release Notes for Cisco ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.2.1.



Step 1 If the ONS 15216 EDFA2 already has been assigned and IP address, subnet mask, gateway address, and sid/tid name, skip to Step 9.

Step 2 Connect to the RS-232 (EIA/TIA-232) port on the ONS 15216 EDFA2.

Step 3 Open a Terminal application. (In Microsoft Windows, HyperTerminal can be used and is found in the Accessories menu.) The port settings should be 19200 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, and no flow control.

Step 4 Verify that the ONS 15216 EDFA2 TL1 login prompt appears (you may need to press Enter one or more times for the system to respond):

sidtidname:ONS15216 EDFA2> 

If this TL1 login prompt appears, skip to Step 6.

Step 5 When in ASH shell, the screens opens to a multi-line login screen beginning with -- LOGIN--- and with the cursor positioned in the Username line. To change to the TL1 shell, log in using Step 6 of "ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Upgrade Using ASH Shell" section, and then enter the following command at the ASH hostname prompt:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> shell type modify tl1

Then enter the following command at the ASH hostname prompt:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> processor reset

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should log you off and then bring up the TL1 shell login prompt.

Step 6 At the command prompt, log in as a user with administrative (RWA) privileges (default is CISCO15 with no password) using the ACT-USER command according to the syntax of the following example:

sidtidname:ONS15216 EDFA2> ACT-USER::CISCO15:100;

After the semicolon is entered, the ONS 15216 EDFA2 displays the login response:

sidtidname 2003-01-30 11:29:49
M  100 COMPLD
   /* ACT-USER */
;
sidtidname:ONS15216 EDFA2> 

Step 7 At the command prompt, set the IP address using the ED-NE-GEN command according to the syntax of the following example:

sidtidname:ONS15216 EDFA2> ED-NE-GEN:::101:::NAME=Amp01,IPADDR=192.167.3.4,IPMASK=255.255.
255.0,DEFRTR=192.167.3.20;

The NAME is the sid/tid name (sidtidname) in the command line prompt.

Step 8 If any changes have been made, the system must be rebooted to make the IP address active. Enter the INIT-SYS command according to the syntax of the following example:

sidtidname:ONS15216 EDFA2> INIT-SYS:Amp01:ALL:102::1;

Step 9 Put the Release 2.3.0 software image file on a PC or server that has an FTP server and is on the same LAN as the ONS 15216 EDFA2 or is directly connected using an Ethernet crossover cable.

The Release 2.3.0 software is available at the Cisco software download web site in the "Optical Software, ONS15216" support section.

Step 10 Verify that the ONS 15216 EDFA2 is connected to the LAN via the module's LAN port.

If not, use a straight-through Cat5 Ethernet cable with RJ-45 connectors to connect from the LAN port to a LAN switch or hub.

Step 11 Open a Telnet session to the ONS 15216 EDFA2. In Microsoft Windows, click Start > Run, and enter the following:

telnet <ONS 15216 EDFA2 IP address>

Step 12 Verify that the ONS 15216 EDFA2 TL1 login prompt appears:

Welcome to ONS15216 EDFA2 Console (v2.2.1)
Amp01:ONS15216 EDFA2> 

If this TL1 login prompt does not appear, perform Step 5 before proceeding with Step 13.

Step 13 Log into the ONS 15216 EDFA2 as a user with administrative privileges (see Step 6).

Step 14 At the command prompt, enter the COPY-RFILE command to transfer the file according to the syntax of the following example:

Amp01:ONS15216 EDFA2> COPY-RFILE:Amp01::103::TYPE=SWDL,SRC="http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/ong/15216/216edf/edfarelt/ftp://user1:passwd@192.168.85.10:21/bin/15216EdfaSw_2.3.0",DEST="file://localhost/15216EdfaSw_2.3.0",OVERWRITE=YES;

An FTP URL has the following format:

ftp:[//[<userid>[:<password>]@]<ftphost>[:<port>]]/<urlpath>

A file URL (referring to the local system) has the following format:

file://localhost/<urlpath>

where

<userid> is the FTP user identifier

<password> is the FTP password for the user

<ftphost> is the IP address of the FTP server

<port> is the port number to connect to

<urlpath> is the path in the following format: <cwd1>/<cwd2>/.../<cwdn>/<filename>

where <cwd1>...<cwdn> are directory levels and <filename> is the file name

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should respond with autonomous messages with syntax of the following examples:

   Amp01 2003-01-30 11:34:05
M  103 COMPLD
   /* COPY-RFILE */
;
   Amp01 2003-01-30 11:34:05
A  7 REPT EVT FXFR
   EQPT:bin/15216EdfaSw_2.3.0,START,,
;
   Amp01 2003-01-30 11:35:24
A  8 REPT EVT FXFR
   EQPT:bin/15216EdfaSw_2.3.0,COMPLD,SUCCESS,2001867
;

When the SUCCESS message appears, the file transfer is complete.

Step 15 Ensure that the entire 2.3.0 image file was downloaded. The number after SUCCESS in the final REPT EVT FXFR message should be 2001867 bytes. If the entire file did not download, you need to create room on the ffs by deleting unnecessary files and redownloading the 2.3.0 image before proceeding.

Step 16 At the command prompt, enter the APPLY command to make the new image current according to the syntax of the following example:

Amp01:ONS15216 EDFA2> APPLY:Amp01::104; 

Step 17 At the command prompt, enter the INIT-SYS command to reboot with the new image active according to the syntax of the following example:

Amp01:ONS15216 EDFA2> INIT-SYS:Amp01:ALL:105::1; 

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should respond with an autonomous message with syntax of the following example:

   Amp01 2003-01-30 11:38:44
A  10 REPT EVT EQPT
   "EQPT:CUTOVERRESET,TC,1-30,11-38-44,,,,:\"Reset After Cutover\""
;

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should log you off and reboot with the new software version. The software upgrade procedure is complete. Press Enter to get out of the present console and Telnet again to open a session with the new console.

Step 18 Proceed to the firmware upgrade procedure "ONS 15216 EDFA2 Firmware Upgrade Using ASH Shell" section.


ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Upgrade Using ASH Shell

The following procedure is used to upgrade the software image from Release 2.2.1 to Release 2.3.0 using ASH shell commands. This procedure is not service affecting. A firmware image upgrade is required after the software has been upgraded to fix "CSCdz55032".

To upgrade using TL1 commands, see "ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Upgrade Using TL1 Shell" section.


Note For correct operation of your ONS 15216 EDFA2, you must have already upgraded to software Release 2.2.1 before performing this procedure. To upgrade from software Release 2.1.0 to 2.2.1, see the upgrade procedure in Release Notes for Cisco ONS 15216 EDFA2 Release 2.2.1.



Step 1 If the ONS 15216 EDFA2 already has been assigned and IP address, subnet mask, gateway address, and host name, skip to Step 10.

Step 2 Connect to the RS-232 (EIA/TIA-232) port on the ONS 15216 EDFA2.

Step 3 Open a Terminal application. (In Microsoft Windows, HyperTerminal can be used and is found in the Accessories menu.) The port settings should be 19200 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, and no flow control.

Step 4 Verify that the ONS 15216 EDFA2 ASH login window appears (you may need to press Enter one or more times for the system to respond):

-- LOGIN ---------------------------------------------------- sysname
                    ONS15216 EDFA2 Optical Amplifier 
                    --------------------------------
                        Software Version 2.2.1
              Copyright (c) 2000-2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.
                      Username:  {                }
                      Password:  {                }
                                 [Login]

If this ASH login prompt appears, skip to Step 6.

Step 5 When in TL1 shell, the screen opens to a simple prompt (sidtidname:ONS15216 EDFA2>). To change to ASH shell, log in using Step 6 of "ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Upgrade Using TL1 Shell" section, and then enter the following command at the sid/tid name prompt:

sidtidname:ONS15216 EDFA2> ED-NE-GEN:::123:::CLI=ASH;

Then enter the following command at the hostname prompt:

sidtidname:ONS15216 EDFA2> INIT-SYS::ALL:124::1;

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should log you off and then bring up the ASH shell login window.

Step 6 Enter both a user name and password of a user with administrative privileges (read_write_admin).

The default user name and password is CISCO15 with no password (press Enter).

Press Enter when [Login] becomes highlighted. The ONS 15216 EDFA2 displays the login response:

Welcome to ONS15216 EDFA2 Console (v2.2.1)
ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2>

Step 7 At the command prompt, enter the following command, entering the response information line by line:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> snmp row set local cerent15216EdfaSromIpMgmtGroup

cerent15216EdfaSromIpMgmtEnetAddress 0.0.0.0
cerent15216EdfaSromIpMgmtEnetSubNetMask 0.0.0.0
cerent15216EdfaSromIpMgmtDefaultRouterAddress 0.0.0.0
cerent15216EdfaSromIpMgmtHostName ""

Step 8 To save the changes, enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> snmp attribute set local cerent15216EdfaOpSaveConfig perform

Step 9 If any changes have been made, the system must be rebooted to make the IP address active. Enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> processor reset

Step 10 Put the Release 2.3.0 software image file on a PC or server that has an FTP server and is on the same LAN as the ONS 15216 EDFA2 or is directly connected using an Ethernet crossover cable.

The Release 2.3.0 software is available at the Cisco software download web site in the "Optical Software, ONS15216" support section.

Step 11 Verify that the ONS 15216 EDFA2 is connected to the LAN via the module's LAN port.

If not, use a straight-through Cat5 Ethernet cable with RJ-45 connectors to connect from the LAN port to a LAN switch or hub.

Step 12 Open a Telnet session to the ONS 15216 EDFA2. In Microsoft Windows, click Start > Run, and enter the following:

telnet <ONS 15216 EDFA2 IP address>

Step 13 Verify that the ONS 15216 EDFA2 login window appears:

-- LOGIN ---------------------------------------------------- sysname
                    ONS15216 EDFA2 Optical Amplifier 
                    --------------------------------
                        Software Version 2.2.1
              Copyright (c) 2000-2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.
                      Username:  {                }
                      Password:  {                }
                                 [Login]

If this ASH login prompt does not appear, perform Step 5 before proceeding with Step 14.

Step 14 Log into the ONS 15216 EDFA2 as a user with administrative privileges (see Step 6).

Step 15 At the hostname prompt, enter the following command to log in to the FTP site.

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> network host ftp FTP_server_IP_address 

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should respond as follows:

connecting to FTP_server_IP_address 
connected to FTP_server_IP_address 

Once the login process is completed, the ftp prompt should be available.

Step 16 At the ftp prompt, enter the command as shown below to complete the ftp logon.

ftp> login FTP_username

Step 17 When prompted, enter the FTP user password as shown.

Password: ***** 

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should respond as follows:

230 User FTP_username logged in.

Step 18 At the ftp prompt, enter the following command:

ftp> cd /Directory_of_FTP_site

Step 19 At the ftp prompt, enter the following command:

ftp> type i 

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should respond as follows:

type set to BINARY

Step 20 At the FTP prompt, enter the following command:

ftp> get 15216EdfaSw_2.3.0 

When the command is entered, the file transfer begins. When the file transfer is completed, the following information should be displayed:

Bytes received: 2001867 
Transfer complete. 

Step 21 At the FTP prompt, enter the following command:

ftp> quit 

The FTP session is terminated and the following response should be displayed:

Ftp session terminated.

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 then returns to the hostname prompt.

Step 22 At the hostname prompt enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> ffs file list

Check the response to be sure that the entire 2.3.0 image file was downloaded. The file length column for 15216EdfaSw_2.3.0 should be 2001867 bytes. If the entire file did not download, you need to create room on the ffs by deleting unnecessary files and redownloading the 2.3.0 image before proceeding.

Step 23 At the hostname prompt enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> srom cfg boot modify 

Step 24 After the response message, enter the following:

Boot Count = 2 
2

After the response message, enter the following:

Boot Record 0 type 2 Flash 
2

Step 25 After the response message, enter the following:

Filename = 15216EdfaSw_2.2.1 
15216EdfaSw_2.3.0

After the response message, enter the following:

Boot Record 1 type 2 Flash 
2

Step 26 After the response message, enter the following:

Filename = 15216EdfaSw_x.x.x 
15216EdfaSw_2.2.1

Step 27 At the hostname prompt, enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> processor reset 

The ONS 15216 EDFA2 should log you off and reboot with the new software version. The software upgrade procedure is complete. Press Enter to get out of the present console and Telnet again to open a session with the new console.

Step 28 Proceed to the firmware upgrade procedure below.


ONS 15216 EDFA2 Firmware Upgrade Using ASH Shell

The following procedure is used to upgrade the firmware image from version 2.3.14 to version 2.3.15. The software upgrade to Release 2.3.0 is required before performing this procedure, but the software can be changed back to Release 2.2.1 if desired after the firmware is upgraded. This procedure is not service affecting.


Note This firmware upgrade ensures that the ONS 15216 EDFA2 does not attempt to repeatedly boot from an incomplete or damaged software image file. Refer to "CSCdz55032".



Step 1 Put the 2.3.15 firmware image on a PC or server that has a TFTP server and is on the same LAN as the ONS 15216 EDFA2 or is directly connected using an Ethernet crossover cable.

The Release 2.3.0 software is available at the Cisco software download web site in the "Optical Software, ONS15216" support section.

Step 2 Log into the ASH shell as a user with administrative privileges.

Step 3 Enter the correct user name and password.

Step 4 Verify that the following login response is displayed:

Welcome to ONS15216 EDFA2 Console (v2.3.0)
ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> 

Step 5 At the hostname prompt, enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> flash boot erase

Step 6 At the hostname prompt, enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> flash boot program tftp TFTP_server_IP_address 
Directory_of_TFTP_site/15216EdfaFw_2.3.15

After the series of dots on the screen, the hostname prompt returns.

Step 7 At the hostname prompt, enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> processor reset

The firmware upgrade procedure is complete.


ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Uninstall Using TL1 Shell

The following procedure is used to change the software image from Release 2.3.0 back to Release 2.2.1 using TL1 commands. This procedure is not service affecting.


Step 1 Log into the TL1 shell as a user with administrative privileges. (If using a Telnet session, specify port 3083 to be sure to log into the TL1 shell.)

Step 2 At the command prompt, enter the RTRV-NE-GEN command to check the boot images according to the syntax of the following example:

Amp01:ONS15216 EDFA2> RTRV-NE-GEN:Amp01::101; 

From the response, check that BOOTFILENAME1 is 15216EdfaSw_2.3.0 and BOOTFILENAME2 is 15216EdfaSw_2.2.1.

Step 3 At the command prompt, enter the APPLY command to make the old image current according to the syntax of the following example:

Amp01:ONS15216 EDFA2> APPLY:Amp01::102; 

Step 4 At the command prompt, enter the INIT-SYS command to reboot with the old image active according to the syntax of the following example:

Amp01:ONS15216 EDFA2> INIT-SYS:Amp01:ALL:103::1; 

The software uninstall procedure is complete.


ONS 15216 EDFA2 Software Uninstall Using ASH Shell

The following procedure is used to change the software image from Release 2.3.0 back to Release 2.2.1 using ASH shell commands. This procedure is not service affecting.


Step 1 Log into the ASH shell as a user with administrative privileges. (If using a Telnet session, specify port 8023 to be sure to log into the ASH shell.)

Step 2 At the hostname prompt, enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> srom cfg boot modify 

Step 3 After the response message, press Enter:

Boot Count = 2 

After the response message, enter the following:

Boot Record 0 type 2 Flash 
2

Step 4 After the response message, enter the following:

Filename = 15216EdfaSw_2.3.0 
15216EdfaSw_2.2.1

After the response message, press Enter:

Boot Record 1 type 2 Flash 

Step 5 At the hostname prompt, enter the following command:

ash:hostname:ONS15216 EDFA2> processor reset

The software uninstall procedure is complete.


Obtaining Documentation

Cisco provides several ways to obtain documentation, technical assistance, and other technical resources. These sections explain how to obtain technical information from Cisco Systems.

Cisco.com

You can access the most current Cisco documentation on the World Wide Web at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/home/home.htm

You can access the Cisco website at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com

International Cisco websites can be accessed from this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/public/countries_languages.shtml

Documentation CD-ROM

Optical networking-related documentation is available in a CD-ROM package that ships with your product. The Optical Networking Product Documentation CD-ROM is updated periodically and may be more current than printed documentation.

Ordering Documentation

You can find instructions for ordering documentation at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/es_inpck/pdi.htm

You can order Cisco documentation in these ways:

Registered Cisco.com users (Cisco direct customers) can order Cisco product documentation from the Networking Products MarketPlace:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/ordering/index.shtml

Nonregistered Cisco.com users can order documentation through a local account representative by calling Cisco Systems Corporate Headquarters (California, U.S.A.) at 408 526-7208 or, elsewhere in North America, by calling 800 553-NETS (6387).

Documentation Feedback

You can submit comments electronically on Cisco.com. On the Cisco Documentation home page, click Feedback at the top of the page.

You can e-mail your comments to bug-doc@cisco.com.

You can submit comments by using the response card (if present) behind the front cover of your document or by writing to the following address:

Cisco Systems
Attn: Customer Document Ordering
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-9883

We appreciate your comments.

Obtaining Technical Assistance

Cisco provides Cisco.com, which includes the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) website, as a starting point for all technical assistance. Customers and partners can obtain online documentation, troubleshooting tips, and sample configurations from the Cisco TAC website. Cisco.com registered users have complete access to the technical support resources on the Cisco TAC website, including TAC tools and utilities.

Cisco.com

Cisco.com offers a suite of interactive, networked services that let you access Cisco information, networking solutions, services, programs, and resources at any time, from anywhere in the world.

Cisco.com provides a broad range of features and services to help you with these tasks:

Streamline business processes and improve productivity

Resolve technical issues with online support

Download and test software packages

Order Cisco learning materials and merchandise

Register for online skill assessment, training, and certification programs

To obtain customized information and service, you can self-register on Cisco.com at this URL:

http://tools.cisco.com/RPF/register/register.do

Technical Assistance Center

The Cisco TAC is available to all customers who need technical assistance with a Cisco product, technology, or solution. Two types of support are available: the Cisco TAC website and the Cisco TAC Escalation Center. The type of support that you choose depends on the priority of the problem and the conditions stated in service contracts, when applicable.

We categorize Cisco TAC inquiries according to urgency:

Priority level 4 (P4)—You need information or assistance concerning Cisco product capabilities, product installation, or basic product configuration. There is little or no impact to your business operations.

Priority level 3 (P3)—Operational performance of the network is impaired, but most business operations remain functional. You and Cisco are willing to commit resources during normal business hours to restore service to satisfactory levels.

Priority level 2 (P2)—Operation of an existing network is severely degraded, or significant aspects of your business operations are negatively impacted by inadequate performance of Cisco products. You and Cisco will commit full-time resources during normal business hours to resolve the situation.

Priority level 1 (P1)—An existing network is "down," or there is a critical impact to your business operations. You and Cisco will commit all necessary resources around the clock to resolve the situation.

Cisco TAC Website

The Cisco TAC website provides online documents and tools to help troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. To access the Cisco TAC website, go to this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/tac

All customers, partners, and resellers who have a valid Cisco service contract have complete access to the technical support resources on the Cisco TAC website. Some services on the Cisco TAC website require a Cisco.com login ID and password. If you have a valid service contract but do not have a login ID or password, go to this URL to register:

http://tools.cisco.com/RPF/register/register.do

If you are a Cisco.com registered user, and you cannot resolve your technical issues by using the Cisco TAC website, you can open a case online at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/tac/caseopen

If you have Internet access, we recommend that you open P3 and P4 cases online so that you can fully describe the situation and attach any necessary files.

Cisco TAC Escalation Center

The Cisco TAC Escalation Center addresses priority level 1 or priority level 2 issues. These classifications are assigned when severe network degradation significantly impacts business operations. When you contact the TAC Escalation Center with a P1 or P2 problem, a Cisco TAC engineer automatically opens a case.

To obtain a directory of toll-free Cisco TAC telephone numbers for your country, go to this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml

Before calling, please check with your network operations center to determine the Cisco support services to which your company is entitled: for example, SMARTnet, SMARTnet Onsite, or Network Supported Accounts (NSA). When you call the center, please have available your service agreement number and your product serial number.

Obtaining Additional Publications and Information

Information about Cisco products, technologies, and network solutions is available from various online and printed sources.

The Cisco Product Catalog describes the networking products offered by Cisco Systems, as well as ordering and customer support services. Access the Cisco Product Catalog at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/products_catalog_links_launch.html

Cisco Press publishes a wide range of networking publications. Cisco suggests these titles for new and experienced users: Internetworking Terms and Acronyms Dictionary, Internetworking Technology Handbook, Internetworking Troubleshooting Guide, and the Internetworking Design Guide. For current Cisco Press titles and other information, go to Cisco Press online at this URL:

http://www.ciscopress.com

Packet magazine is the Cisco quarterly publication that provides the latest networking trends, technology breakthroughs, and Cisco products and solutions to help industry professionals get the most from their networking investment. Included are networking deployment and troubleshooting tips, configuration examples, customer case studies, tutorials and training, certification information, and links to numerous in-depth online resources. You can access Packet magazine at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/go/packet

iQ Magazine is the Cisco bimonthly publication that delivers the latest information about Internet business strategies for executives. You can access iQ Magazine at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/go/iqmagazine

Internet Protocol Journal is a quarterly journal published by Cisco Systems for engineering professionals involved in designing, developing, and operating public and private internets and intranets. You can access the Internet Protocol Journal at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/about/ac123/ac147/about_cisco_the_internet_protocol_journal.html

Training—Cisco offers world-class networking training. Current offerings in network training are listed at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/learning/le31/learning_recommended_training_list.html