Table of Contents
- Explain various network elements of the Cisco FlexConnect solution, along with their communication flow.
- Provide general deployment guidelines for designing the Cisco FlexConnect wireless branch solution.
Refer to Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for more information on document conventions.
The Cisco Flex 7500 Series Cloud Controller is a highly scalable branch controller for multi-site wireless deployments. Deployed in the private cloud, the Cisco Flex 7500 series controller extends wireless services to distributed branch offices with centralized control that lowers total cost of operations.
The Cisco Flex 7500 series (Figure 1) can manage wireless access points in up to 2000 branch locations and allows IT managers to configure, manage, and troubleshoot up to 6000 access points (APs) and 64,000 clients from the data center. The Cisco Flex 7500 series controller supports secure guest access, rogue detection for Payment Card Industry (PCI) compliance, and in-branch (locally switched) Wi-Fi voice and video.
Refer to Cisco Flex 7500 Series Cloud Controller Data Sheet: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/ps6302/ps8322/
Note • LAG support for 2x10G interfaces allows active-active link operation with fast failover link redundancy. An additional active 10G link with LAG does not change the controller wireless throughput.
Refer to the WLC 7.3 configuration guide , which covers the entire licensing procedure.
– Control traffic is marked by red dashes in Figure 5.
– Data traffic is marked by blue, green, and purple dashes in Figure 5.
- No operational downtime (survivability) against complete WAN link failures or controller unavailability.
- Mobility resiliency within branch during WAN link failures.
- Increase in branch scalability. Supports branch size that can scale up to 100 APs and 250,000 square feet (5000 sq. feet per AP).
The Cisco FlexConnect solution also supports Central Client Data Traffic, but it is limited to Guest data traffic only. This next table describes the restrictions on WLAN L2 security types only for non-guest clients whose data traffic is also switched centrally at the Data Center.
For more information on Flexconnect external webauth deployment, please refer to Flexconnect External WebAuth Deployment Guide
For more information on HREAP/FlexConnect AP states and data traffic switching options, refer to Configuring FlexConnect.
For more information on FlexConnect Theory of Operations, refer to the H-Reap/FlexConnect Design and Deployment Guide .
Note It is highly recommended that the minimum bandwidth restriction remains 12.8 Kbps per AP with the round trip latency no greater than 300 ms for data deployments and 100 ms for data + voice deployments.
The rest of this document highlights the guidelines and describes the best practices for implementing secured distributed branch networks. FlexConnect architecture is recommended for wireless branch networks that meet these design requirements.
- Branch size that can scale up to 100 APs and 250,000 square feet (5000 sq. feet per AP)
- Central management and troubleshooting
- No operational downtime
- Client-based traffic segmentation
- Seamless and secured wireless connectivity to corporate resources
- PCI compliant
- Support for guests
Branch customers find it increasingly difficult and expensive to deliver full-featured scalable and secure network services across geographic locations. In order to support customers, Cisco is addressing these challenges by introducing the Flex 7500.
The Flex 7500 solution virtualizes the complex security, management, configuration, and troubleshooting operations within the data center and then transparently extends those services to each branch. Deployments using Flex 7500 are easier for IT to set up, manage and, most importantly, scale.
The rest of the sections in the guide captures feature usage and recommendations to realize the network design shown in Figure 6.
Note Flexconnect APs implemented with WIPS mode can increase bandwidth utilization significantly based on the activity being detected by the APs. If the rules have forensics enabled, the link utilization can go up by almost 100 Kbps on an average.
Refer to FlexConnect Feature Matrix for a feature matrix for the FlexConnect feature.
After creating WLANs on the controller, you can selectively publish them (using access point groups) to different access points in order to better manage your wireless network. In a typical deployment, all users on a WLAN are mapped to a single interface on the controller. Therefore, all users associated with that WLAN are on the same subnet or VLAN. However, you can choose to distribute the load among several interfaces or to a group of users based on specific criteria such as individual departments (such as Marketing, Engineering or Operations) by creating access point groups. Additionally, these access point groups can be configured in separate VLANs to simplify network administration.
This document uses AP groups to simplify network administration when managing multiple stores across geographic locations. For operational ease, the document creates one AP-group per store to satisfy these requirements:
- Centrally Switched SSID Data center across all stores for Local Store Manager administrative access.
- Locally Switched SSID Store with different WPA2-PSK keys across all stores for hand-held scanners.
Note WLAN IDs 1-16 are part of the default group and cannot be deleted. In order to satisfy our requirement of using same SSID store per store with a different WPA2-PSK, you need to use WLAN ID 17 and beyond because these are not part of the default group and can be limited to each store.
In most typical branch deployments, it is easy to foresee that client 802.1X authentication takes place centrally at the Data Center as shown in Figure 8. Because the above scenario is perfectly valid, it raises these concerns:
- How can wireless clients perform 802.1X authentication and access Data Center services if Flex 7500 fails?
- How can wireless clients perform 802.1X authentication if WAN link between Branch and Data Center fails?
- Is there any impact on branch mobility during WAN failures?
- Does the FlexConnect Solution provide no operational branch downtime?
FlexConnect Group is primarily designed and should be created to address these challenges. In addition, it eases organizing each branch site, because all the FlexConnect access points of each branch site are part of a single FlexConnect Group.
You can configure the controller to allow a FlexConnect access point in standalone mode to perform full 802.1X authentication to a backup RADIUS server. In order to increase the resiliency of the branch, administrators can configure a primary backup RADIUS server or both a primary and secondary backup RADIUS server. These servers are used only when the FlexConnect access point is not connected to the controller.
Before the 18.104.22.168 code release, local authentication was supported only when FlexConnect is in Standalone Mode to ensure client connectivity is not affected during WAN link failure. With the 22.214.171.124 release, this feature is now supported even when FlexConnect access points are in Connected Mode.
As shown in Figure 9, branch clients can continue to perform 802.1X authentication when the FlexConnect Branch APs lose connectivity with Flex 7500. As long as the RADIUS/ACS server is reachable from the Branch site, wireless clients will continue to authenticate and access wireless services. In other words, if the RADIUS/ACS is located inside the Branch, then clients will authenticate and access wireless services even during a WAN outage.
Note This feature can be used in conjunction with the FlexConnect backup RADIUS server feature. If a FlexConnect Group is configured with both backup RADIUS server and local authentication, the FlexConnect access point always attempts to authenticate clients using the primary backup RADIUS server first, followed by the secondary backup RADIUS server (if the primary is not reachable), and finally the Local EAP Server on FlexConnect access point itself (if the primary and secondary are not reachable).
- You can configure the controller to allow a FlexConnect AP in standalone or connected mode to perform LEAP or EAP-FAST authentication for up to 100 statically configured users. The controller sends the static list of user names and passwords to each FlexConnect access point of that particular FlexConnect Group when it joins the controller. Each access point in the group authenticates only its own associated clients.
- This feature is ideal for customers who are migrating from an autonomous access point network to a lightweight FlexConnect access point network and are not interested in maintaining a large user database, or adding another hardware device to replace the RADIUS server functionality available in the autonomous access point.
- As shown in Figure 10, if the RADIUS/ACS server inside the Data Center is not reachable, then FlexConnect APs automatically acts as a Local-EAP Server to perform Dot1X authentication for wireless branch clients.
- FlexConnect Groups are required for CCKM/OKC fast roaming to work with FlexConnect access points. Fast roaming is achieved by caching a derivative of the master key from a full EAP authentication so that a simple and secure key exchange can occur when a wireless client roams to a different access point. This feature prevents the need to perform a full RADIUS EAP authentication as the client roams from one access point to another. The FlexConnect access points need to obtain the CCKM/OKC cache information for all the clients that might associate so they can process it quickly instead of sending it back to the controller. If, for example, you have a controller with 300 access points and 100 clients that might associate, sending the CCKM/OKC cache for all 100 clients is not practical. If you create a FlexConnect Group comprising a limited number of access points (for example, you create a group for four access points in a remote office), the clients roam only among those four access points, and the CCKM/OKC cache is distributed among those four access points only when the clients associate to one of them.
- This feature along with Backup Radius and Local Authentication (Local-EAP) ensures no operational downtime for your branch sites.
Complete the steps in this section in order to configure FlexConnect groups to support Local Authentication using LEAP, when FlexConnect is either in Connected or Standalone mode. The configuration sample in Figure 11 illustrates the objective differences and 1:1 mapping between the AP Group and FlexConnect group.
Step 2 Assign Group Name Store 1, similar to the sample configuration as shown in Figure 11.
Step 10 Repeat steps 7 and 8 to add all the APs to this FlexConnect group that are also part of AP-Group Store 1. See Figure 11 to understand the 1:1 mapping between the AP-Group and FlexConnect group.
If you have created an AP-Group per Store (Figure 7), then ideally all the APs of that AP-Group should be part of this FlexConnect Group (Figure 11. Maintaining 1:1 ratio between the AP-Group and FlexConnect group simplifies network management.
Step 18 Click WLAN ID 17. This was created during the AP Group creation. See Figure 7.
In the current FlexConnect architecture, there is a strict mapping of WLAN to VLAN, and thus the client getting associated on a particular WLAN on FlexConnect AP has to abide by a VLAN which is mapped to it. This method has limitations, because it requires clients to associate with different SSIDs in order to inherit different VLAN-based policies.
From 7.2 release onwards, AAA override of VLAN on individual WLAN configured for local switching is supported. In order to have dynamic VLAN assignment, AP would have the interfaces for the VLAN pre-created based on a configuration using existing WLAN-VLAN Mapping for individual FlexConnect AP or using ACL-VLAN mapping on a FlexConnect group. The WLC is used to pre-create the sub-interfaces at the AP.
- AAA VLAN override is supported from release 7.2 for WLANs configured for local switching in central and local authentication mode.
- AAA override should be enabled on WLAN configured for local switching.
- The FlexConnect AP should have VLAN pre-created from WLC for dynamic VLAN assignment.
- If VLANs returned by AAA override are not present on AP client, they will get an IP from the default VLAN interface of the AP.
Step 7 Configure WLAN to VLAN Mapping for the FlexConnect AP. Based on this configuration, the AP would have the interfaces for the VLAN. When the AP receives the VLAN configuration, corresponding dot11 and Ethernet sub-interfaces are created and added to a bridge-group. Associate a client on this WLAN and when the client associates, its VLAN (default, based on the WLAN-VLAN mapping) is assigned.
Step 9 In order to have dynamic VLAN assignment, the AP would have the interfaces for the dynamic VLAN pre-created based on the configuration using existing WLAN-VLAN Mapping for the individual FlexConnect AP or using ACL-VLAN mapping on FlexConnect group.
In controller software releases 7.2, AAA override of VLAN (Dynamic VLAN assignment) for locally switched WLANs will put wireless clients to the VLAN provided by the AAA server. If the VLAN provided by the AAA server is not present at the AP, the client is put to a WLAN mapped VLAN on that AP and traffic will switch locally on that VLAN. Further, prior to release 7.3, traffic for a particular WLAN from FlexConnect APs can be switched Centrally or Locally depending on the WLAN configuration.
- If the VLAN is returned as one of the AAA attributes and that VLAN is not present in the Flex AP database, traffic will switch centrally and the client will be assigned this VLAN/Interface returned from the AAA server provided that the VLAN exists on the WLC.
- If the VLAN is returned as one of the AAA attributes and that VLAN is not present in the Flex AP database, traffic will switch centrally. If that VLAN is also not present on the WLC, the client will be assigned a VLAN/Interface mapped to a WLAN on the WLC.
- If the VLAN is returned as one of the AAA attributes and that VLAN is present in the FlexConnect AP database, traffic will switch locally.
- If the VLAN is not returned from the AAA server, the client will be assigned a WLAN mapped VLAN on that FlexConnect AP and traffic will switch locally.
- If the VLAN returned by an AAA server is not present in the Flex AP database, the client will be put to default VLAN (that is, a WLAN mapped VLAN on Flex AP). When the AP connects back, this client will be de-authenticated and will switch traffic centrally.
- If the VLAN returned by an AAA server is present in the Flex AP database, the client will be put into a returned VLAN and traffic will switch locally.
- If the VLAN is not returned from an AAA server, the client will be assigned a WLAN mapped VLAN on that FlexConnect AP and traffic will switch locally.
Step 4 Make sure that the FlexConnect AP has some sub-interface present in its database, either via WLAN-VLAN Mapping on a particular Flex AP or via configuring VLAN from a Flex group. In this example, VLAN 63 is configured in WLAN-VLAN mapping on Flex AP.
Step 6 Associate a client to the WLAN configured in Step 1 on this Flex AP and return VLAN 62 from the AAA server. VLAN 62 is not present on this Flex AP, but it is present on the WLC as a dynamic interface so traffic will switch centrally and the client will be assigned VLAN 62 on the WLC. In the output captured here, the client has been assigned VLAN 62 and Data Switching and Authentication are set to Central.
Note Observe that although WLAN is configured for Local Switching, the Data Switching field for this client is Central based on the presence of a VLAN (that is, VLAN 62, which is returned from the AAA server, is not present in the AP Database).
Step 7 If another user associates to the same AP on this created WLAN and some VLAN is returned from the AAA server which is not present on the AP as well as the WLC, traffic will switch centrally and the client will be assigned the WLAN mapped interface on the WLC (that is, VLAN 61 in this example setup), because the WLAN is mapped to the Management interface which is configured for VLAN 61.
Note Observe that although WLAN is configured for Local Switching, the Data Switching field for this client is Central based on the presence of a VLAN. That is, VLAN 61, which is returned from the AAA server, is not present in the AP Database but is also not present in the WLC database. As a result, the client is assigned a default interface VLAN/Interface which is mapped to the WLAN. In this example, the WLAN is mapped to a management interface (that is, VLAN 61) and so the client has received an IP address from VLAN 61.
Step 8 If another user associates to it on this created WLAN and VLAN 63 is returned from the AAA server (which is present on this Flex AP), the client will be assigned VLAN 63 and traffic will switch locally.
With the introduction of ACLs on FlexConnect, there is a mechanism to cater to the need of access control at the FlexConnect AP for protection and integrity of locally switched data traffic from the AP. FlexConnect ACLs are created on the WLC and should then be configured with the VLAN present on the FlexConnect AP or FlexConnect group using VLAN-ACL mapping which will be for AAA override VLANs. These are then pushed to the AP.
- Create FlexConnect ACL on the controller.
- Apply the same on a VLAN present on FlexConnect AP under AP Level VLAN ACL mapping.
- Can be applied on a VLAN present in FlexConnect Group under VLAN-ACL mapping (generally done for AAA overridden VLANs).
- While applying ACL on VLAN, select the direction to be applied which will be “ingress”, “egress” or “ingress and egress”.
Step 8 Map FlexConnect ACL configured above at AP level for individual VLANs under VLAN mappings for individual FlexConnect AP. Navigate to WLC GUI > Wireless > All AP, click the specific AP > FlexConnect tab > VLAN Mapping.
In WLC releases prior to 7.3, if a client connecting on a FlexConnect AP associated with a centrally switched WLAN needs to send some traffic to a device present in the local site/network, they need to send traffic over CAPWAP to the WLC and then get the same traffic back to the local site over CAPWAP or using some off-band connectivity.
From release 7.3 onwards, Split Tunneling introduces a mechanism by which the traffic sent by the client will be classified based on packet contents using Flex ACL. Matching packets are switched locally from Flex AP and the rest of the packets are centrally switched over CAPWAP.
The Split Tunneling functionality is an added advantage for OEAP AP setup where clients on a Corporate SSID can talk to devices on a local network (printers, wired machine on a Remote LAN Port, or wireless devices on a Personal SSID) directly without consuming WAN bandwidth by sending packets over CAPWAP. Split tunneling is not supported on OEAP 600 APs. Flex ACL can be created with rules in order to permit all the devices present at the local site/network. When packets from a wireless client on the Corporate SSID matches the rules in Flex ACL configured on OEAP AP, that traffic is switched locally and the rest of the traffic (that is, implicit deny traffic) will switch centrally over CAPWAP.
The Split Tunneling solution assumes that the subnet/VLAN associated with a client in the central site is not present in the local site (that is, traffic for clients which receive an IP address from the subnet present on the central site will not be able to switch locally). The Split Tunneling functionality is designed to switch traffic locally for subnets which belong to the local site in order to avoid WAN bandwidth consumption. Traffic which matches the Flex ACL rules are switched locally and NAT operation is performed changing the client’s source IP address to the Flex AP’s BVI interface IP address which is routable at the local site/network.
- The Split Tunneling functionality is supported on WLANs configured for Central Switching advertised by Flex APs only.
- The DHCP required should be enabled on WLANs configured for Split Tunneling.
- The Split Tunneling configuration is applied per WLAN configured for central switching on per Flex AP or for all the Flex APs in a FlexConnect Group.
Step 4 Configure FlexConnect ACL with a permit rule for traffic which should be switched locally on the Central Switch WLAN. In this example, the FlexConnect ACL rule is configured so it will alert ICMP traffic from all the clients which are on the 126.96.36.199 subnet (that is, exist on the Central site) to 188.8.131.52 to be switched locally after the NAT operation is applied on Flex AP. The rest of the traffic will hit an implicit deny rule and be switched centrally over CAPWAP.
a. Select the WLAN Id on which the Split Tunneling feature should be enabled. On the WLAN-ACL mapping tab, select FlexConnect ACL from the FlexConnect group where particular Flex APs are added, and click Add.
- Flex ACL rules should not be configured with permit/deny statement with same subnet as source and destination.
- Traffic on a Centrally Switched WLAN configured for Split Tunneling can be switched locally only when a wireless client initiates traffic for a host present on the local site. If traffic is initiated by clients/host on a local site for wireless clients on these configured WLANs, it will not be able to reach the destination.
- Split Tunneling is not supported for Multicast/Broadcast traffic. Multicast/Broadcast traffic will switch centrally even if it matches the Flex ACL.
- FlexConnect Branch APs lose connectivity with the primary Flex 7500 controller.
- FlexConnect Branch APs are switching to the secondary Flex 7500 controller.
- FlexConnect Branch APs are re-establishing connection to the primary Flex 7500 controller.
FlexConnect Fault Tolerance, along with Local EAP as outlined above and PEAP/EAP-TLS authentication on FlexConnect AP with release 7.5, together provide zero branch downtime during a network outage. This feature is enabled by default and cannot be disabled. It requires no configuration on the controller or AP. However, to ensure Fault Tolerance works smoothly and is applicable, this criteria should be maintained:
- WLAN ordering and configurations have to be identical across the primary and backup Flex 7500 controllers.
- VLAN mapping has to be identical across the primary and backup Flex 7500 controllers.
- Mobility domain name has to be identical across the primary and backup Flex 7500 controllers.
- It is recommended to use Flex 7500 as both the primary and backup controllers.
- FlexConnect will not disconnect clients when the AP is connecting back to the same controller provided there is no change in configuration on the controller.
- FlexConnect will not disconnect clients when connecting to the backup controller provided there is no change in configuration and the backup controller is identical to the primary controller.
- FlexConnect will not reset its radios on connecting back to the primary controller provided there is no change in configuration on the controller.
- Supported only for FlexConnect with Central/Local Authentication with Local Switching.
- Centrally authenticated clients require full re-authentication if the client session timer expires before the FlexConnect AP switches from Standalone to Connected mode.
- Flex 7500 primary and backup controllers must be in the same mobility domain.
Along with traffic segmentation, the need for restricting the total client accessing the wireless services arises. For example, limiting total Guest Clients from branch tunneling back to the Data Center.
Step 1 Select the Centrally Switched WLAN ID 1 with SSID DataCenter. This WLAN was created during THE AP Group creation. See Figure 7.
In controller software releases prior to 7.2, peer-to-peer (P2P) blocking was only supported for central switching WLANs. Peer-to-peer blocking can be configured on WLAN with any of these three actions:
- Disabled – Disables peer-to-peer blocking and bridged traffic locally within the controller for clients in the same subnet. This is the default value.
- Drop – Causes the controller to discard packets for clients in the same subnet.
- Forward Up-Stream – Causes the packet to be forwarded on the upstream VLAN. The devices above the controller decide what action to take regarding the packet.
Step 2 Once the P2P Blocking action is configured as Drop or Forward-Upstream on WLAN configured for local switching, it is pushed from the WLC to the FlexConnect AP. The FlexConnect APs will store this information in the reap config file in flash. With this, even when FlexConnect AP is in standalone mode, it can apply the P2P configuration on the corresponding sub-interfaces.
- In FlexConnect, solution P2P blocking configuration cannot be applied only to a particular FlexConnect AP or sub-set of APs. It is applied to all FlexConnect APs that broadcast the SSID.
- Unified solution for central switching clients supports P2P upstream-forward. However, this will not be supported in the FlexConnect solution. This is treated as P2P drop and client packets are dropped instead of forwarded to the next network node.
- Unified solution for central switching clients supports P2P blocking for clients associated to different APs. However, this solution targets only clients connected to the same AP. FlexConnect ACLs can be used as a workaround for this limitation.
The pre-image download feature reduces the downtime duration to a certain extent, but still all the FlexConnect APs have to pre-download the respective AP images over the WAN link with higher latency.
Efficient AP Image Upgrade will reduce the downtime for each FlexConnect AP. The basic idea is only one AP of each AP model will download the image from the controller and will act as Master/Server, and the rest of the APs of the same model will work as Slave/Client and will pre-download the AP image from the master. The distribution of AP image from the server to the client will be on a local network and will not experience the latency of the WAN link. As a result, the process will be faster.
a. In order to manually select the Master AP, navigate to WLC GUI > Wireless > FlexConnect Groups, select FlexConnect Group > Image Upgrade tab > FlexConnect Master APs, and select AP from the drop-down list, and click Add Master.
Note Slave Maximum Retry Count is the number of attempts (44 by default) in which the slave AP will make in order to download an image from the Master AP, after which it will fall back to download the image from the WLC. It will make 20 attempts against WLC in order to download a new image after which the administrator has to re-initiate the download process.
Step 7 Once FlexConnect Upgrade is initiated, only the Master AP will download the image from the WLC. Under All AP page, Upgrade Role will be updated as Master/Central which means Master AP has downloaded the image from the WLC which is at the central location. The Slave AP will download the image from the Master AP which is at the local site and is the reason under All AP page Upgrade Role will be updated as Slave/Local.
- Master AP selection is per FlexConnect group and per AP model in each group.
- Only 3 slave APs of same model can upgrade simultaneously from their master AP and rest of the slave APs will use the random back-off timer to retry for the Master AP in order to download the AP image.
- In the instance that the Slave AP fails to download the image from the Master AP for some reason, it will go to the WLC in order to fetch the new image.
- This works only with CAPWAP APs.
- Smart AP image upgrade does not work when the Master AP is connected over CAPWAPv6.
This mode is available only for the Flex 7500 Controller and is supported only using CLI. This mode triggers the change on all the connected APs. It is recommended that Flex 7500 is deployed in a different mobility domain than existing WLC campus controllers before you enable this CLI:
Step 2 Performing config ap autoconvert flexconnect CLI converts all the APs in the network with non-supported AP mode to FlexConnect mode. Any APs that are already in FlexConnect or Monitor Mode are not affected.
Step 3 Performing config ap autoconvert monitor CLI converts all the APs in the network with non-supported AP mode to Monitor mode. Any APs that are already in FlexConnect or Monitor mode are not affected.
- When Flex AP is in connected mode, it forwards all the IAPP messages to the controller and the controller will process the IAPP messages the same as Local mode AP. Traffic for wired/wireless clients will be switched locally from Flex APs.
- When AP is in standalone mode, it processes the IAPP messages, wired/wireless clients on the WGB must be able to register and de-register. Upon transition to connected mode, Flex AP will send the information of wired clients back to the controller. WGB will send registration messages three times when Flex AP transitions from Standalone to Connected mode.
Step 1 No special configuration is needed in order to enable WGB/uWGB support on FlexConnect APs for WLANs configured for local switching as WGB. Also, clients behind WGB are treated as normal clients on local switching configured WLANs by Flex APs. Enable FlexConnect Local Switching on a WLAN.
- Wired clients behind WGB will always be on the same VLAN as WGN itself. Multiple VLAN support for clients behind WGB is not supported on Flex AP for WLANs configured for Local Switching.
- A maximum of 20 clients (wired/wireless) are supported behind WGB when associated to Flex AP on WLAN configured for local switching. This number is the same as what we have today for WGB support on Local mode AP.
- Web Auth is not supported for clients behind WGB associated on WLANs configured for local switching.
Prior to release 7.4, the configuration of RADIUS servers at the FlexConnect group was done from a global list of RADIUS servers on the controller. The maximum number of RADIUS servers, which can be configured in this global list, is 17. With an increasing number of branch offices, it is a requirement to be able to configure a RADIUS server per branch site. In release 7.4 onwards, it will be possible to configure Primary and Backup RADIUS servers per FlexConnect group which may or may not be part of the global list of 17 RADIUS authentication servers configured on the controller.
The existing configuration command at the FlexConnect Group, which needs the index of the RADIUS server in the global RADIUS server list on the controller, will be deprecated and replaced with a configuration command, which configures a RADIUS server at the Flexconnect Group using the IP address of the server and shared secret.
- Support for configuration of Primary and Backup RADIUS servers per FlexConnect group, which may or may not be present in the global list of RADIUS authentication servers.
- The maximum number of unique RADIUS servers that can be added on a WLC is the number of FlexConnect groups that can be configured on a given platform times two. An example is one primary and one secondary RADIUS server per FlexConnect group.
- Software upgrade from a previous release to release 7.4 will not cause any RADIUS configuration loss.
- The deletion of the primary RADIUS server is allowed without having to deleting the secondary RADIUS server. This is consistent with the present FlexConnect group configuration for the RADIUS server.
Flex 7500 will allow and continue to support creation of EoIP tunnel to your guest anchor controller in DMZ. For best practices on the wireless guest access solution, refer to the Guest Deployment Guide.
FlexConnect AP can be configured as a RADIUS server for LEAP and EAP-FAST client authentication. In standalone mode and also when local authentication feature is enabled on the WLANs, FlexConnect AP will do dot1x authentication on the AP itself using the local radius. With controller release 7.5, PEAP and EAP-TLS EAP methods are also supported.
Detailed steps on how to accomplish the above steps are listed in Document-100590 ( http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6366/products_configuration_example09186a008093f1b9.shtml )
Enable the Enable AP Local Authentication check box on the FlexConnect groups edit page. Radius Servers on the FlexConnect group must be ‘Unconfigured’. If any RADIUS servers are configured on the FlexConnect group, the AP tries to authenticate the wireless clients using the RADIUS servers first. AP Local Authentication is attempted only if no RADIUS servers are found, either because the RADIUS servers timed out or no RADIUS servers were configured.
b. With release 7.5, these certificates will be used for authenticating clients using EAP-TLS. Both the device and root certificates will be downloaded to all the FlexConnect APs in the FlexConnect group if the EAP-TLS method is enabled, and the same is used at the AP to authenticate the clients.
c. When a new AP joins the group, certificates will be pushed to the AP along with other configurations. The user has to download the EAP device and Root certificates to controller prior to enabling EAP-TLS on the FlexConnect group.
- eapdev.pem.ca – This is the CA (root) certificate.
- eapdev.pem.crt –This is the public certificate of the device.
- eapdev.pem.prv –This is the RSA private key of the device.
- eapdevpwd – This is the password file to protect the private key.
This will push the WLAN to VLAN mapping to all the APs present in the FlexConnect group. The FlexConnect level configuration will have a higher precedence compared to the WLAN-VLAN mapping configured on the WLAN.
- WLAN level WLAN-VLAN mapping has the lowest precedence.
- Higher precedence mapping will override the mapping of lower precedence
- AP level WLAN-VLAN mapping has the highest precedence
- On deletion of a higher precedence mapping, the next highest precedence mapping will take effect.
config flexconnect group <group> wlan-vlan wlan <wlan-id> add vlan <vlan-id>
config flexconnect group <group> wlan-vlan wlan <wlan-id> delete
config ap flexconnect vlan remove wlan <wlan_id> <ap_name>
Prior to release 7.5, we support FlexConnect ACLs on the VLAN. We also support AAA override of VLANs. If a client gets an AAA override of VLAN, it is placed on the overridden VLAN and the ACL on the VLAN applies for the client. If an ACL is received from the AAA for locally switched clients, we ignore the same. With release 7.5, we address this limitation and provide support for client based ACLs for locally switched WLANs.
c. The controller will be used to pre-create the ACLs at the AP. When the AP receives the ACL configuration, it will create the corresponding IOS ACL. Once, AAA server provides the ACL, the client structure will be updated with this information.
f. In the case of central authentication, when the controller receives the ACL from the AAA server, it will send the ACL name to the AP for the client. For locally authenticated clients, the ACL will be sent from the AP to the controller as part of CCKM/PMK cache, which will then be distributed to all APs belonging to the FlexConnect-group.
- Prior to AAA sending the client ACL, the ACL should be pre-created on the group or AP. The ACL will not be dynamically downloaded to the AP at the time of client join.
- A maximum of 96 ACLs can be configured on the AP.
- Each ACL will have a maximum of 64 rules.
- If client is already authenticated, and ACL name is changed on the radius, then client will have to do a full authentication again to get the correct client ACL.
- Since ACL not saved in cache at the controller, if the AP reboots/crashes, its cache will not be updated and the client will have to do full authentication for correct client ACL to be applied.
- If an ACL is returned from the AAA server but the corresponding ACL is not present on the AP, the client will be de-authenticated. A log message will be generated at the AP and WLC console.
*spamApTask7: Mar 04 14:51:03.989: #HREAP-3-CLIENT_ACL_ENTRY_NOT_EXIST: spam_lrad.c:36670 The client 00:40:96:b8:d4:be could not join AP : 34:a8:4e:e7:5b:c0 for slot 1, Reason: acl returned from RADIUS/local policy not present at AP
Cisco Unified Wireless Network (CUWN) release 8.0 introduces a new feature—VideoStream for Local Switching, for branch office deployments. This feature enables the wireless architecture to deploy multicast video streaming across the branches, just like it is currently possible for enterprise deployments. This feature recompenses the drawbacks that degrade the video delivery as the video streams and clients scale in a branch network. VideoStream makes video multicast to wireless clients more reliable and facilitates better usage of wireless bandwidth in the branch.
VideoStream feature for Local Switching is available in CUWN software version 8.0. This feature is supported on all wireless LAN controllers (WLANs) and newer generation indoor access points (APs). This feature is unavailable on autonomous access points.
- Cisco 5500 Controller
- Cisco 7510 Controller
- Cisco 8510 Controller
- Cisco WiSM-2 Controller
- Cisco 2504 Controller
Before going into details about the VideoStream feature, you should understand some of the shortfalls in Wi-Fi multicast. 802.11n is a prominently discussed wireless technology for indoor wireless deployments. Equally prominent requirement is seen in multimedia service on an enterprise and branch network, in particular, video. Multicast does not provide any MAC layer recovery on multicast and broadcast frames. Multicast and broadcast packets do not have an Acknowledgement (ACK), and all packet delivery is best effort. Multicast over wireless with 802.11a/b/g/n does not provide any mechanism for reliable transmission.
Wireless deployments are prone to interference, high channel utilization, and low SNR at the edge of the cell. There are also many clients sharing the same channel but have different channel conditions, power limitations, and client processing capabilities. Therefore, multicast is not a reliable transmission protocol to all the clients in the same channel because each client has different channel conditions.
Wireless multicast does not prioritize the video traffic even though it is marked as Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP) by the video server. The application will see a loss of packets with no ACK, and retries to the delivery will be bad. In order to provide reliable transmissions of multicast packet, it is necessary that the network classify queues and provisions using Quality of Service (QoS). This virtually removes the issue of unreliability by eliminating dropped packets and delay of the packets to the host by marking the packets and sorting them to the appropriate queue.
Even though the 802.11n, and now 802.11ac, adaptation has gained momentum both with the network and clients, wireless multicast has not been able to use the 802.11n and 802.11ac data rates. This has also been one of the factors for an alternate mechanism for wireless multicast propagation.
VideoStream provides efficient bandwidth utilization by removing the need to broadcast multicast packets to all WLANs on the AP regardless if there is a client joined to a multicast group. In order to get around this limitation, the AP has to send multicast traffic to the host using Unicast forwarding, only on the WLAN that the client is joined and at the data rate the client is joined at.
VideoStream can be enabled globally on the controller. The feature can also be enabled at the WLAN level, and provides more control to the administrator to identify specific video streams for Multicast Direct functionality.
As mentioned earlier, while video is an efficient, high-impact means of communication, it is also very bandwidth intensive, and as is seen, not all video content is prioritized the same. From earlier discussion it is clear that organizations investing in video cannot afford to have network bandwidth consumed without any prioritization of business-critical media.
By enabling 802.11n data rates and providing packet error correction, multicast-to-unicast capabilities of Cisco VideoStream enhances reliability of delivering streaming video over Wi-Fi beyond best-effort features of traditional wireless networks.
A wireless client application subscribes to an IP multicast stream by sending an IGMP join message. With reliable multicast, this request is snooped by the infrastructure, which collects data from the IGMP messages. The AP checks the stream subscription and configuration. A response is sent to the wireless client attached to the AP in order to initiate reliable multicast once the stream arrives. When the multicast packet arrives, the AP replicates the multicast frame and converts it to 802.11 unicast frames. Finally, a reliable multicast service delivers the video stream as unicast directly to the client.
With Cisco VideoStream technology, all of the replication is done at the edge (on the AP), thus utilizing the overall network efficiently. At any point in time, there is only the configured media stream traversing the network, because the video stream is converted to unicast at the APs based on the IGMP requests initiated by the clients. Some other vendor implementations do a similar conversion of multicast to unicast, but do it inefficiently as evidenced by the load put on the wired network to support the stream.
VideoStream can be deployed on an existing branch wide wired and wireless network. The overall implementation and maintenance costs of a video over wireless network are greatly reduced. The assumption is that the wired network is multicast enabled. In order to verify that the access switch is part of the layer 3 network, connect a client machine to the switchport and verify if the client machine is able to join a multicast feed.
Depending on the type of Protocol Independent Routing (PIM) configuration on the wired network, the layer 3 switch is configured either in PIM Sparse mode or in PIM dense mode. There is also a hybrid mode, PIM sparse-dense mode which is widely used.
show ip igmp interfacesdisplay the SVI interfaces that are participating in the IGMP membership. This command displays the version of IGMP configured on the switch or the router. The IGMP activity on the interface can also be verified in the form of IGMP join and leave messages by the clients.
The above configuration can be verified by running the
show ip mroutecommand on the layer 3 switch. The above configuration has certain entries that need to be looked into. The special notation of (Source, Group), pronounced “S, G” where the source “S” is the source IP address of the multicast server and “G” is the Multicast Group Address that a client has requested to join. If the network has many sources, you will see on the routers an (S,G) for each of the source IP address and Multicast Group addresses. This output displayed below also has information of outgoing and incoming interfaces.
To enable the VideoStream feature globally on the controller, navigate to Wireless > Media Stream > General and check the Multicast Direct Feature check box. Enabling the feature here populates some of the configuration parameters on the controller for VideoStream.
As mentioned it is necessary that the administrator is aware of the video characteristic streaming through a controller. A true balance must be drawn when the streams configuration are added. For example, if the stream bit rate varies between 1200 Kbps and 1500 Kbps the stream must be configured for a bandwidth of 1500 Kbps. If the stream is configured for 3000 Kbps then you will have lesser video client serviced by the AP. Similarly, configuring for 1000 Kbps will cause pixelization, bad audio, and bad user experience.
The multicast destination start IP address and end IP address can be the same address as shown in Figure 64. You can also configure a range of multicast address on the controller. There is a limitation of 100 on the number of multicast addresses entries or the number of stream entries that will be pushed to the APs.
One or all WLANs/SSIDs configured can be enabled for streaming video with VideoStream. This is another configuration step that can control the enabling of the VideoStream feature. Enabling or disabling the VideoStream feature is non-disruptive. Click WLAN > <WLAN ID> > QoS.
Configure the Quality of Service (QoS) to Gold (video) to stream video to wireless client at a QoS value of gold (4). This will only enable video quality of service to wireless clients joined to a configured stream on the controller. The rest of the clients will be enabled for appropriate QoS. To enable Multicast Direct on the WLAN, check the Multicast Direct check box as shown in Figure 65. This will enable the WLAN to service wireless clients with the VideoStream feature.
All wireless clients requesting to join a stream will be assigned video QoS priority on admission. Wireless client streaming video prior to enabling the feature on the WLAN will be streaming using normal multicast. Enabling the feature switch the clients to multicast-direct automatically on the next IGMP snooping interval. Legacy multicast can be enabled on the WLAN by not checking the Multicast Direct feature. This will show that wireless clients streaming video are in Normal Multicast mode.
Make sure the wireless clients are associated to the access point(s), and are configured for a correct interface. As seen in the Figure 66, there are three clients associated to one AP. All three clients have an IP address from VLAN 56 (SSID name—enjoy).The associated clients have an IP address and good uplink connectivity to the AP.
Enable streaming on the wired side by connecting a video server with a configured multicast address 184.108.40.206. Refer the following link to know how to stream from a Video Sever: https://wiki.videolan.org/Documentation:Streaming_HowTo_New/#Streaming_using_the_GUI
The Wireshark capture on the client shows the Multicast to Unicast Video Stream. The Ethernet header contains the MAC address of the client as the Destination MAC address, for example, 7c:d1:c3:86:7e:dc.
2. Due to the limit of CAPWAP payload length, only the first 100 media-streams will be pushed from the controller to the AP in this release. For example,
config media-stream add multicast-direct stream1 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 template coarse , is considered as one entry.
3. Roaming support is limited to adding mobile payload. Whenever the client roams to another AP, the WLC will add the entry for the client in the mc2uc table. This means that roaming in standalone mode of FlexConnect AP will not be supported for this feature.
- Debug ip igmp snooping group
- Debug capw mcast
- Show capwap mcast flexconnect clients
- Show capwap mcast flexconnect groups
The existing system requires an AP reboot when converted from Local mode to FlexConnect mode. Once the AP boots up, it joins back the controller and subsequently all the FlexConnect configuration is pushed down to the AP. This process increases the total time to deploy a FlexConnect solution in a branch. Time to deployment is a critical differentiator for any branch deployment.
This feature in release 8.0 eliminates the need to reboot when the AP is converted to FlexConnect mode. When the controller sends the AP a mode change message, the AP will get converted to FlexConnect mode without requiring a reload. The AP sub mode will also be configured if the AP receives the AP sub mode payload information from the controller. With this approach, the AP entry will be maintained at the controller and there will not be any AP disassociation.
Only Local mode to Flexconnect mode conversion is supported, any other mode change will cause an AP reboot. Similarly, changing of the AP sub mode to WIPS does not need reboot, but the rest of the sub mode configuration requires AP reboot.
From release 8.0 onward, FlexConnect + Bridge mode allows the Flexconnect functionality across mesh APs. Flex + Bridge mode is used to enable Flexconnect capabilities on Mesh (Bridge mode) APs. Refer to the Information about FlexConnect plus Bridge Mode section in Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.0 for more details.
- Cisco WLAN Controller Information: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/4400-series-wireless-lan-controllers/index.html http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/2000-series-wireless-lan-controllers/index.html
- Cisco NCS Management Software Information: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/prime-network-control-system-series-appliances/index.html
- Cisco MSE Information: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/mobility-services-engine/index.html
- Cisco LAP Documentation: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/aironet-3500-series/index.html
- APM—AP Manager Interface
- Dyn—Dynamic Interface
- Management—Management Interface
- Port—Physical Gbps port
- WiSM-2—Wireless Service Module
- AP—Access Point
- LAG—Link Aggregation
- SPAN—Switch Port Analyzer
- RSPAN—Remote SPAN
- VACL—VLAN Access Control List
- DEC—Distributed Etherchannel
- DFC—Distributed Forwarding Card
- OIR—Online Insertion and Removal
- VSL—Virtual Switch Link
- ISSU—In Service Software Upgrade
- MEC—Multichassis Ether Channel
- VSS—Virtual Switch System
- WCS—Wireless Control System
- NAM—Network Analysis Module
- IDSM—Intrusion Detection Service Module
- FWSM—Firewall Service Module
- STP—Spanning Tree Protocol
- VLAN—Virtual LAN
- SSO—Stateful Switchover
- WCP—Wireless Control Protocol
- WiSM-2—Wireless Service Module-2
Example: There is a primary controller at site A and a secondary controller at site B. If the controller at site A fails, the LAP does failover to the controller at site B. If both controllers are unavailable does the LAP fall into FlexConnect standalone mode?
Yes. First the LAP fails over to its secondary. All WLANs that are locally switched have no changes, and all that are centrally switched just have the traffic go to the new controller. And, if the secondary fails, all WLANs that are marked for local switching (and open/pre-shared key authentication/you are doing AP authenticator) remain up.
Local mode access points treat these WLANs as normal WLANs. Authentication and data traffic are tunneled back to the WLC. During a WAN link failure this WLAN is completely down and no clients are active on this WLAN until the connection to the WLC is restored.
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