Catalyst 6500 Series Switch and Cisco 7600 Series Router Firewall Services Module Configuration Guide, 4.0
Addresses, Protocols, and Ports
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Addresses, Protocols, and Ports

Table Of Contents

Addresses, Protocols, and Ports

IPv4 Addresses and Subnet Masks

Classes

Private Networks

Subnet Masks

Determining the Subnet Mask

Determining the Address to Use with the Subnet Mask

IPv6 Addresses

IPv6 Address Format

IPv6 Address Types

Unicast Addresses

Multicast Address

Anycast Address

Required Addresses

IPv6 Address Prefixes

Protocols and Applications

TCP and UDP Ports

Local Ports and Protocols

ICMP Types


Addresses, Protocols, and Ports


This appendix provides a quick reference for IP addresses, protocols, and applications. This appendix includes the following sections:

IPv4 Addresses and Subnet Masks

IPv6 Addresses

Protocols and Applications

TCP and UDP Ports

Local Ports and Protocols

ICMP Types

IPv4 Addresses and Subnet Masks

This section describes how to use IPv4 addresses with FWSM. An IPv4 address is a 32-bit number written in dotted-decimal notation: four 8-bit fields (octets) converted from binary to decimal numbers, separated by dots. The first part of an IP address identifies the network on which the host resides, while the second part identifies the particular host on the given network. The network number field is called the network prefix. All hosts on a given network share the same network prefix but must have a unique host number. In classful IP, the class of the address determines the boundary between the network prefix and the host number.

This section includes the following topics:

Classes

Private Networks

Subnet Masks

Classes

IP host addresses are divided into three different address classes: Class A, Class B, and Class C. Each class fixes the boundary between the network prefix and the host number at a different point within the 32-bit address. Class D addresses are reserved for multicast IP.

Class A addresses (1.xxx.xxx.xxx through 126.xxx.xxx.xxx) use only the first octet as the network prefix.

Class B addresses (128.0.xxx.xxx through 191.255.xxx.xxx) use the first two octets as the network prefix.

Class C addresses (192.0.0.xxx through 223.255.255.xxx) use the first three octets as the network prefix.

Because Class A addresses have 16,777,214 host addresses, and Class B addresses 65,534 hosts, you can use subnet masking to break these huge networks into smaller subnets.

Private Networks

If you need large numbers of addresses on your network, and they do not need to be routed on the Internet, you can use private IP addresses that the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) recommends (see RFC 1918). The following address ranges are designated as private networks that should not be advertised:

10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255

172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255

192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255

Subnet Masks

A subnet mask lets you convert a single Class A, B, or C network into multiple networks. With a subnet mask, you can create an extended network prefix that adds bits from the host number to the network prefix. For example, a Class C network prefix always consists of the first three octets of the IP address. But a Class C extended network prefix uses part of the fourth octet as well.

Subnet masking is easy to understand if you use binary notation instead of dotted decimal. The bits in the subnet mask have a one-to-one correspondence with the Internet address:

The bits are set to 1 if the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the extended network prefix.

The bits are set to 0 if the bit is part of the host number.

Example 1: If you have the Class B address 129.10.0.0 and you want to use the entire third octet as part of the extended network prefix instead of the host number, you must specify a subnet mask of 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000. This subnet mask converts the Class B address into the equivalent of a Class C address, where the host number consists of the last octet only.

Example 2: If you want to use only part of the third octet for the extended network prefix, then you must specify a subnet mask like 11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000, which uses only 5 bits of the third octet for the extended network prefix.

You can write a subnet mask as a dotted-decimal mask or as a /bits ("slash bits") mask. In Example 1, for a dotted-decimal mask, you convert each binary octet into a decimal number: 255.255.255.0. For a /bits mask, you add the number of 1s: /24. In Example 2, the decimal number is 255.255.248.0 and the /bits is /21.

You can also supernet multiple Class C networks into a larger network by using part of the third octet for the extended network prefix. For example, 192.168.0.0/20.

This section includes the following topics:

Determining the Subnet Mask

Determining the Address to Use with the Subnet Mask

Determining the Subnet Mask

To determine the subnet mask based on how many hosts you want, see Table E-1.

Table E-1 Hosts, Bits, and Dotted-Decimal Masks 

Hosts 1
/Bits Mask
Dotted-Decimal Mask

16,777,216

/8

255.0.0.0 Class A Network

65,536

/16

255.255.0.0 Class B Network

32,768

/17

255.255.128.0

16,384

/18

255.255.192.0

8192

/19

255.255.224.0

4096

/20

255.255.240.0

2048

/21

255.255.248.0

1024

/22

255.255.252.0

512

/23

255.255.254.0

256

/24

255.255.255.0 Class C Network

128

/25

255.255.255.128

64

/26

255.255.255.192

32

/27

255.255.255.224

16

/28

255.255.255.240

8

/29

255.255.255.248

4

/30

255.255.255.252

Do not use

/31

255.255.255.254

1

/32

255.255.255.255 Single Host Address

1 The first and last number of a subnet are reserved, except for /32, which identifies a single host.


Determining the Address to Use with the Subnet Mask

The following sections describe how to determine the network address to use with a subnet mask for a Class C-size and a Class B-size network. This section includes the following topics:

Class C-Size Network Address

Class B-Size Network Address

Class C-Size Network Address

For a network between 2 and 254 hosts, the fourth octet falls on a multiple of the number of host addresses, starting with 0. For example, the 8-host subnets (/29) of 192.168.0.x are as follows:

Subnet with Mask /29 (255.255.255.248)
Address Range 1

192.168.0.0

192.168.0.0 to 192.168.0.7

192.168.0.8

192.168.0.8 to 192.168.0.15

192.168.0.16

192.168.0.16 to 192.168.0.31

...

...

192.168.0.248

192.168.0.248 to 192.168.0.255

1 The first and last address of a subnet are reserved. In the first subnet example, you cannot use 192.168.0.0 or 192.168.0.7.


Class B-Size Network Address

To determine the network address to use with the subnet mask for a network with between 254 and 65,534 hosts, you need to determine the value of the third octet for each possible extended network prefix. For example, you might want to subnet an address like 10.1.x.0, where the first two octets are fixed because they are used in the extended network prefix, and the fourth octet is 0 because all bits are used for the host number.

To determine the value of the third octet, perform the following steps:


Step 1 Calculate how many subnets you can make from the network by dividing 65,536 (the total number of addresses using the third and fourth octet) by the number of host addresses you want.

For example, 65,536 divided by 4096 hosts equals 16.

Therefore, there are 16 subnets of 4096 addresses each in a Class B-size network.

Step 2 Determine the multiple of the third octet value by dividing 256 (the number of values for the third octet) by the number of subnets:

In this example, 256/16 = 16.

The third octet falls on a multiple of 16, starting with 0.

Therefore, the 16 subnets of the network 10.1 are as follows:

Subnet with Mask /20 (255.255.240.0)
Address Range 1

10.1.0.0

10.1.0.0 to 10.1.15.255

10.1.16.0

10.1.16.0 to 10.1.31.255

10.1.32.0

10.1.32.0 to 10.1.47.255

...

...

10.1.240.0

10.1.240.0 to 10.1.255.255

1 The first and last address of a subnet are reserved. In the first subnet example, you cannot use 10.1.0.0 or 10.1.15.255.



IPv6 Addresses

IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet Protocol after IPv4. It provides an expanded address space, a simplified header format, improved support for extensions and options, flow labeling capability, and authentication and privacy capabilities. IPv6 is described in RFC 2460. The IPv6 addressing architecture is described in RFC 3513.

This section describes the IPv6 address format and architecture and includes the following topics:

IPv6 Address Format

IPv6 Address Types

IPv6 Address Prefixes


Note This section describes the IPv6 address format, the types, and prefixes. For information about configuring FWSM to use IPv6, see Chapter 10, "Configuring IPv6."


IPv6 Address Format

IPv6 addresses are represented as a series of eight 16-bit hexadecimal fields separated by colons (:) in the format: x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x. The following are two examples of IPv6 addresses:

2001:0DB8:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210

2001:0DB8:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:417A


Note The hexadecimal letters in IPv6 addresses are not case-sensitive.


It is not necessary to include the leading zeros in an individual field of the address. But each field must contain at least one digit. So the example address 2001:0DB8:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:417A can be shortened to 2001:0DB8:0:0:8:800:200C:417A by removing the leading zeros from the third through sixth fields from the left. The fields that contained all zeros (the third and fourth fields from the left) were shortened to a single zero. The fifth field from the left had the three leading zeros removed, leaving a single 8 in that field, and the sixth field from the left had the one leading zero removed, leaving 800 in that field.

It is common for IPv6 addresses to contain several consecutive hexadecimal fields of zeros. You can use two colons (::) to compress consecutive fields of zeros at the beginning, middle, or end of an IPv6 address (the colons represent the successive hexadecimal fields of zeros). Table E-2 shows several examples of address compression for different types of IPv6 address.

Table E-2 IPv6 Address Compression Examples

Address Type
Standard Form
Compressed Form

Unicast

2001:0DB8:0:0:0:BA98:0:3210

2001:0DB8::BA98:0:3210

Multicast

FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:101

FF01::101

Loopback

0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1

::1

Unspecified

0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0

::



Note Two colons (::) can be used only once in an IPv6 address to represent successive fields of zeros.


An alternative form of the IPv6 format is often used when dealing with an environment that contains both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. This alternative has the format x:x:x:x:x:x:y.y.y.y, where x represent the hexadecimal values for the six high-order parts of the IPv6 address and y represent decimal values for the 32-bit IPv4 part of the address (which takes the place of the remaining two 16-bit parts of the IPv6 address). For example, the IPv4 address 192.168.1.1 could be represented as the IPv6 address 0:0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:192.168.1.1, or ::FFFF:192.168.1.1.

IPv6 Address Types

The following are the three main types of IPv6 addresses:

Unicast—A unicast address is an identifier for a single interface. A packet sent to a unicast address is delivered to the interface identified by that address. An interface may have more than one unicast address assigned to it.

Multicast—A multicast address is an identifier for a set of interfaces. A packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to all addresses identified by that address.

Anycast—An anycast address is an identifier for a set of interfaces. Unlike a multicast address, a packet sent to an anycast address is only delivered to the "nearest" interface, as determined by the measure of distances for the routing protocol.


Note There are no broadcast addresses in IPv6. Multicast addresses provide the broadcast functionality.


This section includes the following topics:

Unicast Addresses

Multicast Address

Anycast Address

Required Addresses

Unicast Addresses

This section describes IPv6 unicast addresses. Unicast addresses identify an interface on a network node.

This section includes the following topics:

Global Address

Site-Local Address

Link-Local Address

IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses

Unspecified Address

Loopback Address

Interface Identifiers

Global Address

The general format of an IPv6 global unicast address is a global routing prefix followed by a subnet ID followed by an interface ID. The global routing prefix can be any prefix not reserved by another IPv6 address type (see IPv6 Address Prefixes, for information about the IPv6 address type prefixes).

All global unicast addresses, other than those that start with binary 000, have a 64-bit interface ID in the Modified EUI-64 format. See Interface Identifiers, for more information about the Modified EUI-64 format for interface identifiers.

Global unicast address that start with the binary 000 do not have any constraints on the size or structure of the interface ID portion of the address. One example of this type of address is an IPv6 address with an embedded IPv4 address (see IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses).

Site-Local Address

Site-local addresses are used for addressing within a site. They can be use to address an entire site without using a globally unique prefix. Site-local addresses have the prefix FEC0::/10, followed by a 54-bit subnet ID, and end with a 64-bit interface ID in the modified EUI-64 format.

Site-local Routers do not forward any packets that have a site-local address for a source or destination outside of the site. Therefore, site-local addresses can be considered private addresses.

Link-Local Address

All interfaces are required to have at least one link-local address. You can configure multiple IPv6 addresses per interfaces, but only one link-local address.

A link-local address is an IPv6 unicast address that can be automatically configured on any interface using the link-local prefix FE80::/10 and the interface identifier in modified EUI-64 format. Link-local addresses are used in the neighbor discovery protocol and the stateless autoconfiguration process. Nodes with a link-local address can communicate; they do not need a site-local or globally unique address to communicate.

Routers do not forward any packets that have a link-local address for a source or destination. Therefore, link-local addresses can be considered private addresses.

IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses

There are two types of IPv6 addresses that can contain IPv4 addresses.

The first type is the "IPv4-compatibly IPv6 address." The IPv6 transition mechanisms include a technique for hosts and routers to dynamically tunnel IPv6 packets over IPv4 routing infrastructure. IPv6 nodes that use this technique are assigned special IPv6 unicast addresses that carry a global IPv4 address in the low-order 32 bits. This type of address is termed an "IPv4-compatible IPv6 address" and has the format ::y.y.y.y, where y.y.y.y is an IPv4 unicast address.


Note The IPv4 address used in the "IPv4-compatible IPv6 address" must be a globally-unique IPv4 unicast address.


The second type of IPv6 address which holds an embedded IPv4 address is called the "IPv4-mapped IPv6 address." This address type is used to represent the addresses of IPv4 nodes as IPv6 addresses. This type of address has the format ::FFFF:y.y.y.y, where y.y.y.y is an IPv4 unicast address.

Unspecified Address

The unspecified address, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0, indicates the absence of an IPv6 address. For example, a newly initialized node on an IPv6 network may use the unspecified address as the source address in its packets until it receives its IPv6 address.


Note The IPv6 unspecified address cannot be assigned to an interface. The unspecified IPv6 addresses must not be used as destination addresses in IPv6 packets or the IPv6 routing header.


Loopback Address

The loopback address, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1, may be used by a node to send an IPv6 packet to itself. The loopback address in IPv6 functions the same as the loopback address in IPv4 (127.0.0.1).


Note The IPv6 loopback address cannot be assigned to a physical interface. A packet that has the IPv6 loopback address as its source or destination address must remain within the node that created the packet. IPv6 routers do not forward packets that have the IPv6 loopback address as their source or destination address.


Interface Identifiers

Interface identifiers in IPv6 unicast addresses are used to identify the interfaces on a link. They need to be unique within a subnet prefix. In many cases, the interface identifier is derived from the interface link-layer address. The same interface identifier may be used on multiple interfaces of a single node, as long as those interfaces are attached to different subnets.

For all unicast addresses, except those that start with the binary 000, the interface identifier is required to be 64 bits long and to be constructed in the Modified EUI-64 format. The Modified EUI-64 format is created from the 48-bit MAC address by inverting the universal/local bit in the address and by inserting the hexadecimal number FFFE between the upper three bytes and lower three bytes of the of the MAC address.

For example, and interface with the MAC address of 00E0.b601.3B7A would have a 64-bit interface ID of 02E0:B6FF:FE01:3B7A.

Multicast Address

An IPv6 multicast address is an identifier for a group of interfaces, typically on different nodes. A packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to all interfaces identified by the multicast address. An interface may belong to any number of multicast groups.

An IPv6 multicast address has a prefix of FF00::/8 (1111 1111). The octet following the prefix defines the type and scope of the multicast address. A permanently assigned ("well known") multicast address has a flag parameter equal to 0; a temporary ("transient") multicast address has a flag parameter equal to 1. A multicast address that has the scope of a node, link, site, or organization, or a global scope has a scope parameter of 1, 2, 5, 8, or E, respectively. For example, a multicast address with the prefix FF02::/16 is a permanent multicast address with a link scope. Figure E-1 shows the format of the IPv6 multicast address.

Figure E-1 IPv6 Multicast Address Format

IPv6 nodes (hosts and routers) are required to join the following multicast groups:

The All Nodes multicast addresses:

FF01:: (interface-local)

FF02:: (link-local)

The Solicited-Node Address for each IPv6 unicast and anycast address on the node: FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFXX:XXXX/104, where XX:XXXX is the low-order 24-bits of the unicast or anycast address.


Note Solicited-Node addresses are used in Neighbor Solicitation messages.


IPv6 routers are required to join the following multicast groups:

FF01::2 (interface-local)

FF02::2 (link-local)

FF05::2 (site-local)

Multicast address should not be used as source addresses in IPv6 packets.


Note There are no broadcast addresses in IPv6. IPv6 multicast addresses are used instead of broadcast addresses.


Anycast Address

The IPv6 anycast address is a unicast address that is assigned to more than one interface (typically belonging to different nodes). A packet that is routed to an anycast address is routed to the nearest interface having that address, the nearness being determined by the routing protocol in effect.

Anycast addresses are allocated from the unicast address space. An anycast address is simply a unicast address that has been assigned to more than one interface, and the interfaces must be configured to recognize the address as an anycast address.

The following restrictions apply to anycast addresses:

An anycast address cannot be used as the source address for an IPv6 packet.

An anycast address cannot be assigned to an IPv6 host; it can only be assigned to an IPv6 router.


Note Anycast addresses are not supported on FWSM.


Required Addresses

IPv6 hosts must, at a minimum, be configured with the following addresses (either automatically or manually):

A link-local address for each interface.

The loopback address.

The All-Nodes multicast addresses

A Solicited-Node multicast address for each unicast or anycast address.

IPv6 routers must, at a minimum, be configured with the following addresses (either automatically or manually):

The required host addresses.

The Subnet-Router anycast addresses for all interfaces for which it is configured to act as a router.

The All-Routers multicast addresses.

IPv6 Address Prefixes

An IPv6 address prefix, in the format ipv6-prefix/prefix-length, can be used to represent bit-wise contiguous blocks of the entire address space. The IPv6-prefix must be in the form documented in RFC 2373 where the address is specified in hexadecimal using 16-bit values between colons. The prefix length is a decimal value that indicates how many of the high-order contiguous bits of the address comprise the prefix (the network portion of the address). For example, 2001:0DB8:8086:6502::/32 is a valid IPv6 prefix.

The IPv6 prefix identifies the type of IPv6 address. Table E-3 shows the prefixes for each IPv6 address type.

Table E-3 IPv6 Address Type Prefixes

Address Type
Binary Prefix
IPv6 Notation

Unspecified

000...0 (128 bits)

::/128

Loopback

000...1 (128 bits)

::1/128

Multicast

11111111

FF00::/8

Link-Local (unicast)

1111111010

FE80::/10

Site-Local (unicast)

1111111111

FEC0::/10

Global (unicast)

All other addresses.

Anycast

Taken from the unicast address space.


Protocols and Applications

Table E-4 lists the protocol literal values and port numbers; either can be entered in FWSM commands.

Table E-4 Protocol Literal Values 

Literal
Value
Description

ah

51

Authentication Header for IPv6, RFC 1826.

eigrp

88

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.

esp

50

Encapsulated Security Payload for IPv6, RFC 1827.

gre

47

Generic Routing Encapsulation.

icmp

1

Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC 792.

icmp6

58

Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6, RFC 2463.

igmp

2

Internet Group Management Protocol, RFC 1112.

igrp

9

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.

ip

0

Internet Protocol.

ipinip

4

IP-in-IP encapsulation.

ipsec

50

IP Security. Entering the ipsec protocol literal is equivalent to entering the esp protocol literal.

nos

94

Network Operating System (Novell's NetWare).

ospf

89

Open Shortest Path First routing protocol, RFC 1247.

pcp

108

Payload Compression Protocol.

pim

103

Protocol Independent Multicast.

pptp

47

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. Entering the pptp protocol literal is equivalent to entering the gre protocol literal.

snp

109

Sitara Networks Protocol.

tcp

6

Transmission Control Protocol, RFC 793.

udp

17

User Datagram Protocol, RFC 768.


Protocol numbers can be viewed online at the IANA website:

http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/protocol-numbers.xhtml

TCP and UDP Ports

Table E-5 lists the literal values and port numbers; either can be entered in FWSM commands. See the following caveats:

FWSM uses port 1521 for SQL*Net. This is the default port used by Oracle for SQL*Net. This value, however, does not agree with IANA port assignments.

FWSM listens for RADIUS on ports 1645 and 1646. If your RADIUS server uses the standard ports 1812 and 1813, you can configure FWSM to listen to those ports using the authentication-port and accounting-port commands.

To assign a port for DNS access, use the domain literal value, not dns. If you use dns, FWSM assumes you meant to use the dnsix literal value.

Port numbers can be viewed online at the IANA website:

http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers

Table E-5 Port Literal Values 

Literal
TCP or UDP?
Value
Description

aol

TCP

5190

America Online

bgp

TCP

179

Border Gateway Protocol, RFC 1163

biff

UDP

512

Used by mail system to notify users that new mail is received

bootpc

UDP

68

Bootstrap Protocol Client

bootps

UDP

67

Bootstrap Protocol Server

chargen

TCP

19

Character Generator

citrix-ica

TCP

1494

Citrix Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) protocol

cmd

TCP

514

Similar to exec except that cmd has automatic authentication

ctiqbe

TCP

2748

Computer Telephony Interface Quick Buffer Encoding

daytime

TCP

13

Day time, RFC 867

discard

TCP, UDP

9

Discard

domain

TCP, UDP

53

DNS

dnsix

UDP

195

DNSIX Session Management Module Audit Redirector

echo

TCP, UDP

7

Echo

exec

TCP

512

Remote process execution

finger

TCP

79

Finger

ftp

TCP

21

File Transfer Protocol (control port)

ftp-data

TCP

20

File Transfer Protocol (data port)

gopher

TCP

70

Gopher

https

TCP

443

HTTP over SSL

h323

TCP

1720

H.323 call signalling

hostname

TCP

101

NIC Host Name Server

ident

TCP

113

Ident authentication service

imap4

TCP

143

Internet Message Access Protocol, version 4

irc

TCP

194

Internet Relay Chat protocol

isakmp

UDP

500

Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol

kerberos

TCP, UDP

750

Kerberos

klogin

TCP

543

KLOGIN

kshell

TCP

544

Korn Shell

ldap

TCP

389

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

ldaps

TCP

636

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (SSL)

lpd

TCP

515

Line Printer Daemon - printer spooler

login

TCP

513

Remote login

lotusnotes

TCP

1352

IBM Lotus Notes

mobile-ip

UDP

434

MobileIP-Agent

nameserver

UDP

42

Host Name Server

netbios-ns

UDP

137

NetBIOS Name Service

netbios-dgm

UDP

138

NetBIOS Datagram Service

netbios-ssn

TCP

139

NetBIOS Session Service

nntp

TCP

119

Network News Transfer Protocol

ntp

UDP

123

Network Time Protocol

pcanywhere-status

UDP

5632

pcAnywhere status

pcanywhere-data

TCP

5631

pcAnywhere data

pim-auto-rp

TCP, UDP

496

Protocol Independent Multicast, reverse path flooding, dense mode

pop2

TCP

109

Post Office Protocol - Version 2

pop3

TCP

110

Post Office Protocol - Version 3

pptp

TCP

1723

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

radius

UDP

1645

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service

radius-acct

UDP

1646

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (accounting)

rip

UDP

520

Routing Information Protocol

secureid-udp

UDP

5510

SecureID over UDP

smtp

TCP

25

Simple Mail Transport Protocol

snmp

UDP

161

Simple Network Management Protocol

snmptrap

UDP

162

Simple Network Management Protocol - Trap

sqlnet

TCP

1521

Structured Query Language Network

ssh

TCP

22

Secure Shell

sunrpc (rpc)

TCP, UDP

111

Sun Remote Procedure Call

syslog

UDP

514

System Log

tacacs

TCP, UDP

49

Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus

talk

TCP, UDP

517

Talk

telnet

TCP

23

RFC 854 Telnet

tftp

UDP

69

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

time

UDP

37

Time

uucp

TCP

540

UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program

who

UDP

513

Who

whois

TCP

43

Who Is

www

TCP

80

World Wide Web

xdmcp

UDP

177

X Display Manager Control Protocol


Local Ports and Protocols

Table E-6 lists the protocols, TCP ports, and UDP ports that FWSM may open to process traffic destined to FWSM. Unless you enable the features and services listed in Table E-6, FWSM does not open any local protocols or any TCP or UDP ports. You must configure a feature or service for FWSM to open the default listening protocol or port. In many cases you can configure ports other than the default port when you enable a feature or service.

Table E-6 Protocols and Ports Opened by Features and Services 

Feature or Service
Protocol
Port Number
Comments

DHCP

UDP

67,68

Failover Control

108

N/A

HTTP

TCP

80

HTTPS

TCP

443

ICMP

1

N/A

IGMP

2

N/A

Protocol only open on destination IP address 224.0.0.1

ISAKMP/IKE

UDP

500

Configurable.

IPSec (ESP)

50

N/A

NTP

UDP

123

OSPF

89

N/A

Protocol only open on destination IP address 224.0.0.5 and 224.0.0.6

PIM

103

N/A

Protocol only open on destination IP address 224.0.0.13

RIP

UDP

520

RIPv2

UDP

520

Port only open on destination IP address 224.0.0.9

SNMP

UDP

161

Configurable.

SSH

TCP

22

Stateful Update

105

N/A

Telnet

TCP

23


ICMP Types

Table E-7 lists the ICMP type numbers and names that you can enter in FWSM commands:

Table E-7 ICMP Types 

ICMP Number
ICMP Name

0

echo-reply

3

unreachable

4

source-quench

5

redirect

6

alternate-address

8

echo

9

router-advertisement

10

router-solicitation

11

time-exceeded

12

parameter-problem

13

timestamp-request

14

timestamp-reply

15

information-request

16

information-reply

17

mask-request

18

mask-reply

31

conversion-error

32

mobile-redirect