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Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches

Comparison of the Cisco Catalyst and Cisco IOS Operating Systems for the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switch

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Version 5.0-EDCS-306654

Purpose

This document primarily compares the two software operating system models available for the Cisco ® Catalyst ® 6500 Series Switches:

• The Cisco Catalyst OS with optional Cisco IOS® Software running on the multilayer switch feature card (MSFC); this model is commonly referred to as "hybrid."

• Cisco IOS Software running on the supervisor and the MSFC, this model is commonly referred to as "native."

An overview of the software architecture, operation, and configuration for hybrid and native models is discussed along with primary feature and network deployment comparisons. Additionally, this paper is a resource for those planning a migration from a hybrid or Cisco Catalyst OS to a native Cisco IOS Software model.
It is important to note that the native software model can be implemented with either a modular software operating software image or with the monolithic software image. Both images run on the supervisor engine and the MSFC. The native software model, either modular or monolithic, provides a single configuration file and user interface. It is beyond the scope of this document to discuss the architectural differences between the modular and monolithic operating system images. Unless specifically noted, this paper will refer to both the modular and monolithic implementations as "native" software models.

Introduction

The Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches are the industry-leading chassis-based switches. With their rich support of media types and intelligent network services, the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches are deployed in all parts on the network including the core, distribution, data center, WAN edge, and access layers. An integral part of the success of Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches is their deployment flexibility.
The flexibility of the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches is in part because of the support of the two software operating models, hybrid and native. These operating system models were developed to use their respective strengths: the Cisco Catalyst OS for Layer 2/3/4 functionality and Cisco IOS Software for its rich Layer 3 routing protocols and services. This dual operating system model allowed customers to choose the right software model for their specific deployment scenarios while using the benefits of having a common hardware switching platform end to end in their network. This strategy has proven successful over the years, providing customers with scalability with superior investment protection.
Since the initial native Cisco IOS Software releases in early 2000, native releases have evolved to include the majority of Layer 2/3/4 access layer features originally available only in the Cisco Catalyst OS. As of August 2007, the following features previously unique in the Cisco Catalyst OS are now available in the native Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SXH software train:

• IEEE 802.1x user authentication in combination with important extensions

– Authentication failure VLAN

– Auxiliary/voice VLAN

– Accounting

– Private VLAN

– Guest VLAN

– Port Security interoperability

– Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Snooping

– Critical port fail open

• AutoQoS

• Call Home

• Port-based access control lists (ACLs)

With the addition of these primary features, combined with the strengths of Cisco IOS Software, Cisco is now able to recommend native Cisco IOS Software deployments end to end in the network. Subsequently Cisco has announced the end-of-sale and end-of-life dates for the hybrid Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2SX software train.

• End of sale hybrid Cisco IOS Software 12.2SX is January 29, 2008.

• Last customer ship hybrid Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2SX April 28, 2008.

See Product Bulletin EOL5829 for complete details about the end-of-sale and end-of-life announcement for the hybrid Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2SX. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/switches/ps5718/ps708/prod_end-of-life_notice0900aecd80699ddb.html.

Architecture Comparison

The Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series offers a high-performance blend of Layer 2/3/4+ technology. Independent of the software model chosen, the forwarding intelligence of the system is handled in the following hardware: the supervisor engine baseboard, the policy feature card (PFC) daughter card, and the MSFC (route processor) daughter card (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 Components

The MSFC daughter card is composed of two CPU complexes: the switch processor and the route processor. The primary difference when deploying a hybrid software model versus a native software model is where the different software images reside. Figure 2 and Figure 3 illustrate this difference.

Figure 2. Hybrid Software Model

Figure 3. Native Software Model

Cisco Catalyst OS with optional Cisco IOS Software on the MSFC provides Layer 2/3/4 functionality for the Cisco Catalyst 6500 by integrating two operating systems. A switch running the Cisco Catalyst OS only on the supervisor engine is a Layer 2 forwarding device with Layer 2/3/4 functionality for quality of service (QoS), security, multicast, and network management, but does not have any routing capabilities. Layer 3 routing functionality is provided by a Cisco IOS Software image on the MSFC routing engine (optional in the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 1A and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2 and integrated within Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 models). The two operating systems work together to provide complete Layer 2/3/4 system functionality.

The hybrid model operates based on two operating images, two configurations, and two command lines; one each for Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software. The default operation of Cisco Catalyst OS is as a switch (all ports bridging in VLAN1). Additionally, the switch-running hybrid can be configured to operate as a router.

Cisco IOS Software for the supervisor engine on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series provides a single Cisco IOS Software image, configuration, and command line to support all Layer 2, 3, and 4 functionality on the switch. Cisco IOS Software has historically been a Layer 3 operating system on routing platforms, and when installed on the supervisor engine of a Cisco Catalyst 6500 has expanded these capabilities to include true Layer 2 functionality as well. Cisco IOS Software requires an MSFC daughter card be present on the supervisor engine (default on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720).

The default operation of Cisco IOS Software is as a router (all ports are Layer 3 and in the shutdown state), but the interfaces can also be configured to operate as a switch.

The native Cisco IOS Software operating model was originally developed to target service provider and enterprise data center backbones and distribution layer services. However, with the SXF and SXH Cisco IOS Software trains, many wiring closet features have been added. Cisco IOS Software combines the switching features of the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series with routing features of Cisco IOS Software to create a single, integrated operating system that performs all switching and routing functionality, providing operational ease of use. A Cisco IOS Software system has the capability to scale the throughput and bandwidth of a Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series to 400+ Mpps and 720 Gbps, respectively.

Switch Processor Functions

The switch processor controls all chassis-related operations such as the detection of online insertion and removal (OIR) events, power management, environmental management, and redundancy management. The switch processor also handles the download of the appropriate line card firmware to each line card, basic port management (setting of port configuration, detection of link state, and so on), and other Layer 2 functionality such as Spanning Tree Protocol, VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP), Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping, and Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP). Finally, the switch processor provides console connection for the Cisco Catalyst OS or Cisco IOS Software during initial system boot.

Route Processor Functions

The route processor provides Layer 3 functionality such as routing and Cisco Express Forwarding table creation. Cisco Express Forwarding is the default Layer 3 forwarding mechanism. The route processor is responsible for creating and maintaining Cisco Express Forwarding and adjacency tables while pushing this information down to the PFC for hardware forwarding, QoS, and security functionality. Other functions residing on the route processor include IP address resolution (ARP) and routing table maintenance.

Policy Feature Card (PFC)

The PFC is the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) forwarding complex for the system. The PFC performs the hardware-based features and services at a high performance level (tens of millions of packets per second). Features such as Layer 2 bridging, Layer 3 routing, access control, QoS marking and policing, NetFlow statistics, and multicast are implemented within the PFC.

Software Implementation

Native Cisco IOS Software model mandates that both CPUs (switch processor and route processor) run the full Cisco IOS Software operating system. There is no hidden Cisco Catalyst software running in the switch, and the executable images used by both CPUs run the complete Cisco IOS Software kernel. With both processors running Cisco IOS Software, overall system performance is enhanced.
In contrast, the Cisco Catalyst OS operates on the switch processor and the PFC to provide Layer 2 forwarding and Layer 3/4 services. Should the user require Layer 3 forwarding/routing capabilities, the MSFC daughter card must be present and runs Cisco IOS Software (as part of the hybrid OS) on the route processor.

Software Feature Support

The two software models-Cisco Catalyst OS, and Cisco IOS Software-on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series are not at complete feature parity. The following table presents the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software support for some of the more commonly used protocols. Note that many features in Cisco IOS Software are not platform specific (for example, the Open Shortest Path First [OSPF], Border Gateway Protocol [BGP], or Protocol Independent Multicast [PIM] protocols). In these cases, the Cisco IOS Software features in the hybrid OS are identical to those in Cisco IOS Software.
Table 1 lists commonly used features available through the Cisco Catalyst OS Version 8.6 and Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SXH. Feature support is hardware dependent where noted.

Table 1. Software Comparison

Software Feature

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

VLAN ranges: up to 4096 VLAN SVIs (Layer 3 VLAN Interfaces)

x

x

Inter VLAN Routing

x

x

4096 Layer 2 VLANs

x

x

Private VLANs

x

x

Dynamic VLANs

x

 

Trunking: IEEE 802.1q, ISL

x

x

DTP, VTP

x

x

VTPv3

x

 

IEEE 802.1q Tunneling

x

x

Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling

x

x

Spanning Tree: PortFast, UplinkFast, BackboneFast, BPDU Guard, PRRST+, PVRST

x

x

IEEE 802.1s and 802.1w

x

x

Jumbo Frames

x

x

EtherChannel, Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP)

x

x

EtherChannel, IEEE 802.3ad (LACP)

x

x

Local and Remote Span (RSPAN)

x

x

Multicast Services: PIM, IGMP snooping, RGMP, Bi-dir PIM

x

x

QoS Marking, Policing, Scheduling

x

x

QoS ACLs

x

x

Routing ACLs

x

x

VLAN ACLs

x

x

Port-based ACLs (PACLs)

x

x

HSRP

x

x

VRRP

x

x

GLBP

x

x

IPv6

 

x

Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) (PFC3bXL Only)

 

x

MPLS (PFC3b and PFC3bXL only)

 

x

Cisco IOS Software Server Load Balancing

 

x

Broadcast Suppression

x

x

Protocol filtering, Cisco IOS Software Support on Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 1A Systems Only

x

x

Port Security

x

x

Secure Copy Protocol (SCP)

x

x

SSHv1 and SSHv2

x

x

Smart Ports Macros

x

x

IEEE 802.1x and VLAN Assignment

x

x

IEEE 802.1x Extensions Beyond VLAN Assignment

x

x

Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR)

x

x

AutoQoS

x

x

ARP Inspection

x

x

Dynamic ARP Inspection

x

x

DHCP Snooping

x

x

IP Source Guard

x

x

Network-Based Application Recognition (NBAR)

x

x

User-Based Rate Limiting

 

x

Cisco Discovery Protocol

x

x

NetFlow Data Export (NDE)

x

x

Unidirectional Link Detection (UDLD)

x

x

Voice VLAN ID (VVID) and Inline Power for Cisco IP Phones

x

x

Supervisor Redundancy and Failover

x

x

Stateful Supervisor Switchover

x

x

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), EoMPLS, MPLS VPN

 

x

Distributed Cisco Express Forwarding

 

x

Hardware and Line Card Support

Table 2 is a matrix of the majority of Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series line cards with operating system support. For specific software information about each line card, refer to the release notes at http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/relnotes/index.htm.

Table 2. Hardware Modules

Chassis, Supervisors, and PFC Daughter Cards

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

WS-C6513, WS-C6509, WS-6509-E, WS-C6509-NEB, WS-C6509-NEB-A, WS-C6506, WS-6506-E, WS-6504-E, WS-C6503, WS-6503-E, OSR-7609-AC/DC, Cisco 7603, Cisco 7604, Cisco 7606, Cisco 7609

x

x

WS-SUP720

x

x

WS-SUP720-3B

x

x

WS-SUP720-3BXL

x

x

WS-SUP32-10GE-3B

x

x

WS-SUP32-GE-3B

x

x

WS-X6K-PFC3BXL

x

x

WS-X6K-S2U-MSFC2

x

x

WS-X6K-S2-MSFC2

x

x

WS-X6K-S2-PFC2

x

NS1

WS-X6K-S1A-MSFC2

x

x

WS-X6K-SUP1A-MSFC

x

x

WS-X6K-SUP1A-PFC

x

NS2

WS-X6K-SUP1A-2GE

x

NS2

WS-X6K-SUP1-2GE

x

NS2

CEF720 Series Modules and XENPAKs

WS-X6748-SFP

x

x

WS-X6748-GE-TX

x

x

WS-X6724-SFP

x

x

WS-X6704-10GE

x

x

WS-X6708-10GE

 

x

WS-X6724-SFP

x

x

WS-X6748-GE-TX

x

x

WS-F6k-DFC 3BXL

 

x

WS-F6k-DFC 3B

 

x

WS-F6K-DFC3A

 

x

WS-X6700-DFC3A

 

x

WS-F6700-DFC3BXL

 

x

WS-F6700-DFC 3B

 

x

XENPAK-10GB-SR

x

x

XENPAK-10GB-LX4

x

x

XENPAK-10GB-CX4

x

x

XENPAK-10GB-LR

x

x

XENPAK-10GB-ER

x

x

Switching Fabric Modules

WS-C6500-SFM

x

x

WS-X6500-SFM 2

x

x

CEF256 and dCEF256 Series Modules

WS-F6K-DFC

 

x

WS-X6816-GBIC

 

x

WS-X6501-10GEX4

x

x

WS-X6502-10GE

x

x

WS-G6483

x

x

WS-G6488

x

x

WS-X6516-GBIC

x

x

WS-X6516A-GBIC

x

x

WS-X6516-GE-TX

x

x

WS-X6524-100FX-MM

x

x

WS-X6548-GE-TX/V

x

x

WS-X6548-RJ-21

x

x

WS-X6548-RJ-45

x

x

Classic Modules

WS-X6416-GBIC

x

x

WS-X6416-GE-MT

x

x

WS-X6316-GE-TX

x

x

WS-X6408A-GBIC

x

x

WS-X6408-GBIC

x

x

WS-X6324-100FX-SM/MM

x

x

WS-X6224-100FX-MT

x

x

WS-X6348-RJ-21/V

x

x

WS-X6348-RJ-45/V

x

x

WS-X6148X2-RJ-45

x

x

WS-X6148-GE-TX/V

x

x

WS-X6148-RJ-45V

x

x

WS-X6148-RJ21V

x

x

WS-X6248-RJ-45

x

x

WS-X6248A-TEL

x

x

WS-X6248-TEL

x

x

WS-X6024-10FL-MT

x

x

Voice Daughter Cards for Modules

WS-F6K-FE48X2-AF (for WS-X6148X2-RJ-45)

x

x

WS-F6K-FE48-AF (for WS-X6148-RJ-45 and WS-X6148-RJ-21)

x

x

WS-F6K-GE48-AF (for WS-X6548-GE-TX and WS-X6148-GE-TX)

x

x

Services Modules and Voice Modules

WS-X6624-FXS (EOS and EOL-May 15, 2005)

x

 

WS-X6608-T1/E1

x

 

WS-X6381-IDS (EOS and EOL-March 26, 2004)

x

x

WS-SVC-IDSM2-BUN-K9

x

x

WS-X6380-NAM (EOS External Announcement-June 24, 2002)

x

x

WS-X6066-SLB-APC

x

x

WS-SVC-CSG-1

x

x

WS-SVC-CMM-6T1/E1

x

x

WS-SVC-NAM-1

x

x

WS-SVC-NAM-2

x

x

WS-SVC-FWM-1-K9

x

x

WS-SVC-CMM

x

x

WS-SVC-MWAM-1

 

x

WS-SVC-CSG-1

x

x

WS-SVC-PSD-1 (Persistent Storage Device)

 

x

WS-SVC-IDSM2-K9

x

x

WS-SVC-SSL-1-K9

x

x

WS-SVC-IPSEC-1

 

x

WS-SVC-WLAN-1-K9

 

x

ACE10-6500-K9

 

x

WS-SVC-WEBVPN-K9

 

x

Miscellaneous Modules

WS-X6101-OC12-SMF/MMF

x

 

WS-X6302-MSM

x

 

WAN Modules

WS-X6582-2PA

 

x

WS-X6182-2PA

x

x

OSM-4GE-WAN

 

x

OSM-2+4GE-WAN+

 

x

OSM-4GE-WAN-GBIC

x

x

OSM-16OC3-POS-MM/SI/SL

 

x

OSM-2OC12-POS-MM/SI/SL

x

x

OSM-4OC12-POS-MM/SI/SL

x

x

OSM-4OC3-POS-SI

x

x

OSM-8OC3-POS-MM/SI/SL

x

x

OSM-16OC3-POS-MM/SI/SL

x

x

OSM-1OC48-POS-SS/SI/SL

x

x

OSM-1CHOC48/T3-SS/SI

 

x

OSM-4CHOC12/T3-MM/SI

 

x

OSM-2OC12-ATM-MM/SI

 

x

OSM-2OC12-POS-MM+/SI+

 

x

OSM-4OC12-POS-SI+

 

x

OSM-4OC3-POS-SI+/SL+

 

x

OSM-8OC3-POS-SI+

 

x

OSM-16OC3-POS-SI+

 

x

OSM-1OC48-POS-SS+/SI+/SL+

 

x

OSM-2OC12-ATM-MM+/SI+

 

x

OSM-2OC48/1DPT-SS/SI/SL

 

x

OSM-1CHOC12/T3-SI

 

x

OSM-12CT3/T1

 

x

OSM-2+4GE-WAN+

 

x

1Cisco IOS Software cannot be supported without an MSFC.

Supervisor Memory Requirements

With either a native Cisco IOS Software or hybrid Cisco IOS Software model, the system memory requirements are primarily determined by the network environment, including how many Layer 3 routes or Cisco Express Forwarding prefixes will be used by the system. The release notes for individual Cisco IOS Software releases contain the minimum memory required for the supported supervisor engines and feature sets. Cisco requires that same amounts of memory be installed for both the switch processor and the route processor. Table 3 provides a summary of the minimum memory requirements for Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2SX running on supported supervisor engines.

Table 3. Cisco IOS Software 12.2SX Minimum System Memory Requirements by Supervisor Engine

 

Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720-3BXL

Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720-3B

Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32

Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2

System Memory (DRAM)

• Switch processor = 1 GB
• Route processor = 1GB
• Switch processor = 512 MB
• Route processor = 512 MB

(No memory upgrades are offered for the PFC3B; however the PFC3BXL upgrade includes memory to upgrade both the switch processor and route processor to 1GB

• Switch processor = 256 MB
• Route processor = 256 MB for IP Base SSH LAN ONLY image (does not apply for IP BASE LAN ONLY MODULAR image),
• Switch processor = 512 MB
• Route processor = 512 MB for all other images

(Beginning in May 2006 all Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 units began shipping with 512 MB system memory)

• Switch processor = 256 MB
• Route processor = 256 MB

(Any Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2 must be running 256 MB system memory to support a 12.2SX software release)

Verifying System Memory

Use the console command show version to display the amount of system DRAM installed on an existing system.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Figure 4 shows the partial output from the show version console command for a Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 10 Gigabit Ethernet system configured with the default 256 MB of system memory. Because this a Cisco Catalyst OS implementation, which only runs on the switch processor, the memory statistics are for the switch processor. To see the memory statistics on the route processor in a hybrid software model, use the Cisco IOS Software console command show version from the MSFC console, as described below.

Figure 4. Partial Output from Cisco Catalyst OS show version console Command

Cisco IOS Software

Figure 5 show the partial output of a show version console command in Cisco IOS Software, from either native Cisco IOS Software or hybrid Cisco IOS Software running on the MSFC or route processor. This example is typical from a Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720-3B configured with 512 MB of system memory.

Figure 5. Partial Output from a Cisco IOS Software show version console Command

Flash Memory

The native Cisco IOS Software model and hybrid software model have different requirements for flash memory. This is primarily because of the location of the software image files and also the combined Layer 2 and Layer 3 nature of the native Cisco IOS Software image file. Because the Cisco IOS Software images are combined Layer 2 and Layer 3 images, they are larger than Cisco Catalyst OS images. For example, a Cisco Catalyst OS release from the 8.5 software train might be 24 MB, whereas a full featured native Cisco IOS Software release in 12.2SXF could be 90 MB or larger.
When migrating from a Cisco Catalyst OS or a hybrid software model to a native Cisco IOS Software model, one must verify that the supervisor flash memory capacity is large enough to store the native Cisco IOS Software image file.
If the onboard flash memory of the switch processor is not large enough to store the software image file, then the removable media storage options must be used. For instance, the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2 provides a PCMCIA slot, and the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 provide CompactFlash slots. Another option for Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 deployments would be to upgrade the onboard flash using the CompactFlash adapter. With some exceptions, Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 units shipped after May 5, 2006 or ordered with a native Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(18)SXE5 or newer ship with 512 MB of onboard switch processor flash memory. The exceptions to this are Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 units ordered with any Cisco Catalyst OS software release or a native Cisco IOS Software release previous to 12.2(18)SXE5. The Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 Cisco Catalyst OS software images and native Cisco IOS Software images older than Release 12.2(18)SXE5 do not support switch processor bootflash amounts larger than the original default of 64 MB. Customers who want to upgrade the onboard bootflash can order the field-upgradeable kit to do so. The upgrade does require a minimum switch processor ROMMON version of 8.4(2).
For more details about the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 switch processor bootflash upgrade kit, WS-CF-UPG=, see Cisco product bulletin PB383616 at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/switches/ps5718/ps708/prod_bulletin0900aecd8058b34f.html.

Operational Comparison

Image Management

There are different image naming conventions for systems with hybrid operating systems and with Cisco IOS Software operating systems on the supervisor engines. Be sure the correct image is chosen for given hardware. The following sections describe the different image filenames for the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software.

Operating System Files for the Hybrid OS

In the hybrid model, two separate image files are managed by the two different operating systems. The Cisco Catalyst OS images are stored on the supervisor bootflash or flash cards (PCMCIA for Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 1A and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2, and CompactFlash for both the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720). The Cisco IOS Software image for the MSFC is stored on the MSFC bootflash. The images can be moved between the active and standby supervisors using the copy command and uploaded to the switch using the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) application. Cisco Catalyst 6500 systems that run the hybrid OS use the image names listed in Table 4.

Table 4. Hybrid OS Image Names

Image File

Description

cat6000-supx

Cisco Catalyst OS image for supervisor engines, where x is Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2, Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32, or Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720.

Stored on the supervisor bootflash or flash cards.

c6msfcx-boot-mz

Layer 3 boot image where x is MSFC or MSFC2. Stored on the MSFCx bootflash: only. This image is required for running Cisco IOS Software on MSFC, recommended on MSFC2.

c6msfc-is-mz

c6msfc2-is-mz

c6msfc2a-ipbase_wan-mz

c6msfc3-psv-mz

Layer 3 image for the MSFC, MSFC2, MSFC2A, or MSFC3; works with the Cisco Catalyst OS image on the supervisor engine. Stored on the MSFC bootflash: or sup-slot0: or sup-disk0: or sup-disk1:.

The same MSFC boot helper image (c6msfc-boot) is used for the hybrid OS and Cisco IOS Software. It is stored as the first file on the MSFC bootflash. The boot helper image is a limited function system image that has network interface code and end-host protocol code.

Note: The boot helper must never be erased on the MSFC1 and should be the first image on the MSFC bootflash. The MSFC2, MSFC2A, and MSFC3 hardware do not require the boot image because it has more sophisticated ROMMON1 functionality; however, keeping a boot image in the MSFC bootflash is still a good practice for in case of emergency. Boot images are not available for the MSFC2A or MSFC3.

Operating System Files for Cisco IOS Software

Cisco IOS Software requires the single image be present on a device local to the supervisor switch processor because it is a bundled image for two processors, and the switch processor boots first. The image can reside on either the supervisor bootflash (sup-bootflash:) or the flash card (slot0: or disk0:); it cannot reside on the MSFC bootflash. Cisco IOS Software system files start with "c6supxy", where x is the supervisor model number and y is the MSFC model number, or with the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720, s(SUP)vw, where SUP is the supervisor engine, v is the MSFC version, and w is the PFC version. Tables 5 and 6 show image names and storage devices.

Table 5. Cisco IOS Software Image Names

Image File

Description

c6sup11

Bundled Layer 2-4 image for Supervisor 1, MSFC1

c6sup12

Bundled Layer 2-4 image for Supervisor 1, MSFC2

c6sup22

Bundled Layer 2-4 image for Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2, MSFC2

s3223

Bundled Layer 2-4 image for Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32, MSFC2A, PFC3x

s72033

Bundled Layer 2-4 image for Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720, MSFC3, PFC3x

Note: Flash card formats vary between Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software; thus, flash cards must be formatted when switching between operating system models.

Table 6. Cisco IOS Software Storage Devices

Storage Devices

In Cisco IOS Software, the storage devices on the active supervisor are as follows:

slot0:

Active supervisor linear flash card

disk0:, disk1

Active supervisor ATA or CompactFlash card

sup-bootflash:

Active supervisor 16 MB, 32 MB, or 64 MB (Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720) onboard flash

bootflash:

Active MSFC 16 MB, 32 MB, or 64 MB (Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720) onboard flash

bootdisk:

Active onboard flash (Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32)

New images can be copied into the standby supervisor: flash card, route processor bootflash: or switch processor bootflash:/bootdisk: from the active supervisor. The standby storage devices are as follows:

slaveslot0:

Standby supervisor flash card

slavesup-bootflash:

Standby S]supervisor 16 MB, 32 MB, or 64 MB (Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720) onboard flash

slavesup-bootdisk:

Standby supervisor 64 MB (Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32) onboard flash

slavedisk0:

Standby supervisor flash card (Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 or Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720)

slavebootflash:

Standby MSFC 16 MB or 64 MB (Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720) onboard flash

The following is an example of the command you use to copy from active supervisor flash card to standby supervisor flash:
IOS# copy disk0: s72033-jk9sv-mz.122-18.SXD slavesup-disk0:
Destination filename [s72033-jk9sv-mz.122-18.SXD]?

Determining the Current Operating System on a Cisco Catalyst 6500

The Cisco IOS Software command line for both the Cisco IOS Software portion of the hybrid OS and Cisco IOS Software systems look identical. To determine what operating system is running on the switch, you can use the show version command from the Cisco IOS Software command line. To access the Cisco IOS Software (Layer 3) functionality in the hybrid OS, enter session 15 (or 16) or switch console from the command line. The console is then turned over to the MSFC, and this is where both Cisco IOS Software and hybrid OS systems look identical.

From a Hybrid System

Router#show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) MSFC2 Software (C6MSFC2-PSV-M), Version 12.1(19)E, EARLY DEPLOYMENT R
ELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

From a Cisco IOS Software System

Router#show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) c6sup2_rp Software (c6sup2_rp-PSV-M), Version 12.1(19)E, EARLY DEPL
YMENT RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

Cisco IOS Software and Hybrid OS Boot Process

The boot process in both the Cisco IOS Software and the hybrid OS models is automatic and transparent to the user. In the hybrid model, the boot processes are separate for both the switch and the route processors, as they each boot independent operating systems.
In Cisco IOS Software, both processors (the switch processor and route processor) load Cisco IOS Software. Two processors working together yield two ROMMONs and two bootflash devices. First, the switch processor boots to ROMMON and loads its portion of Cisco IOS Software. When the switch processor is booted, the software control is passed to the route processor so that the second processor can successfully boot. From a console perspective, the RJ-45 console port on the supervisor engine initially shows information from the switch processor. During the boot cycle for the Cisco Catalyst 6500 with Cisco IOS Software, control is passed to route processor CPU, as shown in the following statement on the console:
System Bootstrap, Version 7.1(1) (Catalyst Supervisor ROMMON)
Copyright (c) 1994-2003 by cisco Systems, Inc.
c6k_sup2 processor with 262144 Kbytes of main memory
00:00:03: %OIR-6-CONSOLE: Changing console ownership to route processor
System Bootstrap, Version 12.1(19)E, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) (MSFC or RP ROMMON)
Copyright (c) 2003 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Cat6k-MSFC2 platform with 524288 Kbytes of main memory
After this point the route processor controls the system. From the software perspective, the route processor acts as the primary CPU, and the switch processor acts as the secondary CPU. This is transparent to the user; all configuration commands are entered directly through the route processor CPU in Cisco IOS Software. Commands entered that affect the switch processor functionality are passed internally from the route processor to the switch processor.
Unlike the Cisco Catalyst OS, net booting a Cisco IOS Software image from a TFTP server is not supported because the supervisor image is a bundled image for two processors. The runtime image location ( c6sup <xy>-is- mz- <version>) must be stored on a device local to the switch processor (sup-bootflash) or the flash card (slot0:, disk0:, disk1:).

Logging into the Switch Processor in Cisco IOS Software

While the command line perspective is from the route processor, you can log into the switch processor for any Layer 2-specific debugging. You can use the following commands to debug and to check the switch processor status during runtime. Note that all Layer 2 through Layer 4 configurations are done from the main Cisco IOS Software command line:

Remote login: The remote login command (or remote login switch for the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2, Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32, and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720) is equivalent to the session command in the Cisco Catalyst OS. The hostname becomes "hostname-sp". Use the exit command rather than Control-C to exit the switch processor.

Remote command: If only one command's output is needed from the switch processor, use a remote command <command> (or remote command switch <command> for the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2, Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32, and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720), as seen below.

Note: There is no help facility (that is, remote command show?) when using the remote command.

IOS# remote command sw show bootvar
IOS-sp#
BOOT variable = bootflash:c6sup22-psv-mz.121-11b.EX,1
CONFIG_FILE variable =
BOOTLDR variable does not exist
Configuration register is 0x2002
IOS#

Switch Management

Although the direct console cable connection is a useful way for managing a Cisco Catalyst 6500, other methods of network-based management (such as telnet or SNMP) require a management interface with which to access the switch. In the Cisco Catalyst OS, two management interfaces, sc0 and sc1, are available for the system. An IP address and VLAN must be assigned to these interfaces if both are in use. Any IP-based management of a Cisco Catalyst OS is then directed to the sc0 or sc1 interface address. With the hybrid OS, the sc0/sc1 interface is used in conjunction with any Layer 3 VLAN interfaces created for routing functionality.
CatOS> (enable) show interface
sl0: flags=51<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING>
slip 0.0.0.0 dest 0.0.0.0
sc0: flags=63<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING>
vlan 1 inet 10.1.1.54 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 10.1.1.255
In Cisco IOS Software, the concept of sc0/sc1 interface does not exist; network-based switch management is now accomplished with the use of switch virtual interfaces (SVIs), which are discussed further in the following section. For every Layer 2 VLAN that is created, there can also be a corresponding SVI. Each SVI can have one or more IP addresses, which are used for accessing the device on the particular VLAN using an SNMP or telnet client. The following command displays the VLAN SVIs and the associated IP addressing for managing the system.
IOS#show ip interface brief
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
Vlan1 192.168.1.1 YES manual up up
Vlan10 10.1.1.1 YES manual up down

Switch Configuration: Making Changes

Configuration changes in the Cisco Catalyst OS software are written to NVRAM immediately after a change is made; no intervention by the user is required. All configurations in the Cisco Catalyst OS are done using a "set" command sequence, implemented from the enabled-mode prompt. The clear command from the same prompt will erase a particular command.
In contrast, Cisco IOS Software does not save configuration changes to NVRAM unless the copy run start (or write memory) command is executed. If the configuration is not explicitly saved, any changes to the configuration will be lost if the system is reloaded. All command line configuration in Cisco IOS Software (whether on the supervisor or the MSFC) is done from the configuration mode, commonly known as "config-t". Commands can be removed with the no form of the original command.

Port Behavior

The following section details the differences in port behavior between the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software.

Hybrid Behavior: Cisco Catalyst OS with Cisco IOS Software on the MSFC

The hybrid model offers a very tight integration of the Layer 2/4 Cisco Catalyst OS features with the Layer 3 Cisco IOS Software on the MSFC feature set. Layer 2 ports (such as access and trunk ports) and VLANs are configured with the Cisco Catalyst OS command set, and Layer 3 SVIs are configured with the MSFC Cisco IOS Software command set. Ports are configured in Layer 2 VLANs with Cisco Catalyst OS (set vlan x <slot/port>), thus corresponding Layer 3 SVIs must be created to enable inter-VLAN routing for the particular VLANs. You create SVIs using the interface vlan command. In the hybrid model, the MSFC operates on these logical interfaces ( interface vlan 10) rather than on physical interfaces (interface gig 1/1). Figure 6 illustrates these concepts and the associated commands to use Layer 2 and/or Layer 3 functionality.

Figure 6. Port Concepts in the Hybrid Model

Cisco IOS Software

The port concepts in the Cisco IOS Software model are similar to the hybrid software model. In the Cisco IOS Software model, all system configurations are done from a single command line interface; there is no separation between the Layer 2 and Layer 3 configuration tasks. The Layer 2 port concepts, such as access and trunk ports and Layer 3 VLAN interfaces (SVIs), still apply, although with different syntax. Additionally, Cisco IOS Software offers the concept of a Layer 3 routed interface. Table 7 provides an overview of the different Cisco IOS Software port and interface types. More detailed descriptions follow.

Table 7. Cisco IOS Software Port Concepts

Interface Type

Purpose

Sample Configuration

Routed Interface

Traditional Cisco IOS Software routing example: each port with unique network

interface gigabitethernet 1/1

ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0

ipx network 1

Routed SVI

Single routed interface for all of the switch ports assigned to a VLAN

interface vlan 10

ip address 10.10.11.1 255.255.255.0

ipx network 2

Layer 2 VLAN

Single Layer 2 broadcast domain

vlan 10

Access Switch Port Interface

To group Layer 2 ports into a single VLAN

interface gigabitethernet 1/1

switchport

switchport mode access

switchport access vlan 10

Trunk Switch Port Interface

To configure Layer 2 port belonging to different VLANs

Interface Gigabit Ethernet 1/1

Switchport

switchport trunk encap dot1q

switchport mode dynamic desirable

Note: Although the terms interface and port are used interchangeably in this document, the Cisco IOS Software command line refers to ports as interfaces, while the Cisco Catalyst OS command line refers to them strictly as ports.

Figure 7 illustrates the different Cisco IOS Software interface types and the commands to use the Layer 2 or Layer 3 functionality.

Figure 7. Port Concepts in the Cisco IOS Software Model

Cisco IOS Software numbers for interfaces start from 1, not 0, for a module; that is, the first interface on the line card in slot 2 is 2/1. This is the same port numbering convention that is used with the Cisco Catalyst OS.
More detailed descriptions of the three primary port types found in Cisco IOS Software are included below.

Routed Interfaces

Cisco IOS Software provides two means for creating Layer 3 interfaces: either at the physical port level (routed interfaces, described here) or at the virtual port level (SVIs, described in the following section). With Cisco IOS Software, each physical port is a routed interface (just like any Cisco router) by default. Every Ethernet port on the switch (Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, or 10 Gigabit Ethernet) is shown as interface <interfacetype> <slot/port> and is shutdown by default. This operation differs from the Cisco Catalyst OS, which has all ports enabled, Layer 2 aware, and in VLAN 1 by default and does not support routed interfaces. The routed interface in Cisco IOS Software must be configured on a unique IP subnet or IPX network. No Layer 2 protocols such as Spanning Tree Protocol and DTP are enabled on these interfaces.
For traditional LAN-based Ethernet ports, the routed interface does not support subinterface creation for separating dot1q encapsulations. Functionality to that of IEEE 802.1q subinterfaces is provided with trunk ports, described in the following sections.

Layer 2 VLAN

To place several interfaces in the same IP or IPX subnet, the port needs to be converted from a routed interface to a Layer 2 port so that the port can be part of the Layer 2 domain or VLAN. The first step in this conversion of the routed interface is to create the Layer 2 VLAN entity.
The VLAN ID configuration creates an instance of a Layer 2 broadcast domain or VLAN. The configuration is done from global configuration mode using a vlan <vlan #> command. VLAN IDs from 1 through 4094 are supported, where VLAN IDs 1002 to 1005 are VTP default VLANs in both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software and are not user configurable.
The following example demonstrates the creation of vlan 8 in the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set vlan 8

IOS#configure terminal

IOS(config)#vlan 8

IOS(config-vlan)#exit

Because the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software support the creation of 4094 Layer 2 VLANs, a MAC-address reduction feature must be enabled so that the system can allocate a limited number of system MAC addresses more efficiently. The following commands enable this feature:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set spantree macreduction enable

IOS(config)# spanning-tree extend system-id

Routed SVI

When multiple ports on the same device belong to a single subnet, a VLAN is created to group these ports at Layer 2 (see Layer 2 VLAN, above). Generally, these ports need to send traffic to other subnets or VLANs. This requirement is accomplished by creating an SVI to provide the inter-VLAN routing functionality. Just as in the hybrid software model, SVIs in Cisco IOS Software are identified as interface VLAN 1, interface VLAN 2, and so on. These interfaces are associated with Layer 3 information such as an IP subnet or IPX network number. If a particular Layer 2 VLAN does not have an associated SVI created, then traffic will be bridged in that VLAN but is not routable to or from that VLAN. As switch ports are added to and removed from various VLANs, they automatically participate in the Layer 3 environment created by the appropriate SVI. For managing a device in Cisco IOS Software, the SVI requires an IP address for network reachability.

Access Switchport

An access switchport is a Layer 2 port that belongs to only one VLAN. For configuration, the switchport command is used to convert an interface from the default routed interface to a Layer 2 interface. In converting the port from a Layer 3 port to a Layer 2 port, Layer 2 features, such as DTP and Spanning Tree Protocol, are enabled. This single switchport command must be enabled before any other switchport-related configuration is allowed. Like port operation in the Cisco Catalyst OS, Cisco IOS Software switchports automatically default to VLAN 1. To statically create an access port (one that will not attempt to negotiate a trunk), enter the switchport mode access command from the interface configuration. Then use the switchport access vlan <vlan-id> command to assign the access port to a particular VLAN. The following example defines port 5/1 as an access port in VLAN2:
IOS# configure terminal
IOS(Config)# interface fastethernet5/1
IOS(Config-if)# switchport
IOS(Config-if)# switchport mode access
IOS(Config-if)# switchport access vlan 2
IOS(Config-if)# no shut
IOS(Config-if)# end

Trunk Switchport

Trunk switchports in Cisco IOS Software are Layer 2 ports that carry multiple VLANs using ISL or IEEE 802.1q encapsulations. They are fully compatible with any other device supporting the ISL or IEEE 802.1q protocols.
After converting a routed interface to a Layer 2 switchport, the switchport will default to switchport mode dynamic desirable. The port is capable of forming a trunk with a neighboring Layer 2 device by using DTP for negotiating a trunk. If the neighboring interface supports trunking and is configured to allow trunking, the link becomes a Layer 2 trunk when you enter the switchport command (because of the dynamic/desirable default). By default, trunks negotiate encapsulation. If the neighboring interface supports both ISL and IEEE 802.1q encapsulation and both interfaces are set to negotiate the encapsulation type, the trunk will use ISL encapsulation. This is the same operation as in the Cisco Catalyst OS. The following example shows how to configure a trunk for IEEE 802.1q encapsulation:
IOS# configure terminal
IOS(Config)# interface fastethernet 5/1
IOS(Config-if)# switchport
IOS(Config-if)# switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
IOS(Config-if)# end
For details on the different trunk negotiation states, refer to the Cisco IOS Software Configuration Guide at http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/12_1e/swconfig/layer2.htm.

Note: Recommended configuration for a dynamic trunk port would be desirable/auto between neighboring devices.

The switchport trunk native vlan <vlan-id> command sets the native VLAN for an IEEE 802.1q trunk port. The allowed parameter can be used to control the VLANs that are forwarded out that interface. In addition, the pruning parameter can be used to control VTP pruning on the link. VLAN1 cannot be pruned, either in the Cisco Catalyst OS or in Cisco IOS Software. However, both Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco Catalyst OS allow VLAN1 to be disabled from carrying traffic on trunks.
If a no switchport command is offered, all the commands related to that switchport will no longer show in configuration and the interface type will revert to a routed interface. However, if the switchport is reenabled, then all the previous switchport-related commands will still be reinstated. 2

Cisco IOS Software Interface Configuration: Range Command

All interface types, whether routed interfaces, SVIs, or switchports, can be configured in groups. This means you can apply configuration parameters to a group of ports at once. The Cisco IOS Software range command allows you to configure multiple interfaces simultaneously by specifying interface range and then the range of ports. The ports in the range can be discontinuous across the same or different line cards. The following is a sample range configuration:
IOS(config)#int range fa3/1-48,gi1/1-2
IOS(config-if)#switchport
IOS(config-if)#switchport mode access
IOS(config-if)#switchport access vlan 2
IOS(config-if)#spanning-tree portfast
IOS(config-if)#no shut

Note: For Cisco IOS Software images before Release 12.2(18)SXE, the space before the dash is required, up to five comma-separated ranges are supported, and spaces are not required before or after the comma.

The range command works for Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces as seen above. It also works with VLAN interfaces if the SVIs are created:
IOS(config)#int range vlan2-4
IOS(config-if)# description Floor 1 access VLANs
Interface Range Macros can be used to identify frequently grouped ports. A specific range of ports is defined in a macro and given a name. After the macro is created, the macro name can be used to refer to the port grouping rather than explicitly typing in each port. This is useful when configuration changes frequently apply to the same group of ports (for example, all 10/100 server ports). This feature is not available in the Cisco Catalyst OS. The following example defines an interface-range macro named "servers" that corresponds to ports 3/1 through 3/8.
IOS# configure terminal
IOS(config)#define interface-range servers fastethernet 3/1-8
IOS(config)#int range macro servers
IOS(config-if-range)#
To display the macro:
IOS# show running-config | include define
define interface-range servers fastethernet 3/1-8

Monitoring Interfaces in the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software

The following commands are commonly used for monitoring interfaces:
CatOS> (enable) show port
Port Name Status Vlan Duplex Speed Type
----- -------------------- ---------- ---------- ------ ----- -------
1/1 connected 1 full 1000 1000BaseSX
1/2 notconnect 1 full 1000 No Connector
11/1 notconnect 1 auto auto 10/100/1000
11/2 notconnect 1 auto auto 10/100/1000
11/3 notconnect 1 auto auto 10/100/1000
11/4 notconnect 1 auto auto 10/100/1000
11/5 notconnect 1 auto auto 10/100/1000
11/6 notconnect 1 auto auto 10/100/1000
11/7 notconnect 1 auto auto 10/100/1000
11/8 notconnect 1 auto auto 10/100/1000
IOS#show interface status
Port Name Status Vlan Duplex Speed Type
Gi1/1 notconnect routed full 1000 No GBIC
Gi1/2 notconnect routed full 1000 No GBIC
Gi4/1 connected 1 full 1000 1000BaseSX
Gi4/2 disabled routed full 1000 1000BaseSX
Gi4/3 disabled routed full 1000 No GBIC
Gi4/4 disabled routed full 1000 1000BaseSX
Gi4/5 disabled routed full 1000 No GBIC
Gi4/6 disabled routed full 1000 No GBIC
Gi4/7 disabled routed full 1000 1000BaseSX
Gi4/8 disabled routed full 1000 1000BaseSX

Feature Comparison

The following sections describe some general feature differences between the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software. This is not an exhaustive or detailed list of features and their operation, but simply a comparison between the implementation and CLI syntax of some commonly used features on the Cisco Catalyst 6500. For a more detailed feature description of all Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software features, refer to the user documentation at http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/index.htm.

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)

VTP is used to manage VLAN information among switches in a Layer 2 domain. VTP administration is handled between switches configured as VTP servers and VTP clients to learn a common VLAN topology throughout the network. A device can alternatively be configured as a VTP transparent device, which does not participate in the VTP protocol but can forward VTP advertisements. The only difference in VTP functionality between the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software is that the Cisco Catalyst OS allows VTP to be disabled completely (that is, the device does not forward VTP advertisements in the "off" mode).
For Cisco IOS Software, VTP/VLAN configurations are executed in global configuration mode for VTP transparent, VTP client, and VTP server systems. This example compares how to define the VTP domain, mode, and VLANs and then apply them to ports:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set vtp domain ENG-CAMPUS

set vtp mode server

set vlan 8 name engineering

set vlan 8 5/1-48

IOS#configure terminal

IOS(config)#vtp mode server

IOS(config)#vtp domain ENG_CAMPUS

IOS(config)#vlan 8

IOS(config-vlan)#name engineering

IOS(config)#interface range fastethernet 5/1-48

IOS(config-if-range)#switchport

IOS(config-if-range)#switchport mode access

IOS(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 8

VTP Operation in Cisco IOS Software

Configuration changes in the Cisco Catalyst OS are written to NVRAM immediately after a change is made. In contrast, Cisco IOS Software does not save configuration changes to NVRAM unless you issue the copy run start command. VTP client and server systems require that VTP updates from other VTP servers be immediately saved in NVRAM without user intervention. Thus, the VTP update requirements are met by the default Cisco Catalyst OS operation, whereas the Cisco IOS Software update model requires an alternative update operation.
For this alteration, a VLAN database was introduced into Cisco IOS Software for the Cisco Catalyst 6500 as a method for immediately saving VTP updates for VTP clients and servers. This VLAN database is in the form of a separate file in NVRAM, called the vlan.dat file. Viewed with sh vtp status, the vlan.dat file stores VTP/VLAN information for VTP client or VTP server systems. The entire VTP/VLAN configuration is not backed up to the Startup Config file in NVRAM when a copy run start command is issued on these systems.
This does not apply to systems running as VTP transparent. VTP transparent systems back up the entire VTP/VLAN configuration to the Startup Config file in NVRAM when you issue a copy run start command.

VTPv3 for Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco Catalyst OS supports a new version of VTP, VTP Version 3 (VTPv3). VTPv3 supports the advertisement of the extended range of VLANs (4094). Configuration changes for the entire 4K VLAN range can be made centrally on one switch and automatically communicated to all other switches in the network.
Additionally, VTPv3 removes the risk of losing or overwriting the domain configuration when introducing a misconfigured or unauthorized server. It does this by introducing the concept of both primary and secondary servers and by allowing the partitioning of domains. Users must statically define what server will become a primary server. Below is a description of the VTP devices available for a domain (Figure 8):

• A VTPv3 primary server can create, modify, and delete VLANs and specify other configuration parameters for the domain. The primary servers advertise their VLAN configuration to the switches in the same VTP domain and synchronize their VLAN configuration with other switches based on advertisements received over trunk links (similar to existing VTP versions).

• A VTPv3 secondary server is a hybrid between the original client and server; it is able to store the configuration of the domain but cannot modify it.

• A VTPv3 client only receives the configuration from the network and cannot save or modify it (unchanged from existing VTP versions).

Figure 8. VTP Devices and Domains

Spanning Tree Protocol

Spanning Tree Protocol prevents loops from being formed when switches or bridges are interconnected using multiple paths. Spanning Tree Protocol implements the 802.1D IEEE algorithm by exchanging BPDU messages with other switches to detect loops and then removes the loop by shutting down selected bridge interfaces. This algorithm guarantees that there is one and only one active path between two network devices.
Common Spanning Tree (CST) assumes one spanning-tree instance for the entire bridged network, regardless of the number of VLANs. This implementation reduces CPU load since only one Spanning Tree instance is maintained for the entire network. This implementation can be used when only one Layer 2 topology is needed in the network.
Multiple Instance Spanning Tree Protocol (MISTP) (802.1s) is an IEEE standard that allows several VLANs to be mapped to a reduced number of spanning-tree instances. This is possible since most networks do not need more than a few logical topologies. Each instance handles multiple VLANs that have the same Layer 2 topology.
Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) maintains a spanning tree instance for each VLAN configured in the network. It uses ISL Trunking and allows a VLAN trunk to be forwarding for some VLANs while blocking it for other VLANs. Since PVST treats each VLAN as a separate network, it has the ability to load balance traffic (at Layer 2) by forwarding some VLANs on one trunk and other VLANs on another trunk without causing a Spanning Tree Protocol loop. PVST+ (additional advantages are described later) provides the same functionality with 802.1Q trunking technology and is only supported on Cisco switches.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is an evolution of Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1D standard) and provides for faster spanning tree convergence after a topology change. The standard also includes features equivalent to Cisco PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast for faster network reconvergence.
This section presents the configuration differences between the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software for basic Spanning Tree Protocol configuration, PVST+ (802.1d), IEEE 802.1s (MST), IEEE 802.1w (RSTP), and Rapid PVST+.

Basic Spanning Tree Protocol Configuration

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set spantree root 10 dia 5 hello 2

set spantree root sec 11 dia 5 hello 2

set spantree priority 4096 10,11

IOS(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 root

primary dia 5 hello 2

IOS(config)# spanning-tree vlan 11 root

sec dia 5 hello 2

IOS(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 pri 4096

IOS(config)# spanning-tree vlan 11 pri 4096

PVST Enhancements

PVST+ enhances basic spanning tree algorithms by allowing for faster convergence times using the implementation and integration of Cisco proprietary protocols, including UplinkFast, BackboneFast, and PortFast, into the PVST+ protocol itself.
Spanning Tree UplinkFast allows for faster convergence in a Layer 2 network after a direct root link failure. If a link from one bridge to the root bridge goes down, then the bridge will move one blocking port to forwarding immediately rather than waiting for the normal spanning tree timers to expire. This brings the convergence time from 50 seconds to three to five seconds or even subseconds.
In the case of an indirect failure in a Layer 2 network, Spanning Tree BackboneFast reduces the convergence time by the "maximum age" timer value (which defaults to 20 seconds).
Finally, Spanning Tree PortFast causes an access port to enter the forwarding state immediately, bypassing the listening and learning states. The feature is used on switch ports connected to a single workstation, IP phone, server, and so on and allows these devices to connect to the network immediately, rather than waiting for spanning tree to converge. Because access ports do not typically transmit or receive bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) from attached devices, PortFast mode is supported on both nontrunking access ports and trunk ports in both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software.
Below are the configuration tasks associated with the aforementioned enhancements to PVST+:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set spantree uplinkfast enable

set spantree backbonefast enable

set spantree portfast 3/1 enable

IOS(config)# spanning-tree uplinkfast

IOS(config)# spanning-tree backbonefast

IOS(config)# int range fa3/1

IOS(config-if)# switchport

IOS(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast

Rapid PVST

Rapid PVST+ is based on the IEEE 802.1w standard and uses the existing configuration for PVST+ to provide for faster Spanning Tree Protocol convergence times. With Rapid PVST+, entries are flushed immediately on a per-port basis on topology changes. UplinkFast and BackboneFast configurations are ignored in this mode, as both features are included in the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w).

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Set spantree mode rapid-pvst+

IOS(config)#spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst

IEEE 802.1S (MST)

Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) is based on the IEEE 802.1s standard and extends the IEEE 802.1w rapid spanning tree (RST) algorithm to multiple spanning trees. This provides both rapid convergence and load balancing in a VLAN environment while converging even faster than PVST+.
MST allows the formation of spanning trees over trunks, to provide multiple forwarding paths for data traffic. This improves fault tolerance, as a single failure does not directly affect other instances of spanning tree. Additionally, by grouping multiple VLANs into single instances of spanning trees, the overall CPU of the system decreases significantly.
One major difference between the configuration of MST on the operating systems is the MST configuration submode in Cisco IOS Software. This mode is used to both enter and to display the MST configuration:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Set spantree mst config name MST revision 1

Set spantree mst instance vlan vlan

Set spantree mst config commit

Set spantree mode mst

IOS(config)#spanning-tree mode mst

IOS(config)#spanning-tree mst configuration

IOS(config-mst)#name MST revision 1

instance 1 vlan 3

IEEE 802.1W (Rapid PVST+)

RSTP reduces the reconvergence time of a network by selecting a single switch to act as the root of a spanning tree. It is based on the IEEE standard 802.1w rather than IEEE 802.1D. Rapid PVST+ is configured in the same manner as PVST+, but with the additional syntax:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Set spantree mode rapid-pvst+

Set spantree link-type mod/port point-to-point

IOS(config)#spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst

Note: Command syntax in the Cisco Catalyst OS uses rapid-pvst+ and Cisco IOS Software uses rapid-pvst.

Root and BPDU Guard Configuration

Port-based BPDU Guard monitors BPDUs on ports. If BPDUs are detected on access ports, the configured interfaces are shut down. Reception of a BPDU by a PortFast-configured interface signals an invalid configuration, such as the connection of an unauthorized device. The BPDU Guard feature provides a secure response to invalid configurations since the interface is reenabled manually by the administrator or automatically using the error-disable feature.
The spanning-tree root guard feature forces an interface to become a designated port, and if any device accessible through the interface tries to become the root bridge, the root guard feature puts the interface into the root-inconsistent (blocked) state.
Cisco IOS Software supports BPDU Guard and Root Guard feature on switchports only. The configuration dialog below highlights configuration differences.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set spantree bpdu-guard 3/1 enable

set spanning-tree guard root 1/1

show spantree summary

IOS(config)# int range fast3/1

IOS(config-if)# switchport

IOS(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast bpduguard

IOS(config-if)# spanning-tree guard root

IOS# show spanning-tree summary

EtherChannel

EtherChannel ® in the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software bundles individual Ethernet links into a single logical link to provide bandwidth aggregation and link resilience in a network. Cisco Catalyst 6500 Ethernet interfaces support up to eight interfaces per EtherChannel group with all interfaces at the same speed: 10,100, 1000, or 10,000 Mbps. EtherChannel groups can include ports on any combination of line cards.

EtherChannel Operation

Configuring EtherChannel groups in Cisco IOS Software is a two-step process: first the ports are assigned to a channel-group, and then the virtual interface port channels are configured. The virtual interface port-channel behaves like a physical interface. In both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software, all configurations on the port channel interfaces are propagated to the physical interfaces of the port channel. For example, shutting the port channel interface will shut all physical ports on that port channel. To change parameters of all ports in an EtherChannel group, the configuration should be applied to the port channel interface. Although Cisco IOS Software allows configuration on physical interfaces, the configuration will not be propagated to the port channel bundle. If the interfaces within the bundle are not identical, the channel will not form.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set port channel 3/1-8 1 desirable

interface range gigabit 3/1-8

switchport

channel-group 1 mode desirable

no shut

interface port-channel 1

switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

no shut

The Cisco Catalyst OS supports a maximum of 128 EtherChannel groups, and Cisco IOS Software supports a maximum of 64 EtherChannel groups (128 EtherChannel groups are supported in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(18)SXE and later).

EtherChannel Negotiation

Cisco IOS Software and Cisco Catalyst OS EtherChannel groups support both PAgP and LACP, which allows for automatic creation of port channels with other devices. PAgP is a Cisco proprietary protocol for channel negotiation, and LACP is a standard for channel negotiation (IEEE 802.3ad). The negotiation modes of both protocols are nearly identical. Note that the negotiation keywords are the same for both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software. For more details about PAgP and LACP configuration, refer to the following configuration guides:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/12_1e/swconfig/channel.htm

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/sw_7_3/confg_gd/channel.htm

PAgP configuration example:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set channelprotocol pagp

set port channel 3/1-8 1 desirable

interface range gigabit 3/1-8

switchport

channel-protocol pagp

channel-group 1 mode desirable

interface port-channel 1

switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

no shut

LACP configuration example:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set channelprotocol lacp

set port channel 3/1-8 1 desirable

interface range gigabit 3/1-8

switchport

channel-protocol lacp

channel-group 1 mode active

interface port-channel 1

switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

no shut

In the Cisco Catalyst OS, the channel protocol is configured on a per-module basis. That is, all channel ports on a module must use the same negotiation protocol. In Cisco IOS Software, the channel protocol can be configured on a per-port basis.

EtherChannel Load Sharing

Several load-balancing algorithms are available for distributing traffic across the ports in an EtherChannel group. This is regardless of the whether an EtherChannel group contains Layer 2 or Layer 3 ports and interfaces. The options are the same in both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software and are shown below.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set port channel all distribution ?

ip Channel distribution ip

mac Channel distribution mac

session Channel distribution session

set port channel all distribution ip ?

source Channel distribution source

destination Channel distribution dest

both Channel distribution both

port-channel load-balance ?

dst-ip Dst IP Addr

dst-mac Dst Mac Addr

dst-port Dst TCP/UDP Port

src-dst-ip Src XOR Dst IP Addr

src-dst-mac Src XOR Dst Mac Addr

src-dst-port Src-Dst TCP/UDP Port

src-ip Src IP Addr

src-mac Src Mac Addr

src-port Src TCP/UDP Port

EtherChannel Types

Cisco IOS Software can handle both Layer 2 and Layer 3 EtherChannel groups. In the context of Cisco IOS Software, a Layer 2 EtherChannel group includes ports that are configured as switch ports; a Layer 3 EtherChannel group can include only switchports in combination with SVIs, or it could include only routed interfaces. The Cisco Catalyst OS has only one type of Layer 3 EtherChannel group because it does not support true routed ports, only SVIs.

Layer 2 EtherChannel Groups

All interfaces are grouped together in a common channel group, and the subsequent interface port-channel is configured as a switchport. The channel protocol (PAgP or LACP) automatically creates the Port-Channel 1 interface when the channel-group command is enabled on the physical interface.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set port channel 3/1-8 1 desirable

set trunk 3/1-8 dot1q

interface range fa3/1-8

no shut

channel-group 1 mode desirable

interface port-channel 1

switchport

switchport trunk encap dot1q

no shut

Note: Defaults to PAgP for negotiation

Layer 3 EtherChannel Groups with SVIs

Layer 3 EtherChannel groups with SVIs are formed like the Layer 2 EtherChannel groups with the addition of a Layer 3 SVI for routing functionality. This is the method for configuring Layer 3 EtherChannel groups with Layer 2 VLANs providing the transport and SVIs providing the VLAN termination and routing.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Catalyst OS config:

set port channel 3/1-8 2 desirable

set spantree portfast 3/1-8

set vlan 10 3/1-8

MSFC config:

int vlan 10

ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0

interface range fa3/1-8

no shut

channel-group 1 mode desirable

interface port-channel 1

switchport

switchport mode access

no shut

int vlan 10

ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0

Layer 3 EtherChannel Groups

True Layer 3 EtherChannel groups are only specific to an IP subnet, not to a Layer 2 VLAN. As with the previously described routed interface, this is a concept only available in Cisco IOS Software. The following is an example of the command line syntax for configuring a Layer 3 EtherChannel group.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

No Catalyst OS equivalent

int range fa3/1-8

channel-group 1 mode desirable

interface port-channel 1

ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0

The following are some helpful show commands for EtherChannel groups on a Cisco IOS Software system:

show etherchannel summary to view all EtherChannel groups states and ports on a Cisco IOS Software system:

cat6k#show etherchannel summary
Flags: D-down P-in port-channel
I-stand-alone s-suspended
H-Hot-standby (LACP only)
R-Layer3 S-Layer2
U-in use f-failed to allocate aggregator
u-unsuitable for bundling
Number of channel-groups in use: 2
Number of aggregators: 2
Group Port-channel Protocol Ports
------+-------------+-----------+------------------------------------
1 Po1(SD) LACP Fa3/13(P) Fa3/14(P) Fa3/15(P) Fa3/16(P)
273 Po273(SD) -
cat6k#

show interfaces etherchannel displays all the interfaces that have been a channel-group associated with it, regardless of their channel status. If only one interface status is needed, show interfaces <mod>/<port> etherchannel states the channel status of a specific interface without having to scroll through multiple screens of output.

IOS1#sh int gi8/15 etherchannel
Port state = Up Mstr In-Bndl
Channel group = 2 Mode = Desirable-Sl Gcchange = 0
Port-channel = Po2 GC = 0x00020001 Pseudo port-channel = Po2
Port index = 1 Load = 0x55
Flags: S-Device is sending Slow hello. C-Device is in Consistent state.
A-Device is in Auto mode. P-Device learns on physical port.
Timers: H-Hello timer is running. Q-Quit timer is running.
S-Switching timer is running. I-Interface timer is running.
Local information:
Hello Partner PAgP Learning Group
Port Flags State Timers Interval Count Priority Method Ifindex
Gi8/15 SC U6/S7 30s 1 128 Any 33
Partner's information:
Partner Partner Partner Partner Group
Port Name Device ID Port Age Flags Cap.
Gi8/15 cat6k-3-ios 0050.808a.a200 Gi4/3 11s SC 20001
Age of the port in the current state: 00h:00m:42s

Identity-Based Networking Services (IBNS): IEEE 802.1x Authentication

IEEE 802.1x is a client-server-based access control and authentication protocol that restricts unauthorized devices from connecting to a LAN using publicly accessible ports. 802.1x authenticates users connected to switch ports prior to making services available offered by the switch or LAN. Until the device is authenticated, 802.1x only permits Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) traffic through the port to which the device is connected. Following successful authentication, all traffic can pass through the port.

• Both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software support IEEE 802.1x port-based authentication, 802.1x multiple host mode as defined in the specification, and IEEE 802.1x VLAN assignment using a RADIUS server. Additionally, beginning with Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(33)SXH, many 802.1x extensions previously only available in Cisco Catalyst OS are now available for Cisco IOS Software such as:

802.1x authentication on ports configured for auxiliary VLAN traffic.

802.1x authentication for guest VLANs: This enables non-802.1x capable hosts to access networks that use 802.1x authentication.

802.1x authentication with port security: 802.1x is compatible with the port security feature to define the number of MAC addresses to authenticate on a specific port. Users connected through all other MAC addresses are denied access.

However some 802.1x feature extensions remain unique to the Cisco Catalyst OS Software including:

802.1x multiauthentication mode: Administrators can specify multiple authentications to help ensure that more than one host can gain access to an 802.1x port; every host is authenticated separately.

Example:

Set port dot1x mod/port multiple-authentication enable

802.1x with ACL assignment: This extension allows an ACL policy to be dynamically applied to a port based on the user and the user's successful authentication to the RADIUS server.

802.1x user distribution: This allows the even distribution of authenticated users within the same "group name" to be assigned into different VLANs for load balancing. 802.1x authenticated identity-to-port description mapping: By enabling this feature, the administrator can assign a port description to the port that a user is authenticated to. The description is seen after "sh port" is executed. This is configured on the RADIUS server.

DNS resolution for RADIUS: Allows the administrator to configure a server DNS name in addition to or instead of an IP address. In the event of a RADIUS server moving subnets, there is no reconfiguration required for the switches.

A RADIUS server must be specified prior to enabling 802.1x on the switch. 802.1x is then enabled globally, and finally enabled from the console for individual ports, as seen below. Also described below is the syntax for multiple host configurations:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Globally:

Set dot1x system-auth-control enable

Per Port:

Set port dot1x mod/port port-control auto

Multiple Host:

Set port dot1x mod/port multiple-host enable

Globally:

Router(config)# dot1x system-auth-control

Router(config)# interface type1 <slot/port>

Interface Commands:

Router(config-if)# dot1x port-control auto

Router(config-if)# dot1x host-mode multi-host

For more information relating to the configuration of IEEE 802.1x on the Cisco Catalyst 6500, see http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/122sx/swcg/dot1x.htm.

Cisco Security Toolkit Features

Supported in both Cisco Catalyst OS and fully supported in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SXH, the Cisco Security toolkit features assist in mitigating denial-of-service (DoS) and man-in-the-middle (MiM) attacks. The Security Toolkit consists of three features: DHCP Snooping, and Dynamic ARP Inspection and IP Source Guard
DHCP Snooping provides security against certain DoS attacks, namely, DHCP rogue server attacks. In such attacks, rogue servers are able to insert themselves into the network and respond to DHCP discovers and requests for IP addresses. DHCP Snooping prevents this kind of attack by setting ports as trusted or untrusted. All untrusted ports can only send discovers and requests for DHCP. In contrast, trusted ports allow all DHCP traffic to traverse the port, including requests and offers for IP addresses.

• For ports attached to all hosts, or all ports connected to unknown devices, the port should be set to DHCP untrusted. In this case, should a server attach itself to an untrusted port, it cannot issue an IP address to requesting hosts.

• DHCP Snooping also maintains a DHCP Snooping Table that contains the MAC address, IP address, lease time of the client, and the VLAN of the untrusted host on the port. This table is used for other features, including Dynamic ARP Inspection, to help ensure users attaching to ports are not attempting to attack the network. It does this by validating the IP address and MAC address binding of all hosts. The example below enables dhcp-snooping on VLAN 20, and all ports on that VLAN are by default, untrusted:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Console>(enable)set security acl ip snoopname permit dhcp-snooping

Console>(enable)set security acl ip snoopname permit ip any any

Console>(enable)commit security acl snoopname

Console>(enable)set security acl map snoopname 20

Router(config)# ip dhcp snooping

Router(config)# ip dhcp snooping vlan 20

Dynamic ARP Inspection (DAI) validates ARP packets in a network. It allows a network administrator to intercept, log, and discard ARP packets with invalid MAC address to IP bindings (set forth in the DHCP Snooping binding tables). It prevents certain MIM attacks from occurring. The example below enables DAI on all ARP traffic from port 4/2 (because 4/2 is set to untrusted) on VLAN 20:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Console>(enable)set security acl arp-inspection dynamic enable 20

Console>(enable)set port arp-inspection 4/2 trust disable

Router(config)# ip arp inspection vlan 20

Router(config)# interface FastEthernet 4/2

Router(config-if)# no ip arp inspection trust

IP Source Guard prevents IP spoofing by allowing only the IP addresses that are logged in the DHCP Snooping binding table on a particular port. Initially, all traffic on the port is blocked except for DHCP packets that are captured by DHCP snooping. When the client receives a DHCP IP address, a port-based ACL is installed on the port which permits traffic from the IP address, or a static IP address configured by the user. Any IP address with a source IP address other than that in the PACL permit list will be filtered out. This prevents the possibility of users attempting to spoof their neighbor's IP address.

• Configuring IP Source Guard requires the port security-acl be placed in port-based mode, and requires DHCP Snooping be enabled. The example below enables IP Source Guard on port 4/2, and enables the security-acl "dhcpsnoop," which enables dhcp-snooping, on the VLAN 10:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Console>(enable)set port security-acl 4/2 port-based

Console>(enable)set port dhcp-snooping 4/2 source-guard enable

Console>(enable)set security-acl ip dhcpsnoop permit dhcp-snooping

Console>(enable)set security-acl ip dhcpsnoop permit any any

Console>(enable)commit security-acl dhcpsnoop

Console>(enable)set security acl map dhcpsnoop 10

Console>(config)ip dhcp snooping

Console>(config)ip dhcp snooping vlan 10

Console>(config)int gi 4/2

Console>(config-if)no ip dhcp snooping trust

Console>(config-if)ip verify source vlan dhcp-snooping

Secure Copy Protocol (SCP)

Currently supported in the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software, the Secure Copy Protocol provides a secure method for copying crypto image files. SCP relies on Secure Shell (SSH) and allows the network administrator to copy a SCP to and from the system through an encrypted channel.

Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR)

Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) enables the troubleshooting of cable plants, easing the operational support of the switch. Built into the port interfaces of 48-port 10/100/1000 RJ-45 and the 6148A 10/100 modules, TDR enables network managers to remotely identify the location of cable breaks and faults. The TDR test sends a signal along a cable. Using intelligent DSPs built into the port interfaces, it measures the time it takes for the echo to return, and computes the distance to the break.
TDR is an online test which, when completed, displays the port's connected wire pairs and distances to their breaks (if present). Execution commands are as follows:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Console>(enable)test cable-diagnostics tdr 3/1

Console>(enable)show port tdr 3/1

IOS#test cable-diagnostics tdr interface g3/1

IOS#show cable-diagnostics tdr interface g3/1

Access Control Lists

Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series running a hybrid OS support the following types of ACLs:

• Cisco IOS Software routing ACLs (RACLs) provide access control for routed traffic between VLANs. Standard and extended Cisco IOS Software ACLs are configured on the input and output of router interfaces and, as such, are applied to routed packets. The use of Cisco IOS Software ACLs requires both a PFCx and a MSFCx on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series.

• VLAN ACLs (VACLs) provide access control based on Layer 3 or Layer 4 information for IP or IPX protocols. A VACL is applied to all packets (bridged and routed) on a VLAN and can be configured on any VLAN interface. VACLs are used for security packet filtering and redirecting traffic to specific physical switch ports. They are not defined by direction (input or output). VACL functionality requires a PFCx.

• QoS ACLs are used to identify ingress traffic which is should be marked or policed upon entering a port or VLAN. QoS ACL functionality requires a PFCx.

• Port-based ACLs (PACL) are access lists mapped to a physical port (rather than to a VLAN, which is typically comprised of multiple ports). Like VACLs, PACLs are applied to both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarded packets. Only ingress PACLs are supported on the Cisco Catalyst 6500.

Cisco IOS Software RACLs have the same implementation in hybrid as in Cisco IOS Software (whether on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 or any other Cisco IOS Software router). QoS ACLs for both operating systems are covered in the QoS section of this white paper. This section describes the differences between the VACL implementation in the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software and also covers PACL implementation in the Cisco Catalyst OS.

VLAN Access Control Lists (VACLs)

For the Cisco Catalyst OS, configuring a security ACL statement creates a VACL. This statement is used to configure all match and action parameters for the security policy.
The VACL configuration in Cisco IOS Software is based on the traditional Cisco IOS Software ACL implementation. That is, it relies on the Cisco IOS Software access-list command to define the traffic matching parameters. From there, all configuration (including ACL reference and action) is done from the "vlan access-map" configuration mode. Although Cisco IOS Software action is a CLI concept which is not present in the Cisco Catalyst OS, it provides similar capture, log, and redirect functionality. Refer to the user documentation for specifics on these options. The following provides a general comparison between VACL configuration in the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set vlan 10

set security acl ip sample permit ip any any

commit security acl sample

set security acl map sample 10

vlan 10

access-list 101 permit ip any any

vlan access-map sample

match ip address 101

action forward

vlan filter sample vlan-list 10

Note: When creating a VACL in Cisco IOS Software, an SVI for that VLAN interface is created automatically. While this interface is required, it is not necessary for the interface to be configured or even in an "up" state for the VACL to operate properly.

In the Cisco Catalyst OS, when an ACL is created, modified, or deleted, the changes exist temporarily in an edit buffer in memory. The Cisco Catalyst OS requires that the ACL be committed for it to take effect. In contrast, Cisco IOS Software does not utilize the edit buffer concept. After a policy has been built in Cisco IOS Software, it must then be mapped to a VLAN or interface for that ACL to take effect.

VACL Capture

The VACL Capture feature is a useful extension to VACLs. This feature is essentially a port-mirroring function where packets that match the specified flows are captured and transmitted out of capture ports. You can create a VACL to identify traffic that you would like to make a copy of and send to a destination port for analysis (using a network analyzer or otherwise). This does not affect the performance of the captured traffic; the original data will move through the box as it is intended. It provides a very granular tool for network troubleshooting and analysis as well as a scalable alternative to the traditional Switch Port ANalyzer (SPAN) feature.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set vlan 10

set security acl ip cap_acl permit ip any

any capture

commit security acl cap_acl

set security acl map cap_acl 10

set security acl capture-ports 1/1

vlan 10

access-list 101 permit ip any any

vlan access-map cap_acl

match ip address 101

action forward capture

vlan filter sample vlan-list 10

int gigabitethernet 1/1

switchport capture

Port-Based Access Control Lists (PACLs)

Supported only on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32, PACLs are access lists mapped to physical ports. PACLs have three modes of operation configurable on a per-port basis: port-based, VLAN-based, and merge modes. In port-based mode, the PACL overrides the existing VACL and Cisco IOS Software ACL. In VLAN-based mode, the VACL and Cisco IOS Software ACLs override the PACL. In merge mode, the ingress PACL, VACL, and Cisco IOS Software ACL are merged together (VLAN-based mode is the default mode).
To configure PACLs, the mode must be specified. The example below sets a PACL on port 2/1 in port-based mode and maps the ACL "pacl_acl" to port 2/1:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set port security-acl 2/1 port-based

set security acl ip pacl_acl permit ip any any

commit security acl pacl_acl

set security acl map pacl_acl 2/1

Switch(config)#int gi2/1

Switch(config-if)#switchport

Switch(config-if)#access-group mode prefer port

Switch(config-if)#ip access-group pacl_acl in

Quality of Service (QoS)

QoS is the use of several different features which all work to differentiate and prioritize network traffic. These features include the classification, marking, policing, congestion avoidance, and scheduling of traffic. In the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series, QoS functionality resides on the PFC (for Layer 3 marking, policing, and some classification functions) and online cards (for congestion avoidance, scheduling, and other classification functions). With the Cisco Catalyst OS, a supervisor without a PFC can be used for Layer 2-only QoS classification and marking. With the PFC and the MSFC installed, Cisco IOS Software and a hybrid OS support full Layer 2/3/4 QoS capabilities.
This section is not intended to provide a general overview of QoS functionality. Rather, it discusses configuration differences between the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software for the following scenarios:

• Configuring interface QoS

• Configuring QoS policies

By default, QoS is disabled on both operating systems. The first step to implement QoS functionality on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 is to enable QoS globally:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set qos enable

Router(config)# mls qos

Configuring Interface QoS

Trust State

Ports can be set to trust certain fields such as CoS, IP-precedence, or DSCP in the incoming frames. The following is a sample configuration:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set port qos 3/1 trust trust-cos

Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet 3/1

Router(config-if)# mls qos trust cos

Both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software support the Extended Trust feature for differentiating IP phone voice traffic and workstation data traffic.

Default Port CoS

The switch offers the capability to set a CoS value for all traffic entering a particular port. This is supported in both operating systems:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set port qos 3/1 cos 3

Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet 3/1

Router(config-if)# mls qos cos 3

Port- and VLAN-Based QoS Mode

QoS policies can be applied either per-port or per-VLAN. By default, QoS functionality is port-based. In this case, all QoS policies are applied to a particular port. Policies that are applied to a VLAN will not affect traffic that is ingress on a port which is configured as port-based. If a policy is mapped to a VLAN, you must inform the interface that QoS is VLAN based for each port in the VLAN to which the VLAN policy is applicable. The following command when executed on the intended interfaces alters the default QoS from port-based to VLAN-based:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set port qos 3/1 vlan-based

Router(config)#interface gigabitethernet 3/1

Router(config-if)# mls qos vlan-based

CoS-to-Queue Mapping

This section describes the mapping of CoS values to queues/thresholds in the standard receive and transmit queues. In Cisco IOS Software, the rcv-queue keyword is used for standard receive queue configuration, the wrr-queue keyword is used for round-robin transmit queues, and the priority-queue keyword is used for priority queues.
In the Cisco Catalyst OS implementation, the CoS-to-queue mapping is configured per queue type (that is, all 1p2q2t ports will have the same configuration). In Cisco IOS Software implementation, the CoS-to-queue mapping is configured per interface and the configuration changes are implemented on all ports that are managed by the same port ASIC. (ASIC to port layout varies by line card, but the CLI will issue a warning of the changes made.) The following example maps 802.1p value of 5 to the strict priority queue (rx and tx) and 802.1p values of 0 and 1 to the first threshold of the low priority queue.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set qos map 1p1q4t rx 2 1 cos 5

set qos map 1p2q2t tx 1 1 cos 0,1

set qos map 1p2q2t tx 3 1 cos 5

interface gigabitethernet 3/1

rcv-queue cos-map 2 1 5

wrr-queue cos-map 1 1 0 1

priority-queue cos-map 1 5

Queue Sizes

The total amount of buffer per port is a fixed quantity. However, the allocation of that packet buffer per queue can be configured on most Ethernet ports. Specifically, the transmit buffer allocation can be changed on the classic Fast Ethernet, any Gigabit Ethernet, and any 10 Gigabit Ethernet line card. The receive buffer allocation is configurable on the fabric-enabled Fast Ethernet ports (6548, 6524 line cards) and on the 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports (6501, 6502 line cards).

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set qos txq-ratio 1p2q2t 10 90

set qos rxq-ratio 1p1q0t 10 90

interface gigabitethernet 3/1

wrr-queue queue-limit 10 90

interface fastethernet 4/1

rcv-queue queue-limit 10 90

WRR Scheduling

The Weighted Round Robin (WRR) scheduling mechanism is used to prioritize traffic as it exits an egress port. The prioritization is based on the relative weighting of each of the participating queues, so that traffic in a higher priority queue will be serviced before traffic in a low priority queue. The WRR scheduling feature is supported on the transmit queues for all Ethernet line cards. An example (for Gigabit Ethernet ports) is shown below. As with the CoS-to-queue mapping, the WRR scheduling is configured on a per-ASIC basis.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set qos wrr 1p2q2t 30 70

interface gigabitethernet 3/1

wrr-queue bandwidth 30 70

Configuring QoS Policies

The configuration of QoS policies differs significantly between Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco Catalyst OS. For the Cisco Catalyst OS, a QoS ACL statement is used to configure all match and action parameters for marking and policing. Cisco IOS Software QoS supports classification, marking, and policing using the Modular QoS CLI (MQC) syntax.
A Cisco IOS Software policy uses traffic classes (with the class-map statement) to identify interesting traffic. These traffic classes can be defined for different types of traffic flows; for example, a user could have a different class for IP traffic, IPX traffic, and MAC traffic. Each traffic class uses Cisco IOS Software based ACLs and/or class match statements to identify traffic. The policy-map includes the desired action for the matched traffic (mark, police, trust, etc). The policy defined by a policy-map is mapped to an interface using the service-policy command.
Examples of both are included below.

Trust with an ACL

As an alternative to setting the trust state for all traffic on a port (as described above), a QoS policy can be created to trust traffic that matches a specific QoS ACL. This functionality is available in both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software. As such, it is a straightforward example of the configuration differences between the Cisco Catalyst OS QoS ACL syntax and the Cisco IOS Software MQC syntax described above. In this example, the function of using an ACL for trusting the CoS on all traffic coming into port gigabit 3/1 is compared.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set qos acl ip CatOS trust-cos any

commit qos acl CatOS

set qos acl map CatOS 3/1

access-list 101 permit ip any any

policy-map IOS

class IOS access-group 101

trust cos

interface gigabitethernet 3/1

service-policy input IOS

When a Cisco Catalyst OS ACL is created, modified, or deleted, the changes exist temporarily in an edit buffer in memory. The Cisco Catalyst OS requires that the ACL be committed for it to take effect. Cisco IOS Software does not utilize the edit buffer concept. After a policy has been built in Cisco IOS Software, it must then be mapped to either a port or a VLAN for that policy to take effect. When a policy is mapped to an "up" interface, the ASIC hardware is programmed with the necessary information and that policy is in effect.

Policers

The policing function is primarily used for rate limiting traffic to a configured speed. If traffic exceeds the configured speed, then it can either be dropped or marked down to a lower priority. This is useful to help ensure compliance to service level agreements or for security protection. The policer can either be an aggregate or a microflow policer. An aggregate policer will rate limit all traffic in a class or group of classes to one combined (or aggregate) rate. A microflow policer will rate limit each flow (a unique SA/DA MAC address, SA/DA IP address, TCP/UDP port numbers, and with UBRL, a unique SA or DA) in a traffic class to an individual rate. A total of 63 microflows and 1023 aggregates can be configured per chassis (independent of the operating system).
In the Cisco Catalyst OS, the policing parameters, such as rate, burst, and related actions, are defined first in a policer statement. A QoS ACL is configured which identifies both the traffic to-be-policed and references the appropriate policer. Then, the QoS ACL needs to be committed and applied to a port or VLAN, as with normal ACL configuration.
In Cisco IOS Software, the ACL is defined first. The policing parameters are defined in one of two configuration modes. This depends on the type of policer being implemented; differences are discussed in the following sections.

Aggregate Policers

There are two forms of aggregate policers that can be defined in the Cisco Catalyst OS: Shared Aggregate Policers and Per-Interface Aggregate Policers.
Shared Aggregate Policers (sometimes referred to as Named Aggregate Policers) are applied to a group of interfaces/VLANs and provide the function of policing traffic across all interfaces and/or classes cumulatively. As an example, use the shared aggregate policer when a 100-Mbps rate limit should be applied to four different interfaces combined.These policers are supported in both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software. The following table shows a configuration comparison of both implementations:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set qos policer aggregate ag1 rate

1000000 burst 32 drop

set qos acl ip ag_acl trust-dscp

aggregate ag1 any

set qos acl map ag_acl 3/5

access-list 101 permit ip any any

mls qos aggregate-policer ag1 10000000

4625 conform-action transmit exceed-

action drop

policy-map limit-named

class class-ag1 access-group 101

police aggregate ag1

interface fastethernet 3/5

service-policy input limit-named

Note: In the Cisco Catalyst OS, the rate is measured in Kbps and the burst is specified in Kb. In Cisco IOS Software, the rate is measured in bps and the burst is specified in bytes. These differences are true for all policer types.

Per-Interface Aggregate Policers are applied to an interface and traffic class, individually. These policies can be applied to multiple interfaces, but the policer polices each interface separately. As an example, use the Per Interface Aggregate policer when a 100-Mbps rate limit should be applied individually to four different interfaces. These policers are only supported in Cisco IOS Software.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

No Catalyst OS equivalent

access-list 101 permit ip any any

policy-map limit-interface

class class-ag1 access-group 101

police 10000000 4625 conform-action

transmit exceed-action drop

interface fastethernet 3/5

service-policy input limit-interface

Cisco IOS Software running on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 supports per-port policing in a distributed forwarding system (a system with one or more Distributed Forwarding Cards present). In a distributed system, aggregate policing per-VLAN is not supported.

Microflow Policers

Enabling Microflow policing in Cisco IOS Software must be done globally on the switch. This is not required in the Cisco Catalyst OS. The police flow command denotes the microflow policing configuration for Cisco IOS Software. The rest of the configuration follows a syntax similar to configuring a Per-Interface Aggregate Policer in Cisco IOS Software. 3

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set qos policer microflow mf1 rate

1000000 burst 32 drop

set qos acl ip mf_acl trust-dscp

microflow mf1 any

commit qos acl mf_acl

set qos acl map mf_acl 3/5

mls qos flow-policing

access-list 101 permit ip any any

Policy-map limit-flow

class limit-flow access-group 101

police flow 200 15 confirm-action

transmit exceed-action drop

interface fastethernet 3/5

service-policy input limit-flow

User-Based Rate Limiting (UBRL) on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 with Cisco IOS Software Only
User-Based Rate Limiting functionality is supported only on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 and is a microflow policing function which provides a means to rate limit many source or destination IP addresses to an individual rate. This configuration requires only two ACLs and can support a large number of users. Only supported in Cisco IOS Software, the example below demonstrates UBRL by rate limiting traffic from each user in a user-group to 1 Mbps each, going to the subnet 192.168.0.0/16:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Not Supported

Access-list 101 permit ip any 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255

Class-map 1Mbps-rate

Match access-group 101

Policy-map Outbound

Class 1Mbps-rate

Police flow mask src-only 1000000 ...

Int gig 3/1

Service-policy input Outbound

Marking with an ACL

You can set the priority fields in a frame (CoS, DSCP, or ToS) for specific traffic classes that match an ACL. This gives the user more granularity and functionality than what is provided by marking with default port CoS values.
PFC QoS (Cisco IOS Software Release 12.1(12c)E1) supports policy map class marking for untrusted traffic with the set ip dscp and set ip precedence policy map class commands.
The following table provides a comparison of the different configuration parameters for each operating system.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set qos acl ip CatOS dscp 24 any

commit qos acl CatOS

set qos acl map CatOS 3/1

access-list 101 permit ip any any

policy-map IOS

class IOS access-group 101

set ip dscp 24

interface gigabitethernet 3/1

service-policy input IOS

AutoQoS

AutoQoS is a macro which simplifies QoS configuration required for implementing recommended Cisco Architecture for Voice, Video and Data (AVVID) settings on a voice port. AutoQos is supported in the Cisco Catalyst OS and in Cisco IOS Software beginning with Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SXH.
For the Cisco Catalyst OS the macro is divided into two separate components:

• Global automatic QoS command (set qos auto): Deals with all switch-wide QoS-related settings, not specific to an interface.

• Port-specific automatic QoS command (set port qos mod/port autoqos): Configures all inbound QoS parameters for a particular port to reflect desired traffic type.

In Cisco IOS Software only an interface configuration level command is needed; the global configurations are made as part of this single macro.
In the examples below, AutoQoS is enabled and is configured to trust all incoming CoS and DSCP marking. The third example configures port 3/1 for ingress QoS for a Cisco IP phone:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set qos autoqos

set port qos 3/1 autoqos trust cos

set port qos 3/1 autoqos trust dscp

set port qos 3/1 autoqos voip ciscoipphone

Switch(config)#int gi 3/1

Switch(config-if)#switchport

Switch(config-if)#auto qos voip cisco-phone

Note: For further information about AutoQoS macro command inclusion, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/switches/ps708/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a0080121d11.html#22805.

Switch Port Analyzer (SPAN)

SPAN is a troubleshooting analysis feature used to mirror the traffic coming to and from physical and logical interfaces on the switch. A SPAN session is an association of a set of SPAN source ports or VLANs that need to be monitored and a SPAN destination port is where the mirrored traffic is sent. The SPAN destination port does not belong to any VLAN and does not participate in spanning tree. Any 10M, 100M, 1G, or 10G port can be configured as a SPAN source or destination port (including fabric-enabled and DFC-enabled line cards).
SPAN has been implemented differently between the two operating systems. the Cisco Catalyst OS can support up to two ingress-only or ingress/egress SPAN sessions and four egress-only SPAN sessions. Cisco IOS Software is slightly different in that it also supports two ingress-only or ingress/egress SPAN sessions and beginning in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(33)SXH an additional fourteen egress only span sessions are supported. In addition, Cisco IOS Software has the added functionality of allowing the CPU interfaces as SPAN source ports. Using the CPU as a source port for SPAN sessions provides the ability to baseline CPU bound traffic typers as well as troubleshoot CPU related issues.
Different SPAN sessions can contain overlapping or distinct sets of source interfaces. Both switchports and routed ports can be configured as SPAN sources. Different SPAN sessions must contain distinct, nonoverlapping sets of destination interfaces.
Ingress SPAN (Rx) copies network traffic received by the source ports for analysis at the destination port. Egress SPAN (Tx) copies network traffic transmitted from the source ports. Configuration option "both" copies network traffic received and transmitted by the source ports to the destination port. Cisco IOS Software can monitor 128 Egress or "both" sources and up to 128 ingress ports as source ports. 4 Up to 64 SPAN destination interfaces are supported.
The following example configures ports 5/1-2 as SPAN Sources and port 5/3 as the SPAN destination.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set span 5/1,5/2 5/3 rx create

monitor session 1 source int f5/1-2 rx

monitor session 1 dest int f5/3

Remote SPAN (RSPAN)

Remote SPAN retains most of the functionality of SPAN and adds support for source and destination ports distributed across multiple switches in a network. Traffic for RSPAN is carried over a user-specified RSPAN VLAN dedicated for that RSPAN session in all participating switches.
RSPAN sessions can coexist with SPAN sessions with a maximum of 30 SPAN/RSPAN sessions per switch. In the following example configurations, VLAN 10 is configured as an RSPAN VLAN and VLAN 5 is configured as the RSPAN source port to monitor both incoming and outgoing traffic:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Set vlan 10 rspan

Set rspan source 5 10 both

Set rspan destination 3/1 10

Show rspan

IOS(config)#vlan 10

IOS(config-vlan)#remote-span

IOS(config)#monitor session 1 source vlan 5 both

IOS(config)#monitor session 1 destination remote-vlan 10

IOS#sh monitor session 1

Encapsulated Remote SPAN (RSPAN)

Introduced with Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(18)SXE, the Cisco Catalyst 6500 uses the hardware acceleration of GRE on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 and Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 720 to allow network monitoring to extend beyond a Layer 3 boundary. ERSPAN is used to monitor a remote network's Layer 2 traffic and conserve resources by removing the requirement of the duplication of network probes across all Layer 2 networks. (See Figure 9.)

Figure 9. ERSPAN

ERSPAN and SPAN can monitor all traffic, including multicast and bridge protocol data unit (BPDU) frames, where RSPAN does not support BPDU monitoring. The following is a configuration example of ERSPAN.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Not Applicable

IOS(config)# monitor session 3 type erspan-source

IOS(config-mon-erspan-src)# source interface gigabitethernet 4/1

IOS(config-mon-erspan-src)# destination

IOS(config-mon-erspan-src-dst)# ip address 10.1.1.1

IOS(config-mon-erspan-src-dst)# origin ip address 10.10.1.1

IOS(config-mon-erspan-src-dst)# erspan-id 101

Jumbo Frames

The jumbo frame feature supports a single larger-than-default Ethernet MTU size (1500 bytes) on the switch. The MTU can be configured between 1500 to 10,240 bytes with default (recommended) MTU of 9216 bytes. Jumbo frames are switched in hardware with no performance impact for Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces. These interfaces can be routed interfaces, access switchports, trunk switchports, or EtherChannel groups (observe any restrictions imposed by the neighboring device). Jumbo frames are supported on VLAN interfaces (SVIs), but this would only be applicable for software switched traffic. As a general rule (not OS specific), jumbo frames should be enabled on all or none of the ports in a particular VLAN.
The configurations below show the jumbo frame configuration in both the Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Set port jumbo gi1/1-2 enable

Show port jumbo (to show)

int range gi1/1-2

mtu 9216

show interface gi1/1 (to show)

The above commands enable MTU 9216 bytes on the gigabit interfaces. This will automatically change the ip mtu size also. The reverse is not true. Increasing ip mtu 9216 does not increase the interface MTU size.

High Availability

High availability on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 is one of the primary differentiators of the platform, allowing for fault avoidance and maximum uptime. With features like Nonstop Forwarding (NSF) and Stateful Switchover (SSO) combined with Generic Online Diagnostics (GOLD), the Cisco Catalyst 6500 can maintain packet processing combined with intersystem fault detection giving superior reliability and uptime.

Generic Online Diagnostics

The GOLD implementation checks the health of hardware components and verifies proper operation of the system data and control planes. Some tests take effect when the system is booting up, whereas other tests take effect when the system is operational. As shown in Figure 10, tests are categorized into two categories: boot-up diagnostics and runtime diagnostics. Multiple tests can run in parallel.

Figure 10. GOLD

The comparison of implementing the GOLD features in Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco Catalyst OS is done below.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set diagnostic bootup level ?

bypass Bypass level

complete Complete level

minimal Minimal level

diagnostic bootup level ?

complete Complete level

minimal Minimal level

set diagnostic ondemand iterations 2

diagnostic ondemand iterations 2

set diagnostic ondemand action-on-failure stop

diagnostic ondemand action-on-failure stop

diagnostic start module 2 test 2

diagnostic start module 2 test 12

Cisco Catalyst OS

Console> (enable) set diagnostic schedule module 2 test 1 weekly MON 03:00

Cisco IOS Software

Router(config)#diagnostic schedule module 2 test 1 weekly MON 03:00

More on GOLD differences here.

Supervisor Redundancy

Both Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco Catalyst OS support the deployment of redundant supervisor engines for component level redundancy within a Cisco Catalyst 6500 chassis. However, the operational model for supervisor engine redundancy differs between Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco Catalyst OS.
In the Cisco Catalyst OS, the foundation for supervisor redundancy is the High Availability feature. This feature allows systems with dual supervisors to synchronize the protocol states between the active and standby supervisor engines. If an active supervisor failure were to take place, the standby supervisor would then be able to take over system operation with accurate and up-to-date state information of the protocols running on the switch. This allows a supervisor failover to take place in one to three seconds and requires no network reconvergence for Layer 2, 3, and 4 protocols. From a router perspective, the MSFC engines can be configured for redundancy as well with hybrid software. For more information on hybrid High Availability, refer to the white paper at http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/si/casi/ca6000/tech/hafc6_wp.pdf.
Cisco IOS Software on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 supports Route Processor Redundancy (RPR, also known as Enhanced High System Availability [EHSA]), Route Processor Redundancy Plus (RPR+), and Nonstop Forwarding with Stateful Switchover (NSF/SSO). In this operational model, one supervisor/MSFC pair is fully operational and the other pair is in standby mode. The show module command lists the current and standby supervisors. There are heartbeat messages between two pairs to help ensure rapid failure detection. The RPR and RPR+ implementations do not synchronize protocol state between the two supervisor engines; however, the SSO implementation synchronizes protocol state. The following section provides an overview of supervisor redundancy characteristics that are equivalent between RPR, RPR+, and SSO.
In Cisco IOS Software, the supervisor and MSFC are each responsible for different functions and protocols (Layer 2 vs. Layer 3). However, the system is dependent on both engines being available for proper operation. Failure of either the supervisor or the MSFC in RPR/RPR+/SSO mode will cause a switchover from the active supervisor to the standby supervisor/MSFC. Note that in the Cisco Catalyst OS, the supervisor can remain fully operational if one MSFC fails; an MSFC failure does not necessarily cause a supervisor switchover, but may cause an MSFC failover only, allowing a cross model where the active PFC and the switch processor running the Cisco Catalyst OS are fully functional in slot 1 whereas the route processor/MSFC are fully functional in slot 2.
There is no stateful protocol redundancy between supervisor engines with RPR or RPR+. The SSO redundancy mode provides the stateful protocol redundancy between supervisor engines in Cisco IOS Software and is equivalent in terms of functionality to the Cisco Catalyst OS High Availability redundancy mode.
The following section provides an overview of supervisor redundancy characteristics with RPR, RPR+, and NSF/SSO.

Route Processor Redundancy (RPR)

With RPR enabled, the active supervisor and MSFC are operational and responsible for all packet forwarding and features. The standby supervisor and MSFC are out of reset, but not all subsystems are booted. The standby supervisor is booted to the point where the gigabit uplink ports are operational, but no protocols are running on the supervisor or MSFC.
Upon an active supervisor failure, RPR detects the loss of the active supervisor and causes a switchover. The line cards are power-cycled, the supervisor and MSFC finish booting, and all Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocols are initialized. The failover time for the system to start forwarding traffic in EHSA is approximately 90 seconds. The actual failover time is dependent on the size and complexity of the configuration.
With RPR, the startup configuration and boot variables are synchronized between the active and standby supervisor.

Route Processor Redundancy Plus (RPR+)

With RPR+ enabled, the active supervisor and MSFC are operational and responsible for all packet forwarding and features. The standby supervisor and MSFC are fully booted and running on standby. RPR+ is an enhancement to RPR. Since the standby supervisor is further along in the boot process, RPR+ provides a faster supervisor failover than RPR. In addition, the line card state is maintained during a supervisor failover. This helps to reduce the failover time. However, the port states are not maintained, so connections to other devices will flap.
The failover time for the system to start forwarding traffic in RPR+ is approximately 30 seconds. The actual failover time is dependent on the size and complexity of the configuration.

Nonstop Forwarding with Stateful Switchover (NSF/SSO)

Both Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco Catalyst OS support NSF with SSO. The primary differentiators apply in where and how these features are applied, with the more advanced forms of these features being deployed first in Cisco IOS Software. SSO expands the RPR+ capabilities to provide transparent failover of Layer 2 protocols when a supervisor failure occurs. SSO is stateful for Layer 2 protocols. PFC and Distributed Forwarding Card (DFC) hardware tables are maintained across a switchover. This allows for transparent failover at Layer 2 and Layer 4. NSF works in conjunction with SSO to help ensure Layer 3 integrity following a switchover. It allows a router experiencing the failure of an active supervisor to continue forwarding data packets along known routes while the routing protocol information is recovered and validated. This forwarding can continue to take place by using graceful restart mechanisms that allow peering arrangements to recover upon failover, thus avoiding unnecessary route flaps and network instability.
The failover time is 0 to 3 seconds with NSF/SSO. More information on NSF/SSO can be found at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/switches/ps5718/ps708/prod_white_paper0900aecd801c5cd7.shtml.

Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)

The Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) provides network redundancy for IP networks, helping ensure that user traffic immediately and transparently recovers from first hop failures in network edge devices or access circuits. HSRP provides a Layer 2 and Layer 3 virtual address that is shared between two or more Cisco routing devices to help ensure network resiliency. It uses an election algorithm combined with statically assigned virtual IP address and Layer 2 MAC address for transparent fault recovery. For more information, visit http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/tech/tk648/tk362/tk321/tsd_technology_support_sub-protocol_home.html.

Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)

The Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) provides a function very similar to the Cisco proprietary Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP). VRRP is designed to eliminate the single point of failure inherent in a static default routed environment. VRRP specifies an election protocol that dynamically assigns responsibility for a virtual router to one of the VRRP routers on a LAN. The VRRP router controlling the IP address(es) associated with a virtual router is called the Master, and forwards packets sent to these IP addresses. The election process provides dynamic failover in the forwarding responsibility should the Master become unavailable. Any of the virtual router's IP addresses on a LAN can then be used as the default first hop router by end hosts. The advantage gained from using VRRP is a higher availability default path without requiring configuration of dynamic routing or router discovery protocols on every end host.

Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)

The Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) provides load-balancing over multiple gateways through a single virtual IP address and multiple virtual MAC addresses. This protocol is similar to Host Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) and Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP). GLBP protects data traffic from a failed router or circuit, while allowing packet load sharing between a group of redundant routers (using the virtual MAC addresses on each router).

Appendix A: Cisco IOS Software and Cisco Catalyst OS Configuration Sample Comparison

This section walks you through a complete Cisco IOS Software mode configuration versus a Cisco Catalyst OS configuration for a sample topology (Figure 11).

Figure 11. Sample Network Topology for Configuration Example

Step 1. Assign a name to the switch/router, configure prompt, time, and password.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

enable

set system name cat6k-switch

set enablepass

set ip dns domain example.com

set ip dns server a.b.c.d

enable

configure terminal

hostname cat6k-switch

enable password <>

ip domain-name example.com

ip name-server a.b.c.d

end

Step 2. Configure VTP as transparent and check the status.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set vtp mode transparent

show vtp domain

configure terminal

vtp mode transparent

end

write memory

show vtp status

Step 3. Create VLANs and check the status.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set vlan 2 name Marketing

set vlan 3 name Finance

show vlan

configure terminal

vlan 2

name Marketing

vlan 3

name Finance

end

write memory

show vlan

Step 4. Configure the Gigabit Ethernet uplinks as routed interfaces. The Gigabit Ethernet uplinks 1/1 and 1/2 are used to connect to the remainder of the network. Because these ports only require Layer 3 routing functionality, Cisco IOS Software can use the straightforward routed interface command structure below:

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Catalyst OS config:

set vlan 89 1/1

set vlan 90 1/2

MSFC config:

int vlan 89

ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0

no shut

int vlan 90

ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0

no shut

end

write memory

configure terminal

interface gigabitethernet 1/1

ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0

no shut

interface gigabitethernet1/2

ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0

no shut

end

write memory

[VLANs 89 and 90 are randomly chosen for this example]

Step 5. Configure ports 2/1-3 to be used as access ports for client connections in VLAN 2, ports 2/4-5 in VLAN 3, and configure all the ports for full-duplex mode and speed 100.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set vlan 2 2/1-3

set vlan 3 2/4-5

set port speed 2/1-5 100

set port duplex 2/1-5 full

show port

Configure terminal

interface range fastethernet 2/1-3

switchport

switchport mode access

switchport access vlan 2

speed 100

duplex full

interface range fastethernet 2/4-5

switchport

switchport mode access

switchport access vlan 3

speed 100

duplex full

end

write memory

show interface status

Step 6. Configure trunk switchports: port 2/6 is used to carry all three VLANs to Cisco Catalyst B, a Layer 2 Cisco Catalyst 6500. The trunk uses IEEE 802.1q encapsulation and defaults to VLAN 1.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

set trunk 2/6 dot1q

set trunk 2/6 desirable

interface fastethernet 2/6

switchport

switchport mode dynamic desirable

switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

Step 7. Optional configuration: By default, the Cisco Catalyst 6500 switch allows all VLANs on the trunk. Configure the list VLAN 50-100 to be pruned from trunk.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

clear trunk 2/6 50-100

switchport trunk allowed vlan remove 50-100

Step 8. Configure the routed SVI: Step 4 configured the Gigabit Ethernet interfaces as routed uplinks. This step shows the configuration for two SVI interfaces which provide routing services for both VLANs (inter-VLAN routing). This configuration uses HSRP on VLAN 2 and 3 and also includes IPX network numbers.

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

Routing is done on MSFC:

interface vlan2

ip address 10.10.2.2 255.255.255.0

standby 1 timers 1 3

standby 1 priority 200 preempt

standby 1 ip 10.10.2.6

ipx network 20

interface vlan3

ip address 10.10.3.2 255.255.255.0

standby 1 timers 1 3

standby 1 priority 200 preempt

standby 1 ip 10.10.3.6

ipx network 30

The Logical SVI interfaces are exactly the same as on MSFC. The configuration on the left can be copied.

Appendix B: Cisco Catalyst OS and Cisco IOS Software Command Matrix

Cisco Catalyst OS

Cisco IOS Software

reset system

Reload

session

Remote login

Set system name

Hostname

Set test diaglevel

Diagnostic level

Set boot config-register

Config-register

Set boot system flash

Boot system flash

Set module power down/up

Power enable module

Set port disable

Shutdown (interface mode)

set port duplex

Duplex

set port flowcontrol send [desired | off |on]

flowcontrol send [desired | off | on]

set port flowcontrol receive [desired | off |on]

flowcontrol receive [desired | off | on]

set port negotiation <mod/port> enable/disable

speed nonegotiate

set port speed

speed

set cam

mac-address-table

Set port jumbo

Mtu 9216

set port channel

channel-group <group> mode (interface mode)

set trunk (default mode is auto)

switchport mode trunk (vlan database command)

set udld

Udld

set vlan <vlan id> port

1) switchport 2) switchport mode access 3) switchport access vlan <>

set vtp

vtp

Set spantree backbonefast

Spanning-tree backbonefast

Set spantree enable/disable

Spanning-tree vlan

Set spantree portfast

Spanning-tree portfast

set qos enable

mls qos

Set port dot1qtunnel

Switchport mode dot1qtunnel

show cam dynamic

show mac-address-table dynamic

show channel info or show port channel

show etherchannel summary

show mac

show interface counters

show port <slot/port>

show interface <type slot/port>

show mls cef

show mls cef

show port

show interface status

Show port capabilities

Show interface capabilities

show span

show monitor

show spantree

show spanning-tree

show qos

show mls qos

show trace

show debugging

show trunk or show port trunk

show interfaces trunk

show udld

show udld

show vlan

show vlan

show vtp domain

show vtp status

clear cam

clear mac-address-table

Appendix C: Conversion Procedures

Software conversion from hybrid to native Cisco IOS Software on a Cisco Catalyst 6000 Series Switch http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/switches/ps708/products_tech_note09186a008015bfa6.shtml.
Software conversion from native Cisco IOS Software to hybrid on a Cisco Catalyst 6000 Series Switch http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/switches/ps700/products_tech_note09186a00801350b8.shtml.
1ROMMON is the low-level software used for fundamental hardware operation before the Cisco Catalyst OS or Cisco IOS Software takes control of the system.
2This applies to a system that has not been rebooted since doing the "no switchport" command.
3Similar functionality can be achieved in the Cisco Catalyst OS, but it requires configuring a unique policer for each interface in question. The Cisco IOS Software implementation of per-interface policers requires that the policer is defined only once, but applied separately.
4With Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(18)SXE and above.