Table Of Contents
FIPS 140-2 Nonproprietary Security Policy for Cisco 7206VXR NPE-400 Router with VAM
This is a non-proprietary Cryptographic Module Security Policy for Cisco Systems. This security policy describes how the 7206 VXR NPE-400 with VPN Acceleration Module (VAM) (Hardware Version: 7206-VXR; VAM: Hardware Version 1.0, Board Version A0; Firmware Version: Cisco IOS software Version12.3(3d)) meets the security requirements of FIPS 140-2 and how to run the module in a secure FIPS 140-2 mode. This policy was prepared as part of the Level 2 FIPS 140-2 validation of the module.
Note This document may be copied in its entirety and without modification. All copies must include the copyright notice and statements on the last page.
FIPS 140-2 (Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 140-2 — Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules) details the U.S. Government requirements for cryptographic modules. More information about the FIPS 140-2 standard and validation program is available on the NIST website at http://csrc.nist.gov/cryptval/.
This document includes the following sections:
FIPS 140-2 Submission Package
The Security Policy document is one item in the FIPS 140-2 Submission Package. In addition to this document, the Submission Package includes:
•Vendor evidence document
•Finite state machine
•Module software listing
•Other supporting documentation as additional references
With the exception of this Non-Proprietary Security Policy, the FIPS 140-2 Validation Submission Documentation is proprietary to Cisco Systems, Inc. and is releasable only under appropriate non-disclosure agreements. For access to these documents, contact Cisco Systems, Inc. See "Obtaining Technical Assistance" section.
Cisco 7206VXR routers support gigabit capabilities to improve data, voice, and video integration in both the service provider and enterprise environments. Cisco 7206VXR routers support a high-speed network services engine (NSE), the high-speed network processing engine (NPE-400), and other network processing engines.
Cisco 7206VXR routers accommodate a variety of network interface port adapters and an Input/Output (I/O) controller. A Cisco 7206VXR router equipped with an NPE-400 supports up to six high-speed port adapters and higher-speed port adapter interfaces including Gigabit Ethernet and OC-12 ATM (Optical Carrier-12 Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Cisco 7206VXR routers accommodate up to two AC-input or DC-input power supplies.
Cisco 7206VXR routers support the following features:
•Online insertion and removal (OIR)—Adds, replaces, or removes port adapters without interrupting the system.
•Dual hot-swappable, load-sharing power supplies—Provides system power redundancy; if one power supply or power source fails, the other power supply maintains system power without interruption. Also, when one power supply is powered off and removed from the router, the second power supply immediately takes over the router power requirements without interrupting normal operation of the router.
•Environmental monitoring and reporting functions—Maintains normal system operation by resolving adverse environmental conditions prior to loss of operation.
•Downloadable software—Loads new images into Flash memory remotely, without having to physically access the router.
The Cisco 7206 VXR router incorporates a single VPN Acceleration Module (VAM) cryptographic accelerator card. The VAM is installed in one of the port adapter slots.
The Cisco 7206VXR NPE-400 router with VAM is a multiple-chip standalone cryptographic module. The Cisco 7206VXR supports multi-protocol routing and bridging with a wide variety of protocols and port adapter combinations available for Cisco 7200 series routers. The metal casing that fully encloses the module establishes the cryptographic boundary for the router, all the functionality discussed in this document is provided by components within the casing. The Cisco 7206VXR has six slots for port adapters, one slot for an input/output (I/O) controller, and one slot for a network processing engine or network services engine.
Figure 1 Cisco 7206VXR NPE-400 Router (Front View)
The Cisco 7206VXR NPE-400 uses an RM7000 microprocessor that operates at an internal clock speed of 350 MHz. The NPE-400 uses SDRAM for storing all packets received or sent from network interfaces. The SDRAM memory array in the system allows concurrent access by port adapters and the processor. The NPE-400 has three levels of cache: a primary and a secondary cache that are internal to the microprocessor, and a tertiary 4-MB external cache that provides additional high-speed storage for data and instructions.
The Cisco 7206VXR router comes equipped with one 280W AC-input power supply. (A 280W DC-input power supply option is available.) A power supply filler plate is installed over the second power supply bay. A fully configured Cisco 7206VXR router operates with only one installed power supply; however, a second, optional power supply of the same type provides hot-swappable, load-sharing, redundant power.
The interfaces for the router are located on the front panel Input/Output (I/O) Controller, with the exception of the power switch and power plug. The module has two Fast Ethernet (10/100 RJ-45) connectors for data transfers in and out. The module also has two other RJ-45 connectors for a console terminal for local system access and an auxiliary port for remote system access or dial backup using a modem.
Table 1 shows the front panel LEDs, which provide overall status of the router operation. The front panel displays whether or not the router is booted, if the redundant power is attached and operational, and overall activity/link status.
Figure 2 Cisco 7206VXR Router Front Panel LEDs
The VPN Acceleration Module (VAM) is a single-width acceleration module that provides high-performance, hardware-assisted tunneling and encryption services suitable for virtual private network (VPN) remote access, site-to-site intranet, and extranet applications. It also provides platform scalability and security while working with all services necessary for successful VPN deployments—security, quality of service (QoS), firewall and intrusion detection, and service-level validation and management. The VAM off-loads IPSec processing from the main processor, thus freeing resources on the processor engines for other tasks.
The VAM has three LEDs, as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3 VAM LEDs
All physical interfaces are separated into the logical interfaces from FIPS as shown in Table 1.
In addition to the built-in interfaces, the router also has additional port adapters that can optionally be placed in an available slot. These port adapters have many embodiments, including multiple Ethernet, token ring, and modem cards to handle frame relay, ATM, and ISDN connections.
Note These additional port adapters were excluded from this FIPS 140-2 Validation.
Roles and Services
Authentication is role-based. There are two main roles in the router that operators may assume: the Crypto Officer role and the User role. The administrator of the router assumes the Crypto Officer role to configure and maintain the router using Crypto Officer services, while Users exercise only the basic User services. Both roles are authenticated by providing a valid username and password. The configuration of the encryption and decryption functionality is performed only by the Crypto Officer after authentication to the Crypto Officer role by providing a valid Crypto Officer username and password. Once the Crypto Officer configured the encryption and decryption functionality, the User can use this functionality after authentication to the User role by providing a valid User username and password. The Crypto Officer can also use the encryption and decryption functionality after authentication to the Crypto Officer role. The module supports RADIUS and TACACS+ for authentication and they are used in the FIPS mode. See the Cisco 7206VXR Installation and Configuration Guide for more configuration information.
The User and Crypto Officer passwords and the RADIUS/TACACS+ shared secrets must each be at least 8 alphanumeric characters in length. See the "Secure Operation" section for more information. If only integers 0-9 are used without repetition for an 8 digit PIN, the probability of randomly guessing the correct sequence is 1 in 1,814,400. Including the rest of the alphanumeric characters drastically decreases the odds of guessing the correct sequence.
Crypto Officer Role
During initial configuration of the router, the Crypto Officer password (the "enable" password) is defined. A Crypto Officer assigns permission to access the Crypto Officer role to additional accounts, thereby creating additional Crypto Officers.
The Crypto Officer role is responsible for the configuration and maintenance of the router. The Crypto Officer services consist of the following:
•Configures the Router: Defines network interfaces and settings, creates command aliases, sets the protocols the router will support, enables interfaces and network services, sets system date and time, and loads authentication information.
•Defines Rules and Filters: Creates packet filters that are applied to User data streams on each interface. Each Filter consists of a set of rules, which define a set of packets to permit or deny based characteristics such as protocol ID, addresses, ports, TCP connection establishment, or packet direction.
•Status Functions: Views the router configuration, routing tables, active sessions; views SNMP MIB II statistics, health, temperature, memory status, voltage, packet statistics; reviews accounting logs, and views physical interface status.
•Manages the Router: Logs off users, shuts down or reloads the router, manually backs up router configurations, views complete configurations, manager user rights, and restores router configurations.
•Sets Encryption/Bypass: Sets up the configuration tables for IP tunneling; sets keys and algorithms to be used for each IP range or allow plaintext packets to be set from specified IP address.
•Changes Port Adapters: Inserts and removes adapters in a port adapter slot.
A User enters the system by accessing the console port with a terminal program. The IOS prompts the User for their password. If the password is correct, the User is allowed entry to the IOS executive program. The services available to the User role consist of the following:
•Status Functions: Views state of interfaces, state of layer 2 protocols, and version of IOS currently running
•Network Functions: Connects to other network devices (via outgoing telnet or PPP) and initiates diagnostic network services (i.e., ping, mtrace)
•Terminal Functions: Adjusts the terminal session (e.g., lock the terminal, adjust flow control)
•Directory Services: Displays directory of files kept in flash memory
The router is encased in a steel chassis. The front of the router includes six port adapter slots. The rear of the router includes on-board LAN connectors, PC Card slots, and Console/Auxiliary connectors, power cable connection, a power switch, and access to the Network Processing Engine.
Any port adapter slot not populated with a port adapter must be populated with a slot cover (blank port adapter) to operate in FIPS compliant mode. Slot covers are included with each router; additional covers may be ordered from Cisco. You apply the same procedure for labeling port adapters covers as for the port adapters.
Once the router has been configured to meet FIPS 140-2 Level 2 requirements, the router cannot be accessed without signs of tampering. The word `Open' may appear on the label if it was peeled away from the surface of the module. The Crypto Officer should be instructed to record serial numbers, and to inspect for signs of tampering or changed numbers periodically.
Step 1 Clean the cover of any grease, dirt, or oil before applying the tamper evidence labels. Alcohol-based cleaning pads are recommended for this purpose. The ambient air must be above 10C, otherwise the labels may not properly cure.
Step 2 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that the one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the 7206 VXR NPE-400 Input/Output Controller.
Step 3 The tamper evidence label should be placed over the Flash PC Card slots on the Input/Output Controller.
Step 4 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the port adapter slot 1.
Step 5 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the port adapter slot 2.
Step 6 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the port adapter slot 3.
Step 7 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the port adapter slot 4.
Step 8 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the port adapter slot 5.
Step 9 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the port adapter slot 6.
Step 10 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the network processing engine.
Step 11 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the power supply plate.
Step 12 The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers the enclosure and the other half covers the redundant power supply plate.
Step 13 Allow the labels to cure for five minutes.
Figure 4 Tamper Evidence Label Placement (Front View)
Figure 5 Tamper Evidence Label Placement (Rear View)
Cryptographic Key Management
The router securely administers both cryptographic keys and other critical security parameters such as passwords. The tamper evidence seals provide physical protection for all keys. All keys are also protected by the password-protection on the Crypto Officer role login, and can be zeroized by the Crypto Officer. Keys are exchanged manually and entered electronically via manual key exchange or Internet Key Exchange (IKE).
The modules contain a cryptographic accelerator card (VAM), which provides DES (56-bit) (only for legacy systems), and 3DES (168-bit) IPSec encryption, MD5 and SHA-1 hashing, and has hardware support for DH and RSA key generation.
The module supports the following critical security parameters (CSPs):
The module supports the following critical security parameters (CSPs):
The services accessing the CSPs, the type of access and which role accesses the CSPs are listed in the Figure 6.
Figure 6 Role and Service Access to CSPs
The module supports DES (only for legacy systems), 3DES, DES-MAC, TDES-MAC, AES, SHA-1, HMAC SHA-1, MD5, MD4, HMAC MD5, Diffie-Hellman, RSA (for digital signatures and encryption/decryption (for IKE authentication)) cryptographic algorithms. The MD5, HMAC MD5, and MD4 algorithms are disabled when operating in FIPS mode.
The module supports three types of key management schemes:
•Manual key exchange method that is symmetric. DES/3DES/AES key and HMAC-SHA-1 key are exchanged manually and entered electronically.
•Internet Key Exchange method with support for exchanging pre-shared keys manually and entering electronically.
–The pre-shared keys are used with Diffie-Hellman key agreement technique to derive DES, 3DES or AES keys.
–The pre-shared key is also used to derive HMAC-SHA-1 key.
•Internet Key Exchange with RSA-signature authentication.
All pre-shared keys are associated with the Crypto Officer role that created the keys, and the Crypto Officer role is protected by a password. Therefore, the Crypto Officer password is associated with all the pre-shared keys. The Crypto Officer needs to be authenticated to store keys. All Diffie-Hellman (DH) keys agreed upon for individual tunnels are directly associated with that specific tunnel only via the IKE protocol.
All of the keys and CSPs of the module can be zeroized. Please refer to the Description column of Table 2 for information on methods to zeroize each key and CSP.
To prevent secure data from being released, it is important to test the cryptographic components of a security module to insure all components are functioning correctly. The router includes an array of self-tests that are run during startup and periodically during operations. If any of the self-tests fail, the router transitions into an error state. Within the error state, all secure data transmission is halted and the router outputs status information indicating the failure.
Self-tests performed by the IOS image:
–Firmware integrity test
–RSA signature KAT (both signature and verification)
–Power-up bypass test
–Conditional bypass test
–Pairwise consistency test on RSA signature
–Continuous random number generator tests
Self-tests performed by the VAM (cryptographic accelerator):
–Firmware integrity test
–RSA signature KAT (both signature and verification)
–Pairwise consistency test on RSA signature
–Continuous random number generator test
The Cisco 7206VXR NPE-400 router with a single VPN Acceleration Module (VAM) meets all the Level 2 requirements for FIPS 140-2. Follow the setting instructions provided below to place the module in FIPS mode of operation. Operating this router without maintaining the appropriate settings will remove the module from the FIPS approved mode of operation.
•The Crypto Officer ensures that the VAM cryptographic accelerator card is installed in the module by visually confirming the presence of the VAM in a port adapter slot.
•The Crypto Officer must apply tamper evidence labels as described in the "Physical Security" section of this document.
•Only a Crypto Officer may add and remove port adapters. When removing the tamper evidence label, the Crypto Officer should remove the entire label from the router and clean the cover of any grease, dirt, or oil with an alcohol-based cleaning pad. The Crypto Officer must re-apply tamper evidence labels on the router as described in the "Physical Security" section of this document.
System Initialization and Configuration
•The Crypto Officer must perform the initial configuration. The Cisco IOS software version 12.3(3d) is the only allowable image. No other image may be loaded.
•The value of the boot field must be 0x0102. This setting disables break from the console to the ROM monitor and automatically boots the IOS image. From the configure terminal command line, the Crypto Officer enters the following syntax:config-register 0x0102
•The Crypto Officer must create the "enable" password for the Crypto Officer role. The password must be at least 8 characters and is entered when the Crypto Officer first engages the enable command. The Crypto Officer enters the following syntax at the "#" prompt:enable secret [PASSWORD]
•The Crypto Officer must always assign passwords (of at least 8 characters) to users. Identification and authentication on the console port is required for Users. From the configure terminal command line, the Crypto Officer enters the following syntax:line con 0password [PASSWORD]login local
•The Crypto Officer shall only assign users to a privilege level 1 (the default).
•The Crypto Officer shall not assign a command to any privilege level other than its default.
•The Crypto Officer may configure the module to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for authentication. Configuring the module to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for authentication is optional. If the module is configured to use RADIUS or TACACS+, the Crypto-Officer must define RADIUS or TACACS+ shared secret keys that are at least 8 characters long.
•If the Crypto Officer loads any IOS image onto the router, this will put the router into a non-FIPS mode of operation.
IPSec Requirements and Cryptographic Algorithms
There are two types of key management method that are allowed in FIPS mode: Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec manually entered keys.
Although the IOS implementation of IKE allows a number of algorithms, only the following algorithms are allowed in a FIPS 140-2 configuration:
The following algorithms are not FIPS approved and should be disabled:
•MD-4 and MD-5 for signing
All SNMP operations must be performed within a secure IPSec tunnel.
•Telnet access to the module is only allowed via a secure IPSec tunnel between the remote system and the module. The Crypto Officer must configure the module so that any remote connections via telnet are secured through IPSec.
•SSH access to the module is only allowed if SSH is configured to use a FIPS-approved algorithm. The Crypto Officer must configure the module so that SSH uses only FIPS-approved algorithms.
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