Consolidated Platform Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE 3.3SE (Catalyst 3850 Switches)
Configuring Secure Socket Layer HTTP
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Configuring Secure Socket Layer HTTP

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest feature information and caveats, see the release notes for your platform and software release.

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Information about Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) HTTP

This section describes how to configure Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Version 3.0 support for the HTTP 1.1 server and client. SSL provides server authentication, encryption, and message integrity, as well as HTTP client authentication, to allow secure HTTP communications.


Note


SSL evolved into Transport Layer Security (TLS) in 1999, but is still used in this particular context.


On a secure HTTP connection, data to and from an HTTP server is encrypted before being sent over the Internet. HTTP with SSL encryption provides a secure connection to allow such functions as configuring a switch from a Web browser. Cisco's implementation of the secure HTTP server and secure HTTP client uses an implementation of SSL Version 3.0 with application-layer encryption. HTTP over SSL is abbreviated as HTTPS; the URL of a secure connection begins with https:// instead of http://.

The primary role of the HTTP secure server (the switch) is to listen for HTTPS requests on a designated port (the default HTTPS port is 443) and pass the request to the HTTP 1.1 Web server. The HTTP 1.1 server processes requests and passes responses (pages) back to the HTTP secure server, which, in turn, responds to the original request.

The primary role of the HTTP secure client (the web browser) is to respond to Cisco IOS application requests for HTTPS User Agent services, perform HTTPS User Agent services for the application, and pass the response back to the application.

For configuration examples and complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this section, see the “HTTPS - HTTP Server and Client with SSL 3.0” feature description for Cisco IOS Release 12.2(15)T.

Certificate Authority Trustpoints

Certificate authorities (CAs) manage certificate requests and issue certificates to participating network devices. These services provide centralized security key and certificate management for the participating devices. Specific CA servers are referred to as trustpoints.

When a connection attempt is made, the HTTPS server provides a secure connection by issuing a certified X.509v3 certificate, obtained from a specified CA trustpoint, to the client. The client (usually a Web browser), in turn, has a public key that allows it to authenticate the certificate.

For secure HTTP connections, we highly recommend that you configure a CA trustpoint. If a CA trustpoint is not configured for the device running the HTTPS server, the server certifies itself and generates the needed RSA key pair. Because a self-certified (self-signed) certificate does not provide adequate security, the connecting client generates a notification that the certificate is self-certified, and the user has the opportunity to accept or reject the connection. This option is useful for internal network topologies (such as testing).

If you do not configure a CA trustpoint, when you enable a secure HTTP connection, either a temporary or a persistent self-signed certificate for the secure HTTP server (or client) is automatically generated.

  • If the switch is not configured with a hostname and a domain name, a temporary self-signed certificate is generated. If the switch reboots, any temporary self-signed certificate is lost, and a new temporary new self-signed certificate is assigned.
  • If the switch has been configured with a host and domain name, a persistent self-signed certificate is generated. This certificate remains active if you reboot the switch or if you disable the secure HTTP server so that it will be there the next time you re-enable a secure HTTP connection.

Note


The certificate authorities and trustpoints must be configured on each device individually. Copying them from other devices makes them invalid on the switch.


If a self-signed certificate has been generated, this information is included in the output of the show running-config privileged EXEC command. This is a partial sample output from that command displaying a self-signed certificate.

Switch# show running-config
Building configuration...

<output truncated>

crypto pki trustpoint TP-self-signed-3080755072
 enrollment selfsigned
 subject-name cn=IOS-Self-Signed-Certificate-3080755072
 revocation-check none
 rsakeypair TP-self-signed-3080755072
!
!
crypto ca certificate chain TP-self-signed-3080755072
 certificate self-signed 01
  3082029F 30820208 A0030201 02020101 300D0609 2A864886 F70D0101 04050030
  59312F30 2D060355 04031326 494F532D 53656C66 2D536967 6E65642D 43657274
  69666963 6174652D 33303830 37353530 37323126 30240609 2A864886 F70D0109
  02161743 45322D33 3535302D 31332E73 756D6D30 342D3335 3530301E 170D3933
  30333031 30303030 35395A17 0D323030 31303130 30303030 305A3059 312F302D

<output truncated>

You can remove this self-signed certificate by disabling the secure HTTP server and entering the no crypto pki trustpoint TP-self-signed-30890755072 global configuration command. If you later re-enable a secure HTTP server, a new self-signed certificate is generated.


Note


The values that follow TP self-signed depend on the serial number of the device.


You can use an optional command (ip http secure-client-auth) to allow the HTTPS server to request an X.509v3 certificate from the client. Authenticating the client provides more security than server authentication by itself.

For additional information on Certificate Authorities, see the “Configuring Certification Authority Interoperability” chapter in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide, Release 12.4.

CipherSuites

A CipherSuite specifies the encryption algorithm and the digest algorithm to use on a SSL connection. When connecting to the HTTPS server, the client Web browser offers a list of supported CipherSuites, and the client and server negotiate the best encryption algorithm to use from those on the list that are supported by both. For example, Netscape Communicator 4.76 supports U.S. security with RSA Public Key Cryptography, MD2, MD5, RC2-CBC, RC4, DES-CBC, and DES-EDE3-CBC.

For the best possible encryption, you should use a client browser that supports 128-bit encryption, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer Version 5.5 (or later) or Netscape Communicator Version 4.76 (or later). The SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA CipherSuite provides less security than the other CipherSuites, as it does not offer 128-bit encryption.

The more secure and more complex CipherSuites require slightly more processing time. This list defines the CipherSuites supported by the switch and ranks them from fastest to slowest in terms of router processing load (speed):

  1. SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA—RSA key exchange (RSA Public Key Cryptography) with DES-CBC for message encryption and SHA for message digest
  2. SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5—RSA key exchange with RC4 128-bit encryption and MD5 for message digest
  3. SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA—RSA key exchange with RC4 128-bit encryption and SHA for message digest
  4. SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA—RSA key exchange with 3DES and DES-EDE3-CBC for message encryption and SHA for message digest

RSA (in conjunction with the specified encryption and digest algorithm combinations) is used for both key generation and authentication on SSL connections. This usage is independent of whether or not a CA trustpoint is configured.

Default SSL Configuration

The standard HTTP server is enabled.

SSL is enabled.

No CA trustpoints are configured.

No self-signed certificates are generated.

SSL Configuration Guidelines

When SSL is used in a switch cluster, the SSL session terminates at the cluster commander. Cluster member switches must run standard HTTP.

Before you configure a CA trustpoint, you should ensure that the system clock is set. If the clock is not set, the certificate is rejected due to an incorrect date.

In a switch stack, the SSL session terminates at the stack master.

Secure HTTP Servers and Clients Overview

On a secure HTTP connection, data to and from an HTTP server is encrypted before being sent over the Internet. HTTP with SSL encryption provides a secure connection to allow such functions as configuring a switch from a Web browser. Cisco's implementation of the secure HTTP server and secure HTTP client uses an implementation of SSL Version 3.0 with application-layer encryption. HTTP over SSL is abbreviated as HTTPS; the URL of a secure connection begins with https:// instead of http://.

The primary role of the HTTP secure server (the switch) is to listen for HTTPS requests on a designated port (the default HTTPS port is 443) and pass the request to the HTTP 1.1 Web server. The HTTP 1.1 server processes requests and passes responses (pages) back to the HTTP secure server, which, in turn, responds to the original request.

The primary role of the HTTP secure client (the web browser) is to respond to Cisco IOS application requests for HTTPS User Agent services, perform HTTPS User Agent services for the application, and pass the response back to the application.

How to Configure Secure HTTP Servers and Clients

Configuring a CA Trustpoint

For secure HTTP connections, we recommend that you configure an official CA trustpoint. A CA trustpoint is more secure than a self-signed certificate.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a CA Trustpoint:

SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    configure terminal

    2.    hostname hostname

    3.    ip domain-name domain-name

    4.    crypto key generate rsa

    5.    crypto ca trustpoint name

    6.    enrollment url url

    7.    enrollment http-proxy host-name port-number

    8.    crl query url

    9.    primary name

    10.    exit

    11.    crypto ca authentication name

    12.    crypto ca enroll name

    13.    end


DETAILED STEPS
      Command or Action Purpose
    Step 1 configure terminal


    Example:
    
                
              
    Switch# configure terminal
    
    
     

    Enters the global configuration mode.

     
    Step 2 hostname hostname


    Example:
    Switch(config)# hostname your_hostname
    
    
     

    Specifies the hostname of the switch (required only if you have not previously configured a hostname). The hostname is required for security keys and certificates.

     
    Step 3 ip domain-name domain-name


    Example:
    Switch(config)# ip domain-name your_domain
    
    
     

    Specifies the IP domain name of the switch (required only if you have not previously configured an IP domain name). The domain name is required for security keys and certificates.

     
    Step 4 crypto key generate rsa


    Example:
    Switch(config)# crypto key generate rsa
    
    
     

    (Optional) Generates an RSA key pair. RSA key pairs are required before you can obtain a certificate for the switch. RSA key pairs are generated automatically. You can use this command to regenerate the keys, if needed.

     
    Step 5 crypto ca trustpoint name


    Example:
    Switch(config)# crypto ca trustpoint your_trustpoint
    
    
     

    Specifies a local configuration name for the CA trustpoint and enter CA trustpoint configuration mode.

     
    Step 6 enrollment url url


    Example:
    Switch(ca-trustpoint)# enrollment url http://your_server:80
    
    
     

    Specifies the URL to which the switch should send certificate requests.

     
    Step 7 enrollment http-proxy host-name port-number


    Example:
    Switch(ca-trustpoint)# enrollment http-proxy your_host 49
    
    
     

    (Optional) Configures the switch to obtain certificates from the CA through an HTTP proxy server.

    • For host-name , specify the proxy server used to get the CA.
    • For port-number, specify the port number used to access the CA.
     
    Step 8 crl query url


    Example:
    Switch(ca-trustpoint)# crl query ldap://your_host:49
     

    Configures the switch to request a certificate revocation list (CRL) to ensure that the certificate of the peer has not been revoked.

     
    Step 9 primary name


    Example:
    Switch(ca-trustpoint)# primary your_trustpoint
    
    
     

    (Optional) Specifies that the trustpoint should be used as the primary (default) trustpoint for CA requests.

    • For name, specify the trustpoint that you just configured.
     
    Step 10 exit


    Example:
    Switch(ca-trustpoint)# exit
    
    
     

    Exits CA trustpoint configuration mode and return to global configuration mode.

     
    Step 11 crypto ca authentication name


    Example:
    Switch(config)# crypto ca authentication your_trustpoint
    
    
     

    Authenticates the CA by getting the public key of the CA. Use the same name used in Step 5.

     
    Step 12 crypto ca enroll name


    Example:
    Switch(config)# crypto ca enroll your_trustpoint
    
     

    Obtains the certificate from the specified CA trustpoint. This command requests a signed certificate for each RSA key pair.

     
    Step 13 end


    Example:
    
                
              
    Switch(config)# end
    
    
     

    Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

     

    Configuring the Secure HTTP Server

    Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a secure HTTP server:

    Before You Begin

    If you are using a certificate authority for certification, you should use the previous procedure to configure the CA trustpoint on the switch before enabling the HTTP server. If you have not configured a CA trustpoint, a self-signed certificate is generated the first time that you enable the secure HTTP server. After you have configured the server, you can configure options (path, access list to apply, maximum number of connections, or timeout policy) that apply to both standard and secure HTTP servers.

    To verify the secure HTTP connection by using a Web browser, enter https://URL, where the URL is the IP address or hostname of the server switch. If you configure a port other than the default port, you must also specify the port number after the URL. For example:

    https://209.165.129:1026
    
    

    or

    https://host.domain.com:1026
    
    
    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    show ip http server status

      2.    configure terminal

      3.    ip http secure-server

      4.    ip http secure-port port-number

      5.    ip http secure-ciphersuite {[3des-ede-cbc-sha] [rc4-128-md5] [rc4-128-sha] [des-cbc-sha]}

      6.    ip http secure-client-auth

      7.    ip http secure-trustpoint name

      8.    ip http path path-name

      9.    ip http access-class access-list-number

      10.    ip http max-connections value

      11.    ip http timeout-policy idle seconds life seconds requests value

      12.    end


    DETAILED STEPS
        Command or Action Purpose
      Step 1 show ip http server status


      Example:
      Switch# show ip http server status
      
      
       

      (Optional) Displays the status of the HTTP server to determine if the secure HTTP server feature is supported in the software. You should see one of these lines in the output:

      HTTP secure server capability: Present
      
      

      or

      HTTP secure server capability: Not present
      
      
       
      Step 2 configure terminal


      Example:
      Switch# configure terminal
      
      
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 3 ip http secure-server


      Example:
      Switch(config)# ip http secure-server
      
      
       

      Enables the HTTPS server if it has been disabled. The HTTPS server is enabled by default.

       
      Step 4 ip http secure-port port-number


      Example:
      Switch(config)# ip http secure-port 443
      
      
       

      (Optional) Specifies the port number to be used for the HTTPS server. The default port number is 443. Valid options are 443 or any number in the range 1025 to 65535.

       
      Step 5 ip http secure-ciphersuite {[3des-ede-cbc-sha] [rc4-128-md5] [rc4-128-sha] [des-cbc-sha]}


      Example:
      Switch(config)# ip http secure-ciphersuite rc4-128-md5
      
      
       

      (Optional) Specifies the CipherSuites (encryption algorithms) to be used for encryption over the HTTPS connection. If you do not have a reason to specify a particularly CipherSuite, you should allow the server and client to negotiate a CipherSuite that they both support. This is the default.

       
      Step 6 ip http secure-client-auth


      Example:
      Switch(config)# ip http secure-client-auth
      
      
       

      (Optional) Configures the HTTP server to request an X.509v3 certificate from the client for authentication during the connection process. The default is for the client to request a certificate from the server, but the server does not attempt to authenticate the client.

       
      Step 7 ip http secure-trustpoint name


      Example:
      Switch(config)# ip http secure-trustpoint your_trustpoint
      
      
       

      Specifies the CA trustpoint to use to get an X.509v3 security certificate and to authenticate the client certificate connection.

      Note   

      Use of this command assumes you have already configured a CA trustpoint according to the previous procedure.

       
      Step 8 ip http path path-name


      Example:
      Switch(config)# ip http path /your_server:80
      
      
       

      (Optional) Sets a base HTTP path for HTML files. The path specifies the location of the HTTP server files on the local system (usually located in system flash memory).

       
      Step 9 ip http access-class access-list-number


      Example:
      Switch(config)# ip http access-class 2
      
      
       

      (Optional) Specifies an access list to use to allow access to the HTTP server.

       
      Step 10 ip http max-connections value


      Example:
      Switch(config)# ip http max-connections 4
      
      
       

      (Optional) Sets the maximum number of concurrent connections that are allowed to the HTTP server. The range is 1 to 16; the default value is 5.

       
      Step 11 ip http timeout-policy idle seconds life seconds requests value


      Example:
      Switch(config)# ip http timeout-policy idle 120 life 240 requests 1
      
      
       

      (Optional) Specifies how long a connection to the HTTP server can remain open under the defined circumstances:

      • idle—the maximum time period when no data is received or response data cannot be sent. The range is 1 to 600 seconds. The default is 180 seconds (3 minutes).
      • life—the maximum time period from the time that the connection is established. The range is 1 to 86400 seconds (24 hours). The default is 180 seconds.
      • requests—the maximum number of requests processed on a persistent connection. The maximum value is 86400. The default is 1.
       
      Step 12 end


      Example:
      
                  
                
      Switch(config)# end
      
      
       

      Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

       

      Configuring the Secure HTTP Client

      Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a secure HTTP client:

      Before You Begin

      The standard HTTP client and secure HTTP client are always enabled. A certificate authority is required for secure HTTP client certification. This procedure assumes that you have previously configured a CA trustpoint on the switch. If a CA trustpoint is not configured and the remote HTTPS server requires client authentication, connections to the secure HTTP client fail.

      SUMMARY STEPS

        1.    configure terminal

        2.    ip http client secure-trustpoint name

        3.    ip http client secure-ciphersuite {[3des-ede-cbc-sha] [rc4-128-md5] [rc4-128-sha] [des-cbc-sha]}

        4.    end


      DETAILED STEPS
          Command or Action Purpose
        Step 1 configure terminal


        Example:
        
                    
                  
        Switch# configure terminal
        
        
         

        Enters the global configuration mode.

         
        Step 2 ip http client secure-trustpoint name


        Example:
        Switch(config)# ip http client secure-trustpoint your_trustpoint
        
        
         

        (Optional) Specifies the CA trustpoint to be used if the remote HTTP server requests client authentication. Using this command assumes that you have already configured a CA trustpoint by using the previous procedure. The command is optional if client authentication is not needed or if a primary trustpoint has been configured.

         
        Step 3 ip http client secure-ciphersuite {[3des-ede-cbc-sha] [rc4-128-md5] [rc4-128-sha] [des-cbc-sha]}


        Example:
        Switch(config)# ip http client secure-ciphersuite rc4-128-md5
        
        
         

        (Optional) Specifies the CipherSuites (encryption algorithms) to be used for encryption over the HTTPS connection. If you do not have a reason to specify a particular CipherSuite, you should allow the server and client to negotiate a CipherSuite that they both support. This is the default.

         
        Step 4 end


        Example:
        
                    
                  
        Switch(config)# end
        
        
         

        Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

         

        How to Configure Secure HTTP Servers and Clients

        These sections contain this configuration information:

        Monitoring Secure HTTP Server and Client Status

        To monitor the SSL secure server and client status, use the privileged EXEC commands in the following table.

        Table 1 Commands for Displaying the SSL Secure Server and Client Status

        Command

        Purpose

        show ip http client secure status

        Shows the HTTP secure client configuration.

        show ip http server secure status

        Shows the HTTP secure server configuration.

        show running-config

        Shows the generated self-signed certificate for secure HTTP connections.

        Additional References

        Related Documents

        Related Topic Document Title

        Configuring Identity Control policies and Identity Service templates for Session Aware networking.

        Session Aware Networking Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3SE (Catalyst 3850 Switches)

        http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​en/​US/​docs/​ios-xml/​ios/​san/​configuration/​xe-3se/​3850/​san-xe-3se-3850-book.html

        Configuring RADIUS, TACACS+, Secure Shell, 802.1X and AAA.

        Securing User Services Configuration Guide Library, Cisco IOS XE Release 3SE (Catalyst 3850 Switches)

        http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​en/​US/​docs/​ios-xml/​ios/​security/​config_library/​xe-3se/​3850/​secuser-xe-3se-3850-library.html

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        To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco IOS releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

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