Consolidated Platform Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE 3.3SE (Catalyst 3850 Switches)
Working with the Flash File System
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Working with the Flash File System

Information About the Flash File System

The flash file system is a single flash device on which you can store files. It also provides several commands to help you manage software bundles and configuration files. The default flash file system on the switch is named flash:.

As viewed from the active switch, or any stack member, flash: refers to the local flash device, which is the device attached to the same switch on which the file system is being viewed. In a switch stack, each of the flash devices from the various stack members can be viewed from the active switch. The names of these flash file systems include the corresponding switch member numbers. For example, flash-3:, as viewed from the active switch, refers to the same file system as does flash: on stack member 3. Use the show file systems privileged EXEC command to list all file systems, including the flash file systems in the switch stack.

Only one user at a time can manage the software bundles and configuration files for a switch stack.

Displaying Available File Systems

To display the available file systems on your switch, use the show file systems privileged EXEC command as shown in this example for a standalone switch:

Switch# show file systems
File Systems:
     Size(b)     Free(b)       Type    Flags   Prefixes
*   15998976     5135872      flash     rw     flash:
           -           -     opaque     rw     bs:
           -           -     opaque     rw     vb:
      524288      520138      nvram     rw     nvram:
           -           -    network     rw     tftp:
           -           -     opaque     rw     null:
           -           -     opaque     rw     system:
           -           -     opaque     ro     xmodem:
           -           -     opaque     ro     ymodem:

This example shows a switch stack. In this example, the active switch is stack member 1; the file system on stack member 2 is displayed as flash-2:, the file system on stack member 3 is displayed as flash-3: and so on up to stack member 9, displayed as flash-9: for a 9-member stack. The example also shows the crashinfo directories and a USB flash drive plugged into the active switch:

Switch# show file systems
File Systems:
      Size(b)        Free(b)      Type   Flags   Prefixes
     145898496      5479424       disk     rw    crashinfo:crashinfo-1:
     248512512      85983232      disk     rw    crashinfo-2:stby-crashinfo:
     146014208      17301504      disk     rw    crashinfo-3:
     146014208             0      disk     rw    crashinfo-4:
     146014208       1572864      disk     rw    crashinfo-5:
     248512512      30932992      disk     rw    crashinfo-6:
     146014208       6291456      disk     rw    crashinfo-7:
     146276352      15728640      disk     rw    crashinfo-8:
     146276352      73400320      disk     rw    crashinfo-9:
*    741621760     481730560      disk     rw    flash:flash-1:
    1622147072    1360527360      disk     rw    flash-2:stby-flash:
     729546752     469762048      disk     rw    flash-3:
     729546752     469762048      disk     rw    flash-4:
     729546752     469762048      disk     rw    flash-5:
    1622147072    1340604416      disk     rw    flash-6:
     729546752     469762048      disk     rw    flash-7:
    1749549056    1487929344      disk     rw    flash-8:
    1749549056    1487929344      disk     rw    flash-9:
             0             0      disk     rw    unix:
             -             -      disk     rw    usbflash0:usbflash0-1:
             -             -      disk     rw    usbflash0-2: stby-usbflash0:
             -             -      disk     rw    usbflash0-3:
             -             -      disk     rw    usbflash0-4:
             -             -      disk     rw    usbflash0-5:
             -             -      disk     rw    usbflash0-6:
             -             -      disk     rw    usbflash0-7:
             -             -      disk     rw    usbflash0-8:
             -             -      disk     rw    usbflash0-9:
             0             0      disk     ro    webui:
             -             -    opaque     rw    system:
             -             -    opaque     rw    tmpsys:
       2097152       2055643     nvram     rw    stby-nvram:
             -             -     nvram     rw    stby-rcsf:
             -             -    opaque     rw    null:
             -             -    opaque     ro    tar:
             -             -   network     rw    tftp:
       2097152       2055643     nvram     rw    nvram:
             -             -    opaque     wo    syslog:
             -             -   network     rw    rcp:
             -             -   network     rw    http:
             -             -   network     rw    ftp:
             -             -   network     rw    scp:
             -             -   network     rw    https:
             -             -    opaque     ro    cns:
             -             -    opaque     rw    revrcsf:

Table 1 show file systems Field Descriptions

Field

Value

Size(b)

Amount of memory in the file system in bytes.

Free(b)

Amount of free memory in the file system in bytes.

Type

Type of file system.

disk—The file system is for a flash memory device, USB flash, and crashinfo file.

network—The file system for network devices; for example, an FTP server or and HTTP server.

nvram—The file system is for a NVRAM device.

opaque—The file system is a locally generated pseudo file system (for example, the system) or a download interface, such as brimux.

unknown—The file system is an unknown type.

Flags

Permission for file system.

ro—read-only.

rw—read/write.

wo—write-only.

Prefixes

Alias for file system.

crashinfo:—Crashinfo file.

flash:—Flash file system.

ftp:—FTP server.

http:—HTTP server.

https:—Secure HTTP server.

nvram:—NVRAM.

null:—Null destination for copies. You can copy a remote file to null to find its size.

rcp:—Remote Copy Protocol (RCP) server.

scp:—Session Control Protocol (SCP) server.

system:—Contains the system memory, including the running configuration.

tftp:—TFTP network server.

usbflash0:—USB flash memory.

xmodem:—Obtain the file from a network machine by using the Xmodem protocol.

ymodem:—Obtain the file from a network machine by using the Ymodem protocol.

Setting the Default File System

You can specify the file system or directory that the system uses as the default file system by using the cd filesystem: privileged EXEC command. You can set the default file system to omit the filesystem: argument from related commands. For example, for all privileged EXEC commands that have the optional filesystem: argument, the system uses the file system specified by the cd command.

By default, the default file system is flash:.

You can display the current default file system as specified by the cd command by using the pwd privileged EXEC command.

Displaying Information About Files on a File System

You can view a list of the contents of a file system before manipulating its contents. For example, before copying a new configuration file to flash memory, you might want to verify that the file system does not already contain a configuration file with the same name. Similarly, before copying a flash configuration file to another location, you might want to verify its filename for use in another command. To display information about files on a file system, use one of the privileged EXEC commands listed in the following table.

Table 2 Commands for Displaying Information About Files

Command

Description

dir [/all] [filesystem:filename]

Displays a list of files on a file system.

show file systems

Displays more information about each of the files on a file system.

show file information file-url

Displays information about a specific file.

show file descriptors

Displays a list of open file descriptors. File descriptors are the internal representations of open files. You can use this command to see if another user has a file open.

For example, to display a list of all files in a file system, use the dir privileged EXEC command:

switch# dir flash:
Directory of flash:/
7386  -rwx     2097152 Jan 23 2013 14:06:49 +00:00 nvram_config
7378  drwx        4096 Jan 23 2013 09:35:11 +00:00 mnt
7385  -rw-   221775876 Jan 23 2013 14:15:13 +00:00 cat3k_caa-universalk9.SSA.03.12.02.EZP.150-12.02.EZP.150-12.02.EZP.bin
7389  -rwx         556 Jan 21 2013 20:47:30 +00:00 vlan.dat
712413184 bytes total (445063168 bytes free)
switch#

Changing Directories and Displaying the Working Directory (CLI)

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to change directories and to display the working directory:

SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    dir filesystem:

    2.    cd directory_name

    3.    pwd

    4.    cd


DETAILED STEPS
      Command or Action Purpose
    Step 1 dir filesystem:


    Example:
    Switch# dir flash:
     

    Displays the directories on the specified file system.

    For filesystem:, use flash: for the system board flash device.

    To access flash partitions of switch members in a stack, use flash-n where n is the stack member number. For example, flash-4.

     
    Step 2 cd directory_name


    Example:
    Switch# cd new_configs
     

    Navigates to the specified directory.

    The command example shows how to navigate to the directory named new_configs.

     
    Step 3 pwd


    Example:
    Switch# pwd
     

    Displays the working directory.

     
    Step 4 cd


    Example:
    Switch# cd
     

    Navigates to the default directory.

     

    Creating Directories (CLI)

    Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a directory:

    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    dir filesystem:

      2.    mkdir directory_name

      3.    dir filesystem:


    DETAILED STEPS
        Command or Action Purpose
      Step 1 dir filesystem:


      Example:
      Switch# dir flash:
       

      Displays the directories on the specified file system.

      For filesystem:, use flash: for the system board flash device.

       
      Step 2 mkdir directory_name


      Example:
      Switch# mkdir new_configs
       

      Creates a new directory. Directory names are case sensitive and are limited to 45 characters between the slashes (/); the name cannot contain control characters, spaces, slashes, quotes, semicolons, or colons.

       
      Step 3 dir filesystem:


      Example:
      Switch# dir flash:
       

      Verifies your entry.

       

      Removing Directories

      To remove a directory with all its files and subdirectories, use the delete /force /recursive filesystem:/file-url privileged EXEC command.

      Use the /recursive keyword to delete the named directory and all subdirectories and the files contained in it. Use the /force keyword to suppress the prompting that confirms a deletion of each file in the directory. You are prompted only once at the beginning of this deletion process.

      For filesystem, use flash: for the system board flash device. For file-url, enter the name of the directory to be deleted. All of the files in the directory and the directory are removed.


      Caution


      When directories are deleted, their contents cannot be recovered.

      Copying Files

      To copy a file from a source to a destination, use the copy source-url destination-url privileged EXEC command. For the source and destination URLs, you can use running-config and startup-config keyword shortcuts. For example, the copy running-config startup-config command saves the currently running configuration file to the NVRAM section of flash memory to be used as the configuration during system initialization.

      You can also copy from special file systems (xmodem:, ymodem:) as the source for the file from a network machine that uses the Xmodem or Ymodem protocol.

      Network file system URLs include ftp:, rcp:, and tftp: and have these syntaxes:

      • FTP—ftp:[[//username [:password]@location]/directory]/filename
      • RCP—rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/filename
      • TFTP—tftp:[[//location]/directory]/filename

      Local writable file systems include flash:.

      Some invalid combinations of source and destination exist. Specifically, you cannot copy these combinations:

      • From a running configuration to a running configuration
      • From a startup configuration to a startup configuration
      • From a device to the same device (for example, the copy flash: flash: command is invalid)

      Copying Files from One Switch in a Stack to Another Switch in the Same Stack

      To copy a file from one switch in a stack to another switch in the same stack, use the flash-X: notation, where X is the switch number.

      To view all switches in a stack, use the show switch command in privileged EXEC mode, as in the following example of a 9-member switch stack:

      Switch# show switch
      Switch/Stack Mac Address : 0006.f6b9.b580 - Local Mac Address Mac persistency wait time: Indefinite
                                                   H/W   Current
      Switch#   Role    Mac Address     Priority Version  State 
      ------------------------------------------------------------
      *1       Active   0006.f6b9.b580     15     P3B     Ready               
       2       Standby  0006.f6ba.0c80     14     P3B     Ready               
       3       Member   0006.f6ba.3300     7      P3B     Ready               
       4       Member   0006.f6b9.df80     6      P3B     Ready               
       5       Member   0006.f6ba.3880     13     P1A     Ready               
       6       Member   1ce6.c7b6.ef00     4      PP      Ready               
       7       Member   2037.06ce.2580     3      P2A     Ready               
       8       Member   2037.0653.7e00     2      P5A     Ready               
       9       Member   2037.0653.9280     1      P5B     Ready               
      
      

      To view all file systems available to copy on a specific switch, use the copy command as in the following example of a 5-member stack:

      Switch# copy flash: ?
        crashinfo-1:     Copy to crashinfo-1: file system
        crashinfo-2:     Copy to crashinfo-2: file system
        crashinfo-3:     Copy to crashinfo-3: file system
        crashinfo-4:     Copy to crashinfo-4: file system
        crashinfo-5:     Copy to crashinfo-5: file system
        crashinfo:       Copy to crashinfo: file system
        flash-1:         Copy to flash-1: file system
        flash-2:         Copy to flash-2: file system
        flash-3:         Copy to flash-3: file system
        flash-4:         Copy to flash-4: file system
        flash-5:         Copy to flash-5: file system
        flash:           Copy to flash: file system
        ftp:             Copy to ftp: file system
        http:            Copy to http: file system
        https:           Copy to https: file system
        null:            Copy to null: file system
        nvram:           Copy to nvram: file system
        rcp:             Copy to rcp: file system
        revrcsf:         Copy to revrcsf: file system
        running-config   Update (merge with) current system configuration
        scp:             Copy to scp: file system
        startup-config   Copy to startup configuration
        stby-crashinfo:  Copy to stby-crashinfo: file system
        stby-flash:      Copy to stby-flash: file system
        stby-nvram:      Copy to stby-nvram: file system
        stby-rcsf:       Copy to stby-rcsf: file system
        stby-usbflash0:  Copy to stby-usbflash0: file system
        syslog:          Copy to syslog: file system
        system:          Copy to system: file system
        tftp:            Copy to tftp: file system
        tmpsys:          Copy to tmpsys: file system
        usbflash0-1:     Copy to usbflash0-1: file system
        usbflash0-2:     Copy to usbflash0-2: file system
        usbflash0-3:     Copy to usbflash0-3: file system
        usbflash0-4:     Copy to usbflash0-4: file system
        usbflash0-5:     Copy to usbflash0-5: file system
        usbflash0:       Copy to usbflash0: file system
      
      Switch#
      
      

      This example shows how to copy a config file stored in the flash partition of switch 2 to the flash partition of switch 4. It assumes that switch 2 and switch 4 are in the same stack.

      Switch# copy flash-2:config.txt flash-4:config.txt
      

      Deleting Files

      When you no longer need a file on a flash memory device, you can permanently delete it. To delete a file or directory from a specified flash device, use the delete [/force] [/recursive] [filesystem:]/file-url privileged EXEC command.

      Use the /recursive keyword for deleting a directory and all subdirectories and the files contained in it. Use the /force keyword to suppress the prompting that confirms a deletion of each file in the directory. You are prompted only once at the beginning of this deletion process. Use the /force and /recursive keywords for deleting old software images that were installed by using the archive download-sw command but are no longer needed.

      If you omit the filesystem: option, the switch uses the default device specified by the cd command. For file-url, you specify the path (directory) and the name of the file to be deleted.

      When you attempt to delete any files, the system prompts you to confirm the deletion.


      Caution


      When files are deleted, their contents cannot be recovered.
      This example shows how to delete the file myconfig from the default flash memory device:
      Switch# delete myconfig

      Creating, Displaying and Extracting Files (CLI)

      You can create a file and write files into it, list the files in a file, and extract the files from a file as described in the next sections.

      Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a file, display the contents, and extract it:

      SUMMARY STEPS

        1.    archive tar /create destination-url flash: /file-url

        2.    archive tar /table source-url

        3.    archive tar /xtract source-url flash:/file-url [dir/file...]

        4.    more [ /ascii | /binary | /ebcdic] /file-url


      DETAILED STEPS
          Command or Action Purpose
        Step 1 archive tar /create destination-url flash: /file-url


        Example:
        switch# archive tar /create 
        tftp:172.20.10.30/saved. 
        flash:/new-configs 
         

        Creates a file and adds files to it.

        For destination-url, specify the destination URL alias for the local or network file system and the name of the file to create:

        • Local flash file system syntax: flash:
        • FTP syntax: ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory]/-filename.
        • RCP syntax: rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/-filename.
        • TFTP syntax: tftp:[[//location]/directory]/-filename.

        For flash:/file-url, specify the location on the local flash file system in which the new file is created. You can also specify an optional list of files or directories within the source directory to add to the new file. If none are specified, all files and directories at this level are written to the newly created file.

         
        Step 2 archive tar /table source-url


        Example:
        switch# archive tar /table
        flash: /new_configs
        
         

        Displays the contents of a file.

        For source-url, specify the source URL alias for the local or network file system. The -filename. is the file to display. These options are supported:

        • Local flash file system syntax: flash:
        • FTP syntax: ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory]/-filename.
        • RCP syntax: rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/-filename.
        • TFTP syntax: tftp:[[//location]/directory]/-filename.

        You can also limit the file displays by specifying a list of files or directories after the file. Only those files appear. If none are specified, all files and directories appear.

         
        Step 3 archive tar /xtract source-url flash:/file-url [dir/file...]


        Example:
        switch# archive tar /xtract
        tftp:/172.20.10.30/saved. 
        flash:/new-configs
         

        Extracts a file into a directory on the flash file system.

        For source-url, specify the source URL alias for the local file system. The -filename. is the file from which to extract files. These options are supported:

        • Local flash file system syntax: flash:
        • FTP syntax: ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory]/-filename.
        • RCP syntax: rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/-filename.
        • TFTP syntax: tftp:[[//location]/directory]/-filename.

        For flash:/file-url [dir/file...], specify the location on the local flash file system from which the file is extracted. Use the dir/file... option to specify a list of files or directories within the file to be extracted. If none are specified, all files and directories are extracted.

         
        Step 4 more [ /ascii | /binary | /ebcdic] /file-url


        Example:
        switch# more
        flash:/new-configs
         

        Displays the contents of any readable file, including a file on a remote file system.

         

        Additional References

        Related Documents

        Related Topic

        Document Title

        Commands for managing flash: file systems

        Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference

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