This chapter contains the following sections:
Cisco Nexus 9000 switches are designed for hardware-based VXLAN function. It provides Layer 2 connectivity extension across the Layer 3 boundary and integrates between VXLAN and non-VXLAN infrastructures. This can enable virtualized and multitenant data center designs over a shared common physical infrastructure.
VXLAN provides a way to extend Layer 2 networks across Layer 3 infrastructure using MAC-in-UDP encapsulation and tunneling. VXLAN enables flexible workload placements using the Layer 2 extension. It can also be an approach to building a multitenant data center by decoupling tenant Layer 2 segments from the shared transport network.
When deployed as a VXLAN gateway, Cisco Nexus 9000 switches can connect VXLAN and classic VLAN segments to create a common forwarding domain so that tenant devices can reside in both environments.
VXLAN has the following benefits:
Flexible placement of multitenant segments throughout the data center.
It provides a way to extend Layer 2 segments over the underlying shared network infrastructure so that tenant workloads can be placed across physical pods in the data center.
Higher scalability to address more Layer 2 segments.
VXLAN uses a 24-bit segment ID, the VXLAN network identifier (VNID). This allows a maximum of 16 million VXLAN segments to coexist in the same administrative domain. (In comparison, traditional VLANs use a 12-bit segment ID that can support a maximum of 4096 VLANs.)
Utilization of available network paths in the underlying infrastructure.
VXLAN packets are transferred through the underlying network based on its Layer 3 header. It uses equal-cost multipath (ECMP) routing and link aggregation protocols to use all available paths.
VXLAN Encapsulation and Packet Format
VXLAN is a Layer 2 overlay scheme over a Layer 3 network. It uses MAC Address-in-User Datagram Protocol (MAC-in-UDP) encapsulation to provide a means to extend Layer 2 segments across the data center network. VXLAN is a solution to support a flexible, large-scale multitenant environment over a shared common physical infrastructure. The transport protocol over the physical data center network is IP plus UDP.
VXLAN defines a MAC-in-UDP encapsulation scheme where the original Layer 2 frame has a VXLAN header added and is then placed in a UDP-IP packet. With this MAC-in-UDP encapsulation, VXLAN tunnels Layer 2 network over Layer 3 network.
VXLAN uses an 8-byte VXLAN header that consists of a 24-bit VNID and a few reserved bits. The VXLAN header together with the original Ethernet frame goes in the UDP payload. The 24-bit VNID is used to identify Layer 2 segments and to maintain Layer 2 isolation between the segments. With all 24 bits in VNID, VXLAN can support 16 million LAN segments.
VXLAN Tunnel Endpoint
VXLAN uses VXLAN tunnel endpoint (VTEP) devices to map tenants’ end devices to VXLAN segments and to perform VXLAN encapsulation and de-encapsulation. Each VTEP function has two interfaces: One is a switch interface on the local LAN segment to support local endpoint communication through bridging, and the other is an IP interface to the transport IP network.
The IP interface has a unique IP address that identifies the VTEP device on the transport IP network known as the infrastructure VLAN. The VTEP device uses this IP address to encapsulate Ethernet frames and transmits the encapsulated packets to the transport network through the IP interface. A VTEP device also discovers the remote VTEPs for its VXLAN segments and learns remote MAC Address-to-VTEP mappings through its IP interface.
The VXLAN segments are independent of the underlying network topology; conversely, the underlying IP network between VTEPs is independent of the VXLAN overlay. It routes the encapsulated packets based on the outer IP address header, which has the initiating VTEP as the source IP address and the terminating VTEP as the destination IP address.
VXLAN Packet Forwarding Flow
VXLAN uses stateless tunnels between VTEPs to transmit traffic of the overlay Layer 2 network through the Layer 3 transport network.
Cisco Nexus 9000 as Hardware-Based VXLAN Gateway
VXLAN is a new technology for virtual data center overlays and is being adopted in data center networks more and more, especially for virtual networking in the hypervisor for virtual machine-to-virtual machine communication. However, data centers are likely to contain devices that are not capable of supporting VXLAN, such as legacy hypervisors, physical servers, and network services appliances, such as physical firewalls and load balancers, and storage devices, etc. Those devices need to continue to reside on classic VLAN segments. It is not uncommon that virtual machines in a VXLAN segment need to access services provided by devices in a classic VLAN segment. This type of VXLAN-to-VLAN connectivity is enabled by using a VXLAN gateway.
A VXLAN gateway is a VTEP device that combines a VXLAN segment and a classic VLAN segment into one common Layer 2 domain.
A Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switch can function as a hardware-based VXLAN gateway. It seamlessly connects VXLAN and VLAN segments as one forwarding domain across the Layer 3 boundary without sacrificing forwarding performance. The Cisco Nexus 9000 Series eliminates the need for an additional physical or virtual device to be the gateway. The hardware-based encapsulation and de-encapsulation provides line-rate performance for all frame sizes.
Check for vPC VTEPs
The vPC consistency
check is a mechanism used by the two switches configured as a vPC pair to
exchange and verify their configuration compatibility. Consistency checks are
performed to ensure that NVE configurations and VN-Segment configurations are
identical across vPC peers. This check is essential for the correct operation
of vPC functions.
the affected VLANs on vPC ports on both sides.
must be the same on both nodes. VNIs that are not common bring down the
corresponding VLANs on vPC ports on both sides. (The attributes considered are
mcast group address, suppress-arp, and Layer 3 VRF VNI.)
emulated IP address is not the same on both nodes, all gateway vPC ports on one
side (secondary) are brought down. Alternatively, one side of all vPC ports is
source loopback on the vPC secondary is also brought down if the emulated IP
address is not the same on both sides.
needs to be in the oper UP state on both sides for the vPC consistency check.
VTEPs are not in the OPER_UP state, the secondary leg is brought down along
with the VTEP source loopback on the vPC secondary.
The vPC on
both sides must be configured with the same host-reachability protocol.
Otherwise, the secondary leg is brought down along with the VTEP source
loopback on the vPC secondary.
VN-segment mapping is a type-1 consistency check parameter. The two VTEP
switches are required to have identical mappings. VLANs that have mismatched
VN-segment mappings will be suspended. When the graceful consistency check is
disabled and problematic VLANs arise, the primary vPC switch and the secondary
vPC switch will suspend the VLANs.
situations are detected as inconsistencies:
One switch has a
VLAN mapped to a VN-segment (VXLAN VNI), and the other switch does not have a
mapping for the same VLAN.
The two switches
have a VLAN mapped to different VN-segments.
7.0(3)I1(2), each VXLAN VNI must have the same configuration. However, when
protocol static, the list of static peer IP addresses are not checked as
part of the consistency check.
following is an example of displaying vPC information:
sys06-tor3# sh vpc consistency-parameters global
Type 1 : vPC will be suspended in case of mismatch
Name Type Local Value Peer Value
------------- ---- ---------------------- -----------------------
Vlan to Vn-segment Map 1 1024 Relevant Map(s) 1024 Relevant Map(s)
STP Mode 1 MST MST
STP Disabled 1 None None
STP MST Region Name 1 "" ""
STP MST Region Revision 1 0 0
STP MST Region Instance to 1
STP Loopguard 1 Disabled Disabled
STP Bridge Assurance 1 Enabled Enabled
STP Port Type, Edge 1 Normal, Disabled, Normal, Disabled,
BPDUFilter, Edge BPDUGuard Disabled Disabled
STP MST Simulate PVST 1 Enabled Enabled
Nve Oper State, Secondary 1 Up, 126.96.36.199 Up, 188.8.131.52
Nve Vni Configuration 1 10002-11025 10002-11025
Allowed VLANs - 1-1025 1-1025
Local suspended VLANs - - -
VXLAN uses flooding
and dynamic MAC address learning to transport broadcast, unknown unicast, and
multicast traffic. VXLAN forwards these traffic types using a multicast
forwarding tree or ingress replication.
With static ingress
Cisco NX-OS supports
multiple remote peers in one segment and also allows the same remote peer in
A bud node is a device
that is a VXLAN VTEP device and at the same time it is an IP transit device for
the same multicast group used for VXLAN VNIs. In the figure, multicast group
184.108.40.206 is used for VXLAN VNIs. For VXLAN multicast encapsulated traffic from
Host-1 to Host-2, VTEP-1 performs a multicast reverse-path forwarding (RPF)
check in group 220.127.116.11 and then VXLAN decapsulation. For VXLAN multicast
encapsulated traffic from Host-1 to Host-3 using the same group 18.104.22.168,
VTEP-1 is an IP transit device for the multicast packets. It performs an RPF
check and IP forwarding based on the outer IP header that has 22.214.171.124 as the
destination. When these two different roles collide on the same device, the
device becomes a bud node.
The Cisco Nexus 9000
Series switches provide support for the bud node topology. The application leaf
engine (ALE) of the device enables it to be a VXLAN VTEP device and an IP
transit device at the same time so the device can become a bud node.
Figure 1. VXLAN Bud-Node
The bud node
topology is not supported when SVI uplinks exist in the configuration.
For bud-node topologies, the source IP of the VTEP behind VPC must be in the same subnet as the infra-VLAN.
VXLAN BGP EVPN Control
A Cisco Nexus Series
Switch can be configured to provide a BGP ethernet VPN (EVPN) control plane
using a distributed anycast gateway, with Layer 2 and Layer 3 VxLAN overlay
For a data center
network, a BGP EVPN control plane provides:
placement that is not restricted with physical topology of the data center
traffic between servers within and across data centers
traffic between servers/virtual machines is achieved by most specific routing
at the first hop router, where the first hop routing is done at the access
layer. Host routes must be exchanged to ensure most specific routing to and
from servers/hosts. Virtual machine mobility is supported via detecting of
virtual machine attachment and signaling new location to rest of the network.
reduce flooding in the data center.
reduced by distributing MAC reachability information via BGP EVPN to optimize
flooding relating to L2 unknown unicast traffic. Optimization of reducing
broadcasts associated with ARP/IPv6 Neighbor solicitation is achieved via
distributing the necessary information via BGP EVPN and caching it at the
access switches, address solicitation request can then locally responded
without sending a broadcast.
control plane that can be deployed independent of a specific fabric controller.
Layer 2 and Layer 3 traffic
gateway refers to the use of anycast gateway addressing and an overlay network
to provide a distributed control plane that governs the forwarding of frames
within and across a L3 core network. The distributed anycast gateway
functionality will be used to facilitate flexible workload placement, and
optimal traffic across the L3 core network. The overlay network that will be
used is based on VXLAN.