Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide, Release 1.2
Chapter 6: Monitoring Maps
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Table of Contents

Monitoring Maps

About Maps

Adding a Campus Map

Adding a Building to a Campus Map

Adding a Standalone Building

Adding Floor Areas

Adding Floor Areas to a Campus Building

Adding Floor Plans to a Standalone Building

Monitoring Floor Area

Panning and Zooming with Next Generation Maps

Floor View Navigation

Adding Access Points to a Floor Area

Placing Access Points

Using the Automatic Hierarchy to Create Maps

Using the Map Editor

Guidelines for Using the Map Editor

Guidelines for Placing Access Points

Guidelines for Inclusion and Exclusion Areas on a Floor

Opening the Map Editor

Map Editor Icons

Using the Map Editor to Draw Coverage Areas

Using the Map Editor to Draw Obstacles

Defining an Inclusion Region on a Floor

Defining an Exclusion Region on a Floor

Defining a Rail Line on a Floor

Adding an Outdoor Area

Using Chokepoints to Enhance Tag Location Reporting

Adding Chokepoints to the Prime Infrastructure Database

Adding a Chokepoint to a Prime Infrastructure Map

Positioning Chokepoints

Configuring Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers

Adding Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers to the Prime Infrastructure Database

Adding Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers to a Map

Positioning Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers

Managing RF Calibration Models

Accessing Current Calibration Models

Applying Calibration Models to Maps

Viewing Calibration Model Properties

Viewing Calibration Model Details

Creating New Calibration Models

Starting Calibration Process

Calibrating

Apply the Model to the Floor

Deleting Calibration Models

Managing Location Presence Information

Searching Maps

Using the Map Editor

Opening the Map Editor

Using the Map Editor to Draw Polygon Areas

Defining an Inclusion Region on a Floor

Defining an Exclusion Region on a Floor

Defining a Rail Line on a Floor

Inspecting Location Readiness and Quality

Inspecting Location Readiness

Inspecting Location Quality Using Calibration Data

Inspecting VoWLAN Readiness

Troubleshooting Voice RF Coverage Issues

Monitoring Mesh Networks Using Maps

Monitoring Mesh Link Statistics Using Maps

Monitoring Mesh Access Points Using Maps

Monitoring Mesh Access Point Neighbors Using Maps

Viewing the Mesh Network Hierarchy

Using Mesh Filters to Modify Map Display of Maps and Mesh Links

Monitoring Tags Using Maps

Using Planning Mode

Accessing Planning Mode

Using Planning Mode to Calculate Access Point Requirements

Refresh Options

Creating a Network Design

Designing a Network

Importing or Exporting WLSE Map Data

Monitoring Device Details

Access Point Details

Client Details

Tag Details

Rogue Access Point Details

Rogue Adhoc Details

Rogue Client Details

Interferer Details

Understanding RF Heatmap Calculation

Monitoring Google Earth Maps

Creating an Outdoor Location Using Google Earth

Understanding Geographical Coordinates for Google Earth

Creating and Importing Coordinates in Google Earth (KML File)

Creating and Importing Coordinates as a CSV File

Importing a File into Prime Infrastructure

Viewing Google Earth Maps

Viewing Google Earth Map Details

Adding Google Earth Location Launch Points to Access Point Pages

Google Earth Settings

About Maps

Maps provide a summary view of all your managed systems on campuses, buildings, outdoor areas, and floors.

In addition to the features of the legacy maps, Cisco Prime Infrastructure 1.2 enables you to use the features of the Next Generation Maps. The Next Generation Maps feature is enabled by default. Use the Administration > User Preferences page to disable or enable this feature.

The Next Generation Maps feature provides the following benefits:

  • Displays a large amount of information on map. When you have numerous clients, interferers and access points, these may clutter the display on Prime Infrastructure map pages. Also, pages load slowly. Prime Infrastructure 1.2 introduces clustering and layering of information. Information cluster reduces clutter at the high level and reveals more information when you click an object. For details, see the “Monitoring Floor Area” section.
  • Simplifies and accelerates the process of adding APs to the map. In the legacy maps, the process of adding access points to maps is manual and tedious. With Prime Infrastructure 1.2, you can use automated hierarchy creation to add and name access points. For details, see the “Using the Automatic Hierarchy to Create Maps” section.
  • Provides High quality map images with easy navigation and zoom/pan controls. In the legacy maps, the map image quality is low and navigating, zooming, and panning is slow. With Prime Infrastructure 1.2, you can use the next-generation ‘tile-aware’ map engine to load maps faster and zoom/pan easily Also, Next Generation Maps enables administrators to load high-resolution maps faster and navigate around the map. For details, see the “Panning and Zooming with Next Generation Maps” section.

Table 6-1 Process for Working with Maps

Process

Description

1. Add a new campus/building map

Choose Monitor > Site Maps . From the Select a command drop-down list, choose New Campus or New Building .

2. Add a floor map

Choose Monitor > Site Maps . From the Select a command drop-down list, choose New Floor Area.

3. Use Map Editor

Choose Monitor > Site Maps . From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Map Editor.

Adding a Campus Map

To add a single campus map to the Prime Infrastructure database, follow these steps:


Step 1 Save the map in .PNG, .JPG, .JPEG, or .GIF format.


Note The map can be of any size because Prime Infrastructure automatically resizes the map to fit its working areas.


Step 2 Browse to and import the map from anywhere in your file system.

Step 3 Choose Monitor > Site Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose New Campus, and click Go.

Step 5 In the Maps > New Campus page, enter the campus name and campus contact name.

Step 6 Browse to and choose the image filename containing the map of the campus, and click Open.

Step 7 Select the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box to prevent length and width distortion when Prime Infrastructure resizes the map.

Step 8 Enter the horizontal and vertical span of the map in feet.


Note To change the unit of measurement (feet or meters), choose Monitor > Site Maps and choose Properties from the Select a command drop-down list. The horizontal and vertical span should be larger than any building or floor plan to be added to the campus.


Step 9 Click OK to add this campus map to the Prime Infrastructure database. Prime Infrastructure displays the Maps page, which lists maps in the database, map types, and campus status.

Step 10 (Optional) To assign location presence information, click the newly created campus link in the Monitor > Site Maps page.


Note System Campus is always present in each virtual domain, whether it is explicitly added to the respective virtual domain or not. Adding System Campus explicitly to a virtual domain does not include all its child buildings and floors to the same virtual domain.



 

Adding a Building to a Campus Map

To add a building to a campus map in the Prime Infrastructure database, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 Click the desired campus. The Site Maps > Campus Name page appears.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose New Building, and click Go.

Step 4 In the Campus Name > New Building page, follow these steps to create a virtual building in which to organize related floor plan maps:

a. Enter the building name.

b. Enter the building contact name.

c. Enter the number of floors and basements.

d. Enter the horizontal position (distance from the corner of the building rectangle to the left edge of the campus map) and the vertical position (distance from the corner of the building rectangle to the top edge of the campus map) in feet.


Note To change the unit of measurement (feet or meters), choose Monitor > Site Maps, and choose Properties from the Select a command drop-down list.


e. Enter an approximate building horizontal span and vertical span (width and depth on the map) in feet.


Note The horizontal and vertical span should be larger than or the same size as any floors that you might add later.



Tip You can also use Ctrl-click to resize the bounding area in the upper-left corner of the campus map. As you change the size of the bounding area, the Horizontal Span and Vertical Span parameters of the building change to match your actions.


f. Click Place to put the building on the campus map. Prime Infrastructure creates a building rectangle scaled to the size of the campus map.

g. Click the building rectangle and drag it to the desired position on the campus map.


Note After adding a new building, you can move it from one campus to another without having to recreate it.


h. Click Save to save this building and its campus location to the database. Prime Infrastructure saves the building name in the building rectangle on the campus map.


Note A hyperlink associated with the building takes you to the corresponding Map page.


Step 5 (Optional) To assign location presence information for the new outdoor area, do the following:

a. Choose Edit Location Presence Info from the Select a command drop-down list. Click Go . The Location Presence page appears.


Note By default, the Presence Info check box of the Override Child Element is selected. This option should remain selected if you want to propagate the campus location to all buildings and floors on that campus. When adding buildings to the campus map, you can import the campus location information. The campus address cannot be imported to a building if the check box is unselected.
This option should be unselected if you want to assign building-specific addresses to buildings on its campus rather than one campus address to all.


b. Click the Civic Address or Advanced tab.

Civic Address identifies the campus by name, street, house number, house number suffix, city (address line2), state, postal code, and country.

Advanced identifies the campus with expanded civic information such as neighborhood, city division, country, and postal community name.


Note Each selected field is inclusive of all of those above it. For example, if you choose Advanced, it can also provide Civic location information upon client demand. The selected setting must match what is set on the location server level (Services > Mobility Services).


c. By default, the Override Child’s Presence Information check box is selected. There is no need to alter this setting for standalone buildings.

Step 6 Click Save.


 

Adding a Standalone Building

To add a standalone building to the Prime Infrastructure database, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose New Building , and click Go.

Step 3 In the Maps > New Building page, follow these steps to create a virtual building in which to organize related floor plan maps:

a. Enter the building name.

b. Enter the building contact name.


Note After adding a new building, you can move it from one campus to another without having to recreate it.


c. Enter the number of floors and basements.

d. Enter an approximate building horizontal span and vertical span (width and depth on the map) in feet.


Note To change the unit of measurement (feet or meters), choose Monitor > Site Maps, and choose Properties from the Select a command drop-down list.



Note The horizontal and vertical span should be larger than or the same size as any floors that you might add later.


e. Click OK to save this building to the database.

Step 4 (Optional) To assign location presence information for the new building, do the following:

a. Choose Location Presence from the Select a command drop-down list. Click Go . The Location Presence page appears.

b. Click the Civic or Advanced tab.

Civic Address identifies the campus by name, street, house number, house number suffix, city (address line2), state, postal code, and country.

Advanced identifies the campus with expanded civic information such as neighborhood, city division, county, and postal community name.


Note Each selected field is inclusive of all of those above it. For example, if you select Advanced, it can also provide Civic location information upon client demand. The selected setting must match what is set on the location server level (Services > Mobility Services).


c. By default, the Presence Info check box of the Override Child Element is selected. This option should remain selected if you want to propagate the campus location to all buildings and floors on that campus. When adding buildings to the campus map, you can import the location information. The campus address cannot be imported to a building if the check box is unselected. This option should be deselected if you want to assign building-specific addresses to buildings on its campus rather than one campus address to all.

Step 5 Click Save .


Note The standalone buildings are automatically placed in System Campus.



 

Adding Floor Areas

This section describes how to add floor plans to either a campus building or a standalone building in the Prime Infrastructure database and includes the following topics:

Adding Floor Areas to a Campus Building

After you add a building to a campus map, you can add individual floor plan and basement maps to the building.


Note Use the zoom controls at the top of the campus image to enlarge or decrease the size of the map view and to hide or show the map grid (which displays the map size in feet or meters).


To add a floor area to a campus building, follow these steps:


Step 1 Save your floor plan maps in .PNG, .JPG, ,JPEG, or .GIF format.


Note The maps can be any size because Prime Infrastructure automatically resizes the maps to fit the workspace.



Note If there are problems converting the auto-cad file, an error message is displayed. Prime Infrastructure uses a native image conversion library to convert auto-cad files into raster formats like .PNG. If the native library cannot be loaded, Prime Infrastructure displays an “unable to convert the auto-cad file” message.



Note An imported auto-cad file can become blurred when you zoom. Without the zoom, the clarity is about the same as the original auto-cad file. Make sure all relevant sections are clearly visible in the original auto-cad file (DWG/DXF) and then import the auto-cad file into .PNG/.GIF format rather than .JPEG or .JPG.



Note The floor map image is enhanced for zooming and panning. The floor image will not be visible completely until this operation is complete. You can zoom in and out to view the complete map image. For example, if you have a high resolution image (near 181 megapixels) whose size is approximately 60 megabytes, it may take two minutes to appear on the map.


Step 2 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 3 From the Maps Tree View or the Monitor > Site Maps list, choose the applicable campus building to open the Building View page.

Step 4 Hover your mouse cursor over the name within an existing building rectangle to highlight it.


Note You can also access the building from the Campus View page. In the Campus View page, click the building name to open the Building View page.


Step 5 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose New Floor Area.

Step 6 Click Go. The New Floor Area page appears.

Step 7 In the New Floor Area page, follow these steps to add floors to a building in which to organize related floor plan maps:

a. Enter the floor area and contact names.

b. Choose the floor or basement number from the Floor drop-down list.

c. Choose the floor or basement type (RF Model).

d. Enter the floor-to-floor height in feet.


Note To change the unit of measurement (feet or meters), choose Monitor > Site Maps, and choose Properties from the Select a command drop-down list.


e. Select the Image or CAD File check box.

f. Browse to and choose the desired floor or basement image or CAD filename, and click Open.


Note If you are importing a CAD file, use the Convert CAD File drop-down list to determine the image file for conversion.



Tip We do not recommend a .JPEG (.JPG) format for an auto-cad conversion. Unless a JPEG is specifically required, use .PNG or .GIF format for higher quality images.


g. Click Next. At this point, if a CAD file was specified, a default image preview is generated and loaded.


Note Prime Infrastructure uses a native image conversion library to convert auto-cad files into raster formats like .PNG. When there are issues loading the native library, Prime Infrastructure displays the following error: "Unable to convert the auto-cad file. Reason: Error while loading the auto-cad image conversion library.” For more information see Prime Infrastructure online help or Prime Infrastructure documentation.


The names of the CAD file layers are listed with check boxes to the right side of the image indicating which are enabled.


Note When you choose the floor or basement image filename, Prime Infrastructure displays the image in the building-sized grid.



Note The maps can be any size because Prime Infrastructure automatically resizes the maps to fit the workspace.



Note The map must be saved in .PNG, .JPG, .JPEG, or .GIF format.


h. If you have CAD file layers, you can select or deselect as many as you want and click Preview to view an updated image. Click Next when you are ready to proceed with the selected layers.

Enter the remaining parameters for the floor area.

i. Either leave the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box selected to preserve the original image aspect ratio or unselect the check box to change the image aspect ratio.

j. Enter an approximate floor or basement horizontal and vertical span (width and depth on the map) in feet.


Note The horizontal and vertical spans should be smaller than or the same size as the building horizontal and vertical spans in the Prime Infrastructure database.


k. If applicable, enter the horizontal position (distance from the corner of the outdoor area rectangle to the left edge of the campus map) and vertical position (distance from the corner of the outdoor area rectangle to the top edge of the campus map) in feet or meters.


Tip Use Ctrl-click to resize the image within the building-sized grid.


l. If desired, select the Launch Map Editor after floor creation check box to rescale the floor and draw walls.

m. Click OK to save this floor plan to the database. The floor is added to the Maps Tree View and the Monitor > Site Maps list.


Note Use different floor names in each building. If you are adding more than one building to the campus map, do not use a floor name that exists in another building. This overlap causes incorrect mapping information between a floor and a building.


Step 8 Click any of the floor or basement images to view the floor plan or basement map.


Note You can zoom in or out to view the map at different sizes and you can add access points.



 

Adding Floor Plans to a Standalone Building

After you have added a standalone building to the Prime Infrastructure database, you can add individual floor plan maps to the building.

To add floor plans to a standalone building, follow these steps:


Step 1 Save your floor plan maps in .PNG, .JPG, or .GIF format.


Note The maps can be any size because Prime Infrastructure automatically resizes the maps to fit the workspace.


Step 2 Browse to and import the floor plan maps from anywhere in your file system. You can import CAD files in DXF or DWG formats or any of the formats you created in Step 1.


Note If there are problems converting the auto-cad file, an error message is displayed. Prime Infrastructure uses a native image conversion library to convert auto-cad files into raster formats like .PNG. If the native library cannot be loaded, Prime Infrastructure displays an “unable to convert the auto-cad file” message.


Step 3 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 4 From the Maps Tree View or the Monitor > Site Maps left sidebar menu, choose the desired building to display the Building View page.

Step 5 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose New Floor Area.

Step 6 Click Go.

Step 7 In the New Floor Area page, add the following information:

    • Enter the floor area and contact names.
    • Choose the floor or basement number from the Floor drop-down list.
    • Choose the floor or basement type (RF Model).
    • Enter the floor-to-floor height in feet.
    • Select the Image or CAD File check box.
    • Browse to and choose the desired floor or basement Image or CAD file, and click Open.

Note If you are importing a CAD file, use the Convert CAD File drop-down list to determine the image file for conversion.



Tip A .JPEG (.JPG) format is not recommended for an auto-cad conversion. Unless a .JPEG is specifically required, use a .PNG or .GIF format for higher quality images.


Step 8 Click Next. At this point, if a CAD file was specified, a default image preview is generated and loaded.


Note Prime Infrastructure uses a native image conversion library to convert auto-cad files into raster formats like .PNG. When there are issues loading the native library, Prime Infrastructure displays the following error: "Unable to convert the auto-cad file. Reason: Error while loading the auto-cad image conversion library. For more information, see Prime Infrastructure online help or Prime Infrastructure documentation."


The names of the CAD file layers are listed with check boxes to the right side of the image indicating which are enabled.


Note When you choose the floor or basement image filename, Prime Infrastructure displays the image in the building-sized grid.



Note The maps can be any size because Prime Infrastructure automatically resizes the maps to fit the workspace.



Note The map must be saved in .PNG, .JPG, .JPEG, or .GIF format.


If you have CAD file layers, you can select or deselect as many as you want and click Preview to view an updated image. Click Next when you are ready to proceed with the selected layers.

Step 9 Enter the remaining parameters for the floor area.

    • Either leave the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box selected to preserve the original image aspect ratio or unselect the check box to change the image aspect ratio.
    • Enter an approximate floor or basement horizontal and vertical span (width and depth on the map) in feet.

Note The horizontal and vertical spans should be smaller than or the same size as the building horizontal and vertical spans in the Prime Infrastructure Prime Infrastructuredatabase.


    • If applicable, enter the horizontal position (distance from the corner of the outdoor area rectangle to the left edge of the campus map) and vertical position (distance from the corner of the outdoor area rectangle to the top edge of the campus map) in feet or meters.

Tip Use Ctrl-click to resize the image within the building-sized grid.


    • Adjust the floor characteristics with Prime Infrastructure map editor by selecting the check box next to Launch Map Editor. See the “Using the Map Editor” section for more information regarding the map editor feature.

Step 10 Click OK to save this floor plan to the database. The floor is added to the Maps Tree View and the Monitor > Site Maps list.

Step 11 Click any of the floor or basement images to view the floor plan or basement map.


Note You can zoom in or out to view the map at different sizes and you can add access points.



 

Monitoring Floor Area

The floor area is the area of each floor of the building measured to the outer surface of the outer walls including the area of lobbies, cellars, elevator shafts, and in multi-dwelling buildings, all the common spaces.

This section contains the following topics:

Panning and Zooming with Next Generation Maps

Panning

To move the map, click and hold the left mouse button and drag the map to a new place.

You can also move the map North, South, East or West using the pan arrows. These can be found in the top left hand corner of the map (see Figure 6-1).

Figure 6-1 Panning Control


Note You can also perform the panning operations using the arrow keys on a keyboard.


Zooming in and out - changing the scale

The zooming levels depend upon the resolution of an image. A high resolution image may provide more zoom levels. Each zoom level is made of a different style map shown at different scales, each one showing more or less detail. Some maps will be of the same style, but at a smaller or larger scale.

To see a map with more detail you need to zoom in. You can do this using the zoom bar on the left hand side of the map (see Figure 6-2). Click the + sign on the top of the zoom bar. To centre and zoom in on a location, double click the location. To see a map with less detail you need to zoom out. To do this, click the - sign on the bottom of the zoom bar.

Figure 6-2 Zooming Control


Note You can perform zooming operations using mouse or keyboard. With keyboard, click the + or - signs to zoom in or zoom out. With mouse, use the mouse scroll wheel to zoom in or zoom out or double click to zoom in.


Floor View Navigation

The main Floor View navigation pane provides access to multiple map functions.

This navigation pane includes the following functionality:

  • Zoom In/Zoom Out—See the “Panning and Zooming with Next Generation Maps” section.
  • Map Size—See the “Panning and Zooming with Next Generation Maps” section.
  • Show Grid—Click to show or hide the grid that displays distance in feet on the map.
  • RSSI Legend—Hover your mouse cursor over the RSSI Legend icon to display the RSSI color scheme (ranging from red/-35 dBm to dark blue/-90 dBm).
  • Add Access Points—Click to open the Add Access Points page. For more information, see the “Adding Access Points to a Floor Area” section.
  • Remove Access Points—Click to open the Remove Access Points page. Select the access points that you want to remove and click OK.
  • Position Access Points—Click to open the Position Access Points page.
  • Add Chokepoints—Click to open the Add Chokepoints page. For more information, see the Cisco Context-Aware Services Configuration Guide .
  • Add WiFi TDOA Receivers—Click to open the Add Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers page. For more information, see the Cisco Context-Aware Services Configuration Guide .
  • Auto Refresh—From the drop-down list, choose the length of time between each system refresh.
  • Refresh from Network—Click to initiate an immediate refresh of the current data.
  • Planning Mode—Click to open the Planning Mode window. For more information, see the “Using Planning Mode” section for more information.
  • Map Editor—Click to open the Map Editor.

Adding Access Points to a Floor Area

After you add the .PNG, .JPG, .JPEG, or .GIF format floor plan and outdoor area maps to the Prime Infrastructure database, you can position lightweight access point icons on the maps to show where they are installed in the buildings. To add access points to a floor area and outdoor area, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 From the Maps Tree View or the Monitor > Site Maps left sidebar menu, select the applicable floor to open the Floor View page.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Add Access Points, and click Go.

Step 4 In the Add Access Points page, select the check boxes of the access points that you want to add to the floor area.


Note If you want to search for access points, enter AP name or MAC address (Ethernet/Radio)/IP in the Search AP [Name/MacAddress (Ethernet/Radio)/IP] text box, and then click Search. The search is case-insensitive.



Note Only access points that are not yet assigned to any floor or outdoor area appear in the list.



Note Select the check box at the top of the list to select all access points.



Note Prime Infrastructure allows a maximum of 100 access points per floor map.


Step 5 When all of the applicable access points are selected, click OK located at the bottom of the access point list.

The Position Access Points page appears.

Each access point you have chosen to add to the floor map is represented by a gray circle (differentiated by access point name or MAC address) and is lined up in the upper left part of the floor map.

Step 6 Click and drag each access point to the appropriate location. Access points turn blue when selected.


Note When you drag an access point on the map, its horizontal and vertical position appears in the Horizontal and Vertical text boxes.



Note The small black arrow at the side of each access point represents Side A of each access point, and each access point arrow must correspond with the direction in which the access points were installed. Side A is clearly noted on each 1000 series access point and has no relevance to the 802.11a/n radio. To adjust the directional arrow, choose the appropriate orientation from the Antenna Angle drop-down list.


When selected, the access point details are displayed on the left side of the page. Access point details include the following:

    • AP Model—Indicates the model type of the selected access point.
    • Protocol—Choose the protocol for this access point from the drop-down list.
    • Antenna—Choose the appropriate antenna type for this access point from the drop-down list.
    • Antenna/AP Image—The antenna image reflects the antenna selected from the Antenna drop-down list. Click the arrow at the top right of the antenna image to expand the image size.
    • Antenna Orientation—Depending on the antenna type, enter the Azimuth and the Elevation orientations in degrees.

Note The Azimuth option does not appear for Omnidirectional antennas because their pattern is nondirectional in azimuth.



Note For internal antennas, the same elevation angle applies to both radios.


The antenna angle is relative to the map X axis. Because the origin of the X (horizontal) and Y (vertical) axes is in the upper left corner of the map, 0 degrees points side A of the access point to the right, 90 degrees points side A down, 180 degrees points side A to the left, and so on.

The antenna elevation is used to move the antenna vertically, up or down, to a maximum of 90 degrees.


Note Make sure each access point is in the correct location on the map and has the correct antenna orientation. Accurate access point positioning is critical when you use the maps to find coverage holes and rogue access points.


See the following URL for further information about the antenna elevation and azimuth patterns:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/wireless/ps469/tsd_products_support_series_home.html

Step 7 When you are finished placing and adjusting each access point, click Save.


Note Clicking Save causes the antenna gain on the access point to correspond to the selected antenna. This might cause the radio to reset.


Prime Infrastructure computes the RF prediction for the coverage area. These RF predictions are popularly known as heat maps because they show the relative intensity of the RF signals on the coverage area map.


Note This display is only an approximation of the actual RF signal intensity because it does not take into account the attenuation of various building materials, such as drywall or metal objects, nor does it display the effects of RF signals bouncing off obstructions.



Note Antenna gain settings have no effect on heatmaps and location calculations. Antenna gain is implicitly associated to the antenna name. Because of this, the following apply:
– If an antenna is used and marked as “Other” in Prime Infrastructure, it is ignored for all heatmap and location calculations;
– If an antenna is used and marked as a Cisco antenna in Prime Infrastructure, that antenna gain setting (internal value on Prime Infrastructure) is used no matter what gain is set on the controller.



Note See the “Placing Access Points” section for more information on placing access points on a map.



Note You can change the position of access points by importing or exporting a file. See the “Positioning Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers” section for more information.



 

Placing Access Points

To determine the best location of all devices in the wireless LAN coverage areas, you need to consider the access point density and location.

Ensure that no fewer than 3 access points, and preferably 4 or 5, provide coverage to every area where device location is required. The more access points that detect a device, the better. This high level guideline translates into the following best practices, ordered by priority:

1. Most importantly, access points should surround the desired location.

2. One access point should be placed roughly every 50 to 70 linear feet (about 17 to 20 meters). This translates into one access point every 2,500 to 5000 square feet (about 230 to 450 square meters).


Note The access point must be mounted so that it is under 20 feet high. For best performance, a mounting at 10 feet would be ideal.


Following these guidelines makes it more likely that access points detect tracked devices. Rarely do two physical environments have the same RF characteristics. Users might need to adjust these parameters to their specific environment and requirements.


Note Devices must be detected at signals greater than –75 dBm for the controllers to forward information to the location appliance. No fewer than three access points should be able to detect any device at signals below –75 dBm.



Note If you have a ceiling-mounted AP with an integrated omni-directional antenna, the antenna orientation does not really need to be set in Prime Infrastructure. However, if you mount that same AP on the wall, you must set the antenna orientation to 90 degrees.


Table 6-2 describes the orientation of the access points.

Table 6-2 Antenna Orientation of the Access Points

Access Point
Antenna Orientation

1140 mounted on the ceiling

The Cisco logo should be pointing to the floor. Elevation: 0 degrees.

1240 mounted on the ceiling

The antenna should be perpendicular to the access point.

Elevation: 0 degrees.

1240 mounted on the wall

The antenna should be parallel to the access point.

Elevation: 0 degrees.

If the antenna is perpendicular to the AP then the angle is 90 degrees (up or down does not matter as the dipole is omni).


 

Using the Automatic Hierarchy to Create Maps

Automatic Hierarchy Creation is a way for you to quickly create maps and assign access points to maps in Prime Infrastructure. You can use Automatic Hierarchy Creation to create maps, once you have added wireless LAN controllers to Prime Infrastructure and named your access points. Also, you can use it after adding access points to your network to assign access points to maps in Prime Infrastructure.


Note To use the Automatic Hierarchy Creation feature, you must have an established naming pattern for your wireless access points that provides the campus, building, floor, or outdoor area names for the maps.

For example, San Jose-01-GroundFloor-AP3500i1.


 


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Automatic Hierarchy Creation to display the Automatic Hierarchy Creation page.

Step 2 In the text box, enter the name of an access point on your system. Or, you can choose one from the list.

This name is used to create a regular expression to create your maps.


Note To update a previously created regular expression, click Load and Continue next to the expression and update the expression accordingly. To delete a regular expression, click Delete next to the expression.


Step 3 Click Next .

Step 4 If your access point‘s name has a delimiter, enter it in the text box and click Generate basic regex based on delimiter . The system generates a regular expression that matches your access point’s name based on the delimiter.

For example, using the dash (-) delimiter in the access point name San Jose-01-GroundFloor-AP3500i1, produces the regular expression /(.*)-(.*)-(.*)-(.*)/.
If you have a more complicated access point name, you can manually enter the regular expression.


Note You are not required to enter the leading and trailing slashes.



Note As a convention, Prime Infrastructure displays regular expressions in slashes.


Step 5 Click Test . The system displays the maps that will be created for the access point name and the regular expression entered.

Step 6 Using the Group fields, assign matching groups to hierarchy types.

For example, if your access point is named: SJC14-4-AP-BREAK-ROOM

In this example, the campus name is SJC, the building name is 14, the floor name is 4, and the AP name is AP-BREAK-ROOM.

Use the regular expression: /([A-Z]+)(\d+)-(\d+)-(.*)/

From the AP name, the following groups are extracted:

1. SJC

2. 14

3. 4

4. AP-BREAK-ROOM

The matching groups are assigned from left to right, starting at 1.

To make the matching groups match the hierarchy elements, use the drop-down list for each group number to select the appropriate hierarchy element.

This enables you to have almost any ordering of locations in your access point names.

For example, if your access point is named: EastLab-Atrium2-3-SanFrancisco

If you use the regular expression: /(.*)-(.*)-(.*)-(.*)/

with the following group mapping:

1. Building

2. Device Name

3. Floor

4. Campus

Automatic Hierarchy Creation produces a campus named SanFrancisco, a building under that campus named EastLab, and a floor in EastLab named 3.


Note The two hierarchy types, Not in device name and Device have no effect, but enable you to skip groups in case you need to use a matching group for some other purpose.


Automatic Hierarchy Creation requires the following groups to be mapped in order to compute a map on which to place the access point:

 

Campus group present in match?
Building group present in match?
Floor group present in match?
Resulting location

Yes

Yes

Yes

Campus > Building > Floor

Yes

Yes

No

Failed match

Yes

No

Yes

Campus > Floor (where Floor is an outdoor area)

Yes

No

No

Failed match

No

Yes

Yes

System Campus > Building > Floor

No

Yes

No

Failed match

No

No

Yes

Failed match

No

No

No

Failed match

Automatic Hierarchy Creation attempts to guess the floor index from the floor name. If the floor name is a number, AHC will assign the floor a positive floor index. If the floor name is a negative number or starts with the letter B (for example, b1, -4, or B2), AHC assigns the floor a negative floor index. This indicates that the floor is a basement.

When searching for an existing map on which to place the access point, AHC considers floors in the access point’s building with the same floor index as the access point’s name.

For example, if the map SF > MarketStreet > Sublevel1 exists and has a floor index of -1, then the access point SF-MarketStreet-b1-MON1 will be assigned to that floor.

Step 7 Click Next . You can test against more access points. You may test your regular expression and matching group mapping against more access points by entering the access point names in the Add more device names to test against field, and clicking Add .

You then click Test to test each of the access points names in the table. The result of each test is displayed in the table.

If required, return to the previous step to edit the regular expression or group mapping for the current regular expression.

Step 8 Click Next , then click Save and Apply . This applies the regular expression to the system. The system processes all the access points that are not assigned to a map.


Note You can edit the maps to include floor images, correct dimensions, and so on. When Automatic Hierarchy Creation creates a map, it uses the default dimensions of 20 feet by 20 feet. You will need to edit the created maps to specify the correct dimensions and other attributes.

Maps created using Automatic Hierarchy Creation appear in the maps list with an incomplete icon. Once you have edited a map, the incomplete icon disappears. You may hide the column for incomplete maps by clicking the Edit View link.


 


 

Using the Map Editor

You use the Map Editor to define, draw, and enhance floor plan information. The map editor allows you to create obstacles so that they can be taken into consideration while computing RF prediction heatmaps for access points. You can also add coverage areas for location appliances that locate clients and tags in that particular area.

The planning mode opens the map editor in the browser window from which the planning tool is launched. If the original browser window has navigated away from the floor page, you need to navigate back to the floor page to launch the map editor.

This section contains the following topics:

Guidelines for Using the Map Editor

Consider the following when modifying a building or floor map using the map editor:

  • We recommend that you use the map editor to draw walls and other obstacles rather than importing an .FPE file from the legacy floor plan editor.

If necessary, you can still import .FPE files. To do so, navigate to the desired floor area, choose Edit Floor Area from the Select a command drop-down list, click Go, select the FPE File check box, and browse to choose the .FPE file.

  • You can add any number of walls to a floor plan with the map editor; however, the processing power and memory of a client workstation might limit the refresh and rendering aspects of Prime Infrastructure.

We recommend a practical limit of 400 walls per floor for machines with 1GB RAM or less.

  • All walls are used by Prime Infrastructure when generating RF coverage heatmaps.

Guidelines for Placing Access Points

Place access points along the periphery of coverage areas to keep devices close to the exterior of rooms and buildings. Access points placed in the center of these coverage areas provide good data on devices that would otherwise appear equidistant from all other access points.

Figure 6-3 Access Points Clustered Together

 

By increasing overall access point density and moving access points towards the perimeter of the coverage area, location accuracy is greatly improved.

Figure 6-4 Improved Location Accuracy by Increasing Density

 

In long and narrow coverage areas, avoid placing access points in a straight line. Stagger them so that each access point is more likely to provide a unique snapshot of a device location.

Figure 6-5 Refrain From Straight Line Placement

 

Although the design in might provide enough access point density for high bandwidth applications, location suffers because each access point view of a single device is not varied enough; therefore, location is difficult to determine.

Move the access points to the perimeter of the coverage area and stagger them. Each has a greater likelihood of offering a distinctly different view of the device, resulting in higher location accuracy.

Figure 6-6 Improved Location Accuracy by Staggering Around Perimeter

 

 

Most current wireless handsets support only 802.11b/n, which offers only three non-overlapping channels. Therefore, wireless LANs designed for telephony tend to be less dense than those planned to carry data. Also, when traffic is queued in the Platinum QoS bucket (typically reserved for voice and other latency-sensitive traffic), lightweight access points postpone their scanning functions that allow them to peak at other channels and collect, among other things, device location information. The user has the option to supplement the wireless LAN deployment with access points set to monitor-only mode. Access points that perform only monitoring functions do not provide service to clients and do not create any interference. They simply scan the airwaves for device information.

Less dense wireless LAN installations, such as voice networks, find their location accuracy greatly increased by the addition and proper placement of monitor access points.

Figure 6-7 Less Dense Wireless LAN Installations

 

Verify coverage using a wireless laptop, handheld, or phone to ensure that no fewer than three access points are detected by the device. To verify client and asset tag location, ensure that Prime Infrastructure reports client devices and tags within the specified accuracy range (10 m, 90%).


Note If you have a ceiling-mounted AP with an integrated omni-directional antenna, the antenna orientation does not really need to be set in Prime Infrastructure. However, if you mount that same AP on the wall, you must set the antenna orientation to 90 degrees.


Guidelines for Inclusion and Exclusion Areas on a Floor

Inclusion and exclusion areas can be any polygon shape and must have at least three points.

You can only define one inclusion region on a floor. By default, an inclusion region is defined for each floor when it is added to Prime Infrastructure. The inclusion region is indicated by a solid aqua line, and generally outlines the region.

You can define multiple exclusion regions on a floor.

Newly defined inclusion and exclusion regions appear on heatmaps only after the mobility services engine recalculates location.

Opening the Map Editor

Follow these steps to use the map editor:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Map Design .

Step 2 Click the desired campus. The Site Maps > Campus Name page appears.

Step 3 Click a campus and then click a building.

Step 4 Click the desired floor area. The Site Maps > Campus Name > Building Name > Floor Area Name page appears.

Step 5 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Map Editor, and click Go. The Map Editor page appears.


 

Map Editor Icons

Table 6-3 Next Generation Maps Icons

Icon
Description

 

Scale Floor—Click anywhere on the map to start drawing line. Double click to finish the line and enter the new line length in the popup shown. This will modify the floor dimensions to the new dimensions.

 

Measure Distance—Click anywhere on the map to start drawing line. Double click to finish the line. Measured line length in ft/meters is shown on the top.

 

Copy/Move Obstacles—Select obstacles either by drawing a box on the map or by clicking the obstacles. To copy obstacles, click Copy . This will create new obstacles just above the selected obstacles. To move the obstacles, drag the selected obstacles to new position. Clicking anywhere on the map will unselect all the elements.

 

Delete Mode—Select the elements to be deleted either by drawing a box on the map or clicking each element. Use Shift key to select multiple elements. Use the Ctrl key to toggle selection of elements, one at a time. Clicking anywhere on the map will unselect all the elements. Click Delete to delete the selected elements

 

Modify Mode—Click an element and click the vertices to reshape or drag the element to move to a new position. Clicking anywhere on the map will unselect the selected element.

 

Draw Coverage Area

 

Draw Location Region

 

Draw Rail

 

Draw Obastacle—Click anywhere on the map to start drawing. Double click to finish drawing. Use Ctrl-z to undo, Ctrl-y to redo and 'Esc' key to cancel the current drawing.

 

Place Marker

 

Navigation—Remove any selected modes such as drawing or editing and switches to navigation mode where you can view the map and perform zooming or panning.

Using the Map Editor to Draw Coverage Areas

If you have a building that is non-rectangular or you want to mark a non-rectangular area within a floor, you can use the map editor to draw a coverage area.


Step 1 Add the floor plan if it is not already represented in Prime Infrastructure.

Step 2 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 3 Click the Map Name that corresponds to the outdoor area, campus, building, or floor you want to edit.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Map Editor, and click Go .

Step 5 It the Map Editor page, click the Draw Coverage Area icon on the toolbar.

A pop-up appears.

Step 6 Enter the name of the area that you are defining. Click OK .

A drawing tool appears.

Step 7 Move the drawing tool to the area you want to outline.

  • Click the left mouse button to begin and end drawing a line.
  • When you have completely outlined the area, double-click the left mouse button and the area is highlighted in the page.

The outlined area must be a closed object to appear highlighted on the map.

Step 8 Click the disk icon on the toolbar to save the newly drawn area.


 

Using the Map Editor to Draw Obstacles

Table 6-6 describes the obstacle color coding.

Table 6-4 Obstacle Color Coding

Type of obstacle
Color coding
Loss (in dB)

Thick wall

 

13

Light wall

 

2

Heavy door

 

15

Light door

 

4

Cubicle

 

1

Glass

 

1.5


 

Defining an Inclusion Region on a Floor

To define an inclusion area, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Click the name of the appropriate floor area.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Map Editor .

Step 4 Click Go .

Step 5 At the map, click the aqua box on the toolbar.


Note A message box appears reminding you that only one inclusion area can be defined at a time. Defining a new inclusion region automatically removes the previously defined inclusion region. By default, an inclusion region is defined for each floor when it is added to Prime Infrastructure. The inclusion region is indicated by a solid aqua line and generally outlines the region.


Step 6 Click OK in the message box that appears. A drawing icon appears to outline the inclusion area.

Step 7 To begin defining the inclusion area, move the drawing icon to a starting point on the map and click once.

Step 8 Move the cursor along the boundary of the area you want to include and click to end a border line. Click again to define the next boundary line.

Step 9 Repeat Step 8 until the area is outlined and then double-click the drawing icon. A solid aqua line defines the inclusion area.

Step 10 Choose Save from the Command menu or click the disk icon on the toolbar to save the inclusion region.


Note If you made an error in defining the inclusion area, click the area. The selected area is outlined by a dashed aqua line. Next, click the X icon on the toolbar. The area is removed from the floor map.


Step 11 Select the Location Regions check box if it is not already selected. If you want it to apply to all floor maps, click Save settings . Close the Layers configuration page.

Step 12 To resynchronize Prime Infrastructure and MSE databases, choose Services > Synchronize Services .


Note If the two DBs are already synchronized then a resynchronization happens automatically every time there is a change. There is no need for an explicit resynch.


Step 13 In the Synchronize page, choose Network Designs from the Synchronize drop-down list and then click Synchronize .

You can confirm that the synchronization is successful by viewing two green arrows in the Sync. Status column.


Note Newly defined inclusion and exclusion regions appear on heatmaps only after the mobility services engine recalculates location.



 

Defining an Exclusion Region on a Floor

To further refine location calculations on a floor, you can define areas that are excluded (exclusion areas) in the calculations. For example, you might want to exclude areas such as an atrium or stairwell within a building. As a rule, exclusion areas are generally defined within the borders of an inclusion area.

To define an exclusion area, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Click the name of the appropriate floor area.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Map Editor .

Step 4 Click Go .

Step 5 At the map, click the purple box on the toolbar.

Step 6 Click OK in the message box that appears. A drawing icon appears to outline the exclusion area.

Step 7 To begin defining the exclusion area, move the drawing icon to the starting point on the map, and click once.

Step 8 Move the drawing icon along the boundary of the area you want to exclude. Click once to start a boundary line, and click again to end the boundary line.

Step 9 Repeat Step 8 until the area is outlined and then double-click the drawing icon. The defined exclusion area is shaded in purple when the area is completely defined. The excluded area is shaded in purple.

Step 10 To define additional exclusion regions, repeat Step 5 to Step 9.

Step 11 When all exclusion areas are defined, choose Save from the Command menu or click the disk icon on the toolbar to save the exclusion region.


Note To delete an exclusion area, click the area to be deleted. The selected area is outlined by a dashed purple line. Next, click the X icon on the toolbar. The area is removed from the floor map.


Step 12 Select the Location Regions check box if it is not already selected, click Save setting s, and close the Layers configuration page when complete.

Step 13 To resynchronize Prime Infrastructure and location databases, choose Services > Synchronize Services .

Step 14 In the Synchronize page, choose Network Designs from the Synchronize drop-down list and then click Synchronize .

You can confirm that the synchronization is successful by viewing two green arrows in the Sync. Status column.


 

Defining a Rail Line on a Floor

You can define a rail line on a floor that represents a conveyor belt. Additionally, you can define an area around the rail area known as the snap-width to further assist location calculations. This represents the area in which you expect clients to appear. Any client located within the snap-width area is plotted on the rail line (majority) or just outside of the snap-width area (minority).


Note Rail line configurations do not apply to tags.


The snap-width area is defined in feet or meters (user-defined) and represents the distance that is monitored on either side (east and west or north and south) of the rail.

To define a rail with a floor, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Click the name of the appropriate floor area.

Step 3 Choose Map Editor from the Select a command drop-down list.

Step 4 Click Go .

Step 5 In the map, click the rail icon (to the right of the purple exclusion icon) on the toolbar.

Step 6 In the message dialog box that appears, enter a snap-width (feet or meters) for the rail and then click OK. A drawing icon appears.

Step 7 Click the drawing icon at the starting point of the rail line. Click again when you want to stop drawing the line or change the direction of the line.

Step 8 Click the drawing icon twice when the rail line is completely drawn on the floor map. The rail line appears on the map and is bordered on either side by the defined snap-width region.


Note To delete a rail line, click the area to be deleted. The selected area is outlined by a dashed purple line. Next, click the X icon on the toolbar. The area is removed from the floor map.


Step 9 At the floor map, choose the Layers drop-down list.

Step 10 Select the Rails check box for if it is not already selected, click Save settings, and close the Layers configuration pane when complete.

Step 11 To resynchronize Prime Infrastructure and mobility services engine, choose Services > Synchronize Services .

Step 12 In the Synchronize page, choose Network Designs from the Synchronize drop-down list and then click Synchronize .

You can confirm that the synchronization is successful by viewing two green arrows in the Sync. Status column.


 

Adding an Outdoor Area


Note You can add an outdoor area to a campus map in the Prime Infrastructure database regardless of whether you have added outdoor area maps to the database.


To add an outdoor area to a campus map, follow these steps:


Step 1 If you want to add a map of the outdoor area to the database, save the map in .PNG, .JPG, .JPEG, or .GIF format. Then browse to and import the map from anywhere in your file system.


Note You do not need a map to add an outdoor area. You can simply define the dimensions of the area to add it to the database. The map can be any size because Prime Infrastructure automatically resizes the map to fit the workspace.


Step 2 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 3 Click the desired campus to display the Monitor > Site Maps > Campus View page.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose New Outdoor Area.

Step 5 Click Go. The Create New Area page appears.

Step 6 In the New Outdoor Area page, enter the following information:

    • Name—The user-defined name of the new outdoor area.
    • Contact—The user-defined contact name.
    • Area Type (RF Model)—Cubes And Walled Offices, Drywall Office Only, Outdoor Open Space (default).
    • AP Height (feet)—Enter the height of the access point.
    • Image File—Name of the file containing the outdoor area map. Click Browse to find the file.

Step 7 Click Next.

Step 8 Click Place to put the outdoor area on the campus map. Prime Infrastructure creates an outdoor area rectangle scaled to the size of the campus map.

Step 9 Click and drag the outdoor area rectangle to the desired position on the campus map.

Step 10 Click Save to save this outdoor area and its campus location to the database.


Note A hyperlink associated with the outdoor area takes you to the corresponding Maps page.


Step 11 ( Optional ) To assign location presence information for the new outdoor area, choose Edit Location Presence Info, and click Go.


Note By default, the Override Child Element Presence Info check box is selected. There is no need to alter this setting for outdoor areas.



 

Using Chokepoints to Enhance Tag Location Reporting

Installation of chokepoints provides enhanced location information for RFID tags. When an active Cisco Compatible Extensions Version 1-compliant RFID tag enters the range of a chokepoint, it is stimulated by the chokepoint. The MAC address of this chokepoint is then included in the next beacon sent by the stimulated tag. All access points that detect this tag beacon then forward the information to the controller and location appliance.

Using chokepoints in conjunction with active compatible extensions compliant tags provides immediate location information on a tag and its asset. When a Cisco Compatible Extension tag moves out of the range of a chokepoint, its subsequent beacon frames do not contain any identifying chokepoint information. Location determination of the tag defaults to the standard calculation methods based on RSSIs reported by the access point associated with the tag.

This section contains the following topics:

Adding Chokepoints to the Prime Infrastructure Database

Chokepoints are installed and configured as recommended by the Chokepoint vendor. After the chokepoint installation is complete and operational, the chokepoint can be entered into the location database and plotted on an Prime Infrastructure map.

To add a chokepoint to the Prime Infrastructure database, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Configure > Chokepoints .

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Add Chokepoints.

Step 3 Click Go.

Step 4 Enter the MAC address and name for the chokepoint.

Step 5 Select the Entry/Exit Chokepoint check box.

Step 6 Enter the coverage range for the chokepoint.


Note The Chokepoint range is a visual representation only. It is product-specific. The actual range must be configured separately using the applicable chokepoint vendor software.


Step 7 Click OK.


Note After the chokepoint is added to the database, it can be placed on the appropriate Prime Infrastructure floor map.



 

Adding a Chokepoint to a Prime Infrastructure Map

To add the chokepoint to a map, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 In the Maps page, choose the link that corresponds to the floor location of the chokepoint.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Add Chokepoints.

Step 4 Click Go.


Note The Add Chokepoints summary page lists all recently added chokepoints that are in the database but are not yet mapped.


Step 5 Select the check box next to the chokepoint that you want to place on the map.

Step 6 Click OK .

A map appears with a chokepoint icon located in the top left-hand corner. You are now ready to place the chokepoint on the map.

Step 7 Left-click the chokepoint icon and drag it to the proper location.


Note The MAC address, name, and coverage range of the chokepoint appear in the dialog box in the left when you click the chokepoint icon for placement.


Step 8 Click Save .

You are returned to the floor map and the added chokepoint appears on the map.


Note The newly created chokepoint icon might or might not appear on the map depending on the display settings for that floor.



Note The rings around the chokepoint icon indicate the coverage area. When a CCX tag and its asset passes within the coverage area, location details are broadcast, and the tag is automatically mapped on the chokepoint coverage circle. When the tag moves out of the chokepoint range, its location is calculated as before and is no longer mapped on the chokepoint rings.



Note The MAC address, name, entry/exit chokepoint, static IP address, and range of the chokepoint appear when you hover your mouse cursor over its map icon.


Step 9 If the chokepoint does not appear on the map, select the Chokepoints check box located in the Floor Settings menu.


Note Do not click Save Settings unless you want to save this display criteria for all maps.



Note You must synchronize the network design to the mobility services engine or location server to push chokepoint information.



 

Positioning Chokepoints

To position chokepoints on the map, follow these steps:


Step 1 Left-click the Chokepoint icon and drag it to the proper location.


Note The MAC address, name, and coverage range of the chokepoint appear in the dialog box in the left when you click the chokepoint icon for placement.


Step 2 Click Save when the icon is correctly placed on the map.

Step 3 The newly created chokepoint icon might or might not appear on the map depending on the display settings for that floor.


Note The rings around the chokepoint icon indicate the coverage area. When a Cisco Compatible Extensions tag and its asset passes within the coverage area, location details are broadcast, and the tag is automatically mapped on the chokepoint coverage circle. The chokepoint range is provided as a visual only, but chokepoint vendor software is required to actually configure the range. When the tag moves out of the chokepoint range, its location is calculated as before and is no longer mapped on the chokepoint rings.



Note The MAC address, name, and range of a chokepoint are displayed when you hover your mouse cursor over its map icon.


Step 4 If the chokepoint does not appear on the map, choose Layer s to view a drop-down list of possible elements to display on the map. Select the Chokepoints check box.


Note Do not click Save Settings unless you want to save this display criteria for all maps.



Note You can change the position of chokepoints by importing or exporting a file.



 

Configuring Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers

This section contains the following topics:

Adding Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers to the Prime Infrastructure Database

To add Wi-Fi TDOA receivers to the Prime Infrastructure database, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Configure > WiFi TDOA Receivers .

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Add WiFi TDOA Receivers.

Step 3 Click Go.

Step 4 Enter the MAC address, name, and static IP address for the Wi-Fi TDOA receiver.


Note Wi-Fi TDOA receivers are configured separately using the Wi-Fi TDOA receiver vendor software.


Step 5 Click OK to save the Wi-Fi TDOA receiver entry to the database.


Note After the Wi-Fi TDOA receiver is added to the database, place it on the appropriate Prime Infrastructure floor map. See the “Adding Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers to the Prime Infrastructure Database” section for more information.



 

Adding Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers to a Map

To add a WiFi TDOA receiver to a map, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 Choose the link that corresponds to the floor location of the Wi-Fi TDOA receiver.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Add WiFi TDOA Receivers.

Step 4 Click Go.


Note The Add WiFi TDOA Receivers summary page lists all recently added Wi-Fi TDOA receivers that are in the database but are not yet mapped.


Step 5 Select the check box next to the Wi-Fi TDOA receiver to be added to the map.

Step 6 Click OK .

A map appears with a green WiFi TDOA receiver icon located in the top left-hand corner. You are now ready to position the Wi-Fi TDOA receiver on the map.


 

Positioning Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers

To position Wi-Fi TDOA receivers on the map, follow these steps:


Step 1 Left-click the WiFi TDOA receiver icon and drag it to the proper location.


Note The MAC address and name of the Wi-Fi TDOA receiver appear in the left pane when you click the WiFi TDOA receiver icon for placement.


Step 2 Click Save when the icon is correctly placed on the map.


Note The MAC address of the Wi-Fi TDOA receiver appears when you hover your mouse cursor over its map icon.


Step 3 If the chokepoint does not appear on the map, click Layer s to view a drop-down list of possible elements to display on the map. Select the WiFi TDOA Receivers check box.


Note Do not select Save Settings unless you want to save this display criteria for all maps.



Note You can change the position of Wi-Fi TDOA Receivers by importing or exporting a file.



 

Managing RF Calibration Models

If the provided RF models do not sufficiently characterize the floor layout, you can create a calibration model that is applied to the floor and better represents the attenuation characteristics of that floor. The calibration models are used as RF overlays with measured RF signal characteristics that can be applied to different floor areas. This enables the Cisco WLAN solution installation team to lay out one floor in a multi-floor area, use the RF calibration tool to measure, save the RF characteristics of that floor as a new calibration model, and apply that calibration model to all the other floors with the same physical layout.

You can collect data for a calibration using one of two methods:

  • Point mode data collection—Calibration points are selected and their coverage area is calculated one location at a time.
  • Linear mode data collection—A series of linear paths are selected and then calculated as you traverse the path. This approach is generally faster than the point mode data collection. You can also employ point mode data collection to augment data collection for locations missed by the linear paths.

Note Calibration models can only be applied to clients, rogue clients, and rogue access points. Calibration for tags is done using the Aeroscout System Manager. See the following URL for details on tag calibration at: http://support.aeroscout.com.



Note We recommend client device that supports both 802.11a/n and 802.11b/g/n radios to expedite the calibration process for both spectrums.


Use a laptop or other wireless device to open a browser to Prime Infrastructure server and perform the calibration process.

This section contains the following topics:

Accessing Current Calibration Models

To access current calibration models, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose RF Calibration Models. The Model Name and Status for each calibration model are listed.

Step 3 Click the model name to access a specific calibration model.


 

Applying Calibration Models to Maps

To apply a current calibration model to a map, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose RF Calibration Models .

Step 3 Click the model name to access the applicable calibration model.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Apply to Maps.

Step 5 Click Go.


 

Viewing Calibration Model Properties

To view or edit current calibration models, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose RF Calibration Models.

Step 3 Click the model name to access the applicable calibration model.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Properties.

Step 5 Click Go to view or edit calibration model details. See the “Viewing Calibration Model Properties” section for more information.


 

Viewing Calibration Model Details

To edit calibration model details, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose RF Calibration Models.

Step 3 Click the model name to access the applicable calibration model.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Properties.

Step 5 Click Go.

Step 6 The following parameters might be edited:

    • Sweep Client Power for Location—Click to enable. You might want to enable this if a high density of access points exists and transmit power is reduced or unknown. The sweeping range of client transmit power might improve accuracy but scalability is negatively affected.
    • HeatMap Binsize—Choose 4 , 8 , 16 , or 32 from the drop-down list.
    • HeatMap Cutoff—Determine the heatmap cutoff. We recommend a low heatmap cutoff especially if the access point density is high and RF propagation conditions are favorable. A higher cutoff value increases scalability but might cause difficulty when locating clients.

Step 7 When any necessary changes have been made or to exit the page, click OK.


 

Creating New Calibration Models

To create a new calibration model, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose RF Calibration Models.

Step 3 Click Go.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Create New Model.

Step 5 Click Go.

Step 6 Enter a model name, and click OK.

The new model appears along with the other RF calibration models with a status of Not Yet Calibrated.


 

Starting Calibration Process

To start the calibration process, follow these steps:


Step 1 Click the model name to open the Calibration Model > Model Name page.

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Add Data Points.

Step 3 Click Go.

Step 4 Enter the MAC address of the device being used to perform the calibration. Manually-entered MAC addresses must be delimited with colons (such as FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF).


Note If this process is being performed from a mobile device connected to Prime Infrastructure through the Cisco Centralized architecture, the MAC address text box is automatically populated with the device address.


Step 5 Choose the appropriate campus, building, floor, or outdoor area where the calibration is performed.


Note The calibration in the outdoor area is supported in Release 1.0.x and later. You can use this option to add the calibration data points to the outdoor area. The data points can be added to the outdoor area using the same procedure for calibration.


Step 6 Click Next.

Step 7 When the chosen floor map and access point locations appear, a grid of plus marks (+) indicates the locations where data collection for calibration is performed.

Using these locations as guidelines, you can perform either a point or linear collection of data by appropriate placement of either the Calibration Point pop-up (point) or the Start and Finish pop-ups (linear) that appear on the map when the respective options are displayed.

If you want to perform a point collection of data for the calibration, do the following:

a. Choose Point from the Collection Method drop-down list and select the Show Data points check box if not already selected. A calibration point pop-up appears on the map.

b. Position the tip of the calibration point pop-up at a data point (+), and click Go. A dialog box appears showing the progress of the data collection.


Note Rotate the calibrating client laptop during data collection so that the client is heard evenly by all access points in the vicinity.


c. When the data collection is complete for a selected data point and the coverage area is plotted on the map, move the calibration point pop-up to another data point, and click Go.


Note The coverage area plotted on the map is color-coded and corresponds with the specific wireless LAN standard used to collect that data. Information on color-coding is provided in legend on the left side of the page. Additionally, the progress of the calibration process is indicated by two status bars above the legend, one for 802.11a/n and one for 802.11b/g/n.



Note To delete data points for locations selected in error, click Delete and move the black square that appears over the appropriate data points. Resize the square as necessary by pressing Ctrl and moving the mouse.


d. Repeat point collection Steps a. to c. until the calibration status bar of the relevant spectrums (802.11a/n, 802.11b/g/n) display as ‘done.’


Note The calibration status bar indicates data collection for the calibration as done after roughly 50 distinct locations and 150 measurements have been gathered. For every location point saved in the calibration process, more than one data point is gathered. The progress of the calibration process is indicated by two status bars above the legend, one for 802.11b/g/n and one for 802.11a/n.


If you want to perform a linear collection of data for the calibration, do the following:

a. Choose Linear from the Collection Method drop-down list, and select the Show Data points check box if not already selected. A line appears on the map with both Start and Finish pop-ups.

b. Position the tip of the Start pop-up at the starting data point.

c. Position the Finish pop-up at the ending data point.

d. Position yourself with your laptop at the starting data point, and click Go. Walk steadily towards the end point along the defined path. A dialog box appears to show that data collection is in process.


Note Do not stop data collection until you reach the end point even if the data collection bar indicates completion.



Note Only Intel and Cisco adapters have been tested. Make sure Enable Cisco Compatible Extensions and Enable Radio Management Support are enabled in the Cisco Compatible Extension Options.


e. Press the space bar (or Done on the data collection panel) when you reach the end point. The collection pane displays the number of samples taken before it closes to reveal the map. The map displays all the coverage areas where data was collected.


Note To delete data points for locations selected in error, click Delete and move the black square that appears over the appropriate data points. Resize the square as necessary by pressing the Ctrl and moving the mouse.



Note The coverage area is color-coded and corresponds with the specific wireless LAN standard used to collect that data. Information on color-coding is provided in legend on the left-hand side of the page.


f. Repeat linear collection Steps b to e until the status bar for the respective spectrum is filled in (done).


Note You can augment linear collection with point mode data collection to address missed coverage areas.


Step 8 Click the name of the calibration model at the top of the page to return to the main page for that model to calibrate the data points.

Step 9 Choose Calibrate from the Select a command drop-down list, and click Go.

Step 10 Click the Inspect Location Quality link when calibration completes. A map displays showing RSSI readings displays.

Step 11 To use the newly created calibration model, you must apply the model to the floor on which it was created (and on any other floors with similar attenuation characteristics as well). Choose Monitor > Site Maps and find the specific floor to which the model is applied. At the floor map interface, choose Edit Floor Area from the drop-down list, and click Go.

Step 12 From the Floor Type (RF Model) drop-down list, choose the newly created calibration model. Click OK to apply the model to the floor.


Note This process can be repeated for as many models and floors as needed. After a model is applied to a floor, all location determination performed on that floor is done using the specific collected attenuation data from the calibration model.



 

Calibrating

To compute the collected data points, follow these steps:


Step 1 Click the model name to open the Calibration Model > Model Name page.

Step 2 In the Calibration Model > Model Name page, choose Calibrate from the Select a command drop-down list.

Step 3 Click Go.


 

Apply the Model to the Floor

To use the newly created calibration model, you must apply the model to the floor on which it was created (along with other floors with similar attenuation characteristics).

To apply the model to the floor, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 Locate the specific floor to which the model is applied.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Edit Floor Area.

Step 4 Click Go.

Step 5 From the Floor Type (RF Model) drop-down list, choose the newly-created calibration model.

Step 6 Click OK to apply the model to the floor.

This process can be repeated for as many models and floors as needed. After a model is applied to a floor, all location determination performed on that floor is done using the specific collected attenuation data from the calibration model.


 

Deleting Calibration Models

To delete a calibration model, follow these steps:


Step 1 Click the model name to open the Calibration Model > Model Name page.

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Delete Model.

Step 3 Click Go.


 

Managing Location Presence Information

You can enable location presence through mobility services engine to provide expanded Civic (city, state, postal code, country) and GEO (longitude, latitude) location information beyond the Cisco default setting (campus, building, floor, and X, Y coordinates). This information can then be requested by clients on a demand basis for use by location-based services and applications. See the “Enabling Location Presence for Mobility Services” section for more information on enabling location presence.

To view or edit current location presence information for a current map, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Select the check box of the map.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Location Presence .

Step 4 Click Go .

The Location Presence page appears.


Note The current map location information (Area Type, Campus, Building, and Floor) see the map you selected in the Monitor > Site Maps page. To select a different map, use the Select a Map to Update Presence Information drop-down lists to choose the new map location.


Step 5 Click the Civic Address , GPS Markers , or Advanced tab.

Civic Address—Identifies the campus, building, or floor by name, street, house number, house number suffix, city (address line2), state, postal code, and country.

GPS Markers—Identify the campus, building, or floor by longitude and latitude.

Advanced—Identifies the campus, building, or floor with expanded civic information such as neighborhood, city division, county, and postal community name.


Note Each selected field is inclusive of all of those above it. For example, if you select Advanced, it can also provide GPS and Civic location information upon client demand. The selected setting must match what is set on the mobility services engine level. See the Enabling Location Presence for Mobility Services for more information.



Note If a client requests location information such as GPS Markers for a campus, building, floor, or outdoor area that is not configured for that field, an error message appears.



Note By default, the Override Child Element Presence Info check box is selected.



 

Searching Maps

You can use the following parameters in the Search Maps page:

  • Search for
  • Map Name
  • Search in
  • Save Search
  • Items per page

After you click Go, the map search results page appears (see Table 6-5 ).

Table 6-5 Map Search Results

Field
Options

Name

Clicking an item in the Name column provides a map of an existing building with individual floor area maps for each floor.

Type

Campus, building, or floor area.

Total APs

Displays the total number of Cisco Radios detected.

a/n Radios

Displays the number of 802.11a/n Cisco Radios.

b/g/n Radios

Displays the number of 802.11b/g/n Cisco Radios.

Using the Map Editor

You can use Prime Infrastructure map editor to define, draw, and enhance floor plan information. This section contains the following topics:

Opening the Map Editor

Follow these steps to use the map editor:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 Click the desired campus. The Site Maps > Campus Name page appears.

Step 3 Click a campus and then click a building.

Step 4 Click the desired floor area. The Site Maps > Campus Name > Building Name > Floor Area Name page appears.

Step 5 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Map Editor, and click Go. The Map Editor page appears.


Note Make sure that the floor plan images are properly scaled so that all white space outside of the external walls is removed. To make sure that floor dimensions are accurate, click the compass tool on the toolbar.


Step 6 Position the reference length. When you do, the Scale menu appears with the line length supplied. Enter the dimensions (width and height) of the reference length, and click OK.

Step 7 Determine the propagation pattern from the Antenna Mode drop-down list.

Step 8 Make antenna adjustments by sliding the antenna orientation bar to the desired degree of direction.

Step 9 Choose the desired access point.

Step 10 Click Save.


 

Using the Map Editor to Draw Polygon Areas

If you have a building that is non-rectangular or you want to mark a non-rectangular area within a floor, you can use the map editor to draw a polygon-shaped area.


Step 1 Add the floor plan if it is not already represented in Prime Infrastructure (see the “Adding Floor Areas” section).

Step 2 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 3 Click the Map Name that corresponds to the outdoor area, campus, building, or floor you want to edit.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Map Editor, and click Go .

Step 5 It the Map Editor page, click the Add Perimeter icon on the toolbar.

A pop-up appears.

Step 6 Enter the name of the area that you are defining. Click OK .

A drawing tool appears.

Step 7 Move the drawing tool to the area you want to outline.

  • Click the left mouse button to begin and end drawing a line.
  • When you have completely outlined the area, double-click the left mouse button and the area is highlighted in the page.

The outlined area must be a closed object to appear highlighted on the map.

Step 8 Click the disk icon on the toolbar to save the newly drawn area.

Step 9 Choose Command > Exit to close the window. You are returned to the original floor plan.


Note When you return to the original floor plan view after exiting the map editor, the newly drawn area is not visible; however, it appears in the Planning Model page when you add elements.


Step 10 Choose Planning Mode from the Select a command drop-down list to begin adding elements to the newly defined polygon-shaped area.

The Table 6-6 describes the obstacle color coding.

Table 6-6 Obstacle Color Coding

Type of obstacle
Color coding
Loss (in dB)

Thick wall

 

13

Light wall

 

2

Heavy door

 

15

Light door

 

4

Cubicle

 

1

Glass

 

1.5


Note The RF prediction heatmaps for access points approximates of the actual RF signal intensity. It takes into account the attenuation of obstacles drawn using the Map Editor but it does not take into account the attenuation of various building materials, such as drywall or metal objects, nor does it display the effects of RF signals bouncing off obstructions. The thick wall (color-coded orange) with a loss of 13 dB might not be enough to contain the RF signal beyond the walls of the heatmap.



 

Defining an Inclusion Region on a Floor

To define an inclusion area, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Click the name of the appropriate floor area.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Map Editor .

Step 4 Click Go .

Step 5 At the map, click the aqua box on the toolbar.


Note A message box appears reminding you that only one inclusion area can be defined at a time. Defining a new inclusion region automatically removes the previously defined inclusion region. By default, an inclusion region is defined for each floor when it is added to Prime Infrastructure. The inclusion region is indicated by a solid aqua line and generally outlines the region.


Step 6 Click OK in the message box that appears. A drawing icon appears to outline the inclusion area.

Step 7 To begin defining the inclusion area, move the drawing icon to a starting point on the map and click once.

Step 8 Move the cursor along the boundary of the area you want to include and click to end a border line. Click again to define the next boundary line.

Step 9 Repeat Step 8 until the area is outlined and then double-click the drawing icon. A solid aqua line defines the inclusion area.

Step 10 Choose Save from the Command menu or click the disk icon on the toolbar to save the inclusion region.


Note If you made an error in defining the inclusion area, click the area. The selected area is outlined by a dashed aqua line. Next, click the X icon on the toolbar. The area is removed from the floor map.


Step 11 To return to the floor map to enable inclusion regions on heatmaps, choose Exit from the Command menu.

Step 12 Select the Location Regions check box if it is not already selected. If you want it to apply to all floor maps, click Save settings . Close the Layers configuration page.

Step 13 To resynchronize Prime Infrastructure and MSE databases, choose Services > Synchronize Services .


Note If the two DBs are already synchronized then a resynchronization happens automatically every time there is a change. There is no need for an explicit resynch.


Step 14 In the Synchronize page, choose Network Designs from the Synchronize drop-down list and then click Synchronize .

You can confirm that the synchronization is successful by viewing two green arrows in the Sync. Status column.


Note Newly defined inclusion and exclusion regions appear on heatmaps only after the mobility services engine recalculates location.



 

Defining an Exclusion Region on a Floor

To further refine location calculations on a floor, you can define areas that are excluded (exclusion areas) in the calculations. For example, you might want to exclude areas such as an atrium or stairwell within a building. As a rule, exclusion areas are generally defined within the borders of an inclusion area.

To define an exclusion area, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Click the name of the appropriate floor area.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Map Editor .

Step 4 Click Go .

Step 5 At the map, click the purple box on the toolbar.

Step 6 Click OK in the message box that appears. A drawing icon appears to outline the exclusion area.

Step 7 To begin defining the exclusion area, move the drawing icon to the starting point on the map, and click once.

Step 8 Move the drawing icon along the boundary of the area you want to exclude. Click once to start a boundary line, and click again to end the boundary line.

Step 9 Repeat Step 8 until the area is outlined and then double-click the drawing icon. The defined exclusion area is shaded in purple when the area is completely defined. The excluded area is shaded in purple.

Step 10 To define additional exclusion regions, repeat Step 5 to Step 9.

Step 11 When all exclusion areas are defined, choose Save from the Command menu or click the disk icon on the toolbar to save the exclusion region.


Note To delete an exclusion area, click the area to be deleted. The selected area is outlined by a dashed purple line. Next, click the X icon on the toolbar. The area is removed from the floor map.


Step 12 To return to the floor map to enable exclusion regions on heatmaps, choose Exit from the Command menu.

Step 13 Select the Location Regions check box if it is not already selected, click Save setting s, and close the Layers configuration page when complete.

Step 14 To resynchronize Prime Infrastructure and location databases, choose Services > Synchronize Services .

Step 15 In the Synchronize page, choose Network Designs from the Synchronize drop-down list and then click Synchronize .

You can confirm that the synchronization is successful by viewing two green arrows in the Sync. Status column.


 

Defining a Rail Line on a Floor

You can define a rail line on a floor that represents a conveyor belt. Additionally, you can define an area around the rail area known as the snap-width to further assist location calculations. This represents the area in which you expect clients to appear. Any client located within the snap-width area is plotted on the rail line (majority) or just outside of the snap-width area (minority).


Note Rail line configurations do not apply to tags.


The snap-width area is defined in feet or meters (user-defined) and represents the distance that is monitored on either side (east and west or north and south) of the rail.

To define a rail with a floor, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Click the name of the appropriate floor area.

Step 3 Choose Map Editor from the Select a command drop-down list.

Step 4 Click Go .

Step 5 In the map, click the rail icon (to the right of the purple exclusion icon) on the toolbar.

Step 6 In the message dialog box that appears, enter a snap-width (feet or meters) for the rail and then click OK. A drawing icon appears.

Step 7 Click the drawing icon at the starting point of the rail line. Click again when you want to stop drawing the line or change the direction of the line.

Step 8 Click the drawing icon twice when the rail line is completely drawn on the floor map. The rail line appears on the map and is bordered on either side by the defined snap-width region.


Note To delete a rail line, click the area to be deleted. The selected area is outlined by a dashed purple line. Next, click the X icon on the toolbar. The area is removed from the floor map.


Step 9 To return to the floor map to enable rails on heatmaps, choose Exit from the Command menu.

Step 10 At the floor map, choose the Layers drop-down list.

Step 11 Select the Rails check box for if it is not already selected, click Save settings, and close the Layers configuration panel when complete.

Step 12 To resynchronize Prime Infrastructure and mobility services engine, choose Services > Synchronize Services .

Step 13 In the Synchronize page, choose Network Designs from the Synchronize drop-down list and then click Synchronize .

You can confirm that the synchronization is successful by viewing two green arrows in the Sync. Status column.


 

Inspecting Location Readiness and Quality

You can configure Prime Infrastructure to verify the ability of the existing access point deployment to estimate the true location of a client, rogue client, rogue access point, or tag within 10 meters at least 90% of the time. The location readiness calculation is based on the number and placement of access points.

You can also check the location quality and the ability of a given location to meet the location specification (10 m, 90%) based on data points gathered during a physical inspection and calibration.

Inspecting Location Readiness

The Inspect Location Readiness feature is a distance-based predictive tool that can point out problem areas with access point placement.

To access the Inspect Location Readiness tool, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 Click the applicable floor area name to view the map.


Note If RSSI is not displayed, you can enable AP Heatmaps by selecting the AP Heatmaps check box on the left sidebar menu.



Note If clients, tags, and access points are not displayed, verify that their respective check boxes are selected on the left sidebar menu. Licenses for both clients and tags must also be purchased for each to be tracked.


Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Inspect Location Readiness.

Step 4 Click Go.

A color-coded map appears showing those areas that meet (indicated by Yes) and do not meet (indicated by No) the ten meter, 90% location specification.


 

Inspecting Location Quality Using Calibration Data

After completing a calibration model based on data points generated during a physical tour of the area, you can inspect the location quality of the access points.

To inspect location quality based on calibration, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 Choose RF Calibration Model from the Select a command list. Click Go.

A list of calibration models appears.

Step 3 Click the appropriate calibration model.

Details on the calibration including date of last calibration, number of data points by signal type (802.11a, 802.11 b/g) used in the calibration, location, and coverage are displayed.

Step 4 In the same page, click the Inspect Location Quality link found under the Calibration Floors heading.

A color-coded map noting percentage of location errors appears.


Note You can modify the distance selected to see the effect on the location errors.



 

Inspecting VoWLAN Readiness

The VoWLAN Readiness (voice readiness) tool allows you to check the RF coverage to determine if it is sufficient for your voice needs. This tool verifies RSSI levels after access points have been installed.

To access the VoWLAN Readiness Tool (VRT), follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 Click the applicable floor area name.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Inspect VoWLAN Readiness.

Step 4 Choose the applicable Band, AP Transmit Power, and Client parameters from the drop-down lists.


Note By default, the region map displays the b/g/n band for Cisco Phone-based RSSI threshold. The new settings cannot be saved.


Step 5 Depending on the selected client, the following RSSI values might not be editable:

    • Cisco Phone—RSSI values are not editable.
    • Custom—RSSI values are editable with the following ranges:

Low threshold between -95dBm to -45dBm

High threshold between -90dBm to -40dBm

Step 6 The following color schemes indicate whether or not the area is voice ready:

    • Green—Yes
    • Yellow—Marginal
    • Red—No

Note The accuracy of the Green/Yellow/Red regions depends on the RF environment and whether or not the floor is calibrated. If the floor is calibrated, the accuracy of the regions is enhanced.



 

Troubleshooting Voice RF Coverage Issues

  • Floors with either calibration or no calibration data are treated as follows:

Set the AP Transmit field to Max (the maximum downlink power settings). If the map still shows some yellow or red regions, more access points are required to cover the floor.

If the calibrated model shows red or yellow regions (where voice is expected to be deployed) with the AP Transmit field set to Current, increasing the power level of the access points might help.

Monitoring Mesh Networks Using Maps

You can access and view details for the following elements from a mesh network map in Prime Infrastructure:

  • Mesh Link Statistics
  • Mesh Access Points
  • Mesh Access Point Neighbors

Details on how this information is accessed and displayed for each of these items is detailed in this section. This section contains the following topics:

Monitoring Mesh Link Statistics Using Maps

You can view the SNR for a specific mesh network link, view the number of packets transmitted and received on that link, and initiate a link test in the Monitor > Site Maps page.

To view details on a specific mesh link between two mesh access points or a mesh access point and a root access point, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Click the map name that corresponds to the outdoor area, campus, building, or floor you want to monitor.

Step 3 From the left sidebar menu, click the arrow to the right of AP Mesh Info. The Mesh Filter dialog box appears.

Step 4 Move the cursor over the colored dot next to each mesh access point child to view details on the link between it and its parent. Table 6-7 summarizes the parameters that appear.

The color of the dot also provides a quick reference point of the SNR strength as follows:

  • A green dot represents a high SNR (above 25 dB).
  • An amber dot represents an acceptable SNR (20-25 dB).
  • A red dot represents a low SNR (below 20 dB).
  • A black dot indicates a root access point.

The Bridging Link information appears.

 

Table 6-7 Bridging Link Information

Field
Description

Information fetched on

Date and time that information was compiled.

Link SNR

Link signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

Link Type

Hierarchical link relationship.

SNR Up

Signal-to-noise radio for the uplink (dB).

SNR Down

Signal-to-noise radio for the downlink (dB).

PER

The packet error rate for the link.

Tx Parent Packets

The TX packets to a node while acting as a parent.

Rx Parent Packets

The RX packets to a node while acting as a parent.

Time of Last Hello

Date and time of last hello.

Step 5 Click either Link Test, Child to Parent or Link Test, Parent to Child. After the link test is complete, a results page appears.


Note A link test runs for 30 seconds.



Note You cannot run link tests for both links (child-to-parent and parent-to-child) at the same time.


Step 6 To view a graphical representation of SNR statistics over a period of time, click the arrow on the link. A page with multiple SNR graphs appears.

The following graphs are displayed for the link:

  • SNR Up—Plots the RSSI values of the neighbor from the perspective of the access point.
  • SNR Down—Plots the RSSI values that the neighbor reports to the access point.
  • Link SNR—Plots a weighed and filtered measurement based on the SNR Up value.
  • The Adjusted Link Metric—Plots the value used to determine the least cost path to the root access point. This value represents the ease of getting the rooftop access point and accounts for the number of hops. The lower the ease value, the less likely the path is used.
  • The Unadjusted Link Metric—Plots the least cost path to get to the root access point unadjusted by the number of hops. The higher the value for the unadjusted link, the better the path.


 

Monitoring Mesh Access Points Using Maps

You can view the following summary information for a mesh access point from a mesh network map:

  • Parent
  • Number of children
  • Hop count
  • Role
  • Group name
  • Backhaul interface
  • Data Rate
  • Channel

Note This information is in addition to the information shown for all access points (MAC address, access point model, controller IP address, location, height of access point, access point uptime, and LWAPP uptime).



Note You can also view detailed configuration, and access alarm, and event information from the map. For detailed information on the Alarms and Events displayed, see the “Alarm and Event Dictionary” section.


To view summary and detailed configuration information for a mesh access point from a mesh network map, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Click the map name that corresponds to the outdoor area, campus, building, or floor location of the access point you want to monitor.

Step 3 To view summary configuration information for an access point, hover your mouse cursor over the access point that you want to monitor. A dialog box with configuration information for the selected access point appears.

Step 4 To view detailed configuration information for an access point, double-click the access point appearing on the map. The configuration details for the access point appear.


Note For more details on the View Mesh Neighbors link in the access point dialog box, see the “Monitoring Mesh Access Point Neighbors Using Maps” section. If the access point has an IP address, a Run Ping Test link is also visible at the bottom of the mesh access point dialog box.


Step 5 In the Access Point Details configuration page, follow these steps to view configuration details for the mesh access point:

a. Click the General tab to view the overall configuration of the mesh access point such as the AP name, MAC address, AP Up time, associated controllers (registered and primary) operational status, and software version.


Note The software version for mesh access points is appended with the letter m and the word mesh appears in parentheses.


b. Click the Interface tab to view configuration details for the interfaces supported on the mesh access point. Interface options are radio and Ethernet.

c. Click the Mesh Links tab to view parent and neighbor details (name, MAC address, packet error rate, and link details) for the mesh access point. You can also initiate link tests from this page.

d. Click the Mesh Statistics tab to view details on the bridging, queue, and security statistics for the mesh access point. For more details on mesh statistics, see the “Mesh Statistics Tab” section.


 

Monitoring Mesh Access Point Neighbors Using Maps

To view details on neighbors of a mesh access point from a mesh network map, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps .

Step 2 Click the map name that corresponds to the outdoor area, campus, building, or floor you want to monitor.

Step 3 To view detailed information on mesh links for a mesh access point, click the arrow portion of the access point label. The Access Points page appears.

Step 4 Click the Mesh Links tab.


Note You can also view mesh link details for neighbors of a selected access point by clicking the View Mesh Neighbors link on the Mesh tab of the access point configuration summary dialog box, which appears when you hover your mouse cursor over an access point on a map.



Note Signal-to-noise (SNR) appears in the View Mesh Neighbors dialog box.



Note In addition to listing the current and past neighbors in the dialog box that appears, labels are added to the mesh access points map icons to identify the selected access point, the neighbor access point, and the child access point. Click the clear link of the selected access point to remove the relationship labels from the map.



Note The drop-down lists at the top of the mesh neighbors page indicate the resolution of the map (100%) displayed and how often the information displayed is updated (every 5 mins). You can modify these default values.



 

Viewing the Mesh Network Hierarchy

You can view the parent-child relationship of mesh access points within a mesh network in an easily navigable display. You can also filter which access points are displayed in the map view by selecting only access points of interest.

To view the mesh network hierarchy for a selected network, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 Click the map name you want to display.

Step 3 Select the AP Mesh Info check box in the left sidebar menu if it is not already selected.


Note The AP Mesh Info check box is only selectable if mesh access points are present on the map. It must be selected to view the mesh hierarchy.


Step 4 Click the blue arrow to the right of the AP Mesh Info to display the Mesh Parent-Child Hierarchical View.

Step 5 Click the plus (+) sign next to a mesh access point to display its children.

All subordinate mesh access points are displayed when a negative (-) sign appears next to the parent mesh access point entry. For example, the access point, indoor-mesh-45-rap2 , has only one child, indoor -mesh-44-map2.

Step 6 Hover your mouse cursor over the colored dot next to each mesh access point child to view details on the link between it and its parent. Table 6-8 summarizes the parameters that appear.

The color of the dot also provides a quick reference point of the SNR strength:

  • A green dot represents a high SNR (above 25 dB).
  • An amber dot represents an acceptable SNR (20-25 dB).
  • A red dot represents a low SNR (below 20 dB).
  • A black dot indicates a root access point.

 

Table 6-8 Bridging Link Information

Field
Description

Information fetched on

Date and time that information was compiled.

Link SNR

Link signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

Link Type

Hierarchical link relationship.

SNR Up

Signal-to-noise radio for the uplink (dB).

SNR Down

Signal-to-noise radio for the downlink (dB).

PER

The packet error rate for the link.

Tx Parent Packets

The TX packets to a node while acting as a parent.

Rx Parent Packets

The RX packets to a node while acting as a parent.

Time of Last Hello

Date and time of last hello.


 

Using Mesh Filters to Modify Map Display of Maps and Mesh Links

In the mesh hierarchical page, you can also define mesh filters to determine which mesh access points display on the map based on hop values as well as what labels display for mesh links.

Mesh access points are filtered by the number of hops between them and their root access point.

To use mesh filtering, follow these steps:


Step 1 To modify what label and color displays for a mesh link, follow these steps:

a. In the Mesh Parent-Child Hierarchical View, choose an option from the Link Label drop-down list. Options are None, Link SNR, and Packet Error Rate.

b. In the Mesh Parent-Child Hierarchical View, choose an option from the Link Color drop-down list to define which parameter (Link SNR or Packet Error Rate) determines the color of the mesh link on the map.


Note The color of the link provides a quick reference point of the SNR strength or Packet Error Rate. Table 6-9 defines the different link colors.


Table 6-9 Definition for SNR and Packet Error Rate Link Color

Link Color
Link SNR
Packet Error Rate (PER)

Green

Represents a SNR above 25 dB (high value)

Represents a PER of one percent (1%) or lower

Amber

Represents a SNR between 20 and 25 dB (acceptable value)

Represents a PER that is less than ten percent (10%) and greater than one percent (1%)

Red

Represents a SNR below 20 dB (low value)

Represents a PER that is greater than ten percent (10%)


Note The Link label and color settings are reflected on the map immediately. You can display both SNR and PER values simultaneously.


Step 2 To modify which mesh access points display based on the number of hops between them and their parents, do the following:

a. In the Mesh Parent-Child Hierarchical View, choose the appropriate options from the Quick Selections drop-down list. A description of the options is provided in Table 6-10 .

 

Table 6-10 Quick Selection Options

Field
Description

Select only Root APs

Choose this setting if you want the map view to display root access points only.

Select up to 1st hops

Choose this setting if you want the map view to display 1st hops only.

Select up to 2nd hops

Choose this setting if you want the map view to display 2nd hops only.

Select up to 3rd hops

Choose this setting if you want the map view to display 3rd hops only.

Select up to 4th hops

Choose this setting if you want the map view to display 4th hops only.

Select All

Select this setting if you want the map view to display all access points.

b. Click Update Map View to refresh the screen and display the map view with the selected options.


Note Map view information is retrieved from Prime Infrastructure database and is updated every 15 minutes.



Note You can also select or unselect the check boxes of access points in the mesh hierarchical view to modify which mesh access points are displayed. For a child access point to be visible, the parent access point to root access point must be selected.



Note If you want to have the MAC address appear with the client logo in the Monitor > Site Maps page, follow these steps:
a) Go to the Maps Tree View.
b) Click the > beside Clients.
c) Unselect the Small Icons check box.



 

Monitoring Tags Using Maps

On an Prime Infrastructure map, you can review the name of the access point that generated the signal for a tagged asset, its strength of signal and when the location information was last updated for the asset. This information is displayed by simply hovering the mouse cursor over the asset tag icon on the map.

To enable tag location status on a map, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 Choose Campus > Building > Floor for the applicable mobility services engine and tag.

Step 3 Select the 802.11 Tags check box in the Floor Settings pane (left), if not already selected.


Note Do not click Save Settings unless you want to save changes made to the Floor Settings across all maps.


Step 4 Hover the mouse cursor over a tag icon (yellow tag) and a summary of its configuration appears in a dialog box.

Step 5 Click the tag icon to see tag details in a new window.


 

Using Planning Mode

You can calculate the recommended number and location of access points based on whether data and/or voice traffic and/or location are active.


Note Based on the throughput specified for each protocol (802.11a or 802.11 b/g), planning mode calculates the total number of access points required that would provide optimum coverage in your network.


Accessing Planning Mode

To access the Planning Mode feature, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 Select the desired campus or building from the Name list.

Step 3 Click the desired floor area in the Building.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Planning Mode .

Step 5 Click Go .


Note Planning mode does not use AP type or Antenna pattern information for calculating the number of access points required. The calculation is based on the access point coverage area or the number of users per access point.


Planning Mode options:

    • Add APs—Enables you to add access points on a map. See the “Using Planning Mode to Calculate Access Point Requirements” section for details.
    • Delete APs—Deletes the selected access points.
    • Map Editor—Opens the Map Editor window. See the “Using the Map Editor” section for more details.
    • Synchronize with Deployment—Synchronizes your planning mode access points with the current deployment scenario.
    • Generate Proposal—View a planning summary of the current access points deployment.
    • Planned AP Association Tool—Allows you to perform add, delete or import an AP Association from an excel or CSV file. Once an access point is defined, it can be associated to a base radio MAC address using the Planned AP Association Tool. If the AP is not discovered they get pushed into a standby bucket and get associated when discovered.

Note AP association is subjected to a limitation that AP should not belong to any floor or outdoor area. If the AP is already assigned to a floor or outdoor area, then the standby bucket holds the AP and when removed from the floor or outdoor, get positioned to the given floor. One Mac address cannot be put into bucket for multiple floor or outdoor areas.



Note The map synchronizations works only if the AP is associated to a base radio MAC address and not to its Ethernet MAC address.



 

Using Planning Mode to Calculate Access Point Requirements

Prime Infrastructure planning mode enables you to calculate the number of access points required to cover an area by placing fictitious access points on a map and allowing you to view the coverage area. Based on the throughput specified for each protocol (802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n), planning mode calculates the total number of access points required to provide optimum coverage in your network. You can calculate the recommended number and location of access points based on the following criteria:

  • traffic type active on the network: data or voice traffic or both
  • location accuracy requirements
  • number of active users
  • number of users per square footage

To calculate the recommended number and placement of access points for a given deployment, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

The Site Map page appears.

Step 2 Select the appropriate location link from the list that appears.

A color-coded map appears showing placement of all installed elements (access points, clients, tags) and their relative signal strength.

Step 3 Choose Planning Mode from the Select a command drop-down list (top-right), and click Go. A blank floor map appears.

Step 4 Click Add APs.

Step 5 In the page that appears, drag the dashed-line rectangle over the map location for which you want to calculate the recommended access points.


Note Adjust the size or placement of the rectangle by selecting the edge of the rectangle and holding down the Ctrl key. Move the mouse as necessary to outline the targeted location. When you use the next-generation maps mode, the rectangle is resizable by dragging on the handles on its edges and corners.


Step 6 Choose Automatic from the Add APs drop-down list.

Step 7 Choose the AP Type and the appropriate antenna and protocol for that access point.

Step 8 Choose the target throughput for the access point.

Step 9 Select the check box(es) next to the service(s) that is used on the floor. Options are Data/Coverage (default), Voice, Location, and Location with Monitor Mode APs. (see Table 6-11 ).


Note You must select at least one service or an error occurs.



Note If you select the Advanced Options check box, two additional access point planning options appear: Demand and Override Coverage per AP. Additionally, a Safety Margin field appears for the Data/Coverage and Voice safety margin options.


Table 6-11 Definition of Services Option

Service Options
Description

Data/Coverage

Select this check box if data traffic is transmitted on the wireless LAN. The following densities are used depending on the band and data rates:

Band
Path Loss Model (dBm)
Date Rate (Mb/s)
Area (Sq. ft.)

802.11a

–3.3

10-12

6000

802.11a

–3.3

15-18

4500

802.11a

–3.5

10-12

5000

802.11a

–3.5

15-18

3250

802.11bg

–3.3

5

6500

802.11bg

–3.3

6

4500

802.11bg

–3.5

5

5500

802.11bg

–3.5

6

3500

If you select the Advanced Options check box, you can select the desired safety margin (aggressive, safe, or very safe) of the signal strength threshold for data.

  • Aggressive = Minimum (–3 dBm)
  • Safe = Medium (0 dBm)
  • Very Safe = Maximum (+3 dBm)

Voice

Select the Voice check box if voice traffic is transmitted on the wireless LAN.

If you select the Advanced Options check box, you can select the desired safety margin (aggressive, safe, very safe or 7920-enabled) of the signal strength threshold for voice.

  • Aggressive = Minimum [–78 dBm (802.11a/b/g)]
  • Safe = Medium [–75 dBm (802.11a/b/g)]
  • Very Safe = Maximum [(–72 dBm (802.11a/b/g)]
  • 7920_enabled = [(–72 dBm (802.11a); –67 dBm (802.11b/g)]

Location

Select this check box to ensure that the recommended access point calculation provides the true location of an element within 10 meters at least 90% of the time.

To meet the criteria, access points are collocated within 70 feet of each other in a hexagonal pattern employing staggered and perimeter placement.

Note Each service option includes all services that are listed above it. For example, if you select the Location check box, the calculation considers data/coverage, voice, and location in determining the optimum number of access points required.

Table 6-12 Definition of Advanced Services

Service Options
Description

Data/Coverage

Select this check box, if data traffic is transmitted on the wireless LAN. The following densities are used depending on the band and data rates:

Band
Path Loss Model (dBm)
Date Rate (Mb/s)
Area (Sq. ft.)

802.11a

–3.3

10-12

6000

802.11a

–3.3

15-18

4500

802.11a

–3.5

10-12

5000

802.11a

–3.5

15-18

3250

802.11bg

–3.3

5

6500

802.11bg

–3.3

6

4500

802.11bg

–3.5

5

5500

802.11bg

–3.5

6

3500

If you select the Advanced Options check box, you can select the desired safety margin (aggressive, safe, or very safe) of the signal strength threshold for data.

  • Aggressive = Minimum (–3 dBm)
  • Safe = Medium (0 dBm)
  • Very Safe = Maximum (+3 dBm)

Voice

Select the voice check box if voice traffic is transmitted on the wireless LAN.

If you select the Advanced Options check box, you can select the desired safety margin (aggressive, safe, very safe or 7920-enabled) of the signal strength threshold for voice.

  • Aggressive = Minimum [–78 dBm (802.11a/b/g)]
  • Safe = Medium [–75 dBm (802.11a/b/g)]
  • Very Safe = Maximum [(–72 dBm (802.11a/b/g)]

7920_enabled = [(–72 dBm (802.11a); –67 dBm (802.11b/g)]

Location

Select this check box to ensure that the recommended access point calculation provides the true location of an element within 10 meters at least 90% of the time.

To meet the criteria, access points are collocated within 70 feet of each other in a hexagonal pattern employing staggered and perimeter placement.

Note Each service option includes all services that are listed above it. For example, if you select the Location check box, the calculation considers data/coverage, voice, and location in determining the optimum number of access points required.

Demand

Select this check box if you want to use the total number of users or user ratio per access point as a basis for the access point calculation.

Override Coverage per AP

Select this check box if you want to specify square foot coverage as the basis for access point coverage.

Safety Margin

Select this check box to qualify relative signal strength requirements for data and voice service in the access point calculation. Options are: Aggressive, Safe, Very Safe, and 7920-enabled (voice only). Select Aggressive to require minimal signal strength requirements in the calculation and Very Safe to request the highest signal strength.

Step 10 Click Calculate .

The recommended number of access points given the selected services appears.


Note Recommended calculations assume the need for consistently strong signals unless adjusted downward by the safety margin advanced option. In some cases, the recommended number of access points is higher than what is required.



Note Walls are not used or accounted for in planning mode calculations.


Step 11 Click Apply to generate a map that shows proposed deployment of the recommended access points in the selected area based on the selected services and parameters.

Step 12 Choose Generate Proposal to display a textual and graphical report of the recommended access point number and deployment based on the given input.


 

Refresh Options

To prepare for monitoring your wireless LANs, become familiar with the various refresh options for a map.

  • Load—The Load option in the left sidebar menu refreshes map data from Prime Infrastructure database on demand.
  • Auto Refresh—The Auto Refresh option provides an interval drop-down list to set how often to refresh the map data from the database.
  • Refresh from network—By clicking the Refresh from network icon to the right of the Auto Refresh drop-down list, you can refresh the map status and statistics directly from the controller through an SNMP fetch rather than polled data from Prime Infrastructure database that is five to fifteen minutes older.

Note If you have monitor mode access points on the floor plan, you have a choice between IDS or coverage heatmap types. A coverage heatmap excludes monitor mode access points, and an IDS heatmap includes them.


  • Refresh browser—Above the map next to the Logout and Print option is another refresh option. Clicking this refreshes the complete page, or the map and its status and statistics if you are on a map page.

Creating a Network Design

After access points have been installed and have joined a controller, and Prime Infrastructure has been configured to manage the controllers, set up a network design. A network design is a representation within Prime Infrastructure of the physical placement of access points throughout facilities. A hierarchy of a single campus, the buildings that comprise that campus, and the floors of each building constitute a single network design. These steps assume that the location appliance is set to poll the controllers in that network, as well as be configured to synchronize with that specific network design, to track devices in that environment. The concept and steps to perform synchronization between Prime Infrastructure and the mobility service engine are explained in the Cisco 3350 Mobility Services Engine Configuration Guide .

Designing a Network

To design a network, follow these steps:


Step 1 Open Prime Infrastructure web interface and log in.


Note To create or edit a network design, you must log into Prime Infrastructure and have SuperUser, Admin, or ConfigManager access privileges.


Step 2 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 3 From the drop-down list on the right-hand side, choose either New Campus or New Building, depending on the size of the network design and the organization of maps. If you chose New Campus, continue to Step 4. To create a building without a campus, skip to Step 14.

Step 4 Click Go.

Step 5 Enter a name for the campus network design, a contact name, and the file path to the campus image file. .bmps and .jpgs are importable.


Note You can use the Browse... button to navigate to the location.


Step 6 Click Next .

Step 7 Select the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box. Enabling this check box causes the horizontal span of the campus to be 5000 feet and adjusts the vertical span according to the aspect ratio of the image file. Adjusting either the horizontal or vertical span changes the other field in accordance with the image ratio.

You should unselect the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box if you want to override this automatic adjustment. You could then adjust both span values to match the real world campus dimensions.

Step 8 Click OK.

Step 9 In the Monitor > Site Maps page, click the hyperlink associated with the above-made campus map. A page showing the new campus image is displayed.

Step 10 From the Select a command menu on the upper right of the page, choose New Building, and click Go.

Step 11 Enter the name of the building, the contact person, the number of floors and basements in the building, and the dimensions. Click OK .

Step 12 Indicate which building on the campus map is the correct building by clicking the blue box in the upper left of the campus image and dragging it to the intended location. To resize the blue box, hold down the Ctrl key and click and drag to adjust its horizontal size. You can also enter dimensions of the building by entering numerical values in the Horizontal Span and Vertical Span fields and click Place. After resizing, reposition the blue box if necessary by clicking it and dragging it to the desired location. Click Save.

 

Step 13 Prime Infrastructure is then returned to the campus image with the newly created building highlighted in a green box. Click the green box.

Step 14 To create a building without a campus, choose New Building and click Go.

Step 15 Enter the name, contact information, number of floors and basements, and dimension information of the building. Click Save. Prime Infrastructure is returned to the Monitor > Site Maps page.

Step 16 Click the hyperlink associated with the newly created building.

Step 17 In the Monitor > Site Maps > Campus Name > Building Name page, from the drop-down list and choose New Floor Area. Click Go.

Step 18 Enter a name for the floor, a contact, a floor number, floor type, and height at which the access points are installed and the path of the floor image. Click Next.


Note The Floor Type (RF Model) field specifies the type of environment on that specific floor. This RF Model indicates the amount of RF signal attenuation likely to be present on that floor. If the available models do not properly characterize a floor's makeup, details on how to create RF models specific to a floor's attenuation characteristics are available in the Cisco 3350 Mobility Services Engine Configuration Guide.


Step 19 If the floor area is a different dimension than the building, adjust floor dimensions by either making numerical changes to the text fields under the Dimensions heading or by holding the Ctrl key and clicking and dragging the blue box around the floor image. If the floor's location is offset from the upper left corner of the building, change the placement of the floor within the building by either clicking and dragging the blue box to the desired location or by altering the numerical values under the Coordinates of top left corner heading. After making changes to any numerical values, click Place.

 

Step 20 Adjust the characteristics of the floor with Prime Infrastructure map editor by selecting the check box next to Launch Map Editor. For an explanation of the map editor feature, see the “Using the Map Editor” section.

Step 21 At the image of the new floor (Monitor > Site Maps > CampusName > BuildingName > FloorName ), go to the drop-down list on the upper right and choose Add Access Points. Click Go.

Step 22 All access points that are connected to controllers are displayed. Even controllers that Prime Infrastructure is configured to manage but which have not yet been added to another floor map are displayed. Select the access points to be placed on the specific floor map by checking the boxes to the left of the access point entries. Select the box to the left of the Name column to select all access points. Click OK.

Step 23 Each access point you have chosen to add to the floor map is represented by a gray circle (differentiated by access point name or MAC address) and is lined up in the upper left part of the floor map. Drag each access point to the appropriate location. (Access points turn blue when you click them to relocate them.) The small black arrow at the side of each access point represents Side A of each access point, and each arrow of the access point must correspond with the direction in which the access points were installed. (Side A is clearly noted on each 1000 series access point and has no relevance to the 802.11a/n radio.)

Step 24 To adjust the directional arrow, choose the appropriate orientation on the Antenna Angle drop-down list. Click Save when you are finished placing and adjusting each direction of the access point.


Note Access point placement and direction must directly reflect the actual access point deployment or the system cannot pinpoint the device location.


Step 25 Repeat these steps to create campuses, buildings, and floors until each device location is properly detailed in a network design.


 

Importing or Exporting WLSE Map Data

When you convert an access point from autonomous to CAPWAP and from the WLSE to Prime Infrastructure, one of the conversion steps is to manually re-enter the access point information into Prime Infrastructure. This can be a time-consuming step. To speed up the process, you can export the information about access points from the WLSE and import it into Prime Infrastructure.


Note Prime Infrastructure expects a .tar file and checks for a .tar extension before importing the file. If the file you are trying to import is not a .tar file, Prime Infrastructure displays an error message and prompts you to import a different file.


To map properties and import a tar file containing WLSE data using Prime Infrastructure web interface, follow these steps. For more information on the WLSE data export functionality (WLSE version 2.15), see
http://<WLSE_IP_ADDRESS>:1741/debug/export/exportSite.jsp .


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Site Maps.

Step 2 Choose Properties from the Select a command drop-down list, and click Go.

Step 3 In the Export/Import AP/LS/SP Placement, click Browse to select the file to import.

Step 4 Find and select the .tar file to import and click Open.

Prime Infrastructure displays the name of the file in the Import From field.

Step 5 Click Import.

Prime Infrastructure uploads the file and temporarily saves it into a local directory while it is being processed. If the file contains data that cannot be processed, Prime Infrastructure prompts you to correct the problem and retry. After the file has been loaded, Prime Infrastructure displays a report of what is added to Prime Infrastructure. The report also specifies what cannot be added and why.

If some of the data to be imported already exists, Prime Infrastructure either uses the existing data in the case of campuses or overwrites the existing data using the imported data in the cases of buildings and floors.

If there are duplicate names between a WLSE site and building combination and an Prime Infrastructure campus (or top-level building) and building combination, Prime Infrastructure displays a message in the Pre Execute Import Report indicating that it will delete the existing building.

Step 6 Click Import to import the WLSE data.

Prime Infrastructure displays a report indicating what was imported.


Note Because a WLSE file has no floor number information, the structure of the floor index calculation after WLSE is imported into Prime Infrastructure is in descending order. You can click the floor image to go directly to the appropriate floor page.


Step 7 Choose Monitor > Site Maps to verify the imported data.


 

Monitoring Device Details

Access Point Details

Hover your mouse cursor over an access point icon to view access point details. Click the appropriate tab to view access point and radio information.


Note Monitor mode access points are shown with gray labels to distinguish them from other access points.


The AP Info tab includes the following access point information:

  • MAC address
  • Access point model
  • Controller
  • Location
  • Access point height
  • Access point uptime
  • LWAPP uptime

Note From the AP Info tab, you can run a ping test by clicking the Run Ping Test link.


The 802.11 tabs includes the following radio information:

  • Channel number
  • Extension channel
  • Channel width
  • Transmit power level
  • Client count

Note The number of clients associated to access points might not match the total number of clients.


  • Receiving and transmitting utilization percentages
  • Channel utilization percentage

Note Total utilization = (Rx + Tx + Channel utilization) scaled to 100%.


  • Antenna name and angle
  • Elevation angle

Note From either of the 802.11 tabs, you can view Rx neighbors and radio details for this access point by clicking the appropriate link (View Rx Neighbors or View Radio Details).


  • Dot11n Enabled
  • CleanAir Status—Displays the CleanAir status of the access point, whether or not CleanAir is enabled on the access point.
  • Average Air Quality—Displays the average air quality on this access point.
  • Minimum Air Quality—Displays the minimum air quality on this access point.

Client Details

Hover your mouse cursor over a client icon to view client details.

Client details information includes the following:

  • Username
  • IP address
  • Asset name, group, and category
  • Status
  • Auth
  • SSID
  • Access point name
  • Protocol
  • Port number
  • Last location

Tag Details

Hover your mouse cursor over a tag icon to view tag details.

Tag details includes the following:

  • Asset name, group, and category
  • Type
  • Battery life
  • Last located

Rogue Access Point Details

Hover your mouse cursor over an access point icon to view rogue access point details.

Rogue access point details includes the following:

  • Classification type—Friendly, malicious, or unknown.
  • State
  • Detecting access points
  • Type
  • Rogue clients
  • First seen
  • Last seen
  • On network
  • Last located

Rogue Adhoc Details

Hover your mouse cursor over an access point icon to view rogue ad hoc details.

Rogue Client Details

Hover your mouse cursor over an access point icon to view rogue client details.

Interferer Details

Hover your mouse cursor over an interferer icon to view its details. Interferer details includes the following:

  • Interferer Name—The name of the interfering device.
  • Affected Channels—The channel the interfering device is affecting.
  • Detected Time—The time at which the interference was detected.
  • Severity—The severity index of the interfering device.
  • Duty Cycle—The duty cycle (in percentage) of the interfering device.
  • RSSI (dBm)—The Received Signal Strength Indicator of the interfering device.

Rogue client details includes the following:

  • State
  • Associated rogue access point
  • Detecting access points
  • First seen
  • Last seen
  • Last located

Understanding RF Heatmap Calculation

A radio frequency heat map is a graphical representation of the strength of the RF signals. Because WLANs are very dynamic and nondeterministic in nature, administrators can never be certain of the coverage at a particular moment. To help combat this challenge, Prime Infrastructure provides a map of your floor plan along with visual cues as to the Wi-Fi coverage of the floor. These maps are called heatmaps because they are similar to the colored maps used to show varying levels of heat in oceanography or geographical sciences. Color is used to show the various levels of signal strength. The different shades in the "heatmap" reflect differing signal strengths.

This color visualization is extremely useful. At one glance, you can see the current state of coverage (without having to walk around measuring it), the signal strength, and any gaps or "holes" in the WLAN. Because floor plans and heat maps are very intuitive, this system greatly enhances the speed and ease with which you support your organization and troubleshoot specific problems.

The RF heatmap calculation is based on an internal grid. Depending on the exact positioning of an obstacle in that grid, the RF heatmap, within a few feet or meters of the obstacle, might or might not account for the obstacle attenuation.

In detail, grid squares partially affected by an obstacle crossing the grid square might or might not incorporate the obstacle attenuation according to the geometry of the access point, obstacle, and grid.

For example, consider a wall crossing one grid square. The midpoint of the grid square is behind the wall from the AP, so the whole grid square is colored with attenuation, including (unfortunately) the top left corner that is actually in front of the wall.

 

The midpoint of the grid square is on the same side of the wall as the AP, so the whole grid square is not colored with attenuation, including (unfortunately) the bottom right corner that is actually behind the wall from the AP.

Dynamic Heatmap Calculation

The RF heatmap calculation can be static or dynamic. By default it is dynamic, to configure it to be static, disable the dynamic heatmap option in the map properties page.Prime Infrastructure server maintains the current list of all APs RSSI strength for all APs. The neighbor AP RSSI strength is used to modify the RF heatmaps for all APs. The main purpose of the dynamic heatmap feature is to recompute the RF heatmaps due to obstacles.

Monitoring Google Earth Maps

Within Monitor > Google Earth Maps, you can create an outdoor location, import a file, view Google Earth maps, and specify Google Earth settings.

This section contains the following topics:

Creating an Outdoor Location Using Google Earth

To group the access points together into outdoor locations, use the Latitude/Longitude geographical coordinates for each access point. These coordinates are provided in two ways:

  • Importing a KML (Google Keyhole Markup Language) File
  • Importing a CSV File (Spreadsheet format with comma-separated values)

This section contains the following topics:

Understanding Geographical Coordinates for Google Earth

The following geographical information is required for each access point:


Note Adding an AP to Google Earth map without having the AP associated on a standard map, you do not see any heatmap when you view the AP in Google Earth.


  • Longitude (East or West)—Angular distance in degrees relative to Prime Meridian. Values west of Meridian range from –180 to 0 degrees. Values east of Meridian range from 0 to 180 degrees. The default is 0.

Coordinates in degrees, minutes, seconds, direction:

Degrees (–180 to 180)

Minutes (0 to 59)

Seconds (00.00 to 59.99)

Direction—East or West (E, W)

Decimal format (converted from degrees, minutes, and seconds):

Longitude can range from –179.59.59.99 W to 179.59.59.99 E

  • Latitude (North or South)—Angular distance in degrees relative to the Equator. Values south of the Equator range from –90 to 0 degrees. Values north of the Equator range from 0 to 90 degrees. The default is 0.

Coordinates in degrees, minutes, seconds, direction:

Degrees (–90 to 90)

Minutes (0 to 59)

Seconds (00.00 to 59.99)

Direction—North or South (N, S)

Decimal format (converted from degrees, minutes, and seconds):

Latitude can range from –89.59.59.99 S to 89.59.59.99 N

  • Altitude—Height or distance of the access point from the surface of the earth in meters. If not provided, value defaults to 0. Values range from 0 to 99999.
  • Tilt—Values range from 0 to 90 degrees (cannot be negative). A tilt value of 0 degrees indicates viewing from directly above the access point. A tilt value of 90 degrees indicates viewing along the horizon. Values range from 0 to 90. The default azimuth angle is 0.
  • Range—Distance in meters from the point specified by longitude and latitude to the point where the access point is being viewed (the Look At position) (camera range above sea level). Values range from 0 to 999999.
  • Heading—Compass direction in degrees. The default is 0 (North). Values range from 0 to ±180 degrees.
  • Altitude Mode—Indicates how the <altitude> specified for the Look At point is interpreted.

Clamped to ground—Ignores the <altitude> specification and places the Look At position on the ground. This is the default.

Relative to ground—Interprets the <altitude> as a value in meters above the ground.

Absolute—Interprets the <altitude> as a value in meters above sea level.

  • Extend to ground—Indicates whether or not the access point is attached to a mast.

Creating and Importing Coordinates in Google Earth (KML File)

The geographical coordinates can be created in Google Earth and imported. Either a folder or individual placemarks can be created. Creating a folder helps group all the Placemarks into a single folder and allows you to save the folder as a single KML (a.k.a. XML) file. If individual Placemarks are created, each Placemark must be individually saved.

Follow these steps to create a folder in Google Earth:


Step 1 Launch Google Earth.

Step 2 In the Places page on the left sidebar menu, choose My Places or Temporary Places.

Step 3 Right-click Temporary Places and select Add > Folder from the drop-down lists.


Note By using a KML file, folders can be created hierarchically to any depth. For example, you can create folders and placemarks organized by country, city, state, zip.
This is not applicable for CSV. In CSV there can be only one level of hierarchy.


Step 4 Enter the following information (optional):

  • Name—Folder name
  • Description—Folder description
  • View—Includes latitude, longitude, range, heading, and tilt

Note If the View coordinates (latitude, longitude, range, heading, and tilt) are specified, this information is used to “fly” or advance to the correct location when Google Earth is first loaded.
If no coordinates are specified, the latitude and longitude information is derived using the minimum and maximum latitude and longitude of all access points within this group or folder.


Step 5 Click OK to save the folder. After the folder is created, it can be selected from the Places page to create Placemarks.


 

To create Placemarks, follow these steps:


Step 1 Launch Google Earth.

Step 2 In the Places page on the left sidebar, select My Places or Temporary Places.

Step 3 Select the folder that you previously created.

Step 4 Right-click your created folder and select Add > Placemark from the drop-down lists.

Step 5 Configure the following parameters, if applicable:

  • Name—The Placemark name must contain the name, MAC address, or IP address of the appropriate access point.

Note The MAC address refers to base radio MAC not Ethernet MAC.


  • Latitude—Provides the current coordinate for the folder if the placemark is created inside the folder or the coordinate for the placemark (if not created inside a folder). This field is automatically filled depending on where the yellow Placemark icon is located on the map. Use your mouse to move the Placemark to the correct location or enter the correct coordinate in the Latitude text box.
  • Longitude—Provides the current coordinate for the folder if the placemark is created inside the folder or the coordinate for the placemark (if not created inside a folder). This field is automatically filled depending on where the yellow Placemark icon is located on the map. Use your mouse to move the Placemark to the correct location or enter the correct coordinate in the Longitude text box.
  • Description (optional)—Field is ignored by Prime Infrastructure.
  • Style, Color (optional)—Field is ignored by Prime Infrastructure.
  • View—Allows you to configure the Latitude, Longitude, Range, Heading and Tilt coordinates. See the “Understanding Geographical Coordinates for Google Earth” section” for more information on these geographical coordinates.

Longitude and latitude are automatically filled depending on where the yellow Placemark icon is located on the map. Use your mouse to click and move the Placemark to the correct location.

All of the coordinates can be entered manually.

  • Altitude—Enter the altitude in meters in the text box or use the Ground to Space slide bar to indicate the altitude.

Clamped to ground—Indicates that the Look At position is on the ground. This is the default.

Relative to ground—Interprets the <altitude> as a value in meters above the ground.

Absolute—Interprets the <altitude> as a value in meters above sea level.

Extend to ground—For Relative to ground or Absolute settings, indicates whether or not the access point is attached to a mast.

Step 6 When all coordinates are entered, click Snapshot current view or click Reset to return the coordinates to the original settings.


Note For more information regarding Google Earth, see to the Google Earth online help.


Step 7 Click OK.

Step 8 Repeat these steps for all placemarks you want to add.

Step 9 When all placemarks are created, save the folder as a .kmz file (KML Zip file) or as a .kml file.


Note A .kmz file should contain only one .kml file.



Note To save the folder, right-click the folder, select Save as from the drop-down list, navigate to the correct location on your computer, and click Save. Both .kmz and .kml files can be imported into Prime Infrastructure.



 

Creating and Importing Coordinates as a CSV File

To create a CSV file to import into Prime Infrastructure, follow these steps:


Step 1 Open a flat file and provide the necessary information as a comma-separated list. The Table 6-13 lists the potential data, whether the data is optional or required, and the parameters of the data.


Note For more information regarding the geographical coordinates listed in Table 6-13, see the “Understanding Geographical Coordinates for Google Earth” section.


Table 6-13 Potential Fields for the CSV File

"FolderName"

"Value Optional"

Max Length: 32

"FolderState"

"Value Optional"

Permitted Values: true/false

"FolderLongitude"

"Value Optional"

Range: 0 to ±180

"FolderLatitude"

"Value Optional"

Range: 0 to ±90

"FolderAltitude"

"Value Optional"

Range: 0 to 99999

"FolderRange"

"Value Optional"

Range: 0 to 99999

"FolderTilt"

"Value Optional"

Range: 0 to 90

"FolderHeading"

"Value Optional"

Range: 0 to ±180

"FolderGeoAddress"

"Value Optional"

Max Length: 128

"FolderGeoCity"

"Value Optional"

Max Length: 64

"FolderGeoState"

"Value Optional"

Max Length: 40

"FolderGeoZip"

"Value Optional"

Max Length: 12

"FolderGeoCountry"

"Value Optional"

Max Length: 64

"AP_Name"

"Value Required"

Max Length: 32

"AP_Longitude"

"Value Required"

Range: 0 to ±180

"AP_Latitude"

"Value Required"

Range: 0 to ±90

Step 2 Save the .csv file. The file is now ready to import into Prime Infrastructure.


 

Importing a File into Prime Infrastructure

To import a Google KML or a CSV into the Google Earth Maps feature of Prime Infrastructure, follow these steps:


Step 1 Log in to Prime Infrastructure.

Step 2 Choose Monitor > Google Earth Maps.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Import Google KML or Import CSV.

Step 4 Click Go.

Step 5 Use the Browse button to navigate to the .kml, .kmz, or .csv file on your computer.

Step 6 When the file name path is displayed in the text box, click Next.

The input file is parsed and validated for the following:

  • Access points specified in the uploaded file are validated (the specified access points must be available within Prime Infrastructure).
  • Range validations are performed for tilt, heading, range, and other geographical coordinates fields.If longitude and latitudeare provided, range validations are performed; if not, the value is defaulted to 0.

Note In KML, the longitude and latitude ranges can only be entered in decimal format. In CSV, different formats are supported (see the CSV sample under Google Maps > Import CSV).



Note If the input file does not validate for completeness, an error page appears. The uploaded information cannot be saved until all errors are corrected.


Step 7 After the files pass all validation checks, review the file details and click Save.

If the uploaded information was saved previously, the information is overwritten accordingly:

  • If the folder was uploaded previously, the coordinates are updated for the folder.
  • If access points were uploaded previously, the coordinates are updated for the access points.
  • Existing access points in the folder are not removed.
  • New folders, as needed, are created and access points are placed accordingly.


 

Viewing Google Earth Maps

To view Google Earth maps, follow these steps:


Step 1 Log in to Prime Infrastructure.

Step 2 Choose Monitor > Google Earth Maps. The Google Earth Maps page displays all folders and the number of access points included within each folder.

Step 3 Click Launch for the map you want to view. Google Earth opens in a separate page and displays the location and its access points.


Note To use this feature, you must have Google Earth installed on your computer and configured to auto-launch when data is sent from the server. You can download Google Earth from the Google website: http://www.google.com/earth/index.html.



 

Viewing Google Earth Map Details

To view details for a Google Earth Map folder, follow these steps:


Step 1 In the Google Earth Map page, click the folder name to open the details page for this folder. The Google Earth Details provide the access point names and MAC or IP addresses.


Note To delete an access point, select the applicable check box and click Delete.
To delete the entire folder, select the check box next to Folder Name and click Delete. Deleting a folder also deletes all subfolders and access points inside the folder.


Step 2 Click Cancel to close the details page.


 

Adding Google Earth Location Launch Points to Access Point Pages

You can expand the number of Google Earth Location launch points within Prime Infrastructure by adding it to the Access Point summary and detail pages.

To add a Google Earth Location launch point to the Access Point summary and details page, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Access Points .

Step 2 In the Access Point summary page, click the Edit View link next to page heading.

Step 3 In the Edit View page, highlight Google Earth Location in the left-hand column. Click Show .

The Google Earth Location column heading moves into the View Information column.


Note The View Information listings, top-to-bottom, reflect the left-to-right order of the columns as they appear on the Access Point summary page.


Step 4 To change the display order of the columns, highlight the Google Earth Location entry and click the Up and Down buttons as needed. Click Submit .

You are returned to the Access Points summary page, and a Google Earth launch link is in the display.


Note The launch link also appears in the general summary page of the Access Points details page (Monitor > Access Points > AP Name).



 

Google Earth Settings

Access point related settings can be defined from the Google Earth Settings page. To configure access point settings for the Google Earth Maps feature, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Google Earth Maps.

Step 2 Configure the following parameters:

  • Refresh Settings—Select the Refresh from Network check box to enable this on-demand refresh. This option is applied only once and then disabled.

Caution Because this refresh occurs directly from the network, it could take a long period of time to collect data according to the number of access points.

  • Layers—Layer filters for access points, access point heat maps, and access point mesh information can be selected and saved. Select the check box to activate the applicable layer and click > to open the filter page.

Note These settings apply when Google Earth sends the request for the next refresh.


Access Points—From the AP Filter drop-down list, choose to display channels, Tx power level, coverage holes, MAC addresses, names, controller IP, utilization, profiles, or clients.


Note If the access point layer is not checked, no data is returned, and an error message is returned to Google Earth as a Placemark without an icon.


AP Heatmap—From the Protocol drop-down list, choose 802.11a/n, 802.11b/g/n, 802.11a/n & 802.11b/g/n, or None. Select the cutoff from the RSSI Cutoff drop-down list (- 60 to - 90 dBm).


Note If the protocol chosen is both 802.11a/n and 802.11b/g/n, the heat maps are generated for both and overlaid on top of each other. The order cannot be defined. To prevent this overlay, you must turn off individual overlay in Google Earth or change it in the Google Earth Settings on Prime Infrastructure.


AP Mesh Info—Choose Link SNR, Packet Error Rate, or none from the Link Label drop-down list. Choose Link SNR or Packet Error Rate from the Link Color drop-down list.


Note When the AP Mesh Info check box is chosen, Mesh Links are also automatically shown.


Step 3 Click Save Settings to confirm these changes or Cancel to close the page without saving the changes.