User Guide for Cisco Security Manager 4.1
Configuring Network Address Translation
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Configuring Network Address Translation

Table Of Contents

Configuring Network Address Translation

Understanding Network Address Translation

Types of Address Translation

About "Simplified" NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

NAT Policies on Cisco IOS Routers

NAT Page: Interface Specification

NAT Page: Static Rules

NAT Static Rule Dialog Boxes

NAT Page: Dynamic Rules

NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box

NAT Page: Timeouts

NAT Policies on Security Devices

NAT in Transparent Mode

Translation Options Page

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Address Pools

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL)

Dynamic Rules Tab

Policy Dynamic Rules Tab

Static Rules Tab

General Tab

Configuring NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

Translation Rules: ASA 8.3+


Configuring Network Address Translation


These topics provide conceptual information about network address translation (NAT) in general, and about translation types and various implementations:

Understanding Network Address Translation

Types of Address Translation

About "Simplified" NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

The following topics describe configuration and management of NAT rules on various Cisco devices:

Cisco IOS routers

NAT Policies on Cisco IOS Routers

NAT Page: Interface Specification

NAT Page: Static Rules

NAT Page: Dynamic Rules

NAT Page: Timeouts

PIX, FWSM, and ASA security devices

NAT Policies on Security Devices

NAT in Transparent Mode

Translation Options Page

PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA devices

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Address Pools

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

ASA 8.3+ devices

Configuring NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

Translation Rules: ASA 8.3+

Add and Edit NAT Rule Dialog Boxes

Add or Edit Network/Host Dialog Box: NAT Tab

Understanding Network Address Translation

Address translation substitutes the real address in a packet with a mapped address that is routable on the destination network. As part of the process, the device also records the substitution in a translation database; these records are known as "xlate" entries. The appropriate xlate entry must exist to allow address translation on return packets—the substitution of the original real address for the mapped address; this procedure is sometimes referred to as "untranslation." Thus, network address translation (NAT) actually consists of two steps: the translation of a real address into a mapped address, and the reverse translation for returning traffic.

One of the main functions of NAT is to enable private IP networks to connect to the Internet. Network address translation replaces a private IP address with a public IP address, translating the private addresses in the internal network into legal, routable addresses that can be used on the public Internet. In this way, NAT conserves public addresses; for example, NAT rules can be configured to utilize only one public address for the entire network in communications with the outside world.

Other functions of NAT include:

Security - Keeping internal IP addresses hidden discourages direct attacks.

IP routing solutions - Overlapping IP addresses are not a problem.

Flexibility - You can change internal IP addressing schemes without affecting the public addresses available externally. For example, for a server accessible to the Internet, you can maintain a fixed IP address for Internet use, but internally, you can change the server address.

Cisco devices support both NAT, which provides a globally unique address for each outbound host session, and Port Address Translation (PAT), which provides the same single address combined with a unique port number, for up to 64,000 simultaneous outbound or inbound host sessions. The global addresses used for NAT come from a pool of addresses specifically designated for address translation. The unique global address that is used for PAT can be either one global address, or the IP address of a given interface.

The device translates an address when an existing NAT rule matches the specific traffic. If no NAT rule matches, processing for the packet continues. The exception is when you enable NAT control. NAT control requires that packets traversing from a higher security interface (inside) to a lower security interface (outside) match a NAT rule, or processing for the packet stops.

Cisco devices can perform NAT or PAT on both inbound and outbound connections. This ability to translate inbound addresses is called "Outside NAT" because addresses on the outside, or less secure, interface are translated to a usable inside IP address. Just as when you translate outbound traffic, you may choose dynamic NAT, static NAT, dynamic PAT, or static PAT. If necessary, you can use outside NAT together with inside NAT to translate the both source and destination IP addresses of a packet.


Note In this document, all types of translation are generally referred to as NAT; see Types of Address Translation for descriptions of the various types. When describing NAT, the terms inside and outside represent the security relationship between any two interfaces. The higher security level is inside and the lower security level is outside.


The release of ASA version 8.3 provides a simplified, interface-independent approach to configuring network address translation, as compared to earlier ASA versions and other devices. See About "Simplified" NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices for more information.

Related Topics

Types of Address Translation

About "Simplified" NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

Types of Address Translation

The following table briefly describes the various types of address translation.

Table 20-1 Types of Address Translation 

Static NAT

Fixed translation of real source addresses to specific mapped addresses—each source address is always translated to the same mapped address, regardless of IP protocol and port number.

Static PAT

Fixed translation of real source addresses with specific TCP or UDP port numbers, to specific mapped addresses and ports. That is, each source address/port is always translated to the same mapped address/port.

Policy Static NAT

Fixed translation of real source addresses to specific mapped addresses. Destination networks/hosts are also specified, and the service is always IP.

Policy Static PAT

Fixed translation of real source addresses with specific TCP or UDP port numbers, to specific mapped addresses and ports. Destination networks/hosts and services are also specified.

Dynamic NAT

Dynamic translation of real source addresses to mapped addresses obtained from a pool of shared addresses. Each source address can be mapped to any available address in the pool.

Dynamic PAT

Translation of real source addresses to a single mapped address; singularity is provided by dynamic translation of related port numbers. That is, each real address/port combination is translated to the same mapped address, but assigned a unique port. This is sometimes referred to as "overloading."

Policy Dynamic NAT

Dynamic translation of specific source-address/destination-address/service combinations on a given interface, using a pool of shared addresses. Translation direction—outbound or inbound—is also specified.

Identity NAT

The specified address is translated to itself—that is, it is effectively not translated; applies to outbound connections only.

NAT Exemption

Translation is bypassed for specified source/destination address combinations; connections can be initiated in both the outbound and inbound directions.



Note While certain of these types do not apply to ASA 8.3 and later devices, the ASA 8.3+ devices do provide a Dynamic NAT and PAT option, which is Dynamic NAT with Dynamic PAT back-up feature.


About "Simplified" NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

The release of ASA version 8.3 provides a simplified approach to configuring network address translation (NAT), as compared to earlier ASA versions and other devices. Configuration of NAT was simplified by replacing the earlier flow-based scheme with an "original packet" to "translated packet" approach.

All NAT rules on the device—static NAT, dynamic PAT, and dynamic NAT—are presented in a single table, and essentially the same dialog box is used to configure all NAT rules. The NAT rules are interface independent (that is, interfaces are optional), meaning the rules are independent of security levels also.

NAT rules are no longer dependent on security levels. A global address space consisting of all interfaces is available, and is specified using the keyword "any." All Interface fields default to any, so unless a specific interface is provided, the rule is applicable to all interfaces.

Network Object NAT

You also can define NAT properties on Host, Address Range, and Network objects, such that corresponding NAT rules are applied automatically to the designated security device. Using these objects means you need enter the necessary IP addresses, services, ports, and optional interfaces only once. These automatically generated, object-based rules are referred to as "Network Object NAT" rules. Note that these rules cannot be edited from the rules table; you must edit the appropriate objects in the Policy Object Manager.

The NAT Table

As mentioned, all NAT rules on a device are presented in a single table, which is divided into three sections: a "manual" section, the Network Object NAT rules section, and another manual-rules section. You can add, edit and order rules in both manual sections; the Network Object NAT rules are added and ordered automatically, and as mentioned, to edit these rules you must edit the related objects.

The NAT rules in the table are applied on a top-down, first-match basis. That is, a packet is translated only when it matches a NAT rule, and as soon as a match is made, regardless of its location or section, NAT rule processing stops.

You can use this table to organize and manage the manual rules—you can insert rules in any order, and you can re-order them. The two sections of manual rules are provided to let you order manual rules both before and after the automatic object rules.

Network Object NAT rules are automatically ordered such that static rules appear before dynamic rules. These two types are each further ordered as follows:

Fewest number of IP addresses - Rules for objects with one IP address are listed before those for objects with two addresses, which are before those with three addresses, and so on.

IP address numbers - For objects having the same number of IP addresses, the rules are arranged such that the IP addresses themselves are in numerical order, from lower to higher. For example, 10.1.1.1 rules are listed before 11.1.1.1 rules.

Object names - If the IP address is the same, the rules are ordered by alphabetizing the object names.

And remember, translation is based on the first matching rule.

Destination Translation

With manual static rules, in addition to source address translation, you also can configure destination address translation. Source and destination translation are defined at the same time, in the same dialog box. Again, while source translation can be static or dynamic, destination translation is always static, and is only available with manual rules.

Bi-directional or Twice NAT

When creating a manual static rule, you can select the "Bi-directional" option, which will produce an entry in the rules table that actually represents two static NAT rules, encompassing both translation directions. That is, a static rule is created for the specified source/translated address pairing, along with a mirror rule for the translated address/source pairing.

For example, if Bi-directional is chosen when you create a static rule with Host1 in the Source field and Host2 in the Translated field, two lines are added to the rules table: one with Host1 being translated to Host2, and one with Host2 being translated to Host1.

This is sometimes referred to as "Twice NAT" because only one look-up is required to fetch and process what is in effect two rules.

Many-to-one Addressing

Generally, static NAT rules are configured with one-to-one address mapping. However, you can now define static NAT rules in which many IP addresses map to a few or one IP address. Functionally, many-to-few is the same as many-to-one, but because the configuration is more complicated, we recommend creating a many-to-one rule for each address as needed.

Many-to-one addressing might be useful, for example, in a situation where a range of public IP addresses is used to reach a load balancer which redirects requests to an internal network.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

Add and Edit NAT Rule Dialog Boxes

Add or Edit Network/Host Dialog Box: NAT Tab

NAT Policies on Cisco IOS Routers

You can configure NAT policies on a Cisco IOS router from the following tabs on the NAT policy page:

NAT Page: Interface Specification

NAT Page: Static Rules

NAT Page: Dynamic Rules

NAT Page: Timeouts

Network Address Translation (NAT) converts private, internal LAN addresses into globally routable IP addresses. NAT enables a small number of public IP addresses to provide global connectivity for a large number of hosts.

For more information, see Understanding Network Address Translation.

Navigation Path

(Device view) Select NAT from the Policy selector.

(Policy view) Select NAT (Router) from the Policy Type selector. Select an existing policy from the Shared Policy selector, or create a new one.

NAT Page: Interface Specification

Before creating NAT rules, you must define the "direction" of the traffic to be translated by specifying the Inside and Outside interfaces. Inside interfaces typically connect to a LAN that the router serves. Outside interfaces typically connect to your organization's WAN or to the Internet. You must designate at least one Inside interface and one Outside interface to enable the router to perform network address translation.

The Inside and Outside designations are used when interpreting translation rules: addresses connected to the Inside interface are translated to addresses on the Outside interface. After these interfaces are defined, they are used in all static and dynamic NAT translation rules.

Use the Interface Specification tab of the NAT policy page to specify the Inside and Outside interfaces.

Navigation Path

(Device view) Select NAT from the Policy selector, then click the Interface Specification tab.

(Policy view) Select NAT (Router) > Translation Rules from the Policy Type selector. Select an existing policy or create a new one, and then click the Interface Specification tab.

Defining the Inside and Outside Interfaces

In the NAT Inside Interfaces and NAT Outside Interfaces fields, enter or Select the names of the interfaces or interface roles for the Inside and Outside interfaces, respectively. Separate multiple names or roles with commas (for example, Ethernet1/1, Ethernet1/2). Note that you cannot enter the same name in both fields.

Related Topics

NAT Policies on Cisco IOS Routers

NAT Page: Static Rules

NAT Page: Dynamic Rules

NAT Page: Timeouts

NAT Page: Timeouts

NAT Page: Static Rules

You define a static NAT rule by specifying a local address that must be translated, as well as the global address to which it is translated. This is a static or fixed mapping—the local address is always translated to the same global address.

You can define static NAT rules that translate the addresses of single hosts, as well as static rules that translate multiple addresses in a subnet. When multiple local addresses must use the same global address, you must define the necessary port redirection information, which defines a different port for each local address using the global address.


Note We strongly recommend that you do not perform NAT on traffic that will be transmitted over a VPN. Translating addresses on this traffic causes it to be sent out unencrypted instead of encrypted over the VPN.


The procedure for creating a static rule depends on whether the address being translated represents a port, a single host, or an entire subnet:

You define a static NAT rule for a single host by entering the original address to translate and the global address to which it is translated. The global address may be taken from an interface on the device.

You define a static NAT rule for a subnet by entering one of the addresses in the subnet (including the subnet mask) as the original address, and one of the global addresses that you want to use as the translated address. The router configures the remaining addresses based on the subnet mask you provide.

You define a static NAT rule for a port by entering the original IP address and the global address to which it should be translated. The global address may be taken from an interface on the device. In addition, you must select the protocol used by the port, as well as the local and global port numbers.

The Add Static NAT Rule and Edit Static NAT Rule dialog boxes are used to add and edit these rules. Refer to NAT Static Rule Dialog Boxes for descriptions of the fields displayed in the table on this page.

Before You Begin

Define the inside and outside interfaces used for NAT. See NAT Page: Interface Specification.

Navigation Path

(Device view) Select NAT from the Policy selector, then click the Static Rules tab.

(Policy view) Select NAT (Router) > Translation Rules from the Policy Type selector. Select an existing policy or create a new one, and then click the Static Rules tab.

Related Topics

NAT Policies on Cisco IOS Routers

NAT Page: Dynamic Rules

NAT Page: Timeouts

Standard Security Manager rules table topics:

Using Rules Tables, page 12-7

Filtering Tables, page 1-37

Table Columns and Column Heading Features, page 1-38

NAT Static Rule Dialog Boxes

Use the Add/Edit NAT Static Rule dialog boxes to add or edit static address translation rules. Except for their titles, the two dialog boxes are identical.

Navigation Path

Go to the NAT Page: Static Rules tab; click the Add button beneath the table to add a new rule, or select a rule in the table and click Edit to update that rule.

Related Topics

Understanding Interface Role Objects, page 6-56

Field Reference

Table 20-2 Add/Edit NAT Static Rule Dialog Boxes 

Element
Description

Static Rule Type

The type of local address to be translated by this static rule:

Static Host - A single host requiring static address translation.

Static Network - A subnet requiring static address translation.

Static Port - A single port requiring static address translation. If you select this option, you must define the Port Redirection parameters.

Original Address

An IP address, or the name of a network/host object representing the address(es) to be translated. You can enter or Select the object name.

Network/host objects are logical collections of IP addresses that represent networks, hosts, or both. See Understanding Network/Host Objects (IPv4 and IPv6), page 6-63 for more information.

Note Do not enter a local address belonging to this router, as it could cause Security Manager management traffic to be translated. Translating this traffic will cause a loss of communication between the router and Security Manager.

Translated Address

Use the options in this section of the dialog box to specify the address(es) to which the Original Address(es) are translated:

Specify IP - Select this option to specify an IP address, or the name of a network/host object that provides the translated address(es). Add an IP address, or the name of a network/host object, in the Translated IP/Network field. You can enter or Select the object name.

Use Interface IP - Select this option to specify that the IP address assigned to a particular interface be used as the translated address. Enter or Select the name of the desired Interface. (This is typically the interface from which translated packets leave the router.)

Note This option is not available when Static Network is the chosen rule type. Only one static rule may be defined per interface.

Port Redirection

These parameters specify port information for the address translations. Port address translation lets you to use the same public IP address for multiple devices as long as the port specified for each device is different.

Note These parameters are available only when Static Port is the chosen rule type.

Redirect Port - When Static Port is chosen as the rule type, this box is automatically checked; it cannot be changed. Enter the appropriate information in the following fields:

Protocol - The communications protocol used for these ports: TCP or UDP.

Local Port - The port number on the source network. Valid values range from 1 to 65535.

Global Port - The port number on the destination network that the router is to use for this translation. Valid values range from 1 to 65535.

Advanced

This section contains optional, advanced translation options.

Note The Advanced options are available only when the Specify IP option is the selected method for defining the translated address(es).

No Alias - When selected, disables automatic aliasing for the global IP address translation.

If the NAT pool used as an inside global pool consists of addresses on an attached subnet, an alias is generated for that address so that the router can answer Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) requests for those addresses.

When deselected, global address aliases are permitted.

No Payload - When selected, prohibits an embedded address or port in the payload from being translated.

The payload option performs NAT between devices on overlapping networks that share the same IP address. When an outside device sends a DNS query to reach an inside device, the local address inside the payload of the DNS reply is translated to a global address according to the relevant NAT rule.

You can disable this feature by selecting the No Payload option. Otherwise, embedded addresses and ports in the payload may be translated. See Disabling the Payload Option for Overlapping Networks for more information.

Create Extended Translation Entry - When checked, extended translation entries (addresses and ports) are created in the translation table. This lets you associate multiple global addresses with a single local address. This is the default.

When this option is deselected, simple translation entries are created, allowing association of a single global address with the local address.

Note This option is not available when Static Port is the chosen rule type.


Disabling the Payload Option for Overlapping Networks

Overlapping networks result when you assign an IP address to a device on your network that is already legally owned and assigned to a different device on the Internet or outside network. Overlapping networks can also result after the merger of two companies using RFC 1918 IP addresses in their networks. These two networks need to communicate, preferably without your having to re-address all their devices.

This communication is achieved as follows. The outside device cannot use the IP address of the inside device because it is the same as the address assigned to itself (the outside device). Instead, the outside device sends a Domain Name System (DNS) query for the inside device's domain name. The source of this query is the IP address of the outside device, which is translated to an address from a designated address pool. The DNS server located on the inside network replies with the IP address associated with the inside device's domain name in the data portion of the packet. The destination address of the reply packet is translated back to the outside device's address, and the address in the data portion of the reply packet is translated to an address from a different address pool. In this way, the outside device learns that the IP address for the inside device is one of the addresses from that second address pool, and it uses this address when it communicates with the inside device. The router running NAT takes care of the translations at this point.

To disable the translation of the address inside the payload, check the No Payload option when you create a static NAT rule based on a global IP translation.

NAT Page: Dynamic Rules

Use the NAT Dynamic Rules tab of the router's NAT page to manage dynamic address translation rules. A dynamic address translation rule dynamically maps hosts to addresses, using either the IP address of a specific interface (with dynamic port translation), or the addresses included in an address pool that are globally unique in the destination network.

Defining Dynamic NAT Rules

You define a dynamic NAT rule by first selecting an access control list (ACL) whose rules specify the traffic requiring translation.

Then, you must either select an interface with an IP address to which the addresses should be translated, or define a pool of addresses to be used. You define the pool by specifying a range of addresses and giving the range a unique name; you can specify multiple ranges. The router uses the available addresses in the pool (those not used for static translations, or for its own WAN IP address) for connections to the Internet or another outside network. When an address is no longer in use, it is returned to the address pool to be dynamically assigned later to another device.

If the addressing requirements of your network exceed the available addresses in your dynamic NAT pool, you can use the Port Address Translation (PAT) feature (also called Overloading) to associate many private addresses with one or a small group of public IP address, using port addressing to make each translation unique. With PAT enabled, the router chooses a unique port number for the IP address of each outbound translation slot. This feature is useful if you cannot allocate enough unique IP addresses for your outbound connections. Note that Port Address Translation does not occur until the address pool is depleted.


Note By default, Security Manager does not perform NAT on traffic that is meant to be transmitted over a VPN. Otherwise, any traffic appearing in both the NAT ACL and the crypto ACL defined on an interface would be sent out unencrypted because NAT is always performed before encryption. However, you can change this default setting.



Tip You can perform PAT on split-tunneled traffic on the spokes of your VPN topology directly from the Global VPN Settings page. There is no need to create a dynamic NAT rule for each spoke. Any NAT rules that you define on an individual device override the VPN setting. For more information, see Configuring VPN Global NAT Settings, page 22-34.


The Add Dynamic NAT Rule and Edit Static NAT Rule dialog boxes are used to add and edit these rules. Refer to NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box for descriptions of the fields displayed in the table on this page.

Before You Begin

Define the inside and outside interfaces used for NAT. See NAT Page: Interface Specification.

Navigation Path

(Device view) Select NAT from the Policy selector, then click the Dynamic Rules tab.

(Policy view) Select NAT (Router) > Translation Rules from the Policy Type selector. Select an existing policy or create a new one, and then click the Dynamic Rules tab.

Related Topics

NAT Policies on Cisco IOS Routers

NAT Page: Static Rules

NAT Page: Timeouts

Standard Security Manager rules table topics:

Using Rules Tables, page 12-7

Filtering Tables, page 1-37

Table Columns and Column Heading Features, page 1-38

NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box

Use the Add/Edit NAT Dynamic Rule dialog boxes to add or edit dynamic address translation rules. Except for their titles, the two dialog boxes are identical.

Navigation Path

Go to the NAT Page: Dynamic Rules tab; click the Add button beneath the table to add a new rule, or select a rule in the table and click Edit to update that rule.

Related Topics

Creating Access Control List Objects, page 6-42

Understanding Interface Role Objects, page 6-56

Field Reference

Table 20-3 NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box 

Element
Description

Traffic Flow

In the Access List field, enter or Select the name of the access control list (ACL) object whose entries define the addresses requiring dynamic translation.

Note Make sure that the specified ACL does not permit the translation of Security Manager management traffic over any device address on this router. Translating this traffic will cause a loss of communication between the router and Security Manager.

Translated Address

Use the options in this section of the dialog box to specify the method and address(es) used for dynamic translation:

Use Interface IP - Select this option to specify that the globally registered IP address assigned to a particular interface be used as the translated address; port addressing ensures each translation is unique. (The Enable Port Translation (Overload) option is checked automatically when you select Use Interface IP.)

Enter or Select the name of the desired Interface. This is typically the interface from which translated packets leave the router, meaning the interface or interface role must represent an outside interface on the router (see NAT Page: Interface Specification).

Address Pool - Select this option to base address translation on the addresses you specify in the Network Ranges pool.

Enter one or more address ranges, including the prefix, using the format min1-max1/prefix (in CIDR notation), where "prefix" represents a valid netmask. For example, 172.16.0.0-172.31.0.223/12.

You can add as many address ranges to the address pool as required, but all ranges must share the same prefix. Separate multiple entries with commas.

Settings

This section contains two options

Enable Port Translation (Overload) - When selected, the router uses port addressing (PAT) if supply of global addresses in the address pool is depleted; when deselected, PAT is not used.

Note When you use select Use Interface IP in the Translated Address section, this box is checked automatically; it cannot be changed.

Do Not Translate VPN Traffic (Site-to-Site VPN only) - Deselect this option to allow address translation on traffic intended for a site-to-site VPN.

When selected, address translation is not performed on VPN traffic. When deselected, the router performs address translation on VPN traffic in cases of overlapping addresses between the NAT ACL and the crypto ACL.

Note We strongly recommend that you not deselect this option, or any traffic defined in both the NAT ACL and the crypto ACL will be sent unencrypted. When you perform NAT into IPsec, we also recommend that you leave this option selected; it does not interfere with the translation of addresses arriving from overlapping networks.

This setting applies only in situations where the NAT ACL overlaps the crypto ACL used by the site-to-site VPN. Because the interface performs NAT first, any traffic arriving from an address within this overlap would get translated, causing the traffic to be sent unencrypted. Leaving this box checked prevents that from happening.

Note This option does not apply to remote access VPNs.


NAT Page: Timeouts

Use the NAT Timeouts tab of the router's NAT page to manage the timeout values for port address (overload) translations. These timeouts cause a dynamic translation to expire after a specified period of inactivity. In addition, you can use options on this page to place a limit on the number of entries allowed in the dynamic NAT table, and to modify the default timeout on all dynamic translations that do not include PAT processing.

About Dynamic NAT Timeouts

Dynamic NAT translations have a timeout period for non-use, after which they expire and are purged from the translation table. If you enable the Overload feature for performing PAT, you can specify a variety of values that provide finer control over these timeouts, because each translation entry contains additional contextual information about the traffic using it.

For example, non-DNS translations time out by default after five minutes, but DNS translations time out after 1 minute. Further, TCP translations time out after 24 hours, unless an RST or FIN is seen on the stream, in which case they time out after one minute. You can change any of these timeout values.


Note If you disable the Port Translation (Overload) feature for all dynamic rules, you need not enter any PAT-related timeout values. However, you can still modify the default timeout value for non-PAT dynamic translations. (By default, all dynamic translations expire after 24 hours.) For more information about the Overload feature, see NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box.


Navigation Path

(Device view) Select NAT from the Policy selector, then click the Timeouts tab.

(Policy view) Select NAT (Router) > Translation Rules from the Policy Type selector. Select an existing policy or create a new one, and then click the Timeouts tab.

Related Topics

NAT Page: Interface Specification

NAT Page: Static Rules

NAT Page: Dynamic Rules

Field Reference

Table 20-4 NAT Timeouts Tab 

Element
Description

Max Entries

The maximum number of entries allowed in the dynamic NAT table. You can enter a value between 1 and 2147483647, or you can leave the field blank (the default), which means that the number of entries in the table is unlimited.

Timeout (sec.)

The number of seconds after which dynamic translations expire; this does not apply to PAT (overload) translations. The default is 86400 seconds (24 hours).

UDP Timeout (sec.)

The timeout value applied to User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports. The default is 300 seconds (5 minutes).

Note This value applies only when Port Translation (Overload) is enabled for a dynamic NAT rule; see NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box.

DNS Timeout (sec.)

The timeout value applied to Domain Naming System (DNS) server connections. The default is 60 seconds.

Note This value applies only when Port Translation (Overload) is enabled for a dynamic NAT rule; see NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box.

TCP Timeout (sec.)

The timeout value applied to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) ports. The default is 86400 seconds (24 hours).

Note This value applies only when Port Translation (Overload) is enabled for a dynamic NAT rule; see NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box.

FINRST Timeout (sec.)

The timeout value applied when a Finish (FIN) packet or Reset (RST) packet (both of which terminate connections) is found in the TCP stream. The default is 60 seconds.

Note This value applies only when Port Translation (Overload) is enabled for a dynamic NAT rule; see NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box.

ICMP Timeout (sec.)

The timeout value applied to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) flows. The default is 60 seconds.

Note This value applies only when Port Translation (Overload) is enabled for a dynamic NAT rule; see NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box.

PPTP Timeout (sec.)

The timeout value applied to NAT Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) flows. The default is 86400 seconds (24 hours).

Note This value applies only when Port Translation (Overload) is enabled for a dynamic NAT rule; see NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box.

SYN Timeout (sec.)

The timeout value applied to TCP flows after a synchronous transmission (SYN) message (used for precise clocking) is encountered. The default is 60 seconds.

Note This value applies only when Port Translation (Overload) is enabled for a dynamic NAT rule; see NAT Dynamic Rule Dialog Box.


NAT Policies on Security Devices

The following topics describe configuring network address translation (NAT) options on managed security appliances: PIX firewalls, Firewall Service Modules (FWSMs) on Catalyst switches, pre-version-8.3 Adaptive Security Appliances (ASAs), and ASA 8.3+ devices. The topics are arranged as follows:

NAT in Transparent Mode

Translation Options Page

PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Address Pools

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

ASA 8.3+

Configuring NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

Translation Rules: ASA 8.3+

NAT in Transparent Mode

Using NAT on a security appliance operating in transparent mode eliminates the need for upstream or downstream routers to perform NAT for their networks. NAT in transparent mode has the following requirements and limitations:

When the mapped addresses are not on the same network as the transparent firewall, you need to add a static route for the mapped addresses on the upstream router that points to the downstream router (through the security appliance).

If the real destination address is not directly connected to the security appliance, you also need to add a static route on the security appliance for the real destination address that points to the downstream router. Without NAT, traffic from the upstream router to the downstream router does not need any routes on the security appliance because it uses the MAC address table. Using NAT, however, causes the security appliance to use a route look-up instead of a MAC address look-up, so it needs a static route to the downstream router.

Because the transparent firewall does not have any interface IP addresses, you cannot use interface PAT.

ARP inspection is not supported. Moreover, if for some reason a host on one side of the security appliance sends an ARP request to a host on the other side of the security appliance, and the initiating host real address is mapped to a different address on the same subnet, then the real address remains visible in the ARP request.

Translation Options Page

Use the Translation Options page to set options that affect network address translation for the selected security appliance. These settings apply to all interfaces on the device.

Navigation Path

(Device view) Select NAT > Translation Options from the Device Policy selector.

(Policy view) Select NAT (PIX/ASA/FWSM) > Translation Options from the Policy Type selector. Select an existing policy from the Shared Policy selector, or right-click Translation Options to create a new policy.

Related Topics

NAT Policies on Security Devices

Field Reference

Table 20-5 Translation Options Page 

Element
Description

Enable traffic through the firewall without address translation

When selected, lets traffic pass through the security appliance without address translation. If this option is not selected, any traffic that does not match a translation rule will be dropped.

Note This option is available only on PIX 7.x, FWSM 3.x, and ASA devices.

Enable xlate bypass

When selected, establishment of NAT sessions for untranslated traffic is disabled (this feature is called "xlate bypass").

Note This option is available only on FWSM 3.2 and higher.

By default, the FWSM creates NAT sessions for all connections even if NAT is not used. For example, a session is created for each untranslated connection even if NAT control is not enabled, if NAT exemption or identity NAT is used, or if you use same-security interfaces and do not configure NAT. Because there is a maximum number of NAT sessions (266,144 concurrent), these kinds of NAT sessions might cause you to run into the limit. To avoid reaching the limit, enable xlate bypass.

If you disable NAT control and have untranslated traffic or use NAT exemption, or if you enable NAT control and use NAT exemption, then with xlate bypass, the FWSM does not create a session for those types of untranslated traffic. However, NAT sessions are still created in the following instances:

You configure identity NAT (with or without NAT control)—identity NAT is considered to be a translation.

You use same-security interfaces with NAT control. Traffic between same-security interfaces create NAT sessions even when you do not configure NAT for the traffic. To avoid NAT sessions in this case, disable NAT control, or use NAT exemption as well as xlate bypass.

Do not translate VPN traffic

When selected, VPN traffic passes through the security appliance without address translation.

Clear translates for existing connections

When selected, the translation slots assigned to dynamic translations and any associated connections are cleared following each session.

Each session connecting through the security appliance, and undergoing some form of NAT or PAT, is assigned a translation slot known as an "xlate." These translation slots can persist after the session is complete, which can lead to a depletion of translation slots, unexpected traffic behavior, or both.


Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

The following sections describe configuring network address translation on PIX and FWSM devices, and on pre-8.3-version ASAs. (See Configuring NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices for information about configuring NAT on ASA 8.3+ devices.)

Address Pools

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL)

Dynamic Rules Tab

Policy Dynamic Rules Tab

Static Rules Tab

General Tab

Address Pools

Use the Address Pools page to view and manage the global address pools used in dynamic NAT rules.

The Address Pool dialog box is used to add and edit these address pools. Refer to Address Pool Dialog Box for descriptions of the fields displayed in the Global Address Pools table on this page.

Navigation Path

(Device view) Select NAT > Address Pools from the Device Policy selector.

(Policy view) Select NAT (PIX/ASA/FWSM) > Address Pools from the Policy Type selector. Select an existing policy from the Shared Policy selector, or right-click Address Pools to create a new policy.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Address Pool Dialog Box

Use the Address Pool dialog box to add or edit a global address pool for use in dynamic NAT rules.

Navigation Path

You open the Address Pool dialog box by clicking the Add Row or Edit Row buttons on the Address Pools.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Field Reference

Table 20-6 Address Pools Dialog Box 

Element
Description

Interface Name

Enter or Select the name of the device interface on which the mapped IP addresses will be used.

Pool ID

Enter a unique identification number for this address pool, an integer between 1 and 2147483647. When configuring a dynamic NAT rule, you select a Pool ID to specify the pool of addresses to be used for translation.

IP address ranges

Enter or Select the addresses to be assigned to this address pool. You can specify these addresses as follows:

Address range for dynamic NAT (e.g., 192.168.1.1-192.168.1.15)

Subnetwork (e.g., 192.168.1.0/24)

List of addresses separated by commas (e.g., 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.2, 192.168.1.3)

Single address to use for PAT (e.g., 192.168.1.1)

Combinations of the above (e.g., 192.168.1.1-192.168.1.15, 192.168.1.25)

Names of hosts on the connected network; these will be resolved to IP addresses.

Description

Enter a description for the address pool.

Enable Interface PAT

When checked, port address translation is enabled on the specified interface.


Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Use the Translation Rules page to define network address translation (NAT) rules on the selected device. The Translation Rules page consists of the following tabs:

Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL) - Use this tab to configure rules specifying traffic that is exempt from address translation.


Note Translation exemptions are only supported by PIX, ASA and FWSM devices in router mode, and FWSM 3.2 devices in transparent mode. Other devices in transparent mode support only static translation rules.


Dynamic Rules Tab - Use this tab to configure dynamic NAT and PAT rules.


Note Dynamic translation rules are only supported by PIX, ASA and FWSM devices in router mode, and FWSM 3.2 devices in transparent mode. Other devices in transparent mode support only static translation rules.


Policy Dynamic Rules Tab - Use this tab to configure dynamic translation rules based on source and destination addresses and services.


Note Policy dynamic rules are only supported by PIX, ASA and FWSM devices in router mode, and FWSM 3.2 devices in transparent mode. Other devices in transparent mode support only static translation rules.


Static Rules Tab - Use this tab to configure static translation rules for a security appliance or shared policy.

General Tab - Use this tab to view all current translation rules, listed in the order that they will be evaluated on the device.


Note The General tab is visible only for PIX, ASA and FWSM devices in router mode, and FWSM 3.2 devices in transparent mode. Other devices in transparent mode support only static translation rules and do not need to display summary information.


Navigation Path

To access the Translation Rules page, do one of the following:

(Device view) Select NAT > Translation Rules from the Device Policy selector.

(Policy view) Select NAT (PIX/ASA/FWSM) > Translation Rules from the Policy Type selector. Select an existing policy from the Shared Policy selector, or right-click Translation Rules to create a new policy.

Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL)

Use the Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL) tab of the Translation Rules page to view and specify rules that exempt traffic from address translation. Rules are evaluated sequentially in the order listed. The row number indicates the rule's position in the ordering of the list. You can use the Up Row and Down Row buttons to change the position of the selected rule.

The Add/Edit Translation Exemption (NAT-0 ACL) Rule dialog box is used to add and edit these rules. Refer to Add/Edit Translation Exemption (NAT-0 ACL) Rule Dialog Box for descriptions of the fields displayed in the table on this page.


Note Translation exemptions are only supported by PIX, ASA and FWSM devices in router mode, and FWSM 3.2 devices in transparent mode. Other devices in transparent mode support only static translation rules.


Navigation Path

You can access the Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL) tab from the Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA page.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box

General Tab

Standard Security Manager rules table topics:

Using Rules Tables, page 12-7

Filtering Tables, page 1-37

Table Columns and Column Heading Features, page 1-38

Add/Edit Translation Exemption (NAT-0 ACL) Rule Dialog Box

Use the Add/Edit Translation Exemption (NAT-0 ACL) Rule dialog box to define and edit translation exemption rules on PIX, FWSM and pre-8.3 ASA devices in router mode, and FWSM 3.2 devices in transparent mode.

Navigation Path

You can access the Add/Edit Translation Exemption (NAT-0 ACL) Rule dialog box from the Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL) tab. See Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL) for more information.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box

Field Reference

Table 20-7 Add/Edit Translation Exemption (NAT-0 ACL) Rule Dialog Box 

Element
Description

Enable Rule

If checked, the rule is enabled. Deselect this option to disable the rule without deleting it.

Action

Select the action for this rule:

exempt - The rule identifies traffic that is exempt from NAT.

do not exempt - The rule identifies traffic that is not exempt from NAT.

Original: Interface

Enter the name of (or Select) the device interface to which the rule applies.

Original: Sources

Enter IP addresses for (or Select) the source hosts and network objects to which the rule applies. Multiple entries must be separated by commas.

Note that this parameter is displayed in the Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL) table under the column heading "Original Address."

Translated: Direction

The rule can be applied to Inbound or Outbound traffic, as specified with this option.

Traffic flow: Destinations

Enter IP addresses for (or Select) the destination hosts and network objects to which the rule applies. Multiple entries must be separated by commas.

Category

To assign the rule to a category, choose the category from this list. Categories can help identify rules and objects using labels and color-coding. See Using Category Objects, page 6-9 for more information.

Note No commands are generated for the Category attribute.

Description

Enter a description of the rule.

Advanced button (FWSM only)

Click to open the Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box to configure advanced settings for this rule.


Dynamic Rules Tab

Use the Dynamic Rules tab of the Translation Rules page to view and configure dynamic NAT and PAT rules. Rules are evaluated sequentially in the order listed. The row number indicates the rule's position in the ordering of the list. You can use the Up Row and Down Row buttons to change the position of the selected rule.

With dynamic NAT, internal IP addresses are dynamically translated using IP addresses from a pool of global addresses. With dynamic PAT, internal IP addresses are translated to a single mapped address by using dynamically assigned port numbers with the mapped address. Dynamic translations are often used to map local RFC 1918 IP addresses to addresses that are Internet-routable.

The Add/Edit Dynamic Translation Rule dialog box is used to add and edit these rules. Refer to Add/Edit Dynamic Translation Rule Dialog Box for descriptions of the fields displayed in the table on this page.


Note Dynamic translation rules are only supported by PIX, ASA and FWSM devices in router mode, and FWSM 3.2 devices in transparent mode. Other devices in transparent mode support only static translation rules.


Navigation Path

You can access the Dynamic Rules tab from the Translation Rules page. For more information about the Translation Rules page, see Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA.


Note By default, only standard Dynamic Rule elements are displayed in this table. Additional columns for elements defined in the Advanced NAT Options dialog box can be displayed by right-clicking any column heading. (All columns are displayed by default on the General Tab.)


Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box

Select Address Pool Dialog Box

General Tab

Standard rules table topics:

Using Rules Tables, page 12-7

Filtering Tables, page 1-37

Table Columns and Column Heading Features, page 1-38

Add/Edit Dynamic Translation Rule Dialog Box

Use the Add/Edit Dynamic Translation Rule dialog box to define and edit dynamic NAT and PAT rules.

Navigation Path

You can access the Add/Edit Dynamic Translation Rule dialog box from the Dynamic Rules tab. See Dynamic Rules Tab for more information.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box

Select Address Pool Dialog Box

Field Reference

Table 20-8 Add/Edit Dynamic Translation Rule Dialog Box 

Element
Description

Enable Rule

If checked, the rule is enabled. Deselect this option to disable the rule without deleting it.

Original: Interface

Enter the name or Select the device interface to which the rule applies.

Original: Address

Enter IP addresses for (or Select) the source hosts and network objects to which the rule applies. Multiple entries must be separated by commas.

Translated: Pool

Enter (or Select) the ID number of the pool of addresses used for translation; clicking Select opens the Select Address Pool Dialog Box.

Enter a value of zero to specify this as an identity NAT rule.

Translated: Direction

The rule can be applied to Inbound or Outbound traffic, as specified with this option.

Advanced button

Click to open the Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box to configure advanced settings for this rule.


Select Address Pool Dialog Box

The Select Address Pool dialog box presents a list of global address pools; these pools are defined and managed via the Address Pools. Use this dialog box to select an address pool for use by a dynamic translation rule, or a policy dynamic translation rule.

Navigation Path

You can access the Select Address Pool dialog box from the Add/Edit Dynamic Translation Rule Dialog Box when adding or editing a dynamic translation rule, or from the Add/Edit Policy Dynamic Rules Dialog Box when adding or editing a policy dynamic translation rule.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Address Pools

Field Reference

Table 20-9 Select Address Pool Dialog Box 

Element
Description

Pool ID

The identification number of the address pool.

Interface

The name of the device interface to which the address pool applies.

IP Address Ranges

The IP addresses assigned to the pool; "interface" in this list indicates PAT is enabled on the specified Interface.

Description

The description provided for the address pool.

Selected Row

This field identifies the pool currently selected in the list. When you click OK to close the dialog box, this pool is assigned to the translation rule.


Policy Dynamic Rules Tab

Use the Policy Dynamic Rules tab of the Translation Rules page to view and configure dynamic translation rules based on source and destination addresses and services. Rules are evaluated sequentially in the order listed. The row number indicates the rule's position in the ordering of the list. You can use the Up Row and Down Row buttons to change the position of the selected rule.

The Add/Edit Policy Dynamic Rule dialog box is used to add and edit these rules. Refer to Add/Edit Policy Dynamic Rules Dialog Box for a description of the fields displayed in the table on this page.


Note Policy dynamic rules are only supported by PIX, ASA and FWSM devices in router mode, and FWSM 3.2 devices in transparent mode. Other devices in transparent mode support only static translation rules.


Navigation Path

You can access the Policy Dynamic Rules tab from the Translation Rules page. See Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA for more information.


Note By default, only standard Policy Dynamic Rule elements are displayed in this table. Additional columns for elements defined in the Advanced NAT Options dialog box can be displayed by right-clicking any column heading. (All columns are displayed by default on the General Tab.)


Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Add/Edit Policy Dynamic Rules Dialog Box

Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box

Select Address Pool Dialog Box

General Tab

Standard rules table topics:

Using Rules Tables, page 12-7

Filtering Tables, page 1-37

Table Columns and Column Heading Features, page 1-38

Add/Edit Policy Dynamic Rules Dialog Box

Use the Add/Edit Policy Dynamic Rules dialog box to define and edit dynamic translation rules based on source and destination addresses and services.

Navigation Path

You can access the Add/Edit Policy Dynamic Rules dialog box from the Policy Dynamic Rules tab. See Policy Dynamic Rules Tab for more information.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Policy Dynamic Rules Tab

Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box

Select Address Pool Dialog Box

Field Reference

Table 20-10 Add/Edit Policy Dynamic Rules Dialog Box 

Element
Description

Enable Rule

If checked, the rule is enabled. Deselect this option to disable the rule without deleting it.

Original: Interface

Enter the name of (or Select) the device interface to which the rule applies.

Original: Sources

Enter IP addresses for (or Select) the source hosts and network objects to which the rule applies. Multiple entries must be separated by commas.

Note that this parameter is displayed in the Policy Dynamic Rules table under the column heading "Original Address."

Translated: Pool

Enter (or Select) the ID number of the pool of addresses used for translation; clicking Select opens the Select Address Pool Dialog Box.

Enter a value of zero to specify this as an identity NAT rule.

Translated: Direction

The rule can be applied to Inbound or Outbound traffic, as specified with this option.

Traffic flow: Destinations

Enter IP addresses for (or Select) the destination hosts and network objects to which the rule applies. Multiple entries must be separated by commas.

Traffic flow: Services

Enter (or Select) the services to which the rule applies. Multiple entries must be separated by commas.

Category

To assign the rule to a category, choose the category from this list. Categories can help identify rules and objects using labels and color-coding. See Using Category Objects, page 6-9 for more information.

Note No commands are generated for the Category attribute.

Description

Enter a description of the rule.

Advanced button

Click to open the Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box to configure advanced settings for this rule.


Static Rules Tab

Use the Static Rules tab of the Translation Rules page to view and configure static translation rules for a security appliance or shared policy. Rules are evaluated sequentially in the order listed. The row number indicates the rule's position in the ordering of the list. You can use the Up Row and Down Row buttons to change the position of the selected rule.

With static translation, internal IP addresses are permanently mapped to a global IP address. These rules map a host address on a lower security-level interface to a global address on a higher security-level interface. For example, a static rule would be used for mapping the local address of a web server on a perimeter network to a global address that hosts on the outside interface would use to access the web server.


Caution The order of Static NAT rules on a security device is important, and Security Manager preserves this ordering during deployment. However, security appliances do not support in-line editing of Static NAT rules. This means that if you move, edit, or insert a rule anywhere above the end of the list, Security Manager will remove from the device all Static NAT rules that follow the new or modified rule, and then re-send the updated list from that point. Depending on the length of the list, this can require substantial overhead, and may result in traffic interruption. Whenever possible, add any new Static NAT rules to the end of the list.

The Add/Edit Static Rule dialog box is used to add and edit these rules. Refer to Add/Edit Static Rule Dialog Box for descriptions of the fields displayed in the table on this page.

The "Nailed" Column in the Static Rules Table

In addition to the columns representing parameters specified in the Add/Edit Static Rule Dialog Box, the Static Rules table displays a column labeled "Nailed." This value is a product of device discovery; it cannot be changed in Security Manager.

The entry in the "Nailed" Column indicates whether TCP state tracking and sequence checking is skipped for the connection: true or false.

Navigation Path

You can access the Static Rules tab from the Translation Rules page. See Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA for more information.


Note By default, only standard Static Rules elements are displayed in this table. Additional columns for elements defined in the Advanced NAT Options dialog box can be displayed by right-clicking any column heading. (All columns are displayed by default on the General Tab.)


Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Add/Edit Static Rule Dialog Box

Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box

General Tab

Standard rules table topics:

Using Rules Tables, page 12-7

Filtering Tables, page 1-37

Table Columns and Column Heading Features, page 1-38

Add/Edit Static Rule Dialog Box

Use the Add/Edit Static Rule dialog box to add or edit static translation rules for a firewall device or shared policy.

Navigation Path

You can access the Add/Edit Static Rule dialog box from the Static Rules Tab.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box

Field Reference

Table 20-11 Add/Edit Static Rule Dialog Box 

Element
Description

Enable Rule

If checked, the rule is enabled. Deselect this option to disable the rule without deleting it.

Translation Type

Select the type of translation for this rule: NAT or PAT.

Original Interface

Enter (or Select) the device interface connected to the host or network with original addresses to be translated.

Original Address

Enter (or Select) the source address to be translated.

Translated Interface

Enter (or Select) the interface on which the translated addresses are to be used.

To specify this as an identity NAT rule, enter the same interface in both this and the Original Interface fields.

Use Interface IP/Use Selected Address

Specify the address used for the Translated Interface: select Use Interface IP (address), or select Use Selected Address and enter an address, or Select a network/host object.

Enable Policy NAT

Select this option to enable Policy NAT for this translation rule.

Dest Address

If Policy NAT is enabled, specify the destination addresses of the hosts or networks to which the rule applies.

Services

If Policy NAT is enabled, enter or Select the Services to which the rule applies.

Note For Static Policy NAT, IP is the only Service that can be specified.

The syntax for service and service-object specification is:

{tcp | udp | tcp&udp}/{source_port_number | port_list_object}/ {destination_port_number | port_list_object}

Note that if you enter only one port parameter, it is interpreted as the destination port (with a source port of "any"). For example, tcp/4443 means tcp, source port any, destination port 4443, while tcp/4443/Default Range means tcp, source port 4443, and destination port Default Range (generally 1-65535).

As with all text-entry fields, Security Manager may display auto-complete options. For example, if you type tcp/ in this field, an auto-complete list of all Port Lists objects defined in Security Manager is displayed. This list will include system-generated objects such as DEFAULT RANGE, HTTPS and WEBPORTS.

Refer to Configuring Port List Objects, page 6-74 for more information about Port Lists, and Configuring Service Objects, page 6-75 for more information about defining Services.

Protocol

If PAT is the selected Translation Type, select the protocol, TCP or UDP, to which the rule applies.

Original Port

If PAT is the selected Translation Type, enter the port number to be translated.

Note that this parameter is displayed in the Static Rules table under the column heading "Local Port."

Translated Port

If PAT is the selected Translation Type, enter the port number to which the original port number will be translated.

Note that this parameter is displayed in the Static Rules table under the column heading "Global Port."

Category

To assign the rule to a category, choose the category from this list. Categories can help identify rules and objects using labels and color-coding. See Using Category Objects, page 6-9 for more information.

Note No commands are generated for the Category attribute.

Description

Enter a description of the rule.

Advanced button

Click to open the Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box to configure advanced settings for this rule.


Edit Translated Address Dialog Box

Use the Edit Translated Address dialog box to change just the translated address assigned to a static translation rule. The translated address is the address to which the original address is changed. The interface's IP address can be used, or you can enter a specific IP address. See Static Rules Tab for more information about static rules and translated addresses.

For detailed information on editing firewall rules cells, see Editing Rules, page 12-9.

Navigation Path

Right-click the Translated Address cell in the Static Rules table (on the NAT > Translation Rules page) and choose Edit Translated Address.

Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box

Use the Advanced NAT Options dialog box to configure the advanced connection settings—DNS Rewrite, Maximum TCP and Maximum UDP Connections, Embryonic Limit, Timeout (PIX 6.x), and Randomize Sequence Number—for NAT and Policy NAT. You can also configure these options for Translation Exemption (NAT 0 ACL) rules on an FWSM.

Navigation Path

You can access the Advanced NAT Options dialog box by clicking the Advanced button when adding or editing a translation rule. See the following topics for more information:

Add/Edit Translation Exemption (NAT-0 ACL) Rule Dialog Box

Add/Edit Dynamic Translation Rule Dialog Box

Add/Edit Policy Dynamic Rules Dialog Box

Add/Edit Static Rule Dialog Box

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA

Field Reference

Table 20-12 Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box 

Element
Description

Translate the DNS replies that match the translation rule

If checked, the security appliance rewrites DNS replies so an outside client can resolve the name of an inside host using an inside DNS server, and vice versa. For instance, if your NAT rule includes the real address of a host with an entry in a DNS server, and the DNS server is on a different interface from a client, then the client and the DNS server need different addresses for the host: one needs the mapped address and one needs the real address. This option rewrites the address in the DNS reply to the client.

As an example, assume an inside web server, www.example.com, has the IP address 192.168.1.1, which is translated to 10.1.1.1 on the outside interface of the appliance. An outside client sends a DNS request to an inside DNS server, which will resolve www.example.com to 192.168.1.1. When the reply comes to the security appliance with DNS Rewrite enabled, the security appliance will translate the IP address in the payload to 10.1.1.1, so that the outside client will get the correct IP address.

Note that the mapped host needs to be on the same interface as either the client or the DNS server. Typically, hosts that need to allow access from other interfaces use a static translation, so this option is more likely to be used with a static rule.

Max TCP Connections per Rule

Enter the maximum number of TCP connections allowed; valid values are 0 through 65,535. If this value is set to zero, the number of connections is unlimited.

Max UDP Connections per Rule

Enter the maximum number of UDP connections allowed; valid values are 0 through 65,535. If this value is set to zero, the number of connections is unlimited.

Max Embryonic Connections

Enter the number of embryonic connections allowed to form before the security appliance begins to deny these connections. An embryonic connection is a connection request that has not finished the necessary handshake between source and destination. Set this limit to prevent attack by a flood of embryonic connections. Valid values are 0 through 65,535. If this value is set to zero, the number of connections is unlimited.

Any positive value enables the TCP Intercept feature. TCP Intercept protects inside systems from a DoS attack perpetrated by flooding an interface with TCP SYN packets. When the embryonic limit has been surpassed, the TCP Intercept feature intercepts TCP SYN packets from clients to servers on a higher security level. SYN cookies are used during the validation process and help to minimize the amount of valid traffic being dropped. Thus, connection attempts from unreachable hosts will never reach the server.

Timeout

For PIX 6.x devices, enter a timeout value for this translation rule, in the format hh:mm:ss. This value overrides the default translation timeout specified in Platform > Security > Timeouts, unless this value is 00:00:00, in which case translations matching this rule use the default translation timeout (specified in Platform > Security > Timeouts).

Randomize Sequence Number

If checked, the security appliance randomizes the sequence numbers of TCP packets. Each TCP connection has two Initial Sequence Numbers (ISNs): one generated by the client and one generated by the server. The security appliance randomizes the ISN of the TCP SYN in both the inbound and outbound directions. Randomizing the ISN of the protected host prevents an attacker from predicting the next ISN for a new connection and potentially hijacking the new session.

Disable this feature only if:

Another in-line security appliance is also randomizing initial sequence numbers and data is being scrambled.

You are using eBGP multi-hop through the security appliance, and the eBGP peers are using MD5. Randomization breaks the MD5 checksum.

You are using a WAAS device which requires that the security appliance not randomize the sequence numbers of connections.

Disabling this option opens a security hole in the security appliance.


General Tab

Use the General tab of the Translation Rules page to view a summary of all translation rules defined for the current device or shared policy. The translation rules are listed in the order that they will be evaluated on the device.


Note The General tab is only visible for PIX, ASA and FWSM devices in router mode, and FWSM 3.2 devices in transparent mode. Other devices in transparent mode support only static translation rules and do not need to display summary information.


Navigation Path

You can access the General tab from the Translation Rules page. See Translation Rules: PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA for more information.

Related Topics

Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices

Translation Exemptions (NAT 0 ACL)

Dynamic Rules Tab

Policy Dynamic Rules Tab

Static Rules Tab

Standard rules table topics:

Using Rules Tables, page 12-7

Filtering Tables, page 1-37

Table Columns and Column Heading Features, page 1-38

Field Reference

Table 20-13 General Tab - Translation Rules Summary Table 

Element
Description

Note Hatching (a series of slanted lines) across an entry in the table indicates that rule is currently disabled. (See Enable Rule in Add/Edit Dynamic Translation Rule Dialog Box for information about enabling and disabling these rules.)

No.

Rules are evaluated sequentially in the order listed. This number indicates the rule's position in the ordering of the list.

Type

The type of translation rule; for example, Static, Dynamic, Exemption, etc.

Action

Displays "exempt" if the rule is exempt from NAT.

Original Interface

The ID of the device interface to which the rule is applied.

Original Address

The object names or IP addresses of the source hosts and networks to which the rule applies.

Local Port

The port number supplied by the host or network (for static PAT).

Translated Pool

The ID number of the address pool used for translation.

Translated Interface

The interface on which the translated addresses are to be used.

Translated Address

The translated addresses.

Global Port

The port number to which the original port number will be translated (for static PAT).

Destination

The object names and IP addresses of the destination hosts or networks to which the rule applies.

Protocol

The protocol to which the rule applies.

Service

The services to which the rule applies.

Direction

The traffic direction (Inbound or Outbound) on which the rule is applied.

DNS Rewrite

Whether the DNS Rewrite option is enabled: Yes or No. This option is set in the Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box.

Maximum TCP Connections

The maximum number of TCP connections allowed to connect to the statically translated IP address. If zero, the number of connections is unlimited. This option is set in the Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box.

Embryonic Limit

The number of embryonic connections allowed to form before the security appliance begins to deny these connections. If zero, the number of connections is unlimited. A positive number enables the TCP Intercept feature.

This option is set in the Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box.

Maximum UDP Connections

The maximum number of UDP connections allowed to connect to the statically translated IP address. If zero, the number of connections is unlimited. This option is set in the Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box.

Timeout

For PIX 6.x devices, this is the timeout value for a static translation rule. This value overrides the default translation timeout specified in Platform > Security > Timeouts. A Timeout value of 00:00:00 here means that translations matching this rule should use the default translation timeout specified in Platform > Security > Timeouts.

Randomize Sequence Number

Whether the security appliance will randomize the sequence number of TCP packets: Yes or No. This option is set in the Advanced NAT Options Dialog Box, and is enabled by default.

Category

The category to which the rule is assigned. Categories use labels and color-coding to help identify rules and objects. See Using Category Objects, page 6-9 for more information.

Note No commands are generated for the Category attribute.

Description

The description of the rule, if provided.


Configuring NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

The following section describes configuring network address translation on version 8.3 or later ASA devices:

Translation Rules: ASA 8.3+

Add and Edit NAT Rule Dialog Boxes

Add or Edit Network/Host Dialog Box: NAT Tab

See Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices for information about configuring NAT on other security appliances. Refer to About "Simplified" NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices for general information about NAT rules, and the changes to NAT configuration implemented on the ASA 8.3.

Translation Rules: ASA 8.3+

Use the Translation Rules page to manage network address translation (NAT) rules on the selected ASA 8.3+ device. See NAT Policies on Security Devices for information about configuring Translation Rules on other security devices.

Two types of NAT rules are displayed in this table: "manual" rules added by you and any other users, and "automatic" rules generated and applied by Security Manager when an object with NAT properties is assigned to the device. These are referred to as "NAT rules" and "Network Object NAT rules," respectively.

Some Features of the Translation Rules Table

This Translation Rules table is a standard Security Manager rules table, as described in Using Rules Tables, page 12-7. For example, you can move, show and hide columns; you can re-order the manual rules; and you can right-click certain table cells to edit that parameter. In addition, the following features are specific to this Translation Rules table:

All rules are assigned to one of three pre-defined sections in the table:

NAT Rules Before - These are rules you or another user have "manually" defined on the device. You can specify that a rule be added to this section by clicking the section heading before adding the rule, although if you do not specify a section, the new rule will be added to this section by default.

Network Object NAT Rules - These are rules generated and ordered automatically by Security Manager when network objects that include NAT properties are assigned to the device. See Add or Edit Network/Host Dialog Box: NAT Tab for information about assigning NAT properties to objects. See the section "The NAT Table" in About "Simplified" NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices for information about how these rules are ordered.


Note This section is not displayed in the Translation Rules table in Policy View because these rules are device-specific.


NAT Rules After - These also are rules you or another user have manually defined on the device. You can specify that a rule is added to this section by clicking the section heading before adding the rule.

The NAT rules listed in this table are processed on a first-match basis; therefore, order is important. Providing a manual section both before and after the automatic rules lets you ensure all your rules are in the appropriate order, since you can re-order rules only within their section. The rules in each section take precedence over the rules in the section below it. For example, the rules in the top, "Before" section take precedence over the rules in the Network Object NAT section, and so on.

The type of each rule—Static, Dynamic PAT, or Dynamic NAT and PAT— is indicated visually in the table by presenting (S), (DP), or (DNP) in blue following the Source parameter in the "Translated" column.

A Bi-directional rule is a static rule that actually consists of two paired rules, one each for outgoing and incoming translation of the specified source and destination values. Each Bi-directional rule entry in the rules table is presented as two lines.

For example, if Bi-directional is chosen when you create a static rule with Host1 in the Source field and Host2 in the Translated field, two lines are added to the rules table: one with Host1 being translated to Host2, and one with Host2 being translated to Host1.

Related Topics

NAT Policies on Security Devices

About "Simplified" NAT on ASA 8.3+ Devices

Standard rules table topics:

Using Rules Tables, page 12-7

Filtering Tables, page 1-37

Table Columns and Column Heading Features, page 1-38

Navigation Path

(Device view) Select NAT > Translation Rules from the Device Policy selector.

(Policy view) Select NAT (PIX/ASA/FWSM) > Translation Rules from the Policy Type selector. Select an existing policy from the Shared Policy selector, or right-click Translation Rules to create a new policy.

The Translation Rules page is displayed. Note that in Policy View, the Network Object NAT Rules section is not displayed because those rules are device-specific.

Adding, Editing and Deleting Rules

To add a NAT rule:

1. Select the heading of the section to which the rule is to be added. If you do not select a heading, the rule will be added to NAT Rules Before by default.

2. Open the Add NAT Rule dialog box: either click the Add Row button at the bottom of the table, or right-click anywhere in the table (except on an existing rule entry) and choose Add Row from the pop-up menu.

3. Define the rule and then click OK to close the dialog box, adding the rule to the table.

To edit a NAT rule:

1. Open the Edit NAT Rule dialog box for the desired rule: either select the rule in the NAT rules table and then click the Edit Row button at the bottom of the table, or simply right-click the desired rule entry and choose Edit Row from the pop-up menu.

2. Edit the rule and then click OK to close the dialog box.

See Add and Edit NAT Rule Dialog Boxes for a complete description of the Add NAT Rule dialog box.

To delete a NAT rule, select the rule in the table and click the Delete Row button at the bottom of the table, or simply right-click the desired rule entry and choose Delete Row from the pop-up menu.


Note To remove a Network Object NAT rule from this table, you must uncheck the Add Automatic Address Translation NAT Rule option, or change the device to which the rule is assigned, in the related Edit Network Host dialog box. See Add or Edit Network/Host Dialog Box: NAT Tab for additional information.


Enabling and Disabling Rules

You can disable one or more consecutive rules without removing them from the table, as follows:

1. Select the rule(s) to be disabled. If selecting a contiguous block of rules, click the first and then Shift-click the last rule of the block.

2. Right-click a selected rule, and choose Disable from the pop-up menu.

Disabled rules are indicated by hatching (a series of slanted lines) over the entire rule entry in the table.

To re-enable one or one or more consecutive disabled rules, repeat this process, choosing Enable from the pop-up menu.

Add and Edit NAT Rule Dialog Boxes

Use the Add NAT Rule dialog box to add a NAT rule to the selected ASA 8.3+ device; this dialog box is not available on earlier-version ASAs, nor on PIX or FWSM devices. Refer to Configuring NAT on PIX, FWSM, and pre-8.3 ASA Devices for information about adding and editing NAT rules on those devices.


Note Except for their titles, the Add NAT Rule and Edit NAT Rule dialog boxes are identical, and the following descriptions apply to both.


Navigation Path

To add a rule, select the section to which you want the rule added (NAT Rules Before, Network Object NAT Rules, or NAT Rules After), and then click the Add Row button below the rules table, or right-click anywhere inside the table and choose Add Row to open the Add NAT Rule dialog box. Note that if you do not select a section, the new rule is added to the NAT Rules Before section.

To edit a rule, select the rule and click the Edit Row button, or simply right-click the rule and choose the Edit Row command, to open the Edit NAT Rule dialog box for that rule.

Related Topics

Chapter 20 "Configuring Network Address Translation"

Translation Rules: ASA 8.3+

Add or Edit Network/Host Dialog Box: NAT Tab

Field Reference

Table 20-14 Add and Edit NAT Rule Dialog Boxes 

Element
Description

Type

The type of translation rule you are creating:

Static - Provides static assignment of real addresses to mapped addresses.

Dynamic PAT (Hide) - Provides dynamic assignment of multiple local addresses to a single global IP address and a unique port number, in effect "hiding" the local addresses behind the one global address.

Dynamic NAT and PAT - Provides dynamic assignment of real addresses to mapped addresses, and real ports to mapped ports.

On devices operating in router mode, this option also provide the fallthrough option described below.

Note This selection applies only to the specified source translation; destination translation is always static.

Original Source

The source address the NAT rule will translate. If this is a range or network, all addresses in the range or network are translated.

Address

Interface (available for Static and Dynamic PAT rules only)

Whether the translation is based on an address or an interface on the device. Select either:

Address - Translate the original address using the network/host object specified in the Translated Source field.

Interface - Translate the original address based on the interface specified in the Translated Source field.

The Interface option is are available only when either Static or Dynamic PAT (Hide) is chosen as the Type.

Note These options are not available on devices operating in transparent mode.

Translated Source

If Address is selected above, this entry represents the pool of translation addresses: enter or Select the desired Networks/Hosts; defaults to the Original Source (which will produce an Identity NAT rule).

If Interface is selected above, enter or Select the desired interface. The Interface Selector list contains all interfaces currently defined on the device. For port address translation based on this interface, be sure to configure the options in the Service Translation section (in the Advanced panel of this dialog box).

If you leave the Interface field blank, the Address/Interface selection reverts to Address and the Original Source is inserted into the Address field. This produces an Identity NAT rule, meaning the specified address(es) are translated to themselves (effectively not translated); Identity NAT applies to outbound connections only.

Advanced

Click the Advanced header to expand the dialog box and display the following Advanced options. Click the header again to hide the Advanced panel.

Destination Translation

Use the options in this section of the Advanced panel to configure optional static translation of destination addresses:

Original Destination - Translate the original destination addresses defined by the Networks/Hosts object specified in this field.

Address or Interface - Select Address to translate the original destination using the Networks/Hosts object specified in the Translated Destination field. Select Interface to translate the original destination using the interface specified in the Translated Destination field.

Note These options are not available on devices operating in transparent mode.

Translated Destination - If Address is selected, this entry represents the pool of destination addresses: enter or Select the desired Networks/Hosts object. If Interface is selected, enter or Select the desired interface. The Interface Selector list contains all interfaces currently defined on the device.

Note If defined, Destination Translation is always static, regardless of the rule Type.

Service Translation

Use the options in this section of the Advanced panel to configure port address translation:

Original Service - Enter or Select the Service object that defines the service(s) to be translated.

Translated Service - Enter or Select the Service object that provides the service(s) to be used for translation.

Leave the Original Service field blank to configure translation of any service to the specified Translated Service.

Note The protocol specified in both Service objects must be the same.

These service objects represent a service protocol (TCP or UDP), and one or more ports. The mapping of original ports to translated port is circular. That is, the first original value is mapped to the first translated value, and the second original value is mapped to the second translated value, and so on until all original values are translated. If the pool of translated port is exhausted before that point, mapping continues using the first translated value again. See Understanding and Specifying Services and Service and Port List Objects, page 6-72 for information about configuring service objects.

Note Service Translation and the following Translate DNS replies that match this rule option cannot be used together.

Interface Translation

Use the options in this section of the Advanced panel to configure interface translation options:

Translate DNS replies that match this rule - When checked, addresses embedded in DNS replies that match this rule are rewritten.

For DNS replies traversing from a mapped interface to a real interface, the Address (or "A") record is rewritten from the mapped value to the real value. Conversely, for DNS replies traversing from a real interface to a mapped interface, the A record is rewritten from the real value to the mapped value. Note that DNS inspection must be enabled to support this functionality.

Source Interface - The name of the interface on which a packet may originate; this is the "real" interface. Defaults to "any," which represents all interfaces. Enter or Select the desired interface.

Destination Interface - The name of the interface on which a packet may terminate; this is the "mapped" interface. Defaults to "any," which represents all interfaces. Enter or Select the desired interface.

Fallthrough to Interface PAT (Destination Interface) - When checked, dynamic PAT back-up is enabled. When the pool of dynamic NAT addresses is depleted, port address translation is performed, using the address pool specified in the Use Address field. This option is available only when Dynamic NAT and PAT is the chosen Type on devices operating in router mode.

Others

Use the options in this section of the Advanced panel to configure other NAT rule options:

Direction - This feature lets you configure a static NAT rule in a single direction only; or dual rules, one each for both directions (forward and reverse). Choose either:

Uni-directional - A single static NAT is created, as specified by the other options in this dialog box. Dynamic rules are uni-directional by default.

Bi-directional - Two linked static NAT rules are created, encompassing both directions of the translation, as specified by the other options in this dialog box. Note that each bi-directional rule entry in the rules table consists of two lines.

This option is available for Static rules only.

Description - (Optional) Provide a description of the rule.

Category - (Optional) Choose a category to assign to the rule. Categories can help you organize and identify rules and objects; see Using Category Objects, page 6-9 for more information.


Add or Edit Network/Host Dialog Box: NAT Tab

Use the NAT tab in any of the dialog boxes used to add or edit host, network, or address range objects to create or update object NAT rules. This NAT configuration is used only for ASA 8.3+ devices; if you use the object on any other type of device, the NAT configuration is ignored.

The NAT configuration is created as a device override and is not kept in the global object. Therefore, you must select the Allow Value Override per Device option if you configure these NAT options. (This option is selected automatically when you close the dialog box.)

This topic describes the fields on the NAT tab. For information about the fields on the General tab, see Add or Edit Network/Host Dialog Box (IPv4 or IPv6), page 6-67.

Navigation Path

Select the NAT tab on the Add or Edit Network/Host Dialog Box (IPv4 or IPv6) when creating or editing a host, network, or address range object.

Related Topics

Chapter 20 "Configuring Network Address Translation"

Creating IPv4 or IPv6 Network/Host Objects, page 6-65

Understanding Network/Host Objects (IPv4 and IPv6), page 6-63

Specifying IP Addresses During Policy Definition, page 6-70

Policy Object Manager Window, page 6-3

Field Reference

Table 20-15 Network/Host Dialog Box NAT Tab 

Element
Description

Add Automatic Address Translation NAT Rule

If checked, a network address translation (NAT) rule, as defined here, will be applied to the device specified in the Translated By field. The rule will appear in the Network Object NAT Rule section of the Translation Rules table for that device (see Translation Rules: ASA 8.3+).

Translated By

The device on which you are configuring the NAT rule. Click Select to select the device from a list. The list is filtered to show only ASA 8.3+ devices.

Original value

Shows the address configured on the General tab of this dialog box. This is the source address the NAT rule will translate. If it is a range or network, all addresses in the range or network will be translated.

Type

The type of translation rule you are creating:

Static - Enables static assignment of real addresses to mapped addresses.

PAT (Hide) - Enables dynamic assignment of multiple local addresses to a single global IP address and a unique port number.

Dynamic NAT and PAT - Enables dynamic assignment of real addresses to mapped addresses, and real ports to mapped ports.

Use Address

Use Interface (available only for Static and PAT)

Whether the translation is based on an address or an interface on the device:

Use Address—Translate the original address using the specified address or network/host object. Enter the address or object name in the Address field, or click Select to select the object from a list.

Use Interface—Translate the original address based on the specified interface. The Interface list contains all interfaces currently defined on the selected device; chose the desired interface.

If you leave the Interface field blank, this object will be inserted, producing an Identity NAT rule, meaning the specified address(es) are translated to themselves (effectively not translated); Identity NAT applies to outbound connections only.

Note The Use Interface options are available only when either Static or PAT (Hide) is chosen as the Type.

Advanced

Click the Advanced header to expand the dialog box and display the following Advanced options. Click the header again to hide the Advanced panel.

Translate DNS replies for rule

When checked, the Address (or "A") record is rewritten in DNS replies that match this rule.

For DNS replies traversing from a mapped interface to a real interface, the A record is rewritten from the mapped value to the real value. Conversely, for DNS replies traversing from a real interface to a mapped interface, the A record is rewritten from the real value to the mapped value. Note that DNS inspection must be enabled to support this functionality.

Note This option and Service Translation (below) cannot be used together.

Interfaces

Use the options in this section of the Advanced panel to configure interface translation options:

Source Interface—The name of the interface on which a packet may originate; this is the "real" interface. Defaults to any, which represents all interfaces.

Destination Interface—The name of the interface on which a packet may terminate; this is the "mapped" interface. Defaults to any, which represents all interfaces.

Fallthrough to Interface (Destination Interface)—When checked, dynamic PAT back-up is enabled. When the pool of dynamic NAT addresses is depleted, port address translation is performed, using the address pool specified in the Use Address field. This option is available only when Dynamic NAT is the chosen Type.

Service Translation

(Available for Static rules only.)

Use the options in this section of the Advanced panel to configure static port address translation:

Protocol - Whether a TCP or UDP port.

Original Port - The port on which the traffic enters the device.

Translated Port - The port number which is to replace the original port number.

Note Service Translation and the Translate DNS replies that match this rule option cannot be used together.