Cisco IOS Multiprotocol Label Switching Command Reference
mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes through route-target
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mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes through route-target

Contents

mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes through route-target

mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes

To create or modify a label switched path (LSP) attribute list, use thempls traffic-eng lsp attributes command in global configuration mode. To remove a specified LSP attribute list from the device configuration, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes string

no mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes string

Syntax Description

string

LSP attributes list identifier.

Command Default

An LSP attribute list is not created unless you create one.

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(26)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8S.

Usage Guidelines

This command sets up an LSP attribute list and enters LSP Attributes configuration mode, in which you can enter LSP attributes.

To associate the LSP attributes and LSP attribute list with a path option for an LSP, you must configure the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path option attributes string command, where string is the identifier for the specific LSP attribute list.

An LSP attribute referenced by the path option takes precedence over the values configured on the tunnel interface. If an attribute is not specified in the LSP attribute list, the devices takes the attribute from the tunnel configuration. LSP attribute lists do not have default values. If the attribute is not configured on the tunnel, then the device uses tunnel default values.

Once you type the mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes command, you enter the LSP Attributes configuration mode where you define the attributes for the LSP attribute list that you are creating.

The mode commands are as follows:

  • affinity—Specifies attribute flags for links that make up an LSP.
  • auto-bw—Specifies automatic bandwidth configuration.
  • bandwidth—Specifies LSP bandwidth.
  • lockdown—Disables reoptimization for the LSP.
  • priority—Specifies LSP priority.
  • protection—Enables failure protection.
  • record-route—Records the route used by the LSP.

The following monitoring and management commands are also available in the LSP Attributes configuration mode:

  • exit—Exits from LSP Attributes configuration mode.
  • list—Relists all the entries in the LSP attribute list.
  • no—Removes a specific attribute from the LSP attribute list.

Examples

The following example shows how to set up an LSP attribute list identified with the numeral 6 with the bandwidth and priority mode commands. The example also shows how to use the list mode command:

Device(config)# mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes 6
Device(config-lsp-attr)# bandwidth 500
Device(config-lsp-attr)# list
LIST 6
 bandwidth 500
 
Device(config-lsp-attr)# priority 1 1
Device(config-lsp-attr)# list
LIST 6
 bandwidth 500
 priority 1 1
Device(config-lsp-attr)# exit

Related Commands

Command

Description

show mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes

Displays global LSP attributes lists.

mpls traffic-eng mesh-group

To configure a mesh group in an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) to allow Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering (TE) label switch routers (LSRs) that belong to the same mesh group to signal tunnels to the local router, use the mpls traffic-eng mesh-group command in router configuration mode. To disable signaling of tunnels from LSRs in the same mesh group to the local router, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng mesh-group mesh-group-id type number area area-id

no mpls traffic-eng mesh-group mesh-group-id type number area area-id

Syntax Description

mesh-group-id

Number that identifies a specific mesh group.

type

Type of interface.

number

Interface number.

area area-id

Specifies an IGP area.

Command Default

No tunnels are signaled for routers in the same mesh group.

Command Modes


Router configuration (config-router)#

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(29)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.6S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.6S.

Usage Guidelines

Use this command to configure a mesh group in an IGP. This allows the MPLS TE LSRs that belong to the specified mesh group to signal tunnels to the local router. The IGP floods mesh group configuration to all routers belonging to the same mesh group. An autotemplate determines how a router participates in an autotunnel. A router can participate in a mesh group through two-way tunnels or one-way tunnels.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the only IGP supported for the MPLS Traffic Engineering--AutoTunnel Mesh Groups feature.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure OSPF to allow LSRs that belong to the same mesh group (mesh group 10) to signal tunnels to the local router:

Router(config)# router ospf 100
Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng mesh-group 10 loopback 0 area 100

Related Commands

Command

Description

tunnel destination mesh-group

Configures an autotemplate to signal tunnels to all other members of a specified mesh group.

mpls traffic-eng multicast-intact

To configure a router running Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) or Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) so that Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM) and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering (TE) can work together, use the mpls traffic-eng multicast-intact command in router configuration mode. To disable interoperability between PIM and MPLS TE, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng multicast-intact

no mpls traffic-eng multicast-intact

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

PIM and MPLS TE do not work together.

Command Modes


Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(12)S

This command was introduced.

12.1(5)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1(5)T.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

The mpls traffic-eng multicast-intact command allows PIM to use the native hop-by-hop neighbors while unicast routing is using MPLS TE tunnels.

This command works only for OSPF and IS-IS protocols.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable PIM and MPLS TE to interoperate:

Router(config)# router ospf 1
Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng multicast-intact

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng interface

Configures a router running OSPF or IS-IS so that it floods MPLS TE link information in the indicated OSPF area or IS-IS level.

show ospf routes multicast intact

Displays multicast-intact paths of OSPF routes.

mpls traffic-eng passive-interface

To configure a link as a passive interface between two Autonomous System Boundary Routers (ASBRs), use the mpls traffic-eng passive-interface command in interface configuration mode. To disable the passive link, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng passive-interface nbr-te-id te-router-id [ nbr-if-addr if-addr ] [ nbr-igp-id { isis sysid | ospf sysid } ]

no mpls traffic-eng passive-interface nbr-te-id te-router-id [ nbr-if-addr if-addr ] [ nbr-igp-id { isis sysid | ospf sysid } ]

Syntax Description

nbr-te-id te-router-id

Traffic engineering router ID of the neighbor router on the remote side of the link where this command is configured.

nbr-if-addr if-addr

(Optional) Interface address of the remote ASBR.

nbr-igp-id

(Optional) Specifies a unique sysid for neighboring Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) when two or more autonomous systems use different IGPs and have more than one neighbor on the link.

Enter the nbr-igp-id keyword (followed by the isis or ospf keyword) and the sysid for each IGP. The sysid must be unique for each neighbor.

isis sysid

System identification of Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS).

ospf sysid

System identification of Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).

Command Default

None

Command Modes


Interface configuration (config-if)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(29)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

The nbr-if-addr keyword was added.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S.

Usage Guidelines

The mpls traffic-eng passive-interface command sets the next-hop address for a passive interface. The command is required only for a broadcast link.

Enter the mpls traffic-eng passive-interface command only on the outgoing interface on which the label-switched path (LSP) will exit; you do not have to enter this command on both ends of the interautonomous system (Inter-AS) link.

On a point-to-point link or on a multiaccess link where there is only one neighbor, you do not have to enter the isis or ospf keyword (or the sysid argument).

If two autonomous systems use different IGPs and have more than one neighbor on the link, you must enter the nbr-igp-id keyword followed by isis or ospf and the sysid. The sysid must be unique for each neighbor.

For a broadcast link (that is, other Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)) features are using the passive link), you must enter the nbr-if-addr keyword.

For an RSVP Hello configuration on an Inter-AS link, all keywords are required.

Examples

In the following example there is only one neighbor:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng passive-interface nbr-te-id 10.10.10.10

In the following example, two autonomous systems use different IGPs and have more than one neighbor on the link:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng passive-interface nbr-te-id 10.10.11.12 nbr-igp-id ospf 10.10.15.18 

If autonomous system 1 (AS1) is running IS-IS and AS2 is running OSPF, the unique ID on A1 must be in the system ID format. To form the system ID, we recommend that you append zeros to the router ID of the neighbor. For example, if the AS2 router is 10.20.20.20, then you could enter a system ID of 10.0020.0020.0020.00 for IS-IS on the AS1 router.

In the following example there is a remote ASBR and an IS-IS:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng passive-interface nbr-te-id 10.20.20.20 nbr-igp-id isis 10.0020.0020.0020.00

In the following example, there is a broadcast link and the interface address of the remote ASBR is 10.0.0.2:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng passive-interface nbr-te-id 10.10.10.10 nbr-if-addr 10.0.0.2

mpls traffic-eng path-option list

To configure a path option list, use the mpls traffic-eng path-option list command in global configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng path-option list [ name pathlist-name | identifier pathlist-number ]

no mpls traffic-eng path-option list [ name pathlist-name | identifier pathlist-number ]

Syntax Description

name pathlist-name

Specifies the name of the path option list.

identifier pathlist-number

Specifies the identification number of the path option list. The range is 1 through 65535.

Command Default

There are no path option lists.

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(33)SRE

This command was introduced.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S.

Usage Guidelines

A path option list contains a list of backup paths for a primary path option. You can specify a path option list by entering its name or identifier.

After you enter the mpls traffic-eng path-option list command, the router enters path option list configuration mode and you can enter the following commands:

  • path-option --Specifies the name or identification number of the next path option to add, edit, or delete.
  • list --Lists all path options.
  • no --Deletes a specified path option.
  • exit --Exits from path option list configuration mode.

Then you can specify explicit backup paths by entering their name or identifier.

Examples

The following example configures the path option list named pathlist-01, adds path option 10, lists the backup path that is in the path option list, and exits from path option list configuration mode:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng path-option list name pathlist-01
Router(cfg-pathoption-list)# path-option 10 explicit name bk-path-01
Router(cfg-pathoption-list)# list
 path-option 10 explicit name bk-path-01
Router(cfg-pathoption-list)# exit
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path option

Configures a path option for an MPLS TE tunnel.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option protect

Configures a secondary path option or a path option list for an MPLS TE tunnel.

mpls traffic-eng path-selection metric

To specify the metric type to use for path selection for tunnels for which the metric type has not been explicitly configured, use the mpls traffic-eng path-selection metric command in global configuration mode. To remove the specified metric type, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng path-selection metric { igp | te }

no mpls traffic-eng path-selection metric

Syntax Description

igp

Use the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) metric.

te

Use the traffic engineering metric.

Command Default

The default is the te metric.

Command Modes


Global configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(18)ST

This command was introduced.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.4

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Usage Guidelines

Use this command to specify the metric type to be used for traffic engineering (TE) tunnels for which the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-selection metric command has not been specified.

The metric type to be used for path calculation for a given tunnel is determined as follows:

  • If the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-selection metric command was entered to specify a metric type for the tunnel, use that metric type.
  • Otherwise, if the mpls traffic-eng path-selection metric was entered to specify a metric type, use that metric type.
  • Otherwise, use the default (te) metric.

Examples

The following command specifies that if a metric type was not specified for a given TE tunnel, the igp metric should be used for tunnel path calculation:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng path-selection metric igp

Related Commands

Command

Description

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-selection metric

Specifies the metric type to use when calculating a tunnel’s path.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize

To force immediate reoptimization of all traffic engineering tunnels, use the mpls traffic-eng reoptimize command in privileged EXEC mode.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Modes


Privileged EXEC (#)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)ST

This command was introduced.

12.1(3)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1(3)T.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Examples

The following example shows how to reoptimize all traffic engineering tunnels immediately:

Router# mpls traffic-eng reoptimize

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay

Delays removal of old LSPs or installation of new LSPs after tunnel reoptimization.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize events

To turn on automatic reoptimization of Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering when certain events occur, such as when an interface becomes operational, use the mpls traffic-eng reoptimize events command in global configuration mode. To disable automatic reoptimization, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize events link-up

no mpls traffic-eng reoptimize events link-up

Syntax Description

link-up

Triggers automatic reoptimization whenever an interface becomes operational.

Command Default

Event-based reoptimization is disabled.

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.1(3)T

This command was introduced.

12.0(10)ST

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(10)ST.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Examples

The following example shows how to turn on automatic reoptimization whenever an interface becomes operational:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng reoptimize events link-up

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng logging lsp

Controls the frequency with which tunnels with established LSPs are checked for better LSPs.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize

Reoptimizes all traffic engineering tunnels immediately.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay

Delays removal of old LSPs or installation of new LSPs after tunnel reoptimization.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay

To delay the removal of old label switched paths (LSPs) or installation of new LSPs after tunnel reoptimization, use the mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay command in global configuration mode. To restore the default value, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay { cleanup delay-time | installation delay-time }

no mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay { cleanup delay-time | installation delay-time }

Syntax Description

cleanup delay-time

Delays the removal of old LSPs after tunnel reoptimization for the specified number of seconds. The range is from 0 to 300. A value of 0 disables the delay. The default is 10.

installation delay-time

Delays the installation of new LSPs with new labels, for the specified number of seconds, after tunnel reoptimization. The range is from 0 to 3600. A value of 0 disables the delay. The default is 3.

Command Default

Removal of old LSPs and installation of new LSPs is not delayed.

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(32)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(25)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SRE7

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRE7. The maximum value for the cleanup delay-time argument was changed from 60 to 300 seconds.

15.0(1)S6

This command was modified. The maximum value for the cleanup delay-time argument was changed from 60 to 300 seconds.

Usage Guidelines

A device with Multiprotocol Label Switching traffic engineering (MPLS-TE) tunnels periodically examines tunnels with established LSPs to discover if more efficient LSPs (paths) are available. If a better LSP is available, the device signals the more efficient LSP. If the signaling is successful, the device replaces the older LSP with the new, more efficient LSP.

Sometimes, the slower router-point nodes may not utilize the new label’s forwarding plane. In this case, if the headend node replaces the labels quickly, packet loss can occur. The packet loss is avoided by delaying the cleanup of the old LSP by using the mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay cleanup command. Until the cleanup of the old LSP is performed, subsequent reoptimizations for the tunnel are prevented.

Examples

The following example shows how to set the reoptimization cleanup delay time to one minute:

Device# configure terminal
Device(config)# mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay cleanup 60

The following example shows how to set the reoptimization installation delay time to one hour:

Device# configure terminal
Device(config)# mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay installation 3600

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize

Forces immediate reoptimization of all traffic engineering tunnels.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize events

Turns on automatic reoptimization of MPLS traffic engineering when certain events occur, such as when an interface becomes operational.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

Controls the frequency with which tunnels with established LSPs are checked for better LSPs.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

To control the frequency with which tunnels with established label switched paths (LSPs) are checked for better LSPs, use the mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency command in global configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency seconds

no mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

Syntax Description

seconds

Sets the frequency of reoptimization (in seconds). A value of 0 disables reoptimization. The range is 0 to 604800 seconds (1 week).

Command Default

3600 seconds (1 hour)

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

A device with traffic engineering tunnels periodically examines tunnels with established LSPs to learn if better LSPs are available. If a better LSP seems to be available, the device attempts to signal the better LSP; if the signaling is successful, the device replaces the old, inferior LSP with the new, better LSP.


Note


If the lockdown keyword is specified with the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option command, then a reoptimize check is not done on the tunnel.


If you configure a traffic engineering tunnel with an explicit path that is not fully specified (a series of router IDs or a combination of router IDs and interface addresses), then reoptimization may not occur.


Note


If you specify a low reoptimization frequency (for example, less than 30 seconds), there may be an increase in CPU utilization for configurations with a large number of traffic engineering tunnels.


Examples

The following example shows how to set the reoptimization frequency to 1 day:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency 86400

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize

Reoptimizes all traffic engineering tunnels immediately.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers delay

Delays removal of old LSPs or installation of new LSPs after tunnel reoptimization.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

Configures a path option for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.

mpls traffic-eng router-id

To specify that the traffic engineering router identifier for the node is the IP address associated with a given interface, use the mpls traffic-eng router-id command in router configuration mode. To remove the traffic engineering router identifier, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng router-id interface-name

no mpls traffic-eng router-id

Syntax Description

interface-name

Interface whose primary IP address is the router’s identifier.

Command Default

No traffic engineering router identifier is specified.

Command Modes


Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3.

15.2(2)SNG

This command was integrated into Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines

This router identifier acts as a stable IP address for the traffic engineering configuration. This IP address is flooded to all nodes. For all traffic engineering tunnels originating at other nodes and ending at this node, you must set the tunnel destination to the traffic engineering router identifier of the destination node, because that is the address that the traffic engineering topology database at the tunnel head uses for its path calculation.

You should configure the same traffic engineering router id for all Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) routing processes.

Examples

The following example shows how to specify the traffic engineering router identifier as the IP address associated with interface Loopback0:

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls atm control-vc

Turns on flooding of MPLS traffic engineering link information in the indicated IGP level/area.

mpls traffic-eng scanner

To specify how often Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) extracts traffic engineering type, length, values (TLVs) objects from flagged label switched paths (LSPs) and passes them to the traffic engineering topology database, and the maximum number of LSPs that the router can process immediately, use the mpls traffic-eng scanner command in router configuration mode. To disable the frequency that IS-IS extracts traffic engineering TLVs and the maximum number of LSPs IS-IS passes to the traffic engineering topology database, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng scanner [ interval seconds ] [ max-flash LSPs ]

no mpls traffic-eng scanner

Syntax Description

interval seconds

(Optional) Frequency, in seconds, at which IS-IS sends traffic engineering TLVs into the traffic engineering database. The range is 1 to 60. The default value is 5.

max-flash LSPs

(Optional) Maximum number of LSPs that the router can process immediately without incurring a delay. The range is 0 to 200. The default value is 15.

Command Default

IS-IS sends traffic engineering TLVs into the traffic engineering topology database every 5 seconds after the first 15 LSPs are processed.

Command Modes


Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(14)ST

This command was introduced.

12.2(11)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(11)S.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.

12.4(2)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(2)T.

12.4

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Usage Guidelines

When IS-IS receives a new LSP, it inserts it into the IS-IS database. If the LSP contains traffic engineering TLVs, IS-IS flags the LSPs for transmission to the traffic engineering database. Depending on the default or user-specified interval, traffic engineering TLVs are extracted and sent to the traffic engineering database. Users can also specify the maximum number of LSPs that the router can process immediately. Processing entails checking for traffic engineering TLVs, extracting them, and passing them to the traffic engineering database. If more than 50 LSPs need to be processed, there is a delay of 5 seconds for subsequent LSPs.

The first 15 LSPs are sent without a delay into the traffic engineering database. If more LSPs are received, the default delay of 5 seconds applies.

If you specify the no form of this command, there is a delay of 5 seconds before IS-IS scans its database and passes traffic engineering TLVs associated with flagged LSPs to the traffic engineering database

Examples

In the following example, the router is allowed to process up to 50 IS-IS LSPs without any delay.

Router(config)# router isis
Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng scanner interval 5 max-flash 50 

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng

Configures a router running IS-IS so that it floods MPLS traffic engineering link information into the indicated IS-IS level.

mpls traffic-eng router-id

Specifies that the traffic engineering router identifier for the node is the IP address associated with a given interface.

router isis

Enables the IS-IS routing protocol and specifies an IS-IS process.

mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.2(2)S, the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null command is deprecated by the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null command because the IOS MPLS-TE tail router now advertises the implicit-null label in signaling messages sent to neighbors by default. Prior to this release, the IOS MPLS-TE tail router advertised the explicit-null label by default.


To configure the MPLS-TE tail router to override the new default (implicit-null label) to use the MPLS encoding for the explicit-null label in signaling messages advertised to neighbors, use the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null command in global configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null [ acl-number ]

no mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null

Syntax Description

acl-number

(Optional) Matches the number of the IP access list to determine applicable signalling peers.

Command Default

The IOS MPLS-TE tail router now advertises the implicit-null label in signaling messages sent to neighbors.

Command Modes

Global configuration (config)#

Command History

Release

Modification

15.2(2)S

This command was introduced. This command replaces the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null command.

Cisco IOS-XE Release 3.6

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

If the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null command exists your configuration we recommend that you remove it from your configuration.

The mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null command is used on an IOS or IOS-XE MPLS-TE tail router to advertise explicit-null label in signaling messages. If the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null command is not configured, an implicit-null label (IETF label 3) is advertised in signaling messages.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure the router to use MPLS encoding for the explicit-null label when it sends signaling messages to all peers:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null

mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.2(2)S, the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null command is deprecated by the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null command because the IOS MPLS-TE tail router now advertises the implicit-null label in signaling messages sent to neighbors by default. Prior to this release, the IOS MPLS-TE tail router advertised the explicit-null label by default. See the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null command if you want to configure the IOS MPLS-TE tail router to override the new default (implicit-null label) and advertise the explicit-null label to neighbors instead.


To use MPLS encoding for the implicit-null label in signaling messages sent to neighbors, use the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null command in global configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null [ acl-number ]

no mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null

Syntax Description

acl-number

(Optional) Matches the number of the IP access list to determine applicable signalling peers.

Command Default

None

Command Modes

Global configuration (config)#

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)ST

This command was introduced.

12.1(3)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1(3)T.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.2(2)S

This command was replaced by the mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise explicit-null command.

Usage Guidelines

The mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null command is typically used on an IOS MPLS-TE tail router to advertise the IETF implicit-null label "3" signalling message to an non-IOS router.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure the router to use MPLS encoding for the implicit-null label when it sends signaling messages to certain peers:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null

mpls traffic-eng srlg

To configure the Shared Risk Link Group (SRLG) membership of a link (interface), use the mpls traffic-eng srlg command in interface configuration mode. To remove a link from membership of one or more SRLGs, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng srlg [num]

no mpls traffic-eng srlg [num]

Syntax Description

num

(Optional) SRLG identifier. The range is 0 to 4294967295.

Command Default

A link does not have membership in any SRLG.

Command Modes


Interface configuration (config-if)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(28)S

This command was introduced.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S.

Usage Guidelines

You can enter the mpls traffic-eng srlg command multiple times to make a link a member of multiple SRLGs.

Examples

The following example makes the interface a member of SRLG 5:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng srlg 5

If you enter the following commands, the interface is a member of both SRLG 5 and SRLG 6:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng srlg 5
Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng srlg 6

To remove a link from membership of SRLG 5, enter the following command:

Router(config-if)# no mpls traffic-eng srlg 5

To remove a link from membership of all SRLGs, enter the following command:

Router(config-if)# no mpls traffic-eng srlg 

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng auto-tunnel backup srlg exclude

Specifies that autocreated backup tunnels should avoid SRLGs of the protected interface.

mpls traffic-eng topology holddown sigerr

To specify the amount of time that a router ignores a link in its traffic engineering topology database in tunnel path Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF) computations following a traffic engineering tunnel error on the link, use the mpls traffic-eng topology holddown sigerr command in global configuration mode. To disable the time set to ignore a ink following a traffic engineering tunnel error on the link, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng topology holddown sigerr seconds

no mpls traffic-eng topology holddown sigerr

Syntax Description

seconds

Length of time (in seconds) a router should ignore a link during tunnel path calculations following a traffic engineering tunnel error on the link. The range is 0 to 300.

Command Default

If you do not specify this command, tunnel path calculations ignore a link on which there is a traffic engineering error until either 10 seconds have elapsed or a topology update is received from the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP).

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(14)ST

This command was introduced.

12.2(11)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(11)S.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Usage Guidelines

A router that is at the headend for traffic engineering tunnels might receive a Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) No Route error message for an existing tunnel or for one being signaled due to the failure of a link the tunnel traffic traverses before the router receives a topology update from the IGP routing protocol announcing that the link is down. In such a case, the headend router ignores the link in subsequent tunnel path calculations to avoid generating paths that include the link and are likely to fail when signaled. The link is ignored until the router receives a topology update from its IGP or a link hold-down timeout occurs. You can use the mpls traffic-eng topology holddown sigerr command to change the link hold-down time from its 10-second default value.

Examples

In the following example, the link hold-down time for signaling errors is set at 15 seconds:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng topology holddown sigerr 15

Related Commands

Command

Description

show mpls traffic-eng topology

Displays the MPLS traffic engineering global topology as currently known at the node.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (global configuration)

To enable Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering tunnel signaling on a device, use the mpls traffic-eng tunnels command in global configuration mode. To disable MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signaling, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels

no mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

The command is disabled.

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3.

Usage Guidelines

This command enables MPLS traffic engineering on a device. For you to use the feature, MPLS traffic engineering must also be enabled on the desired interfaces.

Examples

The following example shows how to turn on MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signaling:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface configuration)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signaling on an interface.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface configuration)

To enable Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering (TE) tunnel signaling on an interface (assuming that it is enabled on the device), use the mpls traffic-eng tunnels command in interface configuration mode. To disable MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signaling on the interface, use the no form of this command.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels

no mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

The MPLS TE is disabled on all interfaces.

Command Modes


Interface configuration (config-if)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.3S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.3S.

15.2(1)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.2(1)T.

15.2(2)SNG

This command was integrated into Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines

Before you enable MPLS TE on the interface, you must enable MPLS TE on the device. An enabled interface has its resource information flooded into the appropriate Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) link-state database and accepts traffic engineering tunnel signaling requests.

You can use this command to enable MPLS traffic engineering on an interface, thereby eliminating the need to use the ip rsvp bandwidth command. However, if your configuration includes Call Admission Control (CAC) for IPv4 Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) flows, you must use the ip rsvp bandwidth rsvp bandwidth command.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable MPLS traffic engineering on Ethernet interface 0/0:

Router(config)# interface Ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Related Commands

Command

Description

ip rsvp bandwidth

Enables RSVP for IP on an interface.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (global configuration)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signaling on a device.

mpls ttl-dec

To specify standard Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) tagging, use the mpls ttl-dec command in global configuration mode. To return to the default settings, use the no form of this command.

mpls ttl-dec

no mpls ttl-dec

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

Optimized MPLS tagging (no mpls ttl-dec).

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(18)SXE

This command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

Usage Guidelines

In Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)SXE and later releases, MPLS tagging has been optimized to allow the rewriting of the original packet’s IP type of service (ToS) and Time to Live (TTL) values before the MPLS label is pushed onto the packet header. This change can result in a slightly lower performance for certain types of traffic. If the packet’s original ToS/TTL values are not significant, you enter the mpls ttl-dec command for standard MPLS tagging.

Examples

This example shows how to configure the Cisco 7600 series router to use standard MPLS tagging behavior:

Router(config)# mpls ttl-dec
Router(config)# 

This example shows how to configure the Cisco 7600 series router to use optimized MPLS tagging behavior:

Router(config)# no mpls ttl-dec
Router(config)# 

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls l2transport route

Enables routing of Layer 2 packets over MPLS.

mtu

To adjust the maximum packet size or maximum transmission unit (MTU) size, use the mtu command in interface configuration mode, connect configuration mode, or xconnect subinterface configuration mode. To restore the MTU value to its original default value, use the no form of this command.

mtu bytes

no mtu

Syntax Description

bytes

MTU size, in bytes.

Command Default

The table below lists default MTU values according to media type.

Table 1 Default Media MTU Values

Media Type

Default MTU (Bytes)

Ethernet

1500

Serial

1500

Token Ring

4464

ATM

4470

FDDI

4470

HSSI (HSA)

4470

Command Modes


Interface configuration (config-if)
Connect configuration (xconnect-conn-config)
xconnect subinterface configuration (config-if-xconn)

Command History

Release

Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.0(26)S

This command was modified. This command was updated to support the connect configuration mode for Frame Relay Layer 2 interworking.

12.2(14)SX

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SX. Support for this command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(17d)SXB

This command was modified. Support for this command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 2.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.4(11)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T.

12.2(33)SCB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SCB.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4. This command supports xconnect subinterface configuration mode.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was modified as part of the MPLS-based Layer 2 VPN (L2VPN) command modifications for cross-OS support. This command was made available in template configuration mode.

15.3(1)S

This command was integrated in Cisco IOS Release 15.3(1)S.

Usage Guidelines

Each interface has a default maximum packet size or MTU size. This number generally defaults to the largest size possible for that interface type. On serial interfaces, the MTU size varies but cannot be set to a value less than 64 bytes.


Note


The connect configuration mode is used only for Frame Relay Layer 2 interworking.

Changing the MTU Size

Changing the MTU size is not supported on a loopback interface.

Changing the MTU size on a Cisco 7500 series router results in the recarving of buffers and resetting of all interfaces. The following message is displayed: RSP-3-Restart:cbus complex .

You can configure native Gigabit Ethernet ports on the Cisco 7200 series router to a maximum MTU size of 9216 bytes. The MTU values range from 1500 to 9216 bytes. The MTU values can be configured to any range that is supported by the corresponding main interface.

MTU Size for an IPSec Configuration

In an IPSec configuration, such as in a crypto environment, an MTU value that is less than 256 bytes is not accepted. If you configure an MTU value less than 256 bytes, then the MTU value is automatically overwritten and given a value of 256 bytes.

Protocol-Specific Versions of the mtu Command

Changing the MTU value with the mtu interface configuration command can affect values for the protocol-specific versions of the command (the ip mtu command, for example). If the value specified with the ip mtu interface configuration command is the same as the value specified with the mtu interface configuration command, and you change the value for the mtu interface configuration command, the ip mtu value automatically matches the new mtu interface configuration command value. However, changing the values for the ip mtu configuration commands has no effect on the value for the mtu interface configuration command.

ATM and LANE Interfaces

ATM interfaces are not bound by what is configured on the major interface. By default, the MTU on a subinterface is equal to the default MTU (4490 bytes). A client is configured with the range supported by the corresponding main interface. The MTU can be changed on subinterfaces, but it may result in recarving of buffers to accommodate the new maximum MTU on the interface.

VRF-Aware Service Infrastructure Interfaces

The mtu command does not support the VRF-Aware Service Infrastructure (VASI) type interface.

Cisco 7600 Valid MTU Values

On the Cisco 7600 platform, the following valid values are applicable:

  • For the SVI ports: from 64 to 9216 bytes
  • For the GE-WAN+ ports: from 1500 to 9170 bytes
  • For all other ports: from 1500 to 9216 bytes

You can receive jumbo frames on access subinterfaces also. The MTU values can be configured to any range that is supported by the corresponding main interface. If you enable the jumbo frames, the default is 64 bytes for the SVI ports and 9216 bytes for all other ports. The jumbo frames are disabled by default.

Cisco uBR10012 Universal Broadband Router

While configuring the interface MTU size on a Gigabit Ethernet SPA on a Cisco uBR10012 router, consider the following guidelines:

  • The default interface MTU size accommodates a 1500-byte packet, plus 22 additional bytes to cover the following overhead:
    • Layer 2 header--14 bytes
    • Dot1Q header--4 bytes
    • CRC--4 bytes
  • If you are using MPLS, be sure that the mpls mtu command is configured with a value less than or equal to the interface MTU.
  • If you are using MPLS labels, you should increase the default interface MTU size to accommodate the number of MPLS labels. Each MPLS label adds 4 bytes of overhead to a packet.

Note


For the Gigabit Ethernet SPAs on the Cisco uBR10012 router, the default MTU size is 1500 bytes. When the interface is being used as a Layer 2 port, the maximum configurable MTU is 9000 bytes.

Examples

The following example shows how to specify an MTU of 1000 bytes:

Device(config)# interface serial 1
Device(config-if)# mtu 1000

Examples

The following example shows how to specify an MTU size on a Gigabit Ethernet SPA on the Cisco uBR10012 router:

Device(config)# interface GigabitEthernet3/0/0
Device(config-if)# mtu 1800

Examples

The following example shows how to specify an MTU size on a pseudowire interface:

Device(config)#  interface pseudowire 100
Device(config-if)# encapsulation mpls
Device(config-if)# mtu 1800

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a template and specify an MTU size in template configuration mode: :

Device(config)#  template type pseudowire template1
Device(config-if)# encapsulation mpls
Device(config-if)# mtu 1800

Related Commands

Command

Description

encapsulation (pseudowire)

Specifies an encapsulation type for tunneling Layer 2 traffic over a pseudowire.

encapsulation smds

Enables SMDS service on the desired interface.

ip mtu

Sets the MTU size of IP packets sent on an interface.

name (MST)

To set the name of a Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) region, use the name command in MST configuration submode. To return to the default name, use the no form of this command.

name name

no name name

Syntax Description

name

Name to give the MST region. It can be any string with a maximum length of 32 characters.

Command Default

Empty string

Command Modes

MST configuration (config-mst)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(14)SX

Support for this command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(17d)SXB

Support for this command on the Supervisor Engine 2 was extended to Release 12.2(17d)SXB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

Cisco IOS XE Release XE 3.7S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release XE 3.7S.

Usage Guidelines

Two or more Cisco 7600 series routers with the same VLAN mapping and configuration version number are considered to be in different MST regions if the region names are different.


Caution


Be careful when using the name command to set the name of an MST region. If you make a mistake, you can put the Cisco 7600 series router in a different region. The configuration name is a case-sensitive parameter.


Examples

This example shows how to name a region:

Device(config-mst)# name Cisco
Device(config-mst)# 

Related Commands

Command

Description

instance

Maps a VLAN or a set of VLANs to an MST instance.

revision

Sets the revision number for the MST configuration.

show

Verifies the MST configuration.

show spanning-tree mst

Displays the information about the MST protocol.

spanning-tree mst configuration

Enters MST configuration submode.

neighbor (MPLS)

To specify the peer IP address and virtual circuit (VC) ID value of a Layer 2 VPN (L2VPN) pseudowire, use the neighbor command in interface configuration mode. To remove the peer IP address and VC ID value of an L2VPN pseudowire, use the no form of this command.

neighbor peer-address vcid-value

no neighbor

Syntax Description

peer-address

IP address of the provider edge (PE) peer.

vcid-value

VC ID value. The range is from 1 to 4294967295.

Command Default

Peer address and VC ID value of a pseudowire are not specified.

Command Modes

Interface configuration (config-if)

Command History

Release

Modification

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was introduced as part of the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)-based L2VPN command modifications for cross-OS support. This command will replace the peer-ip-address and vc-id arguments in the xconnect command in future releases.

15.3(1)S

This command was integrated in Cisco IOS Release 15.3(1)S.

Usage Guidelines

You must configure the neighbor command for the pseudowire to be functional.

Examples

The following example shows how to specify a peer IP address of 10.1.2.3 and VC ID value of 100.

Device(config)# interface pseudowire 100
Device(config-if)# neighbor 10.1.2.3 100

Related Commands

Command

Description

label (interface pseudowire)

Configures an AToM static pseudowire connection by defining local and remote circuit labels.

neighbor (L2VPN Pseudowire Switching)

Specifies the routers that should form a point-to-point L2 VFI connection.

neighbor activate

To enable the exchange of information with a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) neighbor, use the neighbor activate command in address family configuration mode or router configuration mode. To disable the exchange of an address with a BGP neighbor, use the no form of this command.

neighbor { ip-address | peer-group-name | ipv6-address% } activate

no neighbor { ip-address | peer-group-name | ipv6-address% } activate

Syntax Description

ip-address

IP address of the neighboring router.

peer-group-name

Name of the BGP peer group.

ipv6-address

IPv6 address of the BGP neighbor.

%

(Optional) IPv6 link-local address identifier. This keyword needs to be added whenever a link-local IPv6 address is used outside the context of its interface.

Command Default

The exchange of addresses with BGP neighbors is enabled for the IPv4 address family. Enabling address exchange for all other address families is disabled.


Note


Address exchange for address family IPv4 is enabled by default for each BGP routing session configured with the neighbor remote-as command unless you configure the no bgp default ipv4-activate command before configuring the neighbor remote-as command, or you disable address exchange for address family IPv4 with a specific neighbor by using the no neighbor activate command.


Command Modes

Address family configuration (config-router-af)

Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

11.0

This command was introduced.

12.0(5)T

Support for address family configuration mode and the IPv4 address family was added.

12.2(2)T

The ipv6-address argument and support for the IPv6 address family were added.

12.0(21)ST

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(21)ST.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(25)SG

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SG.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SRB

The % keyword was added

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This command was introduced on Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers.

15.1(2)SNG

This command was implemented on the Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines

Use this command to advertise address information in the form of an IP or IPv6 prefix. The address prefix information is known as Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) in BGP.

The % keyword is used whenever link-local IPv6 addresses are used outside the context of their interfaces. This keyword does not need to be used for non-link-local IPv6 addresses.

Examples

Examples

The following example shows how to enable address exchange for address family vpnv4 for all neighbors in the BGP peer group named PEPEER and for the neighbor 10.0.0.44:

Router(config)# address-family vpnv4
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor PEPEER activate
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.0.0.44 activate
Router(config-router-af)# exit-address-family

Examples

The following example shows how to enable address exchange for address family IPv4 unicast for all neighbors in the BGP peer group named group1 and for the BGP neighbor 172.16.1.1:

Router(config)# address-family ipv4 unicast
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor group1 activate
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 172.16.1.1 activate

Examples

The following example shows how to enable address exchange for address family IPv6 for all neighbors in the BGP peer group named group2 and for the BGP neighbor 7000::2:

Router(config)# address-family ipv6
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor group2 activate
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 7000::2 activate

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family ipv4

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions, such as BGP, that use standard IPv4 address prefixes.

address-family ipv6

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions, such as BGP, that use standard IPv6 address prefixes.

address-family vpnv4

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions, such as BGP, that use standard VPNv4 address prefixes.

address-family vpnv6

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions, such as BGP, that use standard VPNv6 address prefixes.

exit-address-family

Exits from the address family submode.

neighbor remote-as

Adds an entry to the BGP or multiprotocol BGP neighbor table.

neighbor allowas-in

To configure provider edge (PE) routers to allow readvertisement of all prefixes containing duplicate autonomous system numbers (ASNs), use the neighbor allowas-in command in router configuration mode. To disable the readvertisement of the ASN of the PE router, use the no form of this command.

neighbor ip-address allowas-in [number]

no neighbor allowas-in [number]

Syntax Description

ip-address

IP address of the neighboring router.

number

(Optional) Specifies the number of times to allow the advertisement of a PE router’s ASN. The range is 1 to 10. If no number is supplied, the default value of 3 times is used.

Command Default

Readvertisement of all prefixes containing duplicate ASNs is disabled by default.

Command Modes


Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(7)T

This command was introduced.

12.1

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1.

12.2

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2.

12.3

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.3.

12.3T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.3T.

12.4

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4.

12.4T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4T.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

In a hub and spoke configuration, a PE router readvertises all prefixes containing duplicate autonomous system numbers. Use the neighbor allowas-in command to configure two VRFs on each PE router to receive and readvertise prefixes are as follows:

  • One Virtual Private Network routing and forwarding (VRF) instance receives prefixes with ASNs from all PE routers and then advertises them to neighboring PE routers.
  • The other VRF receives prefixes with ASNs from the customer edge (CE) router and readvertises them to all PE routers in the hub and spoke configuration.

You control the number of times an ASN is advertised by specifying a number from 1 to 10.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure the PE router with ASN 100 to allow prefixes from the VRF address family Virtual Private Network (VPN) IPv4 vrf1. The neighboring PE router with the IP address 192.168.255.255 is set to be readvertised to other PE routers with the same ASN six times.

Router(config)# router bgp 100
Router(config-router)# address-family ipv4 vrf vrf1
Router(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.255.255 allowas-in 6

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family

Enters the address family configuration submode used to configure routing protocols such as BGP, OSPF, RIP, and static routing.

neighbor as-override

To configure a provider edge (PE) router to override the autonomous system number (ASN) of a site with the ASN of a provider, use the neighbor as-override command in router configuration mode. To remove Virtual Private Network (VPN) IPv4 prefixes from a specified router, use the no form of this command.

neighbor ip-address as-override

no neighbor ip-address as-override

Syntax Description

ip-address

Specifies the IP address of the router that is to be overridden with the ASN provided.

Command Default

Automatic override of the ASN is disabled.

Command Modes


Router configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(7)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

This command is used in conjunction with the site-of-origin feature, identifying the site where a route originated, and preventing routing loops between routers within a VPN.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a router to override the ASN of a site with the ASN of a provider:

Router(config)# router bgp 100
Router(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.255.255 remote-as 109
Router(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.255.255 update-source loopback0
Router(config-router)# address-family ipv4 vrf vpn1
Router(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.255.255 activate
Router(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.255.255 as-override

Related Commands

Command

Description

neighbor activate

Enables the exchange of information with a BGP neighboring router.

neighbor remote-as

Allows a neighboring router’s IP address to be included in the BGP routing table.

neighbor update-source

Allows internal BGP sessions to use any operational interface for TCP/IP connections.

route-map

Redistributes routes from one routing protocol to another.

neighbor inter-as-hybrid

To configure the Exterior Border Gateway Protocol (eBGP) peer router, which is the neighboring Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR), as an Inter-AS Option AB peer, use the neighbor inter-as-hybrid command in address family configuration mode. The Inter-AS Option AB feature is a hybrid of Inter-AS Option (10)A and Inter-AS Option (10)B network configurations, enabling the interconnection of different autonomous systems to provide Virtual Private Network (VPN) services. To remove the peer router configuration, use the no form of this command.

neighbor { ip-address | peer-group-name } inter-as-hybrid

no neighbor { ip-address | peer-group-name } inter-as-hybrid

Syntax Description

ip-address

The IP address of the Inter-AS AB neighbor.

peer-group-name

The name of a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) peer group.

Command Default

No Inter-AS AB neighbor eBGP (ASBR) router is specified.

Command Modes


Address family configuration (config-router-af)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(33)SRC

This command was introduced.

15.0(1)M

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)M.

15.0(1)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S.

15.0(1)SY

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)SY.

Usage Guidelines

Advertised routes have the route targets (RTs) that are configured on the virtual private network (VPN) routing and forwarding (VRF) instance. Advertised routes do not have their original RTs.

If any prefixes are imported into Option AB VRFs, then the imported paths are advertised to this peer.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure an Inter-AS AB neighbor eBGP (ASBR) router:

Router(config)# router bgp 100
Router(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.0.1 remote-as 200
Router(config-router)# address-family vpnv4
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 192.168.0.1 activate
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 192.168.0.1 inter-as-hybrid

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family vpnv4

Enters address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions, such as BGP, that use standard VPNv4 address prefixes.

inter-as-hybrid

Specifies a VRF as an Option AB VRF.

neighbor

Adds an entry to the BGP or multiprotocol BGP neighbor table.

neighbor activate

Enables the exchange of information with a neighboring router.

neighbor override-capability-neg

To enable the IPv6 address family for a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) neighbor that does not support capability negotiation, use the neighbor override-capability-negcommand in address family configuration mode. To disable the IPv6 address family for a BGP neighbor that does not support capability negotiation, use the no form of this command.

neighbor { peer-group-name | ipv6-address } override-capability-neg

no neighbor { peer-group-name | ipv6-address } override-capability-neg

Syntax Description

peer-group-name

Name of a BGP peer group.

ipv6-address

IPv6 address of the BGP neighbor.

This argument must be in the form documented in RFC 2373 where the address is specified in hexadecimal using 16-bit values between colons.

Command Default

Capability negotiation is enabled.

Command Modes


Address family configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(2)T

This command was introduced.

12.0(21)ST

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(21)ST.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(25)SG

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SG.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

Usage Guidelines

Capability negotiation is used to establish a connection between BGP-speaking peers. If one of the BGP peers does not support capability negotiation, the connection is automatically terminated. The neighbor override-capability-negcommand overrides the capability negotiation process and enables BGP-speaking peers to establish a connection.

The neighbor override-capability-negcommand is supported only in address family configuration mode for the IPv6 address family.

Examples

The following example enables the IPv6 address family for BGP neighbor 7000::2:

Router(config)# address-family ipv6
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 7000::2 override-capability-neg

The following example enables the IPv6 address family for all neighbors in the BGP peer group named group1:

Router(config)# address-family ipv6
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor group1 override-capability-neg

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family ipv6

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions, such as BGP, that use standard IPv6 address prefixes.

neighbor remote-as

To add an entry to the BGP or multiprotocol BGP neighbor table, use the neighbor remote-as command in router configuration mode. To remove an entry from the table, use the no form of this command.

neighbor { ip-address | ipv6-address% | peer-group-name } remote-as autonomous-system-number [ alternate-as autonomous-system-number ... ]

no neighbor { ip-address | ipv6-address% | peer-group-name } remote-as autonomous-system-number [ alternate-as autonomous-system-number ... ]

Syntax Description

ip-address

IP address of the neighbor.

ipv6-address

IPv6 address of the neighbor.

%

(Optional) IPv6 link-local address identifier. This keyword needs to be added whenever a link-local IPv6 address is used outside the context of its interface.

peer-group-name

Name of a BGP peer group.

autonomous-system-number

Number of an autonomous system to which the neighbor belongs in the range from 1 to 65535.

  • In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(33)S3, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4, and later releases, 4-byte autonomous system numbers are supported in the range from 65536 to 4294967295 in asplain notation and in the range from 1.0 to 65535.65535 in asdot notation.
  • In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)S12, 12.4(24)T, and Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3, 4-byte autonomous system numbers are supported in the range from 1.0 to 65535.65535 in asdot notation only.

For more details about autonomous system number formats, see the router bgp command.

When used with the alternate-as keyword, up to five autonomous system numbers may be entered.

alternate-as

(Optional) Specifies an alternate autonomous system in which a potential dynamic neighbor can be identified. Up to five autonomous system numbers may be entered when this keyword is specified.

Command Default

There are no BGP or multiprotocol BGP neighbor peers.

Command Modes


Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

11.0

The peer-group-name argument was added.

11.1(20)CC

The nlri unicast, nlri multicast, and nlri unicast multicast keywords were added.

12.0(7)T

The nlri unicast, nlri multicast, and nlri unicast multicast keywords were removed.

12.2(4)T

Support for the IPv6 address family was added.

12.2(25)SG

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SG.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was modified. The % keyword was added.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH. The alternate-as keyword was added to support BGP dynamic neighbors.

12.2(33)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SB.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This command was introduced on Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers.

12.0(32)S12

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation only was added.

12.0(32)SY8

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

12.4(24)T

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation only was added.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation only was added.

12.2(33)SXI1

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

12.0(33)S3

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers is now asplain.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers is now asplain.

12.2(33)SRE

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

12.2(33)XNE

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

15.0(1)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S.

15.1(1)SG

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.3SG

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

15.1(2)SNG

This command was implemented on the Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines

Specifying a neighbor with an autonomous system number that matches the autonomous system number specified in the router bgp global configuration command identifies the neighbor as internal to the local autonomous system. Otherwise, the neighbor is considered external.

If you specify a BGP peer group by using the peer-group-name argument, all the members of the peer group will inherit the characteristic configured with this command.

By default, neighbors that are defined using the neighbor remote-as command in router configuration mode exchange only unicast address prefixes. To exchange other address prefix types, such as multicast and Virtual Private Network (VPN) Version 4, neighbors must also be activated in the appropriate address family configuration mode.

Use the alternate-as keyword introduced in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH to specify up to five alternate autonomous systems in which a dynamic BGP neighbor may be identified. BGP dynamic neighbor support allows BGP peering to a group of remote neighbors that are defined by a range of IP addresses. BGP dynamic neighbors are configured using a range of IP addresses and BGP peer groups. After a subnet range is configured and associated with a BGP peer group using the bgp listen command and a TCP session is initiated for an IP address in the subnet range, a new BGP neighbor is dynamically created as a member of that group. The new BGP neighbor will inherit any configuration or templates for the group.

The % keyword is used whenever link-local IPv6 addresses are used outside the context of their interfaces. This keyword does not need to be used for non-link-local IPv6 addresses.

In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(33)S3, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4, and later releases, the Cisco implementation of 4-byte autonomous system numbers uses asplain--65538 for example--as the default regular expression match and output display format for autonomous system numbers, but you can configure 4-byte autonomous system numbers in both the asplain format and the asdot format as described in RFC 5396. To change the default regular expression match and output display of 4-byte autonomous system numbers to asdot format, use the bgp asnotation dot command followed by the clear ip bgp * command to perform a hard reset of all current BGP sessions.

In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)S12, 12.4(24)T, and Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3, the Cisco implementation of 4-byte autonomous system numbers uses asdot--1.2 for example--as the only configuration format, regular expression match, and output display, with no asplain support.


Note


In Cisco IOS releases that include 4-byte ASN support, command accounting and command authorization that include a 4-byte ASN number are sent in the asplain notation irrespective of the format that is used on the command-line interface.


To ensure a smooth transition, we recommend that all BGP speakers within an autonomous system that is identified using a 4-byte autonomous system number, be upgraded to support 4-byte autonomous system numbers.

Examples

The following example specifies that a router at the address 10.108.1.2 is an internal BGP (iBGP) neighbor in autonomous system number 65200:

router bgp 65200
 network 10.108.0.0
 neighbor 10.108.1.2 remote-as 65200

The following example specifies that a router at the IPv6 address 2001:0DB8:1:1000::72a is an external BGP (eBGP) neighbor in autonomous system number 65001:

router bgp 65300
 address-family ipv6 vrf site1
 neighbor 2001:0DB8:1:1000::72a remote-as 65001

The following example assigns a BGP router to autonomous system 65400, and two networks are listed as originating in the autonomous system. Then the addresses of three remote routers (and their autonomous systems) are listed. The router being configured will share information about networks 10.108.0.0 and 192.168.7.0 with the neighbor routers. The first router is a remote router in a different autonomous system from the router on which this configuration is entered (an eBGP neighbor); the second neighbor remote-as command shows an internal BGP neighbor (with the same autonomous system number) at address 10.108.234.2; and the last neighbor remote-as command specifies a neighbor on a different network from the router on which this configuration is entered (also an eBGP neighbor).

router bgp 65400
 network 10.108.0.0
 network 192.168.7.0
 neighbor 10.108.200.1 remote-as 65200
 neighbor 10.108.234.2 remote-as 65400
 neighbor 172.29.64.19 remote-as 65300

The following example configures neighbor 10.108.1.1 in autonomous system 65001 to exchange only multicast routes:

router bgp 65001
 neighbor 10.108.1.1 remote-as 65001
 neighbor 172.31 1.2 remote-as 65001
 neighbor 172.16.2.2 remote-as 65002
 address-family ipv4 multicast
  neighbor 10.108.1.1 activate
  neighbor 172.31 1.2 activate
  neighbor 172.16.2.2 activate
  exit-address-family

The following example configures neighbor 10.108.1.1 in autonomous system 65001 to exchange only unicast routes:

router bgp 65001
 neighbor 10.108.1.1 remote-as 65001
 neighbor 172.31 1.2 remote-as 65001
 neighbor 172.16.2.2 remote-as 65002

The following example, configurable only in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH and later releases, configures a subnet range of 192.168.0.0/16 and associates this listen range with a BGP peer group. Note that the listen range peer group that is configured for the BGP dynamic neighbor feature can be activated in the IPv4 address family using the neighbor activate command. After the initial configuration on Router 1, when Router 2 starts a BGP router session and adds Router 1 to its BGP neighbor table, a TCP session is initiated, and Router 1 creates a new BGP neighbor dynamically because the IP address of the new neighbor is within the listen range subnet.

Examples

enable
configure terminal
router bgp 45000
 bgp log-neighbor-changes
 neighbor group192 peer-group 
 bgp listen range 192.168.0.0/16 peer-group group192   
 neighbor group192 remote-as 40000 alternate-as 50000
 address-family ipv4 unicast 
 neighbor group192 activate
 end

Examples

enable
configure terminal
router bgp 50000
 neighbor 192.168.3.1 remote-as 45000
 exit

If the show ip bgp summary command is now entered on Router 1, the output shows the dynamically created BGP neighbor, 192.168.3.2.

Router1# show ip bgp summary
BGP router identifier 192.168.3.1, local AS number 45000
BGP table version is 1, main routing table version 1
Neighbor        V    AS MsgRcvd MsgSent   TblVer  InQ OutQ Up/Down  State/PfxRcd
*192.168.3.2    4 50000       2       2        0    0    0 00:00:37        0
* Dynamically created based on a listen range command
Dynamically created neighbors: 1/(200 max), Subnet ranges: 1
BGP peergroup group192 listen range group members: 
  192.168.0.0/16 

The following example configures a BGP process for autonomous system 65538 and configures two external BGP neighbors in different autonomous systems using 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain format. This example is supported only on Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(33)S3, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4, or later releases.

router bgp 65538
 neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 65536
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 remote-as 65550
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 description finance
 !
 address-family ipv4
  neighbor 192.168.1.2 activate
  neighbor 192.168.3.2 activate
  no auto-summary
  no synchronization
  network 172.17.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
  exit-address-family

The following example configures a BGP process for autonomous system 1.2 and configures two external BGP neighbors in different autonomous systems using 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot format. This example requires Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(32)S12, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, 12.4(24)T, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3, or a later release.

router bgp 1.2
 neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 1.0
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 remote-as 1.14
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 description finance
 !
 address-family ipv4
  neighbor 192.168.1.2 activate
  neighbor 192.168.3.2 activate
  no auto-summary
  no synchronization
  network 172.17.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
  exit-address-family

Related Commands

Command

Description

bgp asnotation dot

Changes the default display and the regular expression match format of BGP 4-byte autonomous system numbers from asplain (decimal values) to dot notation.

bgp listen

Associates a subnet range with a BGP peer group and activates the BGP dynamic neighbors feature.

neighbor peer-group

Creates a BGP peer group.

router bgp

Configures the BGP routing process.

neighbor send-community

To specify that a communities attribute should be sent to a BGP neighbor, use the neighbor send-community command in address family or router configuration mode. To remove the entry, use the no form of this command.

neighbor { ip-address | ipv6-address | peer-group-name } send-community [ both | standard | extended ]

no neighbor { ip-address | ipv6-address | peer-group-name } send-community

Syntax Description

ip-address

IP address of the neighbor.

ipv6-address

IPv6 address of the neighbor.

peer-group-name

Name of a BGP peer group.

both

(Optional) Specifies that both standard and extended communities will be sent.

standard

(Optional) Specifies that only standard communities will be sent.

extended

(Optional) Specifies that only extended communities will be sent.

Command Default

No communities attribute is sent to any neighbor.

Command Modes

Address family configuration (config-router-af)

Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

10.3

This command was introduced.

11.0

The peer-group-name argument was added.

12.0(7)T

Address family configuration mode was added.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SRB

The ipv6-address argument was added.

12.2(33)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SB.

12.2(33)SXI

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXI.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S.

15.1(2)SNG

This command was implemented on the Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines

If you specify a BGP peer group by using the peer-group-name argument, all the members of the peer group will inherit the characteristic configured with this command.

Examples

In the following router configuration mode example, the router belongs to autonomous system 109 and is configured to send the communities attribute to its neighbor at IP address 172.16.70.23:

router bgp 109
 neighbor 172.16.70.23 send-community

In the following address family configuration mode example, the router belongs to autonomous system 109 and is configured to send the communities attribute to its neighbor at IP address 172.16.70.23:

router bgp 109
address-family ipv4 multicast
 neighbor 172.16.70.23 send-community

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family ipv4 (BGP)

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions such as BGP, RIP, or static routing sessions that use standard IP Version 4 address prefixes.

address-family ipv6

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions such as BGP that use standard IPv6 address prefixes.

address-family vpnv4

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions such as BGP, RIP, or static routing sessions that use standard VPN Version 4 address prefixes.

address-family vpnv6

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions, such as BGP, that use standard VPNv6 address prefixes.

match community

Matches a BGP community.

neighbor remote-as

Creates a BGP peer group.

set community

Sets the BGP communities attribute.

neighbor send-label

To enable a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) router to send Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) labels with BGP routes to a neighboring BGP router, use the neighbor send-label command in address family configuration mode or router configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

neighbor { ip-address | ipv6-address | peer-group-name } send-label [explicit-null]

no neighbor { ip-address | ipv6-address | peer-group-name } send-label [explicit-null]

Syntax Description

ip-address

IP address of the neighboring router.

ipv6-address

IPv6 address of the neighboring router.

peer-group-name

Name of a BGP peer group.

send-label

Sends Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) and MPLS labels to this peer.

explicit-null

(Optional) Advertises the Explicit Null label.

Command Default

BGP routers distribute only BGP routes.

Command Modes


Address family configuration (config-router-af)
Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(21)ST

This command was introduced.

12.0(22)S

This command was modified. The ipv6-address argument was added.

12.2(13)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(13)T.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(25)SG

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SG.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1.

15.1(2)SNG

This command was integrated into Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

15.2(2)SNI

This command was implemented on the Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines

The neighbor send-label command enables a router to use BGP to distribute MPLS labels along with IPv4 routes to a peer router. You must issue this command on both the local and the neighboring router.

This command has the following restrictions:

  • If a BGP session is running when you issue the neighbor send-label command, the BGP session flaps immediately after the command is issued.
  • In router configuration mode, only IPv4 addresses are distributed.

Use the neighbor send-label command in address family configuration mode, to bind and advertise IPv6 prefix MPLS labels. Using this command in conjunction with the mpls ipv6 source-interface global configuration command allows IPv6 traffic to run over an IPv4 MPLS network without any software or hardware configuration changes in the backbone. Edge routers configured to run both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic forward IPv6 traffic using MPLS and multiprotocol internal BGP (MP-iBGP).

Cisco IOS software installs /32 routes for directly connected external BGP (eBGP) peers when the BGP session for such a peer comes up. The /32 routes are installed only when MPLS labels are exchanged between such peers. Directly connected eBGP peers exchange MPLS labels for:

  • IP address families (IPv4 and IPv6) with the neighbor send-label command enabled for the peers
  • VPN address families (VPNv4 and VPNv6)

A single BGP session can include multiple address families. If one of the families exchanges MPLS labels, the /32 neighbor route is installed for the connected peer.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable a router in autonomous system 65000 to send MPLS labels with BGP routes to the neighboring BGP router at 192.168.0.1:

Router(config)# router bgp 65000
Router(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.0.1 remote-as 65001
Router(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.0.1 send-label

The following example shows how to enable a router in the autonomous system 65000 to bind and advertise IPv6 prefix MPLS labels and send the labels with BGP routes to the neighboring BGP router at 192.168.99.70:

Router(config)# router bgp 65000
Router(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.99.70 remote-as 65000
Router(config-router)# address-family ipv6
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 192.168.99.70 activate
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 192.168.99.70 send-label

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family ipv6

Enters address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions such as BGP that use standard IPv6 address prefixes.

neighbor activate

Enables the exchange of information with a neighboring router.

neighbor remote-as

Adds an entry to the BGP or multiprotocol BGP neighbor table.

mpls ipv6 source-interface

Specifies an IPv6 address of an interface to be used as the source address for locally generated IPv6 packets to be sent over an MPLS network.

neighbor send-label explicit-null

To enable a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) router to send Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) labels with explicit-null information for a CSC-CE router and BGP routes to a neighboring CSC-PE router, use the neighbor send-label explicit-null command in address family configuration mode or router configuration mode. To disable a BGP router from sending MPLS labels with explicit-null information, use the no form of this command.

neighbor ip-address send-label explicit-null

no neighbor ip-address send-label explicit-null

Syntax Description

ip-address

IP address of the neighboring router.

Command Default

None

Command Modes


Address family configuration (config-router-af)
Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(27)S

This command was introduced.

12.4

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

Usage Guidelines

This command enables a CSC-CE router to use BGP to distribute MPLS labels with a value of zero for explicit-null instead of implicit-null along with IPv4 routes to a CSC-PE peer router.

You must issue this command only on the local CSC-CE router.

You can use this command only with IPv4 addresses.

Examples

In the following CSC-CE example, CSC is configured with BGP to distribute labels and to advertise explicit null for all its connected routes:

Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)# router bgp 100
Router(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 remote-as 300
Router(config-router)# address-family ipv4
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 send-label explicit-null

In the following CSC-PE example, CSC is configured with BGP to distribute labels:

Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)# router bgp 300
Router(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.1 remote-as 100
Router(config-router)# address-family ipv4 vrf v1
Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.0.0.1 send-label

Note


Explicit null is not applicable on a CSC-PE router.


Related Commands

Command

Description

neighbor activate

Enables the exchange of information with a neighboring router.

neighbor send-label

Enables a BGP router to send MPLS labels with BGP routes to a neighboring BGP router.

neighbor suppress-signaling-protocol

To suppress a Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) signaling protocol use the neighbor suppress-signaling-protocol command in address family configuration or router configuration mode. To remove the entry, use the no form of this command.

neighbor { ipv4-address | ipv6-address | peer-group-name } suppress-signaling-protocol ldp

no neighbor { ipv4-address | ipv6-address | peer-group-name } suppress-signaling-protocol ldp

Syntax Description

ipv4-address

IP address of the neighbor.

ipv6-address

IPv6 address of the neighbor.

peer-group-name

Name of a BGP peer group.

ldp

Specifies that Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) signaling will be suppressed.

Command Default

LDP signaling is not suppressed.

Command Modes

Address family configuration (config-router-af)

Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8S

This command was introduced.

15.3(2)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.3(2)S.

Usage Guidelines

If you specify that LDP signaling is suppressed by using the ldp keyword, BGP signaling will be enabled.

Examples

Device(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.10.10.1 suppress-signaling-protocol ldp 

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family ipv4 (BGP)

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions such as BGP, RIP, or static routing sessions that use standard IP Version 4 address prefixes.

address-family ipv6

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions such as BGP that use standard IPv6 address prefixes.

address-family vpnv4

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions such as BGP, RIP, or static routing sessions that use standard VPN Version 4 address prefixes.

address-family vpnv6

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions, such as BGP, that use standard VPNv6 address prefixes.

neighbor remote-as

Creates a BGP peer group.

neighbor update-source

To have the Cisco software allow Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) sessions to use any operational interface for TCP connections, use the neighbor update-source command in router configuration mode. To restore the interface assignment to the closest interface, which is called the best local address, use the no form of this command.

neighbor { ip-address | ipv6-address [ % ] | peer-group-name } update-source interface-type interface-number

neighbor { ip-address | ipv6-address [ % ] | peer-group-name } update-source interface-type interface-number

Syntax Description

ip-address

IPv4 address of the BGP-speaking neighbor.

ipv6-address

IPv6 address of the BGP-speaking neighbor.

%

(Optional) IPv6 link-local address identifier. This keyword needs to be added whenever a link-local IPv6 address is used outside the context of its interface.

peer-group-name

Name of a BGP peer group.

interface-type

Interface type.

interface-number

Interface number.

Command Default

Best local address

Command Modes


Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(4)T

The ipv6-address argument was added.

12.0(21)ST

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(21)ST.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(25)SG

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SG.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SRB

The % keyword was added.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This command was introduced on Cisco ASR 1000 series routers.

15.1(2)SNG

This command was implemented on the Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines

This command can work in conjunction with the loopback interface feature described in the “Interface Configuration Overview” chapter of the Cisco IOS Interface and Hardware Component Configuration Guide.

If you specify a BGP peer group by using the peer-group-name argument, all the members of the peer group will inherit the characteristic configured with this command.

The neighbor update-source command must be used to enable IPv6 link-local peering for internal or external BGP sessions.

The % keyword is used whenever link-local IPv6 addresses are used outside the context of their interfaces and for these link-local IPv6 addresses you must specify the interface they are on. The syntax becomes <IPv6 local-link address>%<interface name>, for example, FE80::1%Ethernet1/0. Note that the interface type and number must not contain any spaces, and be used in full-length form because name shortening is not supported in this situation. The % keyword and subsequent interface syntax is not used for non-link-local IPv6 addresses.

Examples

The following example sources BGP TCP connections for the specified neighbor with the IP address of the loopback interface rather than the best local address:

router bgp 65000
 network 172.16.0.0
 neighbor 172.16.2.3 remote-as 110
 neighbor 172.16.2.3 update-source Loopback0

The following example sources IPv6 BGP TCP connections for the specified neighbor in autonomous system 65000 with the global IPv6 address of loopback interface 0 and the specified neighbor in autonomous system 65400 with the link-local IPv6 address of Fast Ethernet interface 0/0. Note that the link-local IPv6 address of FE80::2 is on Ethernet interface 1/0.

router bgp 65000
 neighbor 3ffe::3 remote-as 65000 
 neighbor 3ffe::3 update-source Loopback0 
 neighbor fe80::2%Ethernet1/0 remote-as 65400 
 neighbor fe80::2%Ethernet1/0 update-source FastEthernet 0/0 
 address-family ipv6 
  neighbor 3ffe::3 activate 
  neighbor fe80::2%Ethernet1/0 activate 
  exit-address-family 

Related Commands

Command

Description

neighbor activate

Enables the exchange of information with a BGP neighboring router.

neighbor remote-as

Adds an entry to the BGP or multiprotocol BGP neighbor table.

neighbor (VPLS transport mode)

To create pseudowires with specific provider edge (PE) routers in an L2VPN Advanced VPLS configuration, use the neighbor command in VPLS transport configuration mode. To remove the pseudowires, use the no form of this command.

neighbor remote-router-id [ pw-class pw-class-name ]

no neighbor remote-router-id

Syntax Description

remote-router-id

Remote peer router identifier. The remote router ID can be any IP address, as long as it is reachable.

pw-class

(Optional) Specifies the pseudowire class configuration from which the data encapsulation type is taken.

pw-name-name

Name of the pseudowire class.

Command Default

Pseudowires are not created.

Command Modes


VPLS transport configuration (config-if-transport)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(33)SXI4

This command was introduced.

15.1(1)SY

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.1(1)SY.

Usage Guidelines

The neighbor command uses default values for the VFI name, VPN ID, and encapsulation type.

Examples

The following example shows how two pseudowires are created with PE routers 10.2.2.2 and 10.3.3.3:

Router(config)# interface virtual-ethernet 1
Router(config-if)# transport vpls mesh
Router(config-if-transport)# neighbor 10.2.2.2 pw-class 1 
Router(config-if-transport)# neighbor 10.3.3.3 pw-class 1

Related Commands

Command

Description

transport vpls mesh

Creates a full mesh of pseudowires under a virtual private LAN switching (VPLS) domain.

neighbor (VPLS)

To specify the type of tunnel signaling and encapsulation mechanism for each Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) peer, use the neighbor command in L2 VFI manual configuration mode. To disable a split horizon, use the no form of this command.

neighbor remote-router-id vc-id { encapsulation encapsulation-type | pw-class pw-name } [no-split-horizon]

no neighbor remote-router-id [vc-id]

Syntax Description

remote-router-id

Remote peer router identifier. The remote router ID can be any IP address, as long as it is reachable.

vc-id

32-bit identifier of the virtual circuit between the routers.

encapsulation

Specifies tunnel encapsulation.

encapsulation-type

Specifies the tunnel encapsulation type; valid values are l2tpv3 and mpls.

pw-class

Specifies the pseudowire class configuration from which the data encapsulation type is taken.

pw-name

Name of the pseudowire class.

no-split-horizon

(Optional) Disables the Layer 2 split horizon forwarding in the data path.

Command Default

Split horizon is enabled.

Command Modes

L2 VFI manual configuration (config-vfi)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(18)SXF

This command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was modified. This command was updated so that the remote router ID need not be the LDP router ID of the peer.

Cisco IOS XE Release XE 3.7S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release XE 3.7S.

Usage Guidelines

In a full-mesh VPLS network, keep split horizon enabled to avoid looping.

With the introduction of VPLS Autodiscovery, the remote router ID no longer needs to be the LDP router ID. The address that you specify can be any IP address on the peer, as long as it is reachable. When VPLS Autodiscovery discovers peer routers for the VPLS, the peer router addresses might be any routable address.

Examples

This example shows how to specify the tunnel encapsulation type:

Device(config-vfi)# l2 vfi vfi-1 manual
Device(config-vfi)# vpn 1
Device(config-vfi)# neighbor 172.16.10.2 4 encapsulation mpls

This example shows how to disable the Layer 2 split horizon in the data path:

Device(config-vfi)# l2 vfi vfi-1 manual
Device(config-vfi)# vpn 1
Device(config-vfi)# neighbor 172.16.10.2 4 encapsulation mpls no-split-horizon

Related Commands

Command

Description

l2 vfi manual

Creates a Layer 2 VFI.

network (IPv6)

To configure the network source of the next hop to be used by the PE VPN, use the network command in router configuration mode. To disable the source, use the no form of this command.

network ipv6-address/prefix-length

no network ipv6-address/prefix-length

Syntax Description

ipv6-address

The IPv6 address to be used.

/ prefix-length

The length of the IPv6 prefix. A decimal value that indicates how many of the high-order contiguous bits of the address comprise the prefix (the network portion of the address). A slash mark must precede the decimal value.

Command Default

Next-hop network sources are not configured.

Command Modes


Address family configuration
Router configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(33)SRB

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SB.

12.2(33)SXI

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXI.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.2SE

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.2SE.

Usage Guidelines

The ipv6-address argument in this command configures the IPv6 network number.

Examples

The following example places the router in address family configuration mode and configures the network source to be used as the next hop:

Router(config)# router bgp 100
Router(config-router)# network 2001:DB8:100::1/128

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family ipv6

Enters address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions such as BGP that use standard IPv6 address prefixes.

address-family vpnv6

Places the router in address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions that use standard VPNv6 address prefixes.

next-address

To specify the next IP address in the explicit path, use the next-address command in IP explicit path configuration mode.

next-address [ loose | strict ] ip-address

Syntax Description

loose

(Optional) Specifies that the previous address (if any) in the explicit path need not be directly connected to the next IP address, and that the router is free to determine the path from the previous address (if any) to the next IP address.

strict

(Optional) Specifies that the previous address (if any) in the explicit path must be directly connected to the next IP address.

ip-address

Next IP address in the explicit path.

Command Default

The next IP address in the explicit path is not specified.

Command Modes


IP explicit path configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.0(19)ST1

The looseand strict keywords were added.

12.0(21)ST

Support for the Cisco 12000 series router was added.

12.2(18)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)S.

12.2(18)SXD

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)SXD.

12.2(27)SBC

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(27)SBC.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3.

Usage Guidelines

To specify an explicit path that includes only the addresses specified, specify each address in sequence by using the next-address command without the loose keyword.

To configure an interarea traffic engineering (TE) tunnel, configure the tunnel path options as loose explicit paths. Specify that each Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) traversed by the tunnel label switched path (LSP) is a loose hop by entering the next-address loose command.

To use explicit paths for TE tunnels within an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) area, you can specify a combination of both loose and strict hops.

When specifying an explicit path for an MPLS TE tunnel, you can specify link or node addresses of the next-hop routers in an explicit path. You can also specify a mixture of link and node addresses. However, there are some restrictions:

  • In Cisco IOS Releases 12.2(33)SRD and 12.4(24)T, and Cisco XE Release 2.4 and earlier releases, you cannot specify an explicit path that uses a link address as the first hop and then node addresses as the subsequent hops. However, you can use a node address as the first hop andlink addresses as the subsequent hops.
  • In Cisco IOS Releases after 12.2(33)SRD, 12.4(24)T , and Cisco XE Release 2.4, you can use a link address as the first hop and then node addresses as the subsequent hops. There are no restrictions when specifying a mixture of link and node addresses.

When specifying an explicit path, if you specify the “forward” address (the address of the interface that forwards the traffic to the next router) as the next-hop address, the explicit path might not be used. Using the forward address allows that entry to be treated as a loose hop for path calculation. Cisco recommends that you use the “receive”address (the address of the interface that receives traffic from the sending router) as the next-hop address.

In the following example, router R3 sends traffic to router R1. The paths marked a,b and x,y between routers R1 and R2 are parallel paths.

R1(a)----(b)R2(c)--(d)R3
  (x)----(y)

If you configure an explicit path from R3 to R1 using the “forward” addresses (addresses d and b), the tunnel might reroute traffic over the parallel path (x,y) instead of the explicit path. To ensure that the tunnel uses the explicit path, specify the “receive” addresses as part of the next-address command, as shown in the following example:

ip explicit-path name path1
  next-address ©)
  next-address (a)

Examples

The following example shows how to assign the number 60 to the IP explicit path, enable the path, and specify 10.3.27.3 as the next IP address in the list of IP addresses:

Router(config)# ip explicit-path identifier 60 enable 
Router(cfg-ip-expl-path)# next-address 10.3.27.3
Explicit Path identifier 60:
    1: next-address 10.3.27.3

The following example shows a loose IP explicit path with ID 60. An interarea TE tunnel has a destination of 10.3.29.3 and traverses ASBRs 10.3.27.3 and 10.3.28.3.

Router(config)# ip explicit-path identifier 60
Router(cfg-ip-expl-path)# next-address loose 10.3.27.3 
Router(cfg-ip-expl-path)# next-address loose 10.3.28.3
Router(cfg-ip-expl-path)# next-address loose 10.3.29.3
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

append-after

Inserts the new path entry after the specified index number.

index

Inserts or modifies a path entry at a specified index.

ip explicit-path

Enters the subcommand mode for IP explicit paths and creates or modifies the specified path.

list

Displays all or part of the explicit paths.

show ip explicit-paths

Displays configured IP explicit paths.

passive-interface (IPv6)

To disable sending routing updates on an interface, use the passive-interface command in router configuration mode. To reenable the sending of routing updates, use the no form of this command.

passive-interface [ default | interface-type interface-number ]

no passive-interface [ default | interface-type interface-number ]

Syntax Description

default

(Optional) All interfaces become passive.

interface-type interface-number

(Optional) Interface type and number. For more information, use the question mark (?) online help function.

Command Default

No interfaces are passive. Routing updates are sent to all interfaces on which the routing protocol is enabled.

Command Modes


Router configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(15)T

This command was introduced.

12.4(6)T

Support for Enhanced Internal Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) IPv6 was added.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.2SE

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.2SE.

Usage Guidelines

If you disable the sending of routing updates on an interface, the particular address prefix will continue to be advertised to other interfaces, and updates from other routers on that interface continue to be received and processed.

The default keyword sets all interfaces as passive by default. You can then configure individual interfaces where adjacencies are desired using the no passive-interface command. The default keyword is useful in Internet service provider (ISP) and large enterprise networks where many of the distribution routers have more than 200 interfaces.

OSPF for IPv6 routing information is neither sent nor received through the specified router interface. The specified interface address appears as a stub network in the OSPF for IPv6 domain.

For the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocol, this command instructs IS-IS to advertise the IP addresses for the specified interface without actually running IS-IS on that interface. The no form of this command for IS-IS disables advertising IP addresses for the specified address.

Examples

The following example sets all interfaces as passive, then activates Ethernet interface 0:

Router(config-router)# passive-interface default
Router(config-router)# no passive-interface ethernet0/0

oam retry

To configure parameters related to Operation, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) management for an ATM permanent virtual circuit (PVC), switched virtual circuit (SVC), VC class, or VC bundle, or label-controlled ATM (LC-ATM) VC, use the oam retry command in the appropriate command mode. To remove OAM management parameters, use the no form of this command.

oam retry up-count down-count retry-frequency

no oam retry

Syntax Description

up-count

Number of consecutive end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell responses that must be received in order to change a connection state to up. This argument does not apply to SVCs.

down-count

Number of consecutive end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell responses that are not received in order to change the state to down or tear down an SVC connection.

retry-frequency

The frequency (in seconds) at which end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cells are transmitted when a change in the up/down state is being verified. For example, if a PVC is up and a loopback cell response is not received after the retry-frequency (in seconds) argument is specified using the oam-pvc command, loopback cells are sent at the retry-frequency to verify whether the PVC is down.

Command Default

ATM PVCs and SVCs

up-count : 3down-count: 5retry-frequency: 1 second

LC-ATM VCs

up-count : 2down-count: 2retry-frequency: 2 seconds

Command Modes


Bundle configuration mode (for a VC bundle)
Control-VC configuration (for an LC-ATM VC)
Interface-ATM-VC configuration (for an ATM PVC or SVC)
PVC range configuration (for an ATM PVC range)
PVC-in-range configuration (for an individual PVC within a PVC range)
VC-class configuration (for a VC class)

Command History

Release

Modification

11.3T

This command was introduced.

12.0(3)T

This command was modified to allow configuration parameters related to OAM management for ATM VC bundles.

12.1(5)T

This command was implemented in PVC range and PVC-in-range configuration modes.

12.3(2)T

This command was implemented in control-VC configuration mode.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

The following guidelines apply to PVCs, SVCs, and VC classes. They do not apply to LC-ATM VCs.

  • For ATM PVCs, SVCs, or VC bundles, if the oam retry command is not explicitly configured, the VC inherits the following default configuration (listed in order of precedence):
    • Configuration of the oam retry command in a VC class assigned to the PVC or SVC itself.
    • Configuration of the oam retry command in a VC class assigned to the PVC’s or SVC’s ATM subinterface.
    • Configuration of the oam retry command in a VC class assigned to the PVC’s or SVC’s ATM main interface.
    • Global default: up-count = 3, down-count = 5, retry-frequency = 1 second. This set of defaults assumes that OAM management is enabled using the oam-pvc or oam-svc command. The up-count and retry-frequency arguments do not apply to SVCs.
  • To use this command in bundle configuration mode, enter the bundle command to create the bundle or to specify an existing bundle before you enter this command.
  • If you use the oam retry command to configure a VC bundle, you configure all VC members of that bundle. VCs in a VC bundle are further subject to the following inheritance rules (listed in order of precedence):
    • VC configuration in bundle-vc mode
    • Bundle configuration in bundle mode (with the effect of assigned VC-class configuration)
    • Subinterface configuration in subinterface mode

Examples

The following example shows how to configure the OAM management parameters with an up count of 3, a down-count of 3, and the retry frequency set at 10 seconds:

Router(cfg-mpls-atm-cvc)# oam retry 3 3 10

Related Commands

Command

Description

broadcast

Configures broadcast packet duplication and transmission for an ATM VC class, PVC, SVC, or VC bundle.

class-int

Assigns a VC class to an ATM main interface or subinterface.

class-vc

Assigns a VC class to an ATM PVC, SVC, or VC bundle member.

encapsulation

Sets the encapsulation method used by the interface.

inarp

Configures the Inverse ARP time period for an ATM PVC, VC class, or VC bundle.

oam-bundle

Enables end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell generation and OAM management for a virtual circuit class that can be applied to a virtual circuit bundle.

oam-pvc

Enables end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell generation and OAM management for an ATM PVC or virtual circuit class.

oam-svc

Enables end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell generation and OAM management for an ATM SVC or virtual circuit class.

protocol (ATM)

Configures a static map for an ATM PVC, SVC, VC class, or VC bundle. Enables Inverse ARP or Inverse ARP broadcasts on an ATM PVC by either configuring Inverse ARP directly on the PVC, on the VC bundle, or in a VC class (applies to IP and IPX protocols only).

ubr

Configures UBR QoS and specifies the output peak cell rate for an ATM PVC, SVC, VC class, or VC bundle member.

ubr+

Configures UBR QoS and specifies the output peak cell rate and output minimum guaranteed cell rate for an ATM PVC, SVC, VC class, or VC bundle member.

vbr-nrt

Configures the VBR-NRT QoS and specifies output peak cell rate, output sustainable cell rate, and output maximum burst cell size for an ATM PVC, SVC, VC class, or VC bundle member.

oam-ac emulation-enable

To enable Operation, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) cell emulation on ATM adaptation layer 5 (AAL5) over Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) or Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol Version 3 (L2TPv3), use the oam-ac emulation-enable command in the appropriate configuration mode on both provider edge (PE) routers. To disable OAM cell emulation, use the no form of this command on both routers.

oam-ac emulation-enable [seconds]

no oam-ac emulation-enable

Syntax Description

seconds

(Optional) The rate (in seconds) at which the alarm indication signal (AIS) cells should be sent. The range is 0 to 60 seconds. If you specify 0, no AIS cells are sent. The default is 1 second, which means that one AIS cell is sent every second.

Command Default

OAM cell emulation is disabled.

Command Modes


L2transport PVC configuration--for an ATM PVC
VC class configuration mode--for a VC class

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(23)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.

12.2(15)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(15)T.

12.0(30)S

This command was updated to enable OAM cell emulation as part of a virtual circuit (VC) class.

12.0(31)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(31)S.

12.2(27)SBC

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(27)SBC.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.4(11)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

12.2(33)SRC

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRC.

15.0(1)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S.

Usage Guidelines

This command is used with AAL5 over MPLS or L2TPv3 and is not supported with ATM cell relay over MPLS or L2TPv3.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable OAM cell emulation on an ATM permanent virtual circuit (PVC):

Router# interface ATM 1/0/0
Router(config-if)# pvc ½00 l2transport
Router(config-if-atm-l2trans-pvc)# oam-ac emulation-enable

The following example shows how to set the rate at which an AIS cell is sent every 30 seconds:

Router# interface ATM 1/0/0
Router(config-if)# pvc ½00 l2transport
Router(config-if-atm-l2trans-pvc)# oam-ac emulation-enable 30

The following example configures OAM cell emulation for ATM AAL5 over MPLS in VC class configuration mode. The VC class is then applied to an interface.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# vc-class atm oamclass
Router(config-vc-class)# encapsulation aal5
Router(config-vc-class)# oam-ac emulation-enable 30
Router(config-vc-class)# oam-pvc manage
Router(config)# interface atm1/0
Router(config-if)# class-int oamclass
Router(config-if)# pvc ½00 l2transport
Router(config-if-atm-l2trans-pvc)# xconnect 10.13.13.13 100 encapsulation mpls

Related Commands

Command

Description

show atm pvc

Displays all ATM PVCs and traffic information.

oam-pvc

To enable end-to-end F5 Operation, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) loopback cell generation and OAM management for an ATM permanent virtual circuit (PVC), virtual circuit (VC) class, or label-controlled ATM (LC-ATM) VC, use the oam-pvc command in the appropriate command mode. To disable generation of OAM loopback cells and OAM management, use the no form of this command.

ATM VC

oam-pvc [ frequency | manage [frequency] [ auto-detect [optimum] | keep-vc-up [ seg aisrdi failure ] | loop-detection ] ]

no oam-pvc [ frequency | manage [frequency] [ auto-detect [optimum] | keep-vc-up [ seg aisrdi failure ] | loop-detection ] ]

VC Class

oam-pvc [ frequency | manage [ frequency [ auto-detect [optimum] | loop-detection ] ] ]

no oam-pvc [ frequency | manage [ frequency [ auto-detect [optimum] | loop-detection ] ] ]

Loopback Mode Detection

oam-pvc manage [frequency] loop-detection

no oam-pvc manage loop-detection

Cisco 10000 Series Router

oam-pvc [ frequency | manage [ frequency [ auto-detect [optimum] | keep-vc-up [ seg aisrdi failure ] ] ] ]

no oam-pvc [ frequency | manage [ frequency [ auto-detect [optimum] | keep-vc-up [ seg aisrdi failure ] ] ] ]

Syntax Description

frequency

(Optional) Specifies the time delay between transmittals of OAM loopback cells, in seconds. For ATM VCs or VC classes and loopback mode detection, the range is 0 to 600, and the default is 10. For LC-ATM VCs, the range is 0 to 255, and the default is 5.

manage

(Optional) for ATM VCs or VC classes; required for LC-ATM VCs) Enables OAM management. The default is disabled.

auto-detect

(Optional) Enables automatic detection of peer OAM command cells.

optimum

(Optional) Configures an optimum mode so that when the traffic-monitoring timer expires, the PVC sends an OAM command cell at the locally configured frequency instead of going into retry mode immediately. If there is no response, the PVC goes into retry mode.

keep-vc-up

(Optional) Specifies that the VC will be kept in the UP state when continuity check (CC) cells detect connectivity failure.

seg aisrdi failure

(Optional) Specifies that if segment alarm indication signal/remote defect indication (AIS/RDI) cells are received, the VC will not be brought down because of end CC failure or loopback failure.

loop-detection

(Optional) Enables automatic detection of whether the physically connected ATM switch is in loopback mode. The default is disabled.

Command Default

OAM management and loop detection are disabled.

Command Modes


ATM VC class configuration (config-vc-class)
ATM VC configuration (config-if-atm-vc)
Control-VC configuration (cfg-mpls-atm-cvc)
PVC-in-range configuration (cfg-if-atm-range-pvc)

Command History

Release

Modification

11.3

This command was introduced.

12.1(5)T

This command was implemented in PVC-in-range configuration mode.

12.3(2)T

This command was implemented for LC-ATM VCs.

12.0(30)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(30)S, and the loop-detection keyword was added.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

12.2(31)SB10

The loop-detection keyword was added.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

This command was implemented on Cisco ASR 1000 series routers.

Usage Guidelines

If OAM management is enabled, further control of OAM management is configured by using the oam retry command.

ATM VC or VC Classes

If the oam-pvc command is not explicitly configured on an ATM PVC, the PVC inherits the following default configuration (in order of precedence):

  • Configuration from the oam-pvc command in a VC class assigned to the PVC itself.
  • Configuration from the oam-pvc command in a VC class assigned to the ATM subinterface of the PVC.
  • Configuration from the oam-pvccommand in a VC class assigned to the ATM main interface of the PVC.
  • Global default: End-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell generation and OAM management are disabled, but if OAM cells are received, they are looped back. The default value for the frequency argument is 10 seconds.

Specifying the ATM VC or VC Classes

You can select the VCs or VC classes to which to apply OAM management and loop detection by using the oam-pvc command in any of the following command modes:

  • ATM VC class configuration--for a VC class
  • ATM VC configuration mode--for an ATM PVC or loopback mode detection
  • Control-VC configuration mode--for enabling OAM management on an LC-ATM VC
  • PVC-in-range configuration--for an individual PVC within a PVC range

Loopback Mode Detection

When a PVC traverses an ATM cloud and OAM is enabled, the router sends a loopback cell to the other end and waits for a response to determine whether the circuit is up. However, if an intervening router within the ATM cloud is in loopback mode, the router considers the circuit to be up, when in fact the other end is not reachable.

When enabled, the Loopback Mode Detection Through OAM feature detects when an intervening router is in loopback mode, in which case it sets the OAM state to NOT_VERIFIED. This prevents traffic from being routed on the PVC for as long as any intervening router is detected as being in loopback mode.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell transmission and OAM management on an ATM PVC with a transmission frequency of 3 seconds:

Router(cfg-mpls-atm-cvc)# oam-pvc manage 3

The following example shows how to enable end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell transmission and OAM management on an LC-ATM interface with a transmission frequency of 2 seconds:

Router(config)# interface Switch1.10 mpls
Router(config-subif)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
Router(config-subif)# mpls atm control-vc 0 32
Router(cfg-mpls-atm-cvc)# oam-pvc manage 2

The following example shows how to create a PVC and enable loopback detection:

Router(config)# interface ATM1/0
Router(config-if)# pvc 4/100
Router(config-if-atm-vc)# oam-pvc manage loop-detection

Related Commands

Command

Description

ilmi manage

Enables ILMI management on an ATM PVC.

oam retry

Configures parameters related to OAM management for an ATM PVC, SVC, VC class, or LC-ATM VC.

show atm pvc

Displays all ATM PVCs and traffic information.

psc refresh interval

To configure the refresh interval for Protection State Coordination (PSC) Protocol messages, use the psc refresh interval command in MPLS TP global configuration mode. To remove the configuration, use the no form of this command.

psc { fast | slow | remote } refresh interval { time-in-msec | time-in-sec } [ message-count num ]

no psc { fast | slow | remote } refresh interval { time-in-msec | time-in-sec } [ message-count num ]

Syntax Description

fast

Specifies the fast refresh interval for PSC messages. The default is 1000 ms with a jitter of 50 percent. The range is from 1000 ms to 5000 sec.

slow

Specifies the slow refresh interval for PSC messages. The default is 5 sec. The range is from 5 secs to 86400 secs (24 hours).

remote

Specifies the remote-event expiration timer. By default, this timer is disabled. The remote refresh interval range is from 5 to 86400 sec (24 hours). The message count is from 5 to 1000. If you do not specify the message count value, it is set to 5, which is the default.

message-count num

(Optional) Indicates the number of messages.

Command Default

No intervals are specified.

Command Modes

MPLS TP global configuration mode (config-mpls-tp)

Command History

Release Modification

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.9S

This command was introduced.

Examples

The following example configures a fast refresh interval of 1000 ms.

Device(config-mpls-tp)# psc fast refresh interval 1000

The following example configures a slow refresh interval of 60 sec.

Device(config-mpls-tp)# psc slow refresh interval 60

The following example configures a remote refresh interval of 2400 sec and a message count of 10.

Device(config-mpls-tp)# psc remote refresh interval 2400 message-count 10

Related Commands

Command

Description

emulated-lockout

Enables the sending of emulated lockout commands on working/protection transport entities.

manual-switch

Issues a local manual switch condition on a working LSP.

show mpls tp

Displays a summary of MPLS-TP settings or a detailed list of MPLS-TP tunnels.

debug mpls tp

Enables debugging for MPLS-TP.

clear mpls tp

Clears the counters or a remote event for PSC signaling messages based on a tunnel number or name.

ping mpls

To check Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) label switched path (LSP) connectivity, use the ping mpls command in privileged EXEC mode.

ping mpls { ipv4 destination-address/destination-mask-length [ destination address-start address-end increment ] { ttl time-to-live } | pseudowire ipv4-address vc-id [ segment [ segment-number ] ] [ destination address-start address-end increment ] | traffic-eng tunnel-interface tunnel-number [ ttl time-to-live ] } [ revision { 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 } ] [ source source-address ] [ repeat count ] [ timeout seconds ] [ size packet-size | minimum maximum size-increment ] [ pad pattern ] [ reply dscp dscp-value ] [ reply pad-tlv ] [ reply mode { ipv4 | router-alert } ] [ interval ms ] [ exp exp-bits ] [ verbose ] [ revision tlv-revision-number ] [ force-explicit-null ] [ output interface tx-interface [ nexthop ip-address ] ] [ dsmap [ hashkey { none | ipv4 bitmap bitmap-size } ] ] [ flags fec ]

Syntax Description

ipv4

Specifies the destination type as a Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) IPv4 address.

destination-address

Address prefix of the target to be tested.

/ destination-mask-length

Number of bits in the network mask of the target address. The slash is required.

destination

(Optional) Specifies a network 127 address.

address-start

(Optional) Beginning network 127 address.

address-end

(Optional) Ending network 127 address.

increment

(Optional) Number by which to increment the network 127 address.

ttl time-to-live

(Optional) Specifies a time-to-live (TTL) value. The default is 225 seconds.

pseudowire

Specifies the destination type as an Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) virtual circuit (VC).

ipv4-address

IPv4 address of the AToM VC to be tested.

vc-id

Specifies the VC identifier of the AToM VC to be tested.

segment segment-number

(Optional) Specifies a segment of a multisegment pseudowire.

traffic-eng

Specifies the destination type as an MPLS traffic engineering (TE) tunnel.

tunnel-interface

Tunnel interface to be tested.

tunnel-number

Tunnel interface number.

revision {1 | 2 | 3 | 4}

(Optional) Selects the type, length, values (TLVs) version of the implementation. Use the revision 4 as the default unless attempting to interoperate with devices running Cisco IOS Release 12.0(27)S1 or 12.0(27)S2. If you do not select a revision keyword, the software uses the latest version.

See the table in the “Revision Keyword Usage” section of the “Usage Guidelines” section for information on when to select the 1, 2, 3, and 4 keywords.

source source-address

(Optional) Specifies the source address or name. The default address is loopback0. This address is used as the destination address in the MPLS echo response.

repeat count

(Optional) Specifies the number of times to resend the same packet. The range is 1 to 2147483647. The default is 1. If you do not enter the repeat keyword, the software resends the same packet five times.

timeout seconds

(Optional) Specifies the timeout interval in seconds for an MPLS request packet. The range is 0 to 3600. The default is 2 seconds.

size packet-size

(Optional) Specifies the size of the packet with the label stack imposed. Packet size is the number of bytes in each ping. The range is 40 to 18024. The default is 100.

sweep

(Optional) Enables you to send a number of packets of different sizes, ranging from a start size to an end size. This parameter is similar to the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ping sweep parameter.

minimum

(Optional) Minimum or start size for an MPLS echo packet. The lower boundary of the sweep range varies depending on the LSP type. The default is 100 bytes.

maximum

(Optional) Maximum or end size for an echo packet. The default is 17,986 bytes.

size-increment

(Optional) Number by which to increment the echo packet size. The default is 100 bytes.

pad pattern

(Optional) The pad TLV is used to fill the datagram so that the MPLS echo request (User Datagram Protocol [UDP] packet with a label stack) is the specified size. The default is 0xABCD.

reply dscp dscp-value

(Optional) Provides the capability to request a specific class of service (CoS) in an echo reply by providing a differentiated services code point (DSCP) value.

The echo reply is returned with the IP header type of service (ToS) byte set to the value specified in the reply dscp command.

reply pad-tlv

(Optional) Tests the ability of the sender of an echo reply to support the copy pad TLV to echo reply.

reply mode {ipv4 | router-alert}

(Optional) Specifies the reply mode for the echo request packet.

ipv4 --Reply with an IPv4 UDP packet (default).

router-alert --Reply with an IPv4 UDP packet with router alert.

interval ms

(Optional) Specifies the time, in milliseconds (ms), between successive MPLS echo requests. This parameter allows you to pace the transmission of packets so that the receiving router does not drop packets. Default is 0.

exp exp-bits

(Optional) Specifies the MPLS experimental field value in the MPLS header for an MPLS echo reply. The range is 0 to 7. Default is 0.

verbose

(Optional) Displays the MPLS echo reply sender address of the packet and displays return codes.

revision tlv-revision-number

(Optional) Cisco TLV revision number.

force-explicit-null

(Optional) Forces an explicit null label to be added to the MPLS label stack even though the label was unsolicited.

output interface tx-interface

(Optional) Specifies the output interface for echo requests.

nexthop ip-address

(Optional) Causes packets to go through the specified next-hop address.

dsmap

(Optional) Interrogates a transit router for downstream mapping (DSMAP) information.

hashkey {none | ipv4 bitmap bitmap-size}

(Optional) Allows you to control the hash key and multipath settings. Valid values are:

none --There is no multipath (type 0).

ipv4bitmap bitmap-size--Size of the IPv4 addresses (type 8) bitmap.

If you enter the none keyword, multipath LSP traceroute acts like enhanced LSP traceroute; that is, it uses multipath LSP traceroute retry logic and consistency checking.

flags fec

(Optional) Allows Forward Equivalence Class (FEC) checking on the transit router. A downstream map TLV containing the correct received labels must be present in the echo request for target FEC stack checking to be performed.

Target FEC stack validation is always done at the egress router. Be sure to use this keyword with the ttl keyword.

Command Default

You cannot check MPLS LSP connectivity.

Command Modes


Privileged EXEC (#)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(27)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(18)SXE

The reply dscp and reply pad-tlv keywords were added.

12.4(6)T

The following keywords were added: revision, force-explicit-null, output interface, dsmap, hashkey, none, ipv4 bitmap, and flags fec.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB and implemented on the Cisco 10000 series routers.

12.0(32)SY

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY.

12.4(11)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T.

12.2(31)SB2

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB2. The nexthop keyword was added.

12.2(33)SXI

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXI.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

This command was updated with the segment keyword.

12.2(33)SRE

This command was modified. Restrictions were added to the pseudowirekeyword.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.6

The interval keyword value range changed. The new values are either 0 (default) or from 100 to 3,600,000 ms between successive MPLS echo requests.

15.1(2)SNG

This command was integrated into Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines


Note


It is recommended that you use the mpls oam global configuration command instead of this command.


Use the ping mpls command to validate, test, or troubleshoot IPv4 LDP LSPs, IPv4 Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) TE tunnels, and AToM VCs.

With the introduction of Cisco IOS-XE Release 3.6, the interval keyword value range changed from 0 to 3,600,000 ms to 0 or 100 to 3,600,000 ms between successive MPLS echo requests.

UDP Destination Address Usage

The destination address is a valid 127/8 address. You have the option to specify a single x.y.z-address or a range of numbers from 0.0.0 to x.y.z , where x , y , and z are numbers from 0 to 255 and correspond to the 127.x.y.z destination address.

The MPLS echo request destination address in the UDP packet is not used to forward the MPLS packet to the destination router. The label stack that is used to forward the echo request routes the MPLS packet to the destination router. The 127/8 address guarantees that the packets are routed to the local host (the default loopback address of the router processing the address) if the UDP packet destination address is used for forwarding.

In addition, the destination address is used to adjust load balancing when the destination address of the IP payload is used for load balancing.

Time-to-Live Usage

The time-to-live value indicates the maximum number of hops a packet should take to reach its destination. The value in the TTL field in a packet is decremented by 1 each time the packet travels through a router.

For MPLS LSP ping, the TTL is a value after which the packet is discarded and an MPLS echo reply is sent back to the originating router.

For MPLS multipath LSP traceroute, the TTL is a maximum time-to-live value and is used to discover the number of downstream hops to the destination router. MPLS LSP traceroute incrementally increases the TTL value in its MPLS echo requests (TTL = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...) to accomplish this.

Downstream Map TLVs

The presence of a downstream map in an echo request is interpreted by the responding transit (not egress) router to include downstream map information in the echo reply. Specify the ttl and dsmap keywords to cause TTL expiry during LSP ping to interrogate a transit router for downstream information.

Pseudowire Usage

The following keywords are not available with the ping mpls pseudowire command:

  • dsmap
  • flags
  • force-explicit-null
  • output
  • revision
  • ttl

The ping mpls pseudowire command is not supported when flow label (FAT) is enabled. If you enter the ping mpls pseudowire command when FAT is enabled the following message is displayed:

% Pseudowire Target Not Supported 

Revision Keyword Usage

The revision keyword allows you to issue a ping mpls ipv4, ping mpls pseudowire, or trace mpls traffic-eng command based on the format of the TLV. The table below lists the revision option and usage guidelines for each option.

Table 2 Revision Options and Option Usage Guidelines

Revision Option

Option Usage Guidelines

11

Not supported in Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T or later releases.

Version 1 (draft-ietf-mpls-ping-03).

For a device running Cisco IOS Release 12.0(27)S3 or a later release, you must use the revision 1 keyword when you send LSP ping or LSP traceroute commands to devices running Cisco IOS Release 12.0(27)S1 or 12.0(27)S2.

2

Version 2 functionality was replaced by Version 3 functionality before an image was released.

3

Version 3 (draft-ietf-mpls-ping-03).

  • For a device implementing Version 3 (Cisco IOS Release 12.0(27)S3 or a later release), you must use the revision 1 keyword when you send the LSP ping or LSP traceroute command to a device implementing Version 1 (that is, either Cisco IOS Release 12.0(27)S1 or Release 12.0(27)S2).
  • A ping mpls mpls pseudowire command does not work with devices running Cisco IOS Release 12.0(27)S1 or Release 12.0(27)S2.

4

  • Version 8 (draft-ietf-mpls-ping-08)--Applicable before Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T. All echo packet’s TLVs are formatted as specified in Version 8.
  • RFC 4379 compliant--Applicable after Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T. All echo packet’s TLVs are formatted as specified in RFC 4379.
1 If you do not specify a revision keyword, the software uses the latest version.

With the introduction of Cisco IOS

Examples

The following example shows how to use the ping mpls command to test connectivity of an IPv4 LDP LSP:

Router# ping mpls ipv4 10.131.191.252/32 repeat 5 exp 5 verbose
Sending 5, 100-byte MPLS Echos to 10.131.191.252, timeout is 2 seconds:
Codes:
    '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout,
    'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface,
    'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch,
    'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no rx label,
    'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP,
    'R' - transit router, 'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0
Type escape sequence to abort.
!     10.131.191.230, return code 3
!     10.131.191.230, return code 3
!     10.131.191.230, return code 3
!     10.131.191.230, return code 3
!     10.131.191.230, return code 3
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 100/102/112 ms

The following example shows how to invoke the ping mpls command in the interactive mode to check MPLS LSP connectivity:

Router# ping
Protocol [ip]: mpls
Target IPv4, pseudowire or traffic-eng [ipv4]: ipv4
Target IPv4 address: 10.131.159.252
Target mask: 255.255.255.255
Repeat count [5]: 1
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Send interval in msec [0]:
Extended commands? [no]: yes
Destination address or destination start address: 127.0.0.1
Destination end address: 127.0.0.1
Destination address increment: 0.0.0.1
Source address:
EXP bits in mpls header [0]:
Pad TLV pattern [ABCD]:
Time To Live [255]:
Reply mode ( 2-ipv4 via udp, 3-ipv4 via udp with router alert) [2]:
Reply ip header DSCP bits [0]:
Verbose mode? [no]: yes
Sweep range of sizes? [no]:
Sending 1, 100-byte MPLS Echos to 10.131.159.252/32,
      timeout is 2 seconds, send interval is 0 msec:
Codes:
    '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout,
    'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface,
    'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch,
    'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no rx label,
    'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP,
    'R' - transit router, 'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0
Type escape sequence to abort.
Destination address 127.0.0.1
!   10.131.159.245, return code 3
Destination address 127.0.0.1
!   10.131.159.245, return code 3
Destination address 127.0.0.1
!   10.131.159.245, return code 3
Success rate is 100 percent (3/3), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/48/52 ms

Note


The “Destination end address” and “Destination address increment” prompts display only if you enter an address at the “Destination address or destination start address” prompt. Also, the “Sweep min size,” “Sweep max size,” and “Sweep interval” prompts display only if you enter “yes”at the “Sweep range of sizes? [no]” prompt.


The following example shows how to determine the destination address of an AToM VC:

Router# show mpls l2transport vc
Local intf     Local circuit           Dest address    VC ID      Status    
-------------  ----------------------- --------------- ---------- ----------
Et2/0          Ethernet                10.131.191.252 
 333        UP        
Router# show mpls l2transport vc detail
Local interface: Et2/0 up, line protocol up, Ethernet up
  Destination address: 10.131.191.252, VC ID: 333, VC status: up
    Preferred path: not configured  
    Default path: active
    Tunnel label: imp-null, next hop 10.131.159.246
    Output interface: Et1/0, imposed label stack {16}
  Create time: 06:46:08, last status change time: 06:45:51
  Signaling protocol: LDP, peer 10.131.191.252:0 up
    MPLS VC labels: local 16, remote 16
    Group ID: local 0, remote 0
    MTU: local 1500, remote 1500
    Remote interface description: 
  Sequencing: receive disabled, send disabled
  VC statistics:
    packet totals: receive 0, send 0
    byte totals:   receive 0, send 0
    packet drops:  receive 0, send 0

This ping mpls pseudowire command can be used to test the connectivity of the AToM VC 333 discovered in the preceding show command:

Router# ping mpls pseudowire 10.131.191.252 333 repeat 200 size 1400 
Sending 1, 100-byte MPLS Echos to 10.131.191.252, timeout is 2 seconds:
Codes:
    '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout,
    'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface,
    'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch,
    'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no rx label,
    'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP,
    'R' - transit router, 'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0
Type escape sequence to abort.
!
Success rate is 100 percent (1/1), round-trip min/avg/max = 92/92/92 ms

This ping is particularly useful because the VC might be up and the LDP session between the PE and its downstream neighbor might also be up, but LDP might be configured somewhere in between. In such cases, you can use an LSP ping to verify that the LSP is actually up.

A related point concerns the situation when a pseudowire has been configured to use a specific TE tunnel. For example:

Router# show running-config interface ethernet 2/0
Building configuration...
Current configuration : 129 bytes
!
interface Ethernet2/0
 no ip address
 no ip directed-broadcast
 no cdp enable
xconnect 10.131.191.252 333 pw-class test1
end
Router# show running-config 
| begin pseudowire 
pseudowire-class test1
 encapsulation mpls
 preferred-path interface Tunnel0 

In such cases, you can use an LSP ping to verify the connectivity of the LSP that a certain pseudowire is taking, be it LDP based or a TE tunnel:

Router#
 
ping mpls pseudowire 10.131.191.252 333 repeat 200 size 1400
Sending 200, 1400-byte MPLS Echos to 10.131.191.252, timeout is 2 seconds:
Codes:
    '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout,
    'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface,
    'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch,
    'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no rx label,
    'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP,
    'R' - transit router, 'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0
Type escape sequence to abort.
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (200/200), round-trip min/avg/max = 72/85/112 ms

You can also use the ping mpls command to verify the maximum packet size that can be successfully sent. The following command uses a packet size of 1500 bytes:

Router# ping mpls pseudowire 10.131.191.252 333 repeat 5 size 1500 
Sending 5, 1500-byte MPLS Echos to 10.131.191.252, timeout is 2 seconds:
Codes:
    '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout,
    'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface,
    'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch,
    'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no rx label,
    'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP,
    'R' - transit router, 'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0
Type escape sequence to abort.
QQQQQ
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

The Qs indicate that the packets are not sent.

The following command uses a packet size of 1476 bytes:

Router# ping mpls pseudowire 10.131.191.252 333 repeat 5 size 1476
Sending 5, 1476-byte MPLS Echos to 10.131.191.252, timeout is 2 seconds:
Codes:
    '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout,
    'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface,
    'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch,
    'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no rx label,
'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP,
    'R' - transit router, 'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0
Type escape sequence to abort.
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 80/83/92 ms

The following example shows how to test the connectivity of an MPLS TE tunnel:

Router# ping mpls traffic-eng tunnel tun3 repeat 5 verbose 
Sending 5, 100-byte MPLS Echos to Tunnel3, 
     timeout is 2 seconds, send interval is 0 msec:
Codes:
    '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout,
    'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface,
    'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch,
    'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no rx label,
    'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP,
    'R' - transit router, 'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0
Type escape sequence to abort.
!   10.131.159.198, return code 3
!   10.131.159.198, return code 3
!   10.131.159.198, return code 3
!   10.131.159.198, return code 3
!   10.131.159.198, return code 3
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 32/37/40 ms

The MPLS LSP ping feature is useful if you want to verify TE tunnels before actually mapping traffic onto them.

The following example shows a ping mpls command that specifies segment 2 of a multisegment pseudowire:

Router# ping mpls pseudowire 10.131.191.252 333 segment 2

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls oam

Customizes the default behavior of echo packets.

trace mpls

Discovers MPLS LSP routes that packets will actually take when traveling to their destinations.

ping mpls tp

To check Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) transport protocol (TP) label switched path (LSP) connectivity, use the ping mpls tp command in privileged EXEC mode.

ping mpls tp tunnel-tp num lsp { working | protect | active } [ ddmap [ hashkey ipv4 bitmap bitmap-size | none ] ] [ dsmap [ hashkey ipv4 bitmap bitmap-size | none ] ] [ destination ip-addr ] [ exp num ] [ flags fec ] [ interval num ] [ pad num ] [ repeat num ] { [ reply desc num ] | [ mode control channel ] } [ size num ] [ source ip-addr ] [ sweep num num num ] [ timeout num ] [ ttl num ] [verbose]

Syntax Description

tunnel-tp num

Sepcifies the MPLS-TP tunnel number.

lsp {working | protect | active}

Specifies the type of MPLS-TP label switched path (LSP) on which to send echo request packets.

ddmap [hashkey ipv4 bitmap bitmap-size | none

(Optional) Interrogates a transit router for downstream detailed mapping (DDMAP) information. Allows you to control the hash key and multipath settings.Valid values are:

none —There is no multipath (type 0).

hashkey ipv4 bitmap bitmap-size —Size of the IPv4 addresses (type 8) bitmap.

If you enter the none keyword, multipath LSP traceroute acts like enhanced LSP traceroute; that is, it uses multipath LSP traceroute retry logic and consistency checking.

dsmap [hashkey ipv4 bitmap bitmap-size | none

(Optional) Interrogates a transit router for downstream mapping (DSMAP) information. Allows you to control the hash key and multipath settings. Valid values are:

none —There is no multipath (type 0).

hashkey ipv4 bitmap bitmap-size —Size of the IPv4 addresses (type 8) bitmap.

If you enter the none keyword, multipath LSP traceroute acts like enhanced LSP traceroute; that is, it uses multipath LSP traceroute retry logic and consistency checking.

destination ip-addr

(Optional) Specifies a network 127 address.

exp num

(Optional) Specifies the MPLS experimental field value in the MPLS header for an MPLS echo reply. Valid values are from 0 to 7. Default is 0.

flags fec

(Optional) Allows Forward Equivalence Class (FEC) checking on the transit router. A downstream map type, length, variable (TLV) containing the correct received labels must be present in the echo request for target FEC stack checking to be performed.

Target FEC stack validation is always done at the egress router. Be sure to use this keyword in conjunction with the ttlkeyword.

interval num

(Optional) Specifies the time, in milliseconds (ms), between successive MPLS echo requests. This parameter allows you to pace the transmission of packets so that the receiving router does not drop packets. Default is 0.

pad num

(Optional) The pad TLV is used to fill the datagram so that the MPLS echo request (User Datagram Protocol [UDP] packet with a label stack) is the specified size. The default is 0xABCD.

repeat num

(Optional) Specifies the repeat count. Range: 1 to 2147483647.

reply dscp num | mode control channel

(Optional) Provides the capability to request a specific quality of service (QoS) in an echo reply by providing a differentiated services code point (DSCP) value.

The echo reply is returned with the IP header type of service (ToS) byte set to the value specified in the reply dscp command.

size num

Specifies the packet size.

source ip-addr

(Optional) Specifies the source address or name. The default address is loopback0. This address is used as the destination address in the MPLS echo response.

sweep num num num

(Optional) Enables you to send a number of packets of different sizes, ranging from a start size to an end size. This parameter is similar to the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ping sweep parameter.

timeout num

(Optional) Specifies the timeout interval in seconds for an MPLS request packet. The range is from 0 to 3600. The default is 2 seconds.

ttl num

(Optional) Specifies a time-to-live (TTL) value. The default is 225 seconds.

verbose

(Optional) Enables verbose output mode.

Command Default

Connectivity is not checked.

Command Modes


Privileged EXEC (#)

Command History

Release

Modification

15.1(1)SA

This command was introduced.

15.1(3)S

This command was integrated.

Usage Guidelines

Use the ping mpls tpcommand to validate, test, or troubleshoot MPLS TP LSPs.


Note


The ping mpls tp command does not support interactive mode.


You can use ping and trace in an MPLS-TP network without IP addressing. However, no IP addresses are displayed in the output.

The following rules determine the source IP address:

  1. Use the IP address of the TP interface.
  2. Use the global router ID.
  3. Use the router ID: A.B.C.D local node ID in IPv4 address format. This is not an IP address; however, it is better to use a value rather than leave it as 0.0.0.0 and risk the packet being deemed invalid and dropped.

Examples

The following example checks connectivity of an MPLS-TP LSP:

Router# ping mpls tp tunnel-tp 1 repeat 1 ttl 2
Sending 1, 100-byte MPLS Echos to Tunnel-tp1, 
     timeout is 2 seconds, send interval is 0 msec:
Codes: '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout,
  'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface, 
  'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch,
  'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no label entry, 
  'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP, 
  'R' - transit router, 'I' - unknown upstream index,
  'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0
Type escape sequence to abort.
!
Success rate is 100 percent (1/1), round-trip min/avg/max = 156/156/156 ms

Related Commands

Command

Description

trace mpls tp

Displays the MPLS LSP routes that packets take to their destinations.

ping vrf

To test a connection in the context of a specific VPN connection, use the ping vrf command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.

ping vrf vrf-name [tag] [connection] target-address [connection-options]

Syntax Description

vrf-name

The name of the VPN (VRF context).

tag

(Optional) Specifies a tag encapsulated IP (tagIP) ping.

connection

(Optional) Connection options include atm, clns, decnet, ip, ipv6, ipx, sna, or srb. The default is ip.

target-address

The destination ID for the ping operation. Usually, this is the IPv4 address of the host. For example, the target for an IPv4 ping in a VRF context would be the IPv4 address or domain name of the target host. The target for an IPv6 ping in a VRF context would be the IPv6 prefix or domain name of the target host.

  • If the target address is not specified, the CLI will enter the interactive dialog for ping.

connection-options

(Optional) Each connection type may have its own set of connection options. For example, connection options for IPv4 are source, df-bit, and timeout. See the appropriate ping command documentation for details.

Command Default

The default connection type for ping is IPv4.

Command Modes

User EXEC

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release

Modification

12.1(12c)E, 12.2

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SB.

12.2(33)SXI

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXI.

12.2(33)SCF

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SCF.

Usage Guidelines

A VPN routing and forwarding (VRF) instance is used to identify a VPN. To check if a configured VRF is working, you can use the ping vrf command.

When attempting to ping from a provider edge (PE) router to a customer edge (CE) router, or from a PE router to PE router, the standard ping command will not usually work. The ping vrf command allows you to ping the IP addresses of LAN interfaces on CE routers.

If you are on a PE router, be sure to indicate the specific VRF (VPN) name, as shown in the “Examples” section.

If all required information is not provided at the command line, the system will enter the interactive dialog (extended mode) for ping.

Examples

In the following example, the target host in the domain 209.165.201.1 is pinged (using IP/ICMP) in the context of the “CustomerA” VPN connection.

Router# ping vrf CustomerA 209.165.201.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 209.165.201.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 176/264/576 ms 

Pressing the Enter key before providing all of the required options will begin the interactive dialog for ping. In the following example, the interactive dialog is started after the “ip” protocol is specified, but no address is given:

Router# ping vrf CustomerB ip
 
Target IP address: 209.165.200.225
Repeat count [5]: 
Datagram size [100]: 
Timeout in seconds [2]: 
Extended commands [n]: y 
Source address or interface: 
Type of service [0]: 
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]: 
Validate reply data? [no]: 
Data pattern [0xABCD]: 
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]: Record
 
Number of hops [ 9 ]: 
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[RV]: 
Sweep range of sizes [n]: 
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 209.165.200.225, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet has IP options:  Total option bytes= 39, padded length=40
 Record route: <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 .
 .
 .
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/4 ms 

The following example shows the various options for IP in the ping vrf command:

Router# show parser dump exec | include ping vrf
 
1 ping vrf <string>
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> 
1 ping vrf <string> ip (interactive) 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> source <address> 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> source <interface> 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> repeat <1-2147483647> 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> size Number 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> df-bit 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> validate 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> data <0-65535> 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> timeout <0-3600> 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> verbose 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> data <0-65535> 
1 ping vrf <string> ip <string> timeout <0-3600> 
1 ping vrf <string> tag 
1 ping vrf <string> atm 
1 ping vrf <string> ipv6 
1 ping vrf <string> appletalk 
1 ping vrf <string> decnet 
1 ping vrf <string> clns 
1 ping vrf <string> ipx 
1 ping vrf <string> sna 
1 ping vrf <string> srb 

Cisco CMTS Routers: Example

The following example shows how to verify the matching and marking configuration in an MPLS network:

Router# ping vrf vrfa 1.3.99.98
 
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 1.3.99.98, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 8/10/20 ms 

Related Commands

Command

Description

ping

Diagnoses basic network connectivity to a specific host.

ping atm interface atm

Tests the connectivity of a specific PVC.

ping ip

Tests the connection to a remote host on the network using IPv4.

ping ipv6

Tests the connection to a remote host on the network using IPv6.

ping sna

Tests network integrity and timing characteristics over an SNA Switching network.

platform mpls load-balance ingress-port

To improve ingress port-based P router load balancing performance between two Cisco 7600 Series Ethernet Services Plus (ES+) and Ethernet Services Plus T (ES+T) line cards, use the platform mpls load-balance ingress-port command in global configuration mode. Entering this command will enable this feature. To disable this feature, use the no form of the command.

platform mpls load-balance ingress-port

no platform mpls load-balance ingress-port

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

Load balancing performance improvements are not enabled .

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(33)SRE

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)XNE

This command was introduced.

15.0M

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

The H-VPLS with Port-Channel Core Interface feature provides support for VPLS to port-channels. You can use this feature to:

  • Configure VPLS on the port channel interfaces of the ES+ line card using a load balancing mechanism.
  • Match the capabilities and requirements of the VPLS in a single link. Due to multiple links in a link aggregation (LAG), the packets of a particular flow are always transmitted only to one link.
  • Configure VPLS with port-channel interfaces as the core facing interface, where the member links of the port-channel are from a ES40 line card. The load-balancing is per-flow based, that is, traffic of a VPLS VC will be load-balanced across member links based on the flow.

Examples

This example shows how to enable improved load-balancing performance on a Cisco 7600 Series Ethernet Services Plus (ES+) and Ethernet Services Plus T (ES+T) line card:

Router(config)# platform mpls load-balance ingress-port

Related Commands

Command

Description

show mpls

Displays information for a line card.

policy-map

To enter policy-map configuration mode and create or modify a policy map that can be attached to one or more interfaces to specify a service policy, use the policy-mapcommand in global configuration mode. To delete a policy map, use the no form of this command.

Supported Platforms Other Than Cisco 10000 and Cisco 7600 Series Routers

policy-map [ type { stack | access-control | port-filter | queue-threshold | logging log-policy } ] policy-map-name

no policy-map [ type { stack | access-control | port-filter | queue-threshold | logging log-policy } ] policy-map-name

Cisco 10000 Series Router

policy-map [ type { control | service } ] policy-map-name

no policy-map [ type { control | service } ] policy-map-name

Cisco CMTS and 7600 Series Router

policy-map [ type { class-routing ipv4 unicast unicast-name | control control-name | service service-name } ] policy-map-name

no policy-map [ type { class-routing ipv4 unicast unicast-name | control control-name | service service-name } ] policy-map-name

Syntax Description

type

(Optional) Specifies the policy-map type.

stack

(Optional) Determines the exact pattern to look for in the protocol stack of interest.

access-control

(Optional) Enables the policy map for the flexible packet matching feature.

port-filter

(Optional) Enables the policy map for the port-filter feature.

queue-threshold

(Optional) Enables the policy map for the queue-threshold feature.

logging

(Optional) Enables the policy map for the control-plane packet logging feature.

log-policy

(Optional) Type of log policy for control-plane logging.

policy-map-name

Name of the policy map.

control

(Optional) Creates a control policy map.

control-name

Name of the control policy map.

service

(Optional) Creates a service policy map.

service-name

Name of the policy-map service.

class-routing

Configures the class-routing policy map.

ipv4

Configures the class-routing IPv4 policy map.

unicast

Configures the class-routing IPv4 unicast policy map.

unicast-name

Unicast policy-map name.

Command Default

The policy map is not configured.

Command Modes

Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)T

This command was introduced.

12.4(4)T

This command was modified. The type andaccess-controlkeywords were added to support flexible packet matching. The port-filter and queue-threshold keywords were added to support control-plane protection.

12.4(6)T

This command was modified. The logging keyword was added to support control-plane packet logging.

12.2(31)SB

This command was modified. The control and servicekeywords were added to support the Cisco 10000 series router.

12.2(18)ZY

This command was modified.

  • The type andaccess-controlkeywords were integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)ZY on the Catalyst 6500 series switch that is equipped with the Supervisor 32/programmable intelligent services accelerator (PISA) engine.
  • The command was modified to enhance the Network-Based Application Recognition (NBAR) functionality on the Catalyst 6500 series switch that is equipped with the Supervisor 32/PISA engine.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

12.2(33)SRC

This command was modified. Support for this command was implemented on Cisco 7600 series routers.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1 and implemented on Cisco ASR 1000 series routers.

12.2(33)SCF

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SCF.

Usage Guidelines

Use the policy-map command to specify the name of the policy map to be created, added, or modified before you configure policies for classes whose match criteria are defined in a class map. The policy-map command enters policy-map configuration mode, in which you can configure or modify the class policies for a policy map.

You can configure class policies in a policy map only if the classes have match criteria defined for them. Use the class-map and match commands to configure match criteria for a class. Because you can configure a maximum of 64 class maps, a policy map cannot contain more than 64 class policies, except as noted for quality of service (QoS) class maps on Cisco 7600 systems.


Note


For QoS class maps on Cisco 7600 series routers, the limits are 1024 class maps and 256 classes in a policy map.


A policy map containing ATM set cell loss priority (CLP) bit QoS cannot be attached to PPP over X (PPPoX) sessions. The policy map is accepted only if you do not specify the set atm-clp command.

A single policy map can be attached to more than one interface concurrently. Except as noted, when you attempt to attach a policy map to an interface, the attempt is denied if the available bandwidth on the interface cannot accommodate the total bandwidth requested by class policies that make up the policy map. In such cases, if the policy map is already attached to other interfaces, the map is removed from those interfaces.


Note


This limitation does not apply on Cisco 7600 series routers that have session initiation protocol (SIP)-400 access-facing line cards.


Whenever you modify a class policy in an attached policy map, class-based weighted fair queuing (CBWFQ) is notified and the new classes are installed as part of the policy map in the CBWFQ system.


Note


Policy-map installation via subscriber-profile is not supported. If you configure an unsupported policy map and there are a large number of sessions, an equally large number of messages print on the console. For example, if there are 32,000 sessions, then 32,000 messages print on the console at 9,600 baud.


Class Queues (Cisco 10000 Series Routers Only)

The Performance Routing Engine (PRE)2 allows you to configure 31 class queues in a policy map.

In a policy map, the PRE3 allows you to configure one priority level 1 queue, one priority level 2 queue, 12 class queues, and one default queue.

Control Policies (Cisco 10000 Series Routers Only)

Control policies define the actions that your system will take in response to the specified events and conditions.

A control policy is made of one or more control policy rules. A control policy rule is an association of a control class and one or more actions. The control class defines the conditions that must be met before the actions are executed.

There are three steps involved in defining a control policy:

  1. Using the class-map type control command, create one or more control class maps.
  2. Using the policy-map type control command, create a control policy map.

A control policy map contains one or more control policy rules. A control policy rule associates a control class map with one or more actions. Actions are numbered and executed sequentially.

  1. Using the service-policy type control command, apply the control policy map to a context.

Service Policies (Cisco 10000 Series Routers Only)

Service policy maps and service profiles contain a collection of traffic policies and other functions. Traffic policies determine which function is applied to which session traffic. A service policy map or service profile may also contain a network-forwarding policy, which is a specific type of traffic policy that determines how session data packets will be forwarded to the network.

Policy Map Restrictions (Catalyst 6500 Series Switches Only)

Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)ZY includes software intended for use on the Catalyst 6500 series switch that is equipped with a Supervisor 32/PISA engine. This release and platform has the following restrictions for using policy maps and match commands:

  • You cannot modify an existing policy map if the policy map is attached to an interface. To modify the policy map, remove the policy map from the interface by using the no form of the service-policy command.
  • Policy maps contain traffic classes. Traffic classes contain one or more match commands that can be used to match packets (and organize them into groups) on the basis of a protocol type or application. You can create as many traffic classes as needed. However, the following restrictions apply:
    • A single traffic class can be configured to match a maximum of 8 protocols or applications.
    • Multiple traffic classes can be configured to match a cumulative maximum of 95 protocols or applications.

Examples

The following example shows how to create a policy map called “policy1” and configure two class policies included in that policy map. The class policy called “class1” specifies a policy for traffic that matches access control list (ACL) 136. The second class is the default class to which packets that do not satisfy the configured match criteria are directed.

! The following commands create class-map class1 and define its match criteria:
class-map class1
 match access-group 136
! The following commands create the policy map, which is defined to contain policy
! specification for class1 and the default class:
policy-map policy1
class class1
 bandwidth 2000
 queue-limit 40
class class-default
 fair-queue 16
 queue-limit 20

The following example shows how to create a policy map called “policy9” and configure three class policies to belong to that map. Of these classes, two specify the policy for classes with class maps that specify match criteria based on either a numbered ACL or an interface name, and one specifies a policy for the default class called “class-default” to which packets that do not satisfy the configured match criteria are directed.

policy-map policy9
 
class acl136
 bandwidth 2000
 queue-limit 40
 
class ethernet101
 bandwidth 3000
 random-detect exponential-weighting-constant 10
class class-default
 fair-queue 10
 queue-limit 20

The following is an example of a modular QoS command-line interface (MQC) policy map configured to initiate the QoS service at the start of a session.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# policy-map type control TEST
Router(config-control-policymap)# class type control always event session-start
Router(config-control-policymap-class-control)# 1
 service-policy type service name QoS_Service
Router(config-control-policymap-class-control)# end

Examples

The following example shows the configuration of a control policy map named “rule4”. Control policy map rule4 contains one policy rule, which is the association of the control class named “class3” with the action to authorize subscribers using the network access server (NAS) port ID. The service-policy type control command is used to apply the control policy map globally.

class-map type control match-all class3
 match access-type pppoe
 match domain cisco.com
 available nas-port-id
!
policy-map type control rule4
 class type control class3
  authorize nas-port-id
!
service-policy type control rule4

The following example shows the configuration of a service policy map named “redirect-profile”:

policy-map type service redirect-profile
 class type traffic CLASS-ALL
  redirect to group redirect-sg 

Examples

The following example shows how to define a policy map for the 802.1p domain:

enable
configure terminal
 policy-map cos7
  class cos7
  set cos 2
  end

The following example shows how to define a policy map for the MPLS domain:

enable
configure terminal
 policy-map exp7
  class exp7
  set mpls experimental topmost 2
  end

Related Commands

Command

Description

bandwidth (policy-map class)

Specifies or modifies the bandwidth allocated for a class belonging to a policy map.

class (policy-map)

Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change, and its default class before you configure its policy.

class class-default

Specifies the default class whose bandwidth is to be configured or modified.

class-map

Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to a specified class.

fair-queue (class-default)

Specifies the number of dynamic queues to be reserved for use by the class-default class as part of the default class policy.

match access-group

Configures the match criteria for a class map on the basis of the specified ACL.

queue-limit

Specifies or modifies the maximum number of packets that the queue can hold for a class policy configured in a policy map.

random-detect (interface)

Enables WRED or DWRED.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the WRED and DWRED exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation.

random-detectservice-policy precedence

Configures WRED and DWRED parameters for a particular IP precedence.

service-policy

Attaches a policy map to an input interface or VC or an output interface or VC to be used as the service policy for that interface or VC.

set atm-clp precedence

Sets the ATM CLP bit when a policy map is configured.

preferred-path

To specify the path (a Multiprotocol Label Switching [MPLS] Traffic engineering [TE] tunnel or destination IP address and Domain Name Server [DNS] name) that traffic uses, use the preferred-path command in the appropriate configuration mode. To remove path selection, use the no form of this command.

preferred-path { [ interface ] tunnel tunnel-number | peer host-ip-address } [disable-fallback]

no preferred-path { interface tunnel tunnel-number | peer host-ip-address } [disable-fallback]

Syntax Description

interface

Specifies the preferred path using an output interface.

tunnel

Specifies an MPLS TE tunnel interface that is the core-facing output interface.

tunnel-number

The tunnel interface number.

peer

Specifies a destination IP address or DNS name configured on the peer provider edge (PE) router, which is reachable through a label switched path (LSP).

host-ip-address

Peer host name or IP address.

disable-fallback

(Optional) Disables the router from using the default path when the preferred path is unreachable.

Command Default

Path selection is not specified.

Command Modes

Interface configuration (config-if)

Pseudowire class configuration (config-pw-class)

Template configuration (config-template)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(25)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(25)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was modified as part of the MPLS-based Layer 2 VPN (L2VPN) command modifications for cross-OS support. This command was made available in interface configuration and template configuration modes.

15.1(2)SNG

This command was integrated into Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

15.3(1)S

This command was integrated in Cisco IOS Release 15.3(1)S.

Usage Guidelines

The following guidelines provide more information about using this command:

  • The destination IP address can be different from the peer router ID used in MPLS Label Distribution Protocol (LDP). For example, a peer PE router can have multiple loopback IP addresses, which can be reached by different paths, such as a TE tunnel, static IP route, or Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) route.
  • This command is available only if the pseudowire encapsulation type is MPLS.
  • Tunnel selection is enabled when you exit from pseudowire configuration mode.
  • The selected path should be an LSP destined to the peer PE router.
  • The selected tunnel must be an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.
  • If you select a tunnel, the tunnel tailend must be on the remote PE router.
  • If you specify an IP address, that address must be the IP address of the loopback interface on the remote PE. The address must have a /32 mask.

Examples

The following example shows how to create a pseudowire class and specifies tunnel 1 as the preferred path:

Device(config)# pseudowire-class pw1
Device(config-pw-class)# encapsulation mpls
Device(config-pw-class)# preferred-path interface tunnel 1 disable-fallback

The following example shows how to specify tunnel 1 as the preferred path from interface configuration mode:

Device(config)# interface pseudowire 100
Device(config-if)# encapsulation mpls
Device(config-if)# preferred-path interface tunnel 1 disable-fallback

The following example shows how to specify tunnel 1 as the preferred path from tunnel configuration mode:

Device(config)# template type pseudowire template1
Device(config-template)# encapsulation mpls
Device(config-template)# preferred-path interface tunnel 1 

Related Commands

Command

Description

encapsulation (pseudowire)

Specifies an encapsulation type for tunneling Layer 2 traffic over a pseudowire.

show l2vpn atom vc

Displays information about AToM VCs that have been enabled to route Layer 2 VPN packets on a device.

show mpls l2transport vc

Displays information about AToM VCs that have been enabled to route Layer 2 packets on a device.

priority (LSP Attributes)

To specify the label switched path (LSP) priority in an LSP attribute list, use the priority command in LSP Attributes configuration mode. To remove the specified priority, use the no form of this command.

priority setup-priority [hold-priority]

no priority

Syntax Description

setup-priority

Priority used when signaling an LSP to determine which existing LSPs can be preempted. The range is 0 to 7, where a lower number indicates a higher priority. Therefore, an LSP with a setup priority of 0 can preempt any LSP with a non-0 priority.

hold-priority

(Optional) Priority associated with an LSP to determine if it should be preempted by other LSPs that are being signaled. The range is 0 to 7, where a lower number indicates a higher priority.

Command Default

No priority is set in the attribute list.

Command Modes


LSP Attributes configuration (config-lsp-attr)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(26)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Usage Guidelines

Use this command to configure setup and hold priority for an LSP in an LSP attribute list. Setup priority and hold priority are typically configured to be equal, and setup priority cannot be better (numerically smaller) than the hold priority.

To associate the LSP priority attribute and the LSP attribute list with a path option for an LSP, you must configure the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path option command with the attributes string keyword and argument, where string is the identifier for the specific LSP attribute list.

Examples

The following example shows how to set the LSP hold and setup property to 0 in an LSP attribute list identified by the string hipriority:

configure terminal
!
mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes hipriority
 priority 0 0
 exit
end

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-end lsp attributes

Creates or modifies an LSP attribute list.

show mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes

Displays global LSP attribute lists.

protection (LSP Attributes)

To configure failure protection on the label switched path (LSP) in an LSP attribute list, use the protection command in LSP Attributes configuration mode. To disable failure protection, use the no form of this command.

protection [ fast reroute [bw-protect] ]

no protection

Syntax Description

fast-reroute

Enables an LSP to use an established backup LSP in the event of a link failure.

bw-protect

Enables bandwidth protection.

Command Default

Failure protection is not enabled for the LSP in the LSP attribute list.

Command Modes


LSP Attributes configuration (config-lsp-attr)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(26)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Usage Guidelines

Use this command to set up LSP failure protection in an LSP attribute list.

To associate the LSP failure protection attribute and the LSP attribute list with a path option for an LSP, you must configure the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path option command with the attributes string keyword and argument, where string is the identifier for the specific LSP attribute list.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable failure protection on an LSP in an LSP attribute list:

configure terminal
!
mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes protect
 protection fast-reroute
 exit
end

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes

Creates or modifies an LSP attribute list.

show mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes

Displays global LSP attribute lists.

protection local-prefixes

To enable provider edge (PE)-to-customer edge (CE) link protection by preserving the local label (due to a link failure that caused Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) to begin reconverging), use the protection local-prefixed in VRF configuration or in VRF address family configuration mode. To disable this form of link protection, use the no form of this command.

protection local-prefixes

no protection local-prefixes

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

This protection is disabled by default.

Command Modes


VRF configuration (config-vrf)
VRF address family configuration (config-vrf-af)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(33)SRC

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SB.

15.0(1)M

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)M.

Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S

This command was modified. Supported was added for PE-CE link protection for IPv6 and this command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S.

Usage Guidelines

Each Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) that provides protection or a backup path must have a unique route distinguisher (RD) to ensure route reflectors advertise all available paths. Use the rd command to specify a route distinguisher for the VRF if none has been created previously.

If your Cisco IOS version includes support for IPv6 and IPv4, use the global configuration vrf definition and rd commands followed by the address-family ipv6 or address-family ipv4 command before you use the protection local-prefixescommand.

If your Cisco IOS version supports only IPv4, use the global configuration ip vrf command before you enter the rd and protection local-prefixes commands.

If VRF-lite has already been enabled, local protection will not take place. This is true even if entering the protection local-prefixes command does not trigger an error message.

Local link protection will only work properly if the failure is quickly detected and an alternate, backup route already exists. Therefore, in addition to the protection local-prefixes command, the use of Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) and topology-specific routing protocols are both required.

Examples

The following example enables local protection in an IPv6-supporting version of Cisco IOS software:

vrf definition vrf2
rd 100:3
address-family ipv6
protection local-prefixes

The following example enables local protection in an IPv4-only version of Cisco IOS software:

ip vrf vpn1
rd 100:3
protection local-prefixes

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family ipv4 (BGP)

Enter address family or router scope address family configuration mode to configure a routing session using standard IPv4 address prefixes.

address-family ipv6

Enters address family configuration mode for configuring routing sessions such as BGP that use standard IPv6 address prefixes.

bfd interval min_rx multiplier

Sets the BFD session parameters on an interface.

ip vrf

Defines a VPN VRF instance and enters VRF configuration mode.

neighbor fall-over

Enables BGP to monitor the peering session of a specified neighbor for adjacency changes and to deactivate the peering session.

rd

Specifies a RD for a VPN VRF instance.

vrf definition

Configures a VRF routing table instance and enters VRF configuration mode.

pseudowire

To bind a virtual circuit to a Layer 2 pseudowire for an xconnect service, use the pseudowire command in interface configuration mode. To remove the binding between a virtual circuit and a Layer 2 pseudowire, use the no form of this command.

pseudowire peer-ip-address vcid pw-class pw-class-name [ sequencing { transmit | receive | both } ]

no pseudowire

Syntax Description

peer-ip-address

IP address of the remote peer.

vcid

32-bit identifier of the virtual circuit between devices at each end of a Layer 2 control channel.

pw-class pw-class-name

Specifies the pseudowire class configuration from which the data encapsulation type is derived.

sequencing

(Optional) Configures sequencing options for xconnect.

transmit

(Optional) Transmits sequence numbers.

receive

(Optional) Receives sequence numbers.

both

(Optional) Transmits and receives sequence numbers.

Command Default

A virtual circuit is not bound to a Layer 2 pseudowire for an xconnect service.

Command Modes


Interface configuration (config-if)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.3(2)T

This command was introduced.

15.0(1)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S.

15.2(4)S

This command was modified. The behavior of the no form of this command was modified. A configured pseudowire must be disabled before disabling a virtual-ppp interface.

Usage Guidelines

The combination of the peer-ip-address and vcid arguments must be unique on a device.

The same vcid value that identifies a virtual circuit must be configured by using the pseudowire command on local and remote devices at each end of a Layer 2 session. The virtual circuit identifier creates a binding between a pseudowire and a virtual circuit.

The pw-class pw-class-name binds the pseudowire configuration of a virtual circuit to a specific pseudowire class. The pseudowire class configuration serves as a template that contains settings used by all virtual circuits bound to it by using the pseudowire command.

When removing a virtual-PPP interface that has a configured pseudowire, you must first remove the pseudowire by using the no pseudowire command.

Examples

The following example shows how to create a virtual-PPP interface, configure PPP on the virtual-PPP interface, and bind a virtual circuit to a Layer 2 pseudowire for an xconnect service for a pseudowire class named pwclass1:

interface virtual-ppp 1
 ppp authentication chap
 ppp chap hostname peer1
 pseudowire 172.24.13.196 10 pw-class pwclass1

The following example shows how to remove a virtual-PPP interface that has a configured pseudowire. You must first remove the configured pseudowire or an error is generated. Note that you can remove the virtual-PPP interface in interface configuration mode as shown below:

no interface virtual-ppp 1
% Interface Virtual-PPP1 not removed - Remove the Pseudowire
interface virtual-ppp 1
 no pseudowire
 no interface virtual-ppp 1
 end

Related Commands

Command

Description

interface virtual-ppp

Configures a virtual-PPP interface.

l2tp-class

Creates a template of L2TP control plane configuration settings that can be inherited by different pseudowire classes and enters L2TP class configuration mode.

ppp authentication

Enables at least one PPP authentication protocol and specifies the order in which protocols are selected on the interface.

ppp chap hostname

Creates a pool of dialup routers that all appear to be the same host when authenticating with CHAP.

pseudowire-class

Specifies the name of a Layer 2 pseudowire class and enters pseudowire class configuration mode.

pseudowire-class

To specify the name of a Layer 2 pseudowire class and enter pseudowire class configuration mode, use the pseudowire-class command in global configuration mode. To remove a pseudowire class configuration, use the no form of this command.

pseudowire-class pw-class-name

no pseudowire-class pw-class-name

Syntax Description

pw-class-name

The name of a Layer 2 pseudowire class.

Command Default

No pseudowire classes are defined.

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(23)S

This command was introduced.

12.3(2)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.3(2)T.

12.2(25)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)S.

12.2(27)SBC

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(27)SBC.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.4S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.4S.

15.3(2)S

This command was implemented on the Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Command History

12.2(33)SRD

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRD.

Usage Guidelines

The pseudowire-class command allows you to configure a pseudowire class template that consists of configuration settings used by all attachment circuits bound to the class. A pseudowire class includes the following configuration settings:

  • Data encapsulation type
  • Control protocol
  • Sequencing
  • IP address of the local Layer 2 interface
  • Type of service (ToS) value in IP headers

The local interface name for each pseudowire class configured between a pair of PE routers can be the same or different.

After you enter the pseudowire-class command, the router switches to pseudowire class configuration mode, where pseudowire settings may be configured.

Examples

The following example shows how to enter pseudowire class configuration mode to configure a pseudowire configuration template named “ether-pw”:

Router(config)
# pseudowire-class ether-pw
Router(config-pw)#

The following example shows how to enter pseudowire class configuration mode to configure a pseudowire configuration template named “mpls-ip”:

Router(config)
# pseudowire-class mpls-ip

Related Commands

Command

Description

l2tp-class

Creates a template of L2TP control plane configuration settings that can be inherited by different pseudowire classes and enters L2TP class configuration mode.

pseudowire

Binds an attachment circuit to a Layer 2 pseudowire for xconnect service.

xconnect

Binds an attachment circuit to an L2TPv3 pseudowire for xconnect service and enters xconnect configuration mode.

pseudowire-static-oam class

To create an Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) class and specify the timeout intervals, use the pseudowire-static-oam class command in global configuration mode. To remove the specified class, use the no form of this command.

pseudowire-static-oam class class-name

no pseudowire-static-oam class class-name

Syntax Description

class-name

Name of the class map.

Command Default

OAM classes are not created.

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

15.1(1)SA

This command was introduced.

15.1(3)S

This command was integrated.

Usage Guidelines

This command creates an OAM class and enters static pseudowire OAM configuration mode, from which you can enter timeout intervals.

Examples

The following example create the class oam-class3 and enters static pseudowire OAM configuration mode:

Router(config)# pseudowire-static-oam class oam-class3
Router(config-st-pw-oam-class)# timeout refresh send ?
  <1-4095>  Seconds, default is 30
Router(config-st-pw-oam-class)# timeout refresh send 45 

Related Commands

Command

Description

status protocol notification static

Invokes the specified class as part of the static pseudowire.

pseudowire-tlv template

To create a template of pseudowire type-length-value (TLV) parameters to use in an MPLS-TP configuration, use the pseudowire-tlv template command in privileged EXEC configuration mode. To remove the template, use the no form of this command.

pseudowire-tlv template template-name

no pseudowire-tlv template template-name

Syntax Description

template-name

Name for the TLV template.

Command Default

TLV values are not specified.

Command Modes


Privileged EXEC (config#)

Command History

Release

Modification

15.1(1)SA

This command was introduced.

15.1(3)S

This command was integrated.

Examples

The following example shows how to create a TLV template called tlv3:

Router(config)# pseudowire-tlv template tlv3

Related Commands

Command

Description

tlv template

Specifies a TLV template to use as part of local interface coniguration.

pseudowire routing

To configure Layer 2 VPN (L2VPN) pseudowire routing, use the pseudowire routing command in L2VPN configuration mode. To disable L2VPN pseudowire routing configuration, use the no form of this command.

pseudowire routing

no pseudowire routing

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

L2VPN pseudowire routing is not configured.

Command Modes


L2VPN configuration (config-l2vpn)

Command History

Release

Modification

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was introduced as part of the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)-based L2VPN command modifications for cross-OS support. This command will replace the l2 pseudowire routing command in future releases.

15.3(1)S

This command was integrated in Cisco IOS Release 15.3(1)S.

Usage Guidelines

The pseudowire routing command enters Layer 2 pseudowire routing configuration mode (config-l2_pw_rtg), in which you can use additional commands such as the switching-point command and the terminating-pe tie-breaker command. The switching-point command and the terminating-pe tie-breaker command are used to configure the L2VPN Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) interautonomous systems (Inter-AS) Option B feature. For more information about the L2VPN VPLS Inter-AS Option B feature, see the Multiprotocol Label Switching Configuration Guide.

Examples

The following example show how to enable Layer 2 pseudowire routing configuration mode:

Device(config)# l2vpn
Device(l2vpn-config)# pseudowire routing
Device(config-l2_pw_rtg)# terminating-pe tie-breaker
Device(config-l2_pw_rtg)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

l2 pseudowire routing

Enter Layer 2 pseudowire routing configuration mode.

switching-point

Configures a switching point and specifies a VC ID range.

terminating-pe tie-breaker

Negotiates the behavior mode (either active or passive) for a TPE router.

pseudowire type

To specify the pseudowire type when configuring pseudowires in a Multiprotocol Label Switching Transport Protocol (MPLS-TP) network, use the pseudowire type command in interface configuration mode. To remove the pseudowire type, use the no form of this command.

pseudowire type type-number

no pseudowire type

Syntax Description

type-number

Type of pseudowire. The range is from 01 to 17 in hexadecimal format.

Command Default

The pseudowire type is not specified.

Command Modes

Interface configuration (config-if)

Command History

Release

Modification

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was introduced as part of the MPLS-based Layer 2 VPN command modifications for cross-OS support. This command will replace the local interface command in future releases.

15.3(1)S

This command was integrated in Cisco IOS Release 15.3(1)S.

Usage Guidelines

Pseudowires of type 01 to 17 in hexadecimal format are supported.

Note


This command is only available for static pseudowires; that is, this command is only available when the signaling protocol is defined as none.


Examples

The following example shows how to specify a pseudowire of type 16:

Device(config)# interface pseudowire 100 
Device(config-if)# encapsulation mpls
Device(config-if)# signaling protocol none
Device(config-if)# pseudowire type 16
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

local interface

Specifies the pseudowire type when configuring pseudowires in a MPLS-TP network.

redundancy delay (xconnect)

To specify how long a backup pseudowire should wait before resuming operation after the primary pseudowire goes down, use the redundancy delay command in xconnect configuration mode. To remove the specified delay time, use the no form of this command.

redundancy delay enable-delay { disable-delay | never }

no redundancy delay enable-delay { disable-delay | never }

Syntax Description

enable-delay

Number of seconds that elapse after the primary pseudowire VC goes down before the Cisco software activates the secondary pseudowire VC. The range is from 0 to 180. The default is 0.

disable-delay

Number of seconds that elapse after the primary pseudowire VC comes up before the Cisco software deactivates the secondary pseudowire VC. The range is from 0 to 180. The default is 0.

never

Specifies that the secondary pseudowire VC will not fall back to the primary pseudowire VC if the primary pseudowire VC becomes available again, unless the secondary pseudowire VC fails.

Command Default

If a failover occurs, the xconnect redundancy algorithm will immediately switch over or fall back to the backup or primary member in the redundancy group.

Command Modes

Xconnect configuration (config-xconnect)

Command History

Release

Modification

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was introduced as part of the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)-based Layer 2 VPN (L2VPN) command modifications for cross-OS support. This command will replace the backup delay command in future releases.

15.3(1)S

This command was integrated in Cisco IOS Release 15.3(1)S.

Examples

The following example shows an L2VPN xconnect with one redundant peer. Once a switchover to the secondary pseudowire occurs, there will be no fallback to the primary pseudowire unless the secondary pseudowire fails:

Device(config)# l2vpn xconnect context con1
Device(config-xconnect)# redundancy delay 0 never

Related Commands

Command

Description

backup delay (L2VPN local switching)

Configures a redundant peer for a pseudowire VC.

rd

To specify a route distinguisher (RD) for a VPN routing and forwarding (VRF) instance, use the rdcommand in VRF configuration mode. To remove a route distinguisher, use the no form of this command.

rd route-distinguisher

no rd route-distinguisher

Syntax Description

route-distinguisher

An 8-byte value to be added to an IPv4 prefix to create a VPN IPv4 prefix.

Command Default

No RD is specified.

Command Modes


VRF configuration (config-vrf)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)T

This command was introduced.

12.0(21)ST

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS 12.0(21)ST.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS 12.0(22)S.

12.2(13)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS 12.2(13)T.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS 12.2(14)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SRB

Support for IPv6 was added.

12.2(33)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SB.

12.2(33)SXI

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXI.

12.2(54)SG

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(54)SG.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S.

Usage Guidelines

An RD creates routing and forwarding tables and specifies the default route distinguisher for a VPN. The RD is added to the beginning of the customer’s IPv4 prefixes to change them into globally unique VPN-IPv4 prefixes.

An RD is either:

  • ASN-related--Composed of an autonomous system number and an arbitrary number.
  • IP-address-related--Composed of an IP address and an arbitrary number.

You can enter an RD in either of these formats:

  • 16-bit autonomous-system-number:your 32-bit number. For example, 101:3.
  • 32-bit IP address:your 16-bit-number. For example, 192.168.122.15:1.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a default RD for two VRFs. It illustrates the use of both autonomous-system-number-relative and IP-address-relative RDs:

Router(config)# ip vrf vrf1
Router(config-vrf)# rd 100:3
Router(config-vrf)# exit
Router(config)# ip vrf vrf2
Router(config-vrf)# rd 10.13.0.12:200

The following is an example of a VRF for IPv4 and IPv6 that has common policies defined in the global part of the VRF configuration:

vrf definition vrf2
 rd 200:1
 route-target both 200:2
!
 address-family ipv4
 exit-address-family
!
 address-family ipv6
 exit-address-family
 end

Related Commands

Command

Description

ip vrf

Configures a VRF routing table.

show ip vrf

Displays the set of defined VRFs and associated interfaces.

vrf definition

Configures a VRF routing table and enters VRF configuration mode.

rd (VPLS)

To specify a route distinguisher (RD) to distribute endpoint information in a Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) configuration, use the rd command in L2 VFI configuration or VFI autodiscovery configuration mode. To remove the manually configured RD and return to the automatically generated RD, use the no form of this command.

rd { autonomous-system-number:nn | ip-address:nn }

no rd { autonomous-system-number:nn | ip-address:nn }

Syntax Description

autonomous-system-number:nn

Specifies a 16-bit autonomous system number (ASN) and 32-bit arbitrary number. The ASN does not have to match the local autonomous system number.

ip-address:nn

Specifies a 32-bit IP address and a 16-bit arbitrary number. Only IPv4 addresses are supported.

Command Default

VPLS autodiscovery automatically generates a RD using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) autonomous system number and the configured virtual forwarding instance (VFI) VPN ID.

Command Modes

L2 VFI configuration (config-vfi)

VFI autodiscovery configuration (config-vfi-autodiscovery)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(33)SRB

This command was introduced.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was modified as part of the MPLS-based Layer 2 VPN (L2VPN) command modifications for cross-OS support. This command was made available in VFI autodiscovery configuration mode.

Usage Guidelines

VPLS autodiscovery automatically generates an RD using the BGP autonomous system number and the configured VFI VPN ID. You can use this command to change the automatically generated RD.

The same RD value cannot be configured in multiple VFIs.

There are two formats for configuring the RD argument. It can be configured in the autonomous-system-number:network-number format, or it can be configured in the ip-address:network-number format.

An RD is either:

  • Autonomous system-related—Composed of an autonomous system number and an arbitrary number.
  • IP address-related—Composed of an IP address and an arbitrary number.
You can enter an RD in either of the following formats:
  • 16-bit-autonomous-system-number:32-bit-number —For example, 101:3.
  • 32-bit-IP-address:16-bit-number —For example, 192.168.122.15:1.

Examples

The following example shows a configuration using VPLS autodiscovery that sets the RD to an IP address of 10.4.4.4 and a network address of 70:

Device(config)# l2 vfi SP2 autodiscovery
Device(config-vfi)# vpn id 200
Device(config-vfi)# vpls-id 10.4.4.4:70
Device(config-vfi)# rd 10.4.5.5:7

The following example shows a configuration using VPLS Autodiscovery that sets the RD to an autonomous system number of 2 and a network address of 3:

Device(config)# l2 vfi SP2 autodiscovery
Device(config-vfi)# vpn id 200
Device(config-vfi)# vpls-id 10.4.4.4:70
Device(config-vfi)# rd 2:3

The following example shows a configuration using VPLS autodiscovery that sets the RD to an autonomous system number of 2 and a network address of 3 in VFI autodiscovery configuration mode:

Device(config)# l2vpn vfi context vfi1
Device(config-vfi)# vpn id 200
Device(config-vfi)# autodiscovery bgp signaling ldp
Device(config-vfi-autodiscovery)# rd 2:3

Related Commands

Command

Description

autodiscovery (l2vpn vfi)

Designates VFI as having BGP autodiscovered pseudowire members.

l2 vfi autodiscovery

Enables a VPLS PE router to automatically discover other PE routers that are part of the same VPLS domain.

record-route (LSP Attributes)

To record the route used by the label switched path (LSP), use the record-routecommand in LSP Attributes configuration mode. To stop the recording the route used by the LSP, use the no form of this command.

record-route

no record-route

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

The LSP route is not recorded.

Command Modes


LSP Attributes configuration (config-lsp-attr)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(26)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(33)SXH

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.

12.4(20)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T.

Usage Guidelines

Use this command to set up in an LSP attribute list the recording of the route taken by the LSP.

To associate the LSP record-route attribute and the LSP attribute list with a path option for an LSP, you must configure the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path option command with the attributes string keyword and argument, where string is the identifier for the specific LSP attribute list.

Examples

The following example shows how to set up LSP route recording in an LSP attribute list:

configure terminal
!
mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes 9
 record-route
 exit
end

Related Commands

Command

Description

mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes

Creates or modifies an LSP attribute list.

show mpls traffic-eng lsp attributes

Displays global LSP attribute lists.

revision

To set the revision number for the Multiple Spanning Tree (802.1s) (MST) configuration, use the revision command in MST configuration submode. To return to the default settings, use the no form of this command.

revision version

no revision

Syntax Description

version

Revision number for the configuration; valid values are from 0 to 65535.

Command Default

version is 0

Command Modes

MST configuration (config-mst)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(14)SX

Support for this command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(17d)SXB

Support for this command on the Supervisor Engine 2 was extended to Release 12.2(17d)SXB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

Cisco IOS XE Release XE 3.7S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release XE 3.7S.

Usage Guidelines

Two Cisco 7600 series routers that have the same configuration but different revision numbers are considered to be part of two different regions.


Caution


Be careful when using the revision command to set the revision number of the MST configuration because a mistake can put the switch in a different region.


Examples

This example shows how to set the revision number of the MST configuration:

Device(config-mst)# revision 5
Device(config-mst)# 

Related Commands

Command

Description

instance

Maps a VLAN or a set of VLANs to an MST instance.

name (MST configuration submode)

Sets the name of an MST region.

show

Verifies the MST configuration.

show spanning-tree

Displays information about the spanning-tree state.

spanning-tree mst configuration

Enters MST-configuration submode.

router-id

To specify a Layer 2 VPN (L2VPN) router ID for the provider edge (PE) router to use with Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) autodiscovery pseudowires, use the router-id command in L2VPN configuration mode. To reset the command to the default configuration, use the no form of this command.

router-id ip-address

no router-id ip-address

Syntax Description

ip-address

Router ID in IP address format.

Command Default

The L2VPN router ID is set to the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) global router ID.

Command Modes

L2VPN configuration (config-l2vpn)

Command History

Release

Modification

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was introduced as part of the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)-based L2VPN command modifications for cross-OS support. This command will replace the l2 router-id command in future releases.

15.3(1)S

This command was integrated in Cisco IOS Release 15.3(1)S.

Usage Guidelines

You can configure an arbitrary value in the IP address format for each router. However, each router ID must be unique.

The L2VPN router ID is used in the forward equivalence class (FEC) 129 encoding for pseudowire signaling. It is also used in the network layer reachability information (NLRI) for peer discovery.

Examples

The following example shows how to specify an L2VPN router ID:

Device(config)# l2vpn
Device(config-l2vpn)# router-id 10.1.1.1

Related Commands

Command

Description

l2 router-id

Specifies a router ID for the PE router to use with VPLS autodiscovery pseudowires.

route-target

To create a route-target extended community for a Virtual Private Network (VPN) routing and forwarding (VRF) instance, use the route-target command in VRF configuration or in VRF address family configuration mode. To disable the configuration of a route-target community option, use the no form of this command.

route-target [ import | export | both ] route-target-ext-community

no route-target [ import | export | both ] [route-target-ext-community]

Syntax Description

import

(Optional) Imports routing information from the target VPN extended community.

export

(Optional) Exports routing information to the target VPN extended community.

both

(Optional) Imports both import and export routing information to the target VPN extended community.

route-target-ext-community

The route-target extended community attributes to be added to the VRF’s list of import, export, or both (import and export) route-target extended communities.

Command Default

A VRF has no route-target extended community attributes associated with it.

Command Modes


VRF address family configuration (config-vrf-af)
VRF configuration (config-vrf)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)T

This command was introduced.

12.0(21)ST

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS 12.0(21)ST.

12.0(22)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS 12.0(22)S.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS 12.2(14)S.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(31)SB2

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB2.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was modified. Support for IPv6 was added.

12.2(33)SXI

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXI.

12.0(32)S12

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation only was added.

12.0(32)SY8

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

12.4(24)T

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation only was added.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation only was added.

12.2(33)SXI1

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

12.0(33)S3

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers was changed to asplain.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers was changed to asplain.

12.2(33)SRE

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

12.2(33)XNE

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

15.1(1)SG

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers is now asplain.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.3SG

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers is now asplain.

15.2(4)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.2(4)S.

15.1(2)SNG

This command was integrated into Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines

The route-target command creates lists of import and export route-target extended communities for the specified VRF. Enter the command one time for each target community. Learned routes that carry a specific route-target extended community are imported into all VRFs configured with that extended community as an import route target. Routes learned from a VRF site (for example, by Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), or static route configuration) contain export route targets for extended communities configured for the VRF added as route attributes to control the VRFs into which the route is imported.

The route target specifies a target VPN extended community. Like a route distinguisher, an extended community is composed of either an autonomous system number and an arbitrary number or an IP address and an arbitrary number. You can enter the numbers in either of these formats:

  • 16-bit autonomous-system-number:your 32-bit number. For example, 101:3.
  • 32-bit IP address:your 16-bit number. For example, 192.168.122.15:1.

Note


In Cisco IOS releases that include 4-byte ASN support, command accounting and command authorization that include a 4-byte ASN number are sent in the asplain notation irrespective of the format that is used on the command-line interface.


In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(33)S3, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4, and later releases, the Cisco implementation of 4-byte autonomous system numbers uses asplain--65538, for example--as the default regular expression match and output display format for autonomous system numbers, but you can configure 4-byte autonomous system numbers in both the asplain format and the asdot format as described in RFC 5396. To change the default regular expression match and output display of 4-byte autonomous system numbers to asdot format, use the bgp asnotation dot command followed by the clear ip bgp * command to perform a hard reset of all current BGP sessions.

In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)S12, 12.4(24)T, and Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3, the Cisco implementation of 4-byte autonomous system numbers uses asdot--1.2, for example--as the only configuration format, regular expression match, and output display, with no asplain support.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure route-target extended community attributes for a VRF in IPv4. The result of the command sequence is that VRF named vrf1 has two export extended communities (1000:1 and 1000:2) and two import extended communities (1000:1 and 10.27.0.130:200):

ip vrf vrf1
 route-target both 1000:1
 route-target export 1000:2
 route-target import 10.27.0.130:200

The following example shows how to configure route-target extended community attributes for a VRF that includes IPv4 and IPv6 address families:

vrf definition site1 
rd 1000:1
address-family ipv4
 route-target export 100:1
 route-target import 100:1
address-family ipv6
 route-target export 200:1
 route-target import 200:1

The following example available in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(33)S3, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4, and later releases shows how to create a VRF with a route target that uses a 4-byte autonomous system number in asplain format--65537--and how to set the route target to extended community value 65537:100 for routes that are permitted by the route map:

ip vrf vrf1
 rd 64500:100
 route-target both 65537:100 
 exit
route-map vrf1 permit 10
 set extcommunity rt 65537:100
 end

After the configuration is completed, use the show route-map command to verify that the extended community is set to the route target containing the 4-byte autonomous system number of 65537:

Router# show route-map vrf1
route-map vrf1, permit, sequence 10
  Match clauses:
  Set clauses:
    extended community RT:65537:100
  Policy routing matches: 0 packets, 0 bytes

The following example available in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(32)S12, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, 12.4(24)T, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3, and later releases, shows how to create a VRF with a route target that uses a 4-byte autonomous system number in asdot format--1.1--and how to set the route target to extended community value 1.1:100 for routes that are permitted by the route map:

ip vrf vrf1
 rd 64500:100
 route-target both 1.1:100 
 exit
route-map vrf1 permit 10
 set extcommunity rt 1.1:100
 end

Related Commands

Command

Description

address-family (VRF)

Selects an address family type for a VRF table and enters VRF address family configuration mode.

bgp asnotation dot

Changes the default display and the regular expression match format of BGP 4-byte autonomous system numbers from asplain (decimal values) to dot notation.

clear ip bgp

Resets Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) connections using hard or soft reconfiguration.

import map

Configures an import route map for a VRF.

ip vrf

Configures a VRF routing table.

vrf definition

Configures a VRF routing table and enters VRF configuration mode.

route-target (VPLS)

To specify a route target for a Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) virtual forwarding instance (VFI), use the route-target command in L2 VFI configuration or VFI auto discovery configuration mode. To revert to the automatically generated route target, use the no form of this command.

route-target [ import | export | both ] { autonomous-system-number:nn | ip-address:nn }

no route-target { import | export | both } { autonomous-system-number:nn | ip-address:nn }

Syntax Description

import

(Optional) Imports routing information from the target VPN extended community.

export

(Optional) Exports routing information to the target VPN extended community.

both

(Optional) Imports and exports routing information to the target VPN extended community.

autonomous-system-number:nn

Specifies the autonomous system number (ASN) and a 32-bit number.

ip-address:nn

Specifies the IP address and a 16-bit number.

Command Default

VPLS Autodiscovery automatically generates a route target using the lower six bytes of the route distinguisher (RD) and VPLS ID.

Command Modes

L2 VFI configuration (config-vfi)

VFI autodiscovery configuration (config-vfi-autodiscovery)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(33)SRB

This command was introduced.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.7S

This command was modified as part of the MPLS-based Layer 2 VPN (L2VPN) command modifications for cross-OS support . This command was made available in VFI autodiscovery configuration mode.

Usage Guidelines

The same route target cannot be configured in multiple VFIs.

The route target specifies a target VPN extended community. Like a route distinguisher, an extended community is composed of either an autonomous system number and an arbitrary number or an IP address and an arbitrary number. You can enter the numbers in either of the following formats:
  • 16-bit-autonomous-system-number:32-bit-number—For example, 101:3.
  • 32-bit-IP-address:16-bit-number —For example, 192.168.122.15:1.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure VPLS autodiscovery route-target extended community attributes for VFI SP1:

Device(config)# l2 vfi SP1 autodiscovery
Device(config-vfi)# vpn id 100
Device(config-vfi)# vpls-id 5:300
Device(config-vfi)# rd 4:4
Device(config-vfi)# route-target 10.1.1.1:29

The following example shows how to configure VPLS autodiscovery route-target extended community attributes for VFI vfi1:

Device(config)# l2vpn vfi context vfi1
Device(config-vfi)# vpn id 100
Device(config-vfi)# autodiscovery bgp signaling ldp
Device(config-vfi-autodiscovery)# rd 4:4
Device(config-vfi-autodiscovery)# route-target 10.1.1.1:29

Related Commands

Command

Description

autodiscovery (l2vpn vfi)

Designates VFI as having BGP autodiscovered pseudowire members.

auto-route-target

Automatically generates the route target in a VFI.

l2 vfi autodiscovery

Enables a VPLS PE router to automatically discover other PE routers that are part of the same VPLS domain.

router bgp

To configure the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing process, use the router bgp command in global configuration mode. To remove a BGP routing process, use the no form of this command.

router bgp autonomous-system-number

no router bgp autonomous-system-number

Syntax Description

autonomous-system-number

Number of an autonomous system that identifies the router to other BGP routers and tags the routing information that is passed along. Number in the range from 1 to 65535.

  • In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(33)S3, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4, and later releases, 4-byte autonomous system numbers are supported in the range from 65536 to 4294967295 in asplain notation and in the range from 1.0 to 65535.65535 in asdot notation.
  • In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)S12, 12.4(24)T, and Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3, 4-byte autonomous system numbers are supported in the range from 1.0 to 65535.65535 in asdot notation only.

For more details about autonomous system number formats, see the “Usage Guidelines” section.

Command Default

No BGP routing process is enabled by default.

Command Modes


Global configuration (config)

Command History

Release

Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(25)SG

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SG.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(31)SB2

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB2.

12.2(33)SRB

This command was modified. Support for IPv6 was added.

12.2(14)SX

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SX.

12.2(33)SB

This command was modified. Support for IPv6 was added.

12.0(32)S12

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation only was added.

12.0(32)SY8

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

12.4(24)T

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation only was added.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation only was added.

12.2(33)SXI1

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

12.0(33)S3

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers is now asplain.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers is now asplain.

12.2(33)SRE

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

12.2(33)XNE

This command was modified. Support for 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain and asdot notation was added.

15.1(1)SG

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers is now asplain.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.3SG

This command was modified. Support for asplain notation was added and the default format for 4-byte autonomous system numbers is now asplain.

15.1(2)SNG

This command was implemented on the Cisco ASR 901 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Usage Guidelines

This command allows you to set up a distributed routing core that automatically guarantees the loop-free exchange of routing information between autonomous systems.

Prior to January 2009, BGP autonomous system numbers that were allocated to companies were 2-octet numbers in the range from 1 to 65535 as described in RFC 4271, A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4) . Due to increased demand for autonomous system numbers, the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) will start in January 2009 to allocate four-octet autonomous system numbers in the range from 65536 to 4294967295. RFC 5396, Textual Representation of Autonomous System (AS) Numbers , documents three methods of representing autonomous system numbers. Cisco has implemented the following two methods:

  • Asplain—Decimal value notation where both 2-byte and 4-byte autonomous system numbers are represented by their decimal value. For example, 65526 is a 2-byte autonomous system number and 234567 is a 4-byte autonomous system number.
  • Asdot—Autonomous system dot notation where 2-byte autonomous system numbers are represented by their decimal value and 4-byte autonomous system numbers are represented by a dot notation. For example, 65526 is a 2-byte autonomous system number and 1.169031 is a 4-byte autonomous system number (this is dot notation for the 234567 decimal number).

For details about the third method of representing autonomous system numbers, see RFC 5396.


Note


In Cisco IOS releases that include 4-byte ASN support, command accounting and command authorization that include a 4-byte ASN number are sent in the asplain notation irrespective of the format that is used on the command-line interface.


Asdot Only Autonomous System Number Formatting

In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)S12, 12.4(24)T, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3, and later releases, the 4-octet (4-byte) autonomous system numbers are entered and displayed only in asdot notation, for example, 1.10 or 45000.64000. When using regular expressions to match 4-byte autonomous system numbers the asdot format includes a period which is a special character in regular expressions. A backslash must be entered before the period for example, 1\.14, to ensure the regular expression match does not fail. The table below shows the format in which 2-byte and 4-byte autonomous system numbers are configured, matched in regular expressions, and displayed in show command output in Cisco IOS images where only asdot formatting is available.

Table 3 Asdot Only 4-Byte Autonomous System Number Format

Format

Configuration Format

Show Command Output and Regular Expression Match Format

asdot

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 1.0 to 65535.65535

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 1.0 to 65535.65535

Asplain as Default Autonomous System Number Formatting

In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(33)S3, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4, and later releases, the Cisco implementation of 4-byte autonomous system numbers uses asplain as the default display format for autonomous system numbers, but you can configure 4-byte autonomous system numbers in both the asplain and asdot format. In addition, the default format for matching 4-byte autonomous system numbers in regular expressions is asplain, so you must ensure that any regular expressions to match 4-byte autonomous system numbers are written in the asplain format. If you want to change the default show command output to display 4-byte autonomous system numbers in the asdot format, use the bgp asnotation dot command under router configuration mode. When the asdot format is enabled as the default, any regular expressions to match 4-byte autonomous system numbers must be written using the asdot format, or the regular expression match will fail. The tables below show that although you can configure 4-byte autonomous system numbers in either asplain or asdot format, only one format is used to display show command output and control 4-byte autonomous system number matching for regular expressions, and the default is asplain format. To display 4-byte autonomous system numbers in show command output and to control matching for regular expressions in the asdot format, you must configure the bgp asnotation dot command. After enabling the bgp asnotation dot command, a hard reset must be initiated for all BGP sessions by entering the clear ip bgp * command.


Note


If you are upgrading to an image that supports 4-byte autonomous system numbers, you can still use 2-byte autonomous system numbers. The show command output and regular expression match are not changed and remain in asplain (decimal value) format for 2-byte autonomous system numbers regardless of the format configured for 4-byte autonomous system numbers.


Table 4 Default Asplain 4-Byte Autonomous System Number Format

Format

Configuration Format

Show Command Output and Regular Expression Match Format

asplain

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 65536 to 4294967295

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 65536 to 4294967295

asdot

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 1.0 to 65535.65535

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 65536 to 4294967295

Table 5 Asdot 4-Byte Autonomous System Number Format

Format

Configuration Format

Show Command Output and Regular Expression Match Format

asplain

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 65536 to 4294967295

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 1.0 to 65535.65535

asdot

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 1.0 to 65535.65535

2-byte: 1 to 65535 4-byte: 1.0 to 65535.65535

Reserved and Private Autonomous System Numbers

In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)S12, 12.0(32)SY8, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, 12.4(24)T, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3 and later releases, the Cisco implementation of BGP supports RFC 4893. RFC 4893 was developed to allow BGP to support a gradual transition from 2-byte autonomous system numbers to 4-byte autonomous system numbers. A new reserved (private) autonomous system number, 23456, was created by RFC 4893 and this number cannot be configured as an autonomous system number in the Cisco IOS CLI.

RFC 5398, Autonomous System (AS) Number Reservation for Documentation Use , describes new reserved autonomous system numbers for documentation purposes. Use of the reserved numbers allow configuration examples to be accurately documented and avoids conflict with production networks if these configurations are literally copied. The reserved numbers are documented in the IANA autonomous system number registry. Reserved 2-byte autonomous system numbers are in the contiguous block, 64496 to 64511 and reserved 4-byte autonomous system numbers are from 65536 to 65551 inclusive.

Private 2-byte autonomous system numbers are still valid in the range from 64512 to 65534 with 65535 being reserved for special use. Private autonomous system numbers can be used for internal routing domains but must be translated for traffic that is routed out to the Internet. BGP should not be configured to advertise private autonomous system numbers to external networks. Cisco IOS software does not remove private autonomous system numbers from routing updates by default. We recommend that ISPs filter private autonomous system numbers.


Note


Autonomous system number assignment for public and private networks is governed by the IANA. For information about autonomous-system numbers, including reserved number assignment, or to apply to register an autonomous system number, see the following URL: http://www.iana.org/.


Examples

The following example configures a BGP process for autonomous system 45000 and configures two external BGP neighbors in different autonomous systems using 2-byte autonomous system numbers:

router bgp 45000
 neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 40000
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 remote-as 50000
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 description finance
 !
 address-family ipv4
  neighbor 192.168.1.2 activate
  neighbor 192.168.3.2 activate
  no auto-summary
  no synchronization
  network 172.17.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
  exit-address-family

The following example configures a BGP process for autonomous system 65538 and configures two external BGP neighbors in different autonomous systems using 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asplain notation. This example is supported i n Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(33)S3, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4, and later releases.

router bgp 65538
 neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 65536
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 remote-as 65550
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 description finance
 !
 address-family ipv4
  neighbor 192.168.1.2 activate
  neighbor 192.168.3.2 activate
  no auto-summary
  no synchronization
  network 172.17.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
  exit-address-family

The following example configures a BGP process for autonomous system 1.2 and configures two external BGP neighbors in different autonomous systems using 4-byte autonomous system numbers in asdot notation. This example is supported in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(32)SY8, 12.0(32)S12, 12.2(33)SRE, 12.2(33)XNE, 12.2(33)SXI1, 12.4(24)T, and Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3, and later releases.

router bgp 1.2
 neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 1.0
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 remote-as 1.14
 neighbor 192.168.3.2 description finance
 !
 address-family ipv4
  neighbor 192.168.1.2 activate
  neighbor 192.168.3.2 activate
  no auto-summary
  no synchronization
  network 172.17.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
  exit-address-family

Related Commands

Command

Description

bgp asnotation dot

Changes the default display and the regular expression match format of BGP 4-byte autonomous system numbers from asplain (decimal values) to dot notation.

neighbor remote-as

Adds an entry to the BGP or multiprotocol BGP neighbor table.

network (BGP and multiprotocol BGP)

Specifies the list of networks for the BGP routing process.