The following diagram illustrates, at a high-level, the deployment architecture of UPF along with other NFs.
Virtualized Packet Core—Single Instance (VPC-SI)
VPC-SI consolidates the operations of physical Cisco ASR 5500 chassis running StarOS into a single Virtual Machine (VM) able
to run on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) servers. VPC-SI can be used as a stand-alone single VM within an enterprise, remote
site, or customer data center. Alternatively, VPC-SI can be integrated as a part of a larger service provider orchestration
VPC-SI only interacts with supported hypervisors KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) and VMware ESXi. It has little or no knowledge
of physical devices.
The UPF functions as user plane node in 5G-based VNF deployments. UPF is deployed as a VNFC running a single, stand-alone
instance of the StarOS. Multiple UPF VNFCs can be deployed for scalability based on your deployment requirements.
VPC-SI has been qualified to run under the following hypervisors:
Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) - QEMU emulator 2.0. The VPC-SI StarOS installation build includes a libvirt XML template
and ssi_install.sh for VM creation under Ubuntu Server14.04.
KVM - Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2: The VPC-SI StarOS installation build includes an install script called qvpc-si_install.sh.
VMware ESXi 6.7: The VPC-SI StarOS installation build includes OVF (Open Virtualization Format) and OVA (Open Virtual Application)
templates for VM creation via the ESXi GUI.
The supported vNIC options include:
VMXNET3—Paravirtual NIC for VMware
VIRTIO—Paravirtual NIC for KMV
ixgbe—Intel 10 Gigabit NIC virtual function
enic—Cisco UCS NIC
SR-IOV—Single-root input/output virtualization
The SR-IOV specification provides a mechanism by which a single root function (for example, a single Ethernet port) can appear
to be multiple separate physical devices. Intel 82599 10G is an SR-IOV capable device and can be configured (usually by the
Hypervisor) to appear in the PCI configuration space as multiple functions (PFs and VFs). The virtual functions (VFs) can
be assigned to Nova VMs, causing traffic from the VMs to bypass the Hypervisor and go directly to the fabric interconnect.
This feature increases traffic throughput to the VM and reduces CPU load on the UCS Servers.
Capacity, CEPS and Throughput
Sizing a VPC-SI instance requires modeling of the expected call model.
Many service types require more resources than others. Packet size, throughput per session, CEPS (Call Events per Second)
rate, IPSec usage (site-to-site, subscriber, LI), contention with other VMs, and the underlying hardware type (CPU speed,
number of vCPUs) will further limit the effective number of maximum subscribers. Qualification of a call model on equivalent
hardware and hypervisor configuration is required.
Sample VPP Configuration
For 5G-UPF, the FORWARDER_TYPE is "vpp".
The following is a sample output of VPP configuration.
show cloud configuration
Thursday January 30 12:18:10 UTC 2020
Config Disk Params:
No local param file available
For additional information about VPC-SI build components, boot parameters,
configuring VPC-SI boot parameters, VM configuration, vCPU and vRAM options, VPP
configuration parameters, and so on, refer the VPC-SI System
Software Installation and UPF Deployment
For additional information on VPC-SI, supported operating system and hypervisor
packages, platform configurations, software download and installation, as well as
UPF deployment, contact your Cisco Account representative.
For information on Release Package, refer the corresponding Release Notes included
with the build.