Information About WLANs
You can control up to 16 WLANs for lightweight access points. Each WLAN has a separate WLAN ID, a separate profile name, and a WLAN SSID. All devices publish up to 16 WLANs to each connected access point. However, you can create till the maximum number of supported WLANs and then selectively publish these WLANs (using profiles and tags) to different access points for managing your wireless network in a better way.
You can configure WLANs with different SSIDs or with the same SSID. An SSID identifies the specific wireless network that you want the device to access.
Band selection enables client radios that are capable of dual-band (2.4 and 5-GHz) operations to move to a less congested 5-GHz access point. The 2.4-GHz band is often congested. Clients on this band typically experience interference from Bluetooth devices, microwave ovens, and cordless phones as well as co-channel interference from other access points because of the 802.11b/g limit of 3 nonoverlapping channels. To prevent these sources of interference and improve overall network performance, configure band selection on the device.
Off-Channel Scanning Deferral
A lightweight access point, in normal operational conditions, periodically goes off-channel and scans another channel. This is in order to perform RRM operations such as the following:
Transmitting and receiving Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) packets with other APs.
Detecting rogue APs and clients.
Measuring noise and interference.
During the off-channel period, which normally is about 70 milliseconds, the AP is unable to transmit or receive data on its serving channel. Therefore, there is a slight impact on its performance and some client transmissions might be dropped.
While the AP is sending and receiving important data, it is possible to configure off-channel scanning deferral so that the AP does not go off-channel and its normal operation is not impacted. You can configure off-channel scanning deferral on a per-WLAN basis, per WMM UP class basis, with a specified time threshold in milliseconds. If the AP sends or receives, on a particular WLAN, a data frame marked with the given UP class within the specified threshold, the AP defers its next RRM off-channel scan. For example, by default, off-channel scanning deferral is enabled for UP classes 4, 5, and 6, with a time threshold of 100 millseconds. Therefore, when RRM is about to perform an off-channel scan, a data frame marked with UP 4, 5, or 6 is received within the last 100 milliseconds, RRM defers going off-channel. The AP radio does not go off-channel when a voice call sending and receiving audio samples are marked as UP class 6 for every active 20 milliseconds.
Off-channel scanning deferral does come with a tradeoff. Off-channel scanning can impact throughput by 2 percent or more, depending on the configuration, traffic patterns, and so on. Throughput can be slightly improved if you enable off-channel scanning deferral for all traffic classes and increase the time threshold. However, by not going off-channel, RRM can fail to identify AP neighbors and rogues, resulting in negative impact to security, DCA, TPC, and 802.11k messages.
In the 802.11 networks, lightweight access points broadcast a beacon at regular intervals, which coincides with the Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM). After the access point broadcasts the beacon, it transmits any buffered broadcast and multicast frames based on the value set for the DTIM period. This feature allows power-saving clients to wake up at the appropriate time if they are expecting broadcast or multicast data.
Typically, the DTIM value is set to 1 (to transmit broadcast and multicast frames after every beacon) or 2 (to transmit broadcast and multicast frames after every other beacon). For instance, if the beacon period of the 802.11 network is 100 ms and the DTIM value is set to 1, the access point transmits buffered broadcast and multicast frames for 10 times every second. If the beacon period is 100 ms and the DTIM value is set to 2, the access point transmits buffered broadcast and multicast frames for 5 times every second. Either of these settings are suitable for applications, including Voice Over IP (VoIP), that expect frequent broadcast and multicast frames.
However, the DTIM value can be set as high as 255 (to transmit broadcast and multicast frames after every 255th beacon). The only recommended DTIM values are 1 and 2; higher DTIM values will likely cause communications problems.
A beacon period, which is specified in milliseconds on the device, is converted internally by the software to 802.11 Time Units (TUs), where 1 TU = 1.024 milliseconds. Depending on the AP model, the actual beacon period may vary slightly; for example, a beacon period of 100 ms may in practice equate to 104.448 ms.
You can configure a WLAN with a session timeout. The session timeout is the maximum time for a client session to remain active before requiring reauthorization.
If a WLAN is configured with Layer 2 security, for example WPA2-PSK, and a Layer 3 authentication is also configured, the WLAN session timeout value is overridden with the dot1x reauthentication timeout value. If apf reauthentication timeout value is greater than 65535, the WLAN session timeout is by default set to 65535; else, the configured dot1x reauthentication timeout value is applied as the WLAN session timeout.
This section contains the following subsections:
Cisco Client Extensions
The Cisco Client Extensions (CCX) software is licensed to manufacturers and vendors of third-party client devices. The CCX code resident on these clients enables them to communicate wirelessly with Cisco access points and to support Cisco features that other client devices do not, including those features that are related to increased security, enhanced performance, fast roaming, and power management.
The software supports CCX versions 1 through 5, which enables devices and their access points to communicate wirelessly with third-party client devices that support CCX. CCX support is enabled automatically for every WLAN on the device and cannot be disabled. However, you can configure Aironet information elements (IEs).
If Aironet IE support is enabled, the access point sends an Aironet IE 0x85 (which contains the access point name, load, number of associated clients, and so on) in the beacon and probe responses of this WLAN, and the device sends Aironet IEs 0x85 and 0x95 (which contains the management IP address of the device and the IP address of the access point) in the reassociation response if it receives Aironet IE 0x85 in the reassociation request.
Peer-to-peer blocking is applied to individual WLANs, and each client inherits the peer-to-peer blocking setting of the WLAN to which it is associated. Peer-to-Peer enables you to have more control over how traffic is directed. For example, you can choose to have traffic bridged locally within the device, dropped by the device, or forwarded to the upstream VLAN.
Peer-to-peer blocking is supported for clients that are associated with local and central switching WLANs.
This section contains the following subsections:
You can choose a diagnostic channel to troubleshoot why the client is having communication problems with a WLAN. You can test the client and access points to identify the difficulties that the client is experiencing and allow corrective measures to be taken to make the client operational on the network. You can use the device GUI or CLI to enable the diagnostic channel, and you can use the device diag-channel CLI to run the diagnostic tests.
We recommend that you enable the diagnostic channel feature only for nonanchored SSIDs that use the management interface. CCX Diagnostic feature has been tested only with clients having Cisco ADU card