Document ID: 113362
Updated: Jan 31, 2013
Contributed by Nicolas Darchis, Cisco TAC Engineer.
This documents describe how to configure central web authentication with wired clients connected to switches with the help of Identity Services Engine (ISE).
The concept of central web authentication is opposed to local web authentication, which is the usual web authentication on the switch itself. In that system, upon dot1x/mab failure, the switch will failover to the webauth profile and will redirect client traffic to a web page on the switch.
Central web authentication offers the possibility to have a central device that acts as a web portal (here the ISE). The major difference compared to the usual local web authentication is that it is shifted to Layer 2 along with mac/dot1x authentication. The concept also differs in that the radius server (ISE here) returns special attributes that indicate to the switch that a web redirection must occur. This solution has the advantage to eliminate any delay that was necessary for web authentication to kick. Globally, if the MAC address of the client station is not known by the radius server (but other criteria can also be used), the server returns redirection attributes and the switch authorizes the station (via MAC authentication bypass (MAB)) but places an access list to redirect the web traffic to the portal. Once the user logs in on the guest portal, it is possible via CoA (Change of Authorization) to bounce the switch port so that a new Layer 2 MAB authentication occurs. The ISE can then remember it was a webauth user and apply Layer 2 attributes (like dynamic VAN assignment) to the user. An ActiveX component can also force the client PC to refresh its IP address.
Cisco recommends knowledge on these topics:
Identity Services Engine (ISE)
Cisco IOS® switch configuration
The information in this document is based on these software and hardware versions:
Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE), Release 1.1.1
Cisco Catalyst 3560 Series Switch that runs software version 12.2.55SE3
The information in this document was created from the devices in a specific lab environment. All of the devices used in this document started with a cleared (default) configuration. If your network is live, make sure that you understand the potential impact of any command.
Refer to the Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for more information on document conventions.
ISE configuration is made up of these four steps:
Complete these steps in order to create the authorization profile:
Click Policy, and then click Policy Elements.
Expand Authorization, and then click Authorization profile.
Click the Add button in order to create a new authorization profile for central webauth.
In the Name field, enter a name for the profile. This example uses CentralWebauth.
Choose ACCESS_ACCEPT from the Access Type drop-down list.
Check the Web Authentication check box, and choose Centralized from the drop-down list.
In the ACL field, enter the name of the ACL on the switch that defines the traffic that will be redirected. This examples uses redirect.
Choose Default from the Redirect drop-down list.
The Redirect attribute defines whether the ISE sees the default web portal or a custom web portal that the ISE admin created. For example, the redirect ACL in this example triggers a redirection upon HTTP or HTTPS traffic from the client to anywhere. The ACL is defined on the switch later in this configuration example.
Complete these steps in order to use the authentication profile to create the authentication rule:
Under the Policy menu, click Authentication.
This image shows an example of how to configure the authentication policy rule. In this example, a rule is configured that will trigger when MAB is detected.
Enter a name for your authentication rule. This example uses MAB.
Select the plus (+) icon in the If condition field.
Choose Compound condition, and then choose Wired_MAB.
Click the arrow located next to and ... in order to expand the rule further.
Click the + icon in the Identity Source field, and choose Internal endpoints.
Choose Continue from the If user not found drop-down list.
This option allows a device to be authenticated (through webauth) even if its MAC address is not known. Dot1x clients can still authenticate with their credentials and should not be concerned with this configuration.
There are now several rules to configure in the authorization policy. When the PC is plugged in, it will go through MAB; it is assumed that the MAC address is not known, so the webauth and ACL are returned. This MAC not known rule is shown in the image below and is configured in this section:
Complete these steps in order to create the authorization rule:
Create a new rule, and enter a name. This example uses MAC not known.
Click the plus ( +) icon in the condition field, and choose to create a new condition.
Expand the expression drop-down list.
Choose Session, and expand it.
Click PostureStatus, and choose the Equals operator.
Choose UnknownUser in the right-hand field.
On the General Authorization page, choose CentralWebauth (Authorization Profile) in the field to the right of the word then.
This step allows the ISE to continue even though the user (or the MAC) is not known.
Unknown users are now presented with the Login page. However, once they enter their credentials, they are presented again with an authentication request on the ISE; therefore, another rule must be configured with a condition that is met if the user is a guest user. In this example, If UseridentityGroup equals Guest is used, and it is assumed that all guests belong to this group.
Click the actions button located at the end of the MAC not known rule, and choose to insert a new rule above.
Note: It is very important that this new rule comes before the MAC not known rule.
Enter a name for the new rule. This example uses IS-a-GUEST.
Choose a condition that will match your guest users.
This example uses InternalUser:IdentityGroup Equals Guest because all guest users are bound to the Guest group (or another group you configured in your sponsor settings).
Choose PermitAccess in the result box (located to the right of then).
When the user is authorized on the Login page, ISE restarts a Layer 2 authentication on the switch port and a new MAB occurs. In this scenario, the difference is that an invisible flag is set for ISE to remember that it was a guest-authenticated user. This rule is 2nd AUTH, and the condition is Network Access:UseCase Equals GuestFlow. This condition is met when the user authenticates via webauth and the switch port is set again for a new MAB. You can assign any attributes you like. This example assigns a profile vlan90 so that the user is assigned the VLAN 90 in his second MAB authentication.
Click Actions (located at the end of the IS-a-GUEST rule), and choose Insert new rule above.
Enter 2nd AUTH in the name field.
In the condition field, click the plus (+) icon, and choose to create a new condition.
Choose Network Access, and click UseCase.
Choose Equals as the operator.
Choose GuestFlow as the right operand.
On the authorization page, click the plus (+) icon (located next to then) in order to choose a result for your rule.
In this example, a preconfigured profile (vlan90) is assigned; this configuration is not shown in this document.
You can choose a Permit Access option or create a custom profile in order to return the VLAN or attributes that you like.
If you assign a VLAN, the final step is for the client PC to renew its IP address. This step is achieved by the guest portal for Windows clients. If you did not set a VLAN for the 2nd AUTH rule earlier, you can skip this step.
If you assigned a VLAN, complete these steps in order to enable IP renewal:
Click Administration, and then click Guest Management.
Expand Guest, and then expand Mult-Portal Configuration.
Click DefaultGuestPortal or the name of a custom portal you may have created.
Click the Vlan DHCP Release check box.
Note: This option works only for Windows clients.
This section provides an excerpt of the switch configuration. See Switch Configuration (Full) for the full configuration.
This sample shows a simple MAB configuration.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/12 description ISE1 - dot1x clients - UCS Eth0 switchport access vlan 100 switchport mode access ip access-group webauth in authentication order mab authentication priority mab authentication port-control auto mab spanning-tree portfast end
VLAN 100 is the VLAN that provides full network connectivity. A default port ACL (named webauth) is applied and defined as shown as follows:
ip access-list extended webauth permit ip any any
This sample configuration gives full network access even if the user is not authenticated; therefore, you might want to restrict access to unauthenticated users.
In this configuration, HTTP and HTTPS browsing does not work without authentication (per the other ACL) since ISE is configured to use a redirect ACL (named redirect). Here is the definition on the switch:
ip access-list extended redirect deny ip any host <ISE ip address> permit TCP any any eq www permit TCP any any eq 443
This access list must be defined on the switch to define on which traffic the switch will perform the redirection. (It matches on permit.) In this example, any HTTP or HTTPS traffic that the client sends triggers a web redirection. This example also denies the ISE IP address so traffic to the ISE goes to the ISE and does not redirect in a loop. (In this scenario, deny does not block the traffic; it just does not redirect the traffic.) If you are using unusual HTTP ports or a proxy, you can add other ports.
Another possibility is to allow HTTP access to some web sites and redirect other web sites. For example, if you define in the ACL a permit for internal web servers only, clients could browse the web without authenticating but would encounter the redirect if they try to access an internal web server.
The last step is to allow CoA on the switch. Otherwise, the ISE cannot force the switch to reauthenticate the client.
aaa server radius dynamic-author client <ISE ip address> server-key <radius shared secret>
This command is required for the switch to redirect based on HTTP traffic:
ip http server
This command is required to redirect based on HTTPS traffic:
ip http secure-server
These commands are also important:
radius-server vsa send authentication radius-server vsa send accounting
If the user is not yet authenticated, the show authentication session int <interface num> returns this output:
01-SW3750-access#show auth sess int gi1/0/12 Interface: GigabitEthernet1/0/12 MAC Address: 0050.5600.0003 IP Address: 192.168.100.13 User-Name: 00-50-56-00-00-03 Status: Authz Success Domain: DATA Security Policy: Should Secure Security Status: Unsecure Oper host mode: single-host Oper control dir: both Authorized By: Authentication Server Vlan Group: N/A URL Redirect ACL: redirect URL Redirect: https://w-ise-adm-1.wlaaan.com:8443/guestportal/gateway? sessionId=C0A865FE00000006EC31A48B&action=cwa Session timeout: N/A Idle timeout: N/A Common Session ID: C0A865FE00000006EC31A48B Acct Session ID: 0x0000000B Handle: 0x95000006 Runnable methods list: Method State mab Authc Success
Note: Despite the MAB authentication being a success, the redirect ACL is placed since the MAC address was not known by ISE.
This section lists the full switch configuration. Some unnecessary interfaces and command lines have been omitted; therefore, this sample configuration should be used for reference only and should not be copied.
Building configuration... Current configuration : 6885 bytes ! version 15.0 no service pad service timestamps debug datetime msec localtime show-timezone service timestamps log datetime msec localtime show-timezone no service password-encryption ! ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$xqtx$VPsZHbpGmLyH/EOObPpla. ! aaa new-model ! ! aaa group server radius newGroup ! aaa authentication login default local aaa authentication dot1x default group radius aaa authorization exec default none aaa authorization network default group radius ! ! ! ! aaa server radius dynamic-author client 192.168.131.1 server-key cisco ! aaa session-id common clock timezone CET 2 0 system mtu routing 1500 vtp interface Vlan61 udld enable nmsp enable ip routing ip dhcp binding cleanup interval 600 ! ! ip dhcp snooping ip device tracking ! ! crypto pki trustpoint TP-self-signed-1351605760 enrollment selfsigned subject-name cn=IOS-Self-Signed-Certificate-1351605760 revocation-check none rsakeypair TP-self-signed-1351605760 ! ! crypto pki certificate chain TP-self-signed-1351605760 certificate self-signed 01 30820245 308201AE A0030201 02020101 300D0609 2A864886 F70D0101 04050030 31312F30 2D060355 04031326 494F532D 53656C66 2D536967 6E65642D 43657274 69666963 6174652D 31333531 36303537 3630301E 170D3933 30333031 30303033 35385A17 0D323030 31303130 30303030 305A3031 312F302D 06035504 03132649 4F532D53 656C662D 5369676E 65642D43 65727469 66696361 74652D31 33353136 30353736 3030819F 300D0609 2A864886 F70D0101 01050003 818D0030 81890281 8100B068 86D31732 E73D2FAD 05795D6D 402CE60A B93D4A88 C98C3F54 0982911D D211EC23 77734A5B 7D7E5684 388AD095 67354C95 92FD05E3 F3385391 8AB9A866 B5925E04 A846F740 1C9AC0D9 6C829511 D9C5308F 13C4EA86 AF96A94E CD57B565 92317B2E 75D6AB18 04AC7E14 3923D3AC 0F19BC6A 816E6FA4 5F08CDA5 B95D334F DA410203 010001A3 6D306B30 0F060355 1D130101 FF040530 030101FF 30180603 551D1104 11300F82 0D69696C 796E6173 2D333536 302E301F 0603551D 23041830 16801457 D1216AF3 F0841465 3DDDD4C9 D08E06C5 9890D530 1D060355 1D0E0416 041457D1 216AF3F0 8414653D DDD4C9D0 8E06C598 90D5300D 06092A86 4886F70D 01010405 00038181 0014DC5C 2D19D7E9 CB3E8ECE F7CF2185 32D8FE70 405CAA03 dot1x system-auth-control dot1x critical eapol ! ! ! errdisable recovery cause bpduguard errdisable recovery interval 60 ! spanning-tree mode pvst spanning-tree logging spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default spanning-tree extend system-id spanning-tree vlan 1-200 priority 24576 ! vlan internal allocation policy ascending lldp run ! ! ! ! ! ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport access vlan 33 switchport mode access authentication order mab authentication priority mab authentication port-control auto mab spanning-tree portfast ! interface Vlan33 ip address 192.168.33.2 255.255.255.0 ! ip default-gateway 192.168.33.1 ip http server ip http secure-server ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.33.1 ! ip access-list extended MY_TEST permit ip any any ip access-list extended redirect deny ip any host 192.168.131.1 permit tcp any any eq www permit tcp any any eq 443 ip access-list extended webAuthList permit ip any any ! ip sla enable reaction-alerts logging esm config logging trap warnings logging facility auth logging 10.48.76.31 snmp-server community c3560public RO snmp-server community c3560private RW snmp-server community private RO radius-server host 192.168.131.1 auth-port 1812 acct-port 1813 key cisco radius-server vsa send authentication radius-server vsa send accounting ! ! ! privilege exec level 15 configure terminal privilege exec level 15 configure privilege exec level 2 debug radius privilege exec level 2 debug aaa privilege exec level 2 debug ! line con 0 line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 0 0 password Cisco123 authorization commands 1 MyTacacs authorization commands 2 MyTacacs authorization commands 15 MyTacacs authorization exec MyTacacs login authentication MyTacacs line vty 5 15 ! ntp server 10.48.76.33 end
If you use an HTTP proxy for your clients, it means that your clients:
Use a unconventional port for HTTP protocol
Send all their traffic to that proxy
In order to have the switch listen on the unconventional port (for example, 8080), use these commands:
ip http port 8080 ip port-map http port 8080
You also need to configure all clients to keep using their proxy but to not use the proxy for the ISE IP address. All browsers include a feature that allows you to enter host names or IP addresses that should not use the proxy. If you do not add the exception for the ISE, you will encounter a loop authentication page.
The client PC plugs in and performs MAB. The MAC address is not known, so ISE pushes the redirection attributes back to the switch. The user tries to go to a website and is redirected.
When the authentication of the Login page is successful, the ISE bounces the switchport through Change Of Authorization, which starts again a Layer 2 MAB authentication.
However, the ISE knows that it is a former webauth client and authorizes the client based on the webauth credentials (although this is a Layer 2 authentication).
In the ISE authentication logs, the MAB authentication appears at the bottom of the log. Although it is unknown, the MAC address was authenticated and profiled, and the webauth attributes were returned. Next, authentication occurs with the user's username (that is, the user types his credentials in the Login page). Immediately after authentication, a new Layer 2 authentication occurs with the username as credentials; this authentication step is where you can return attributes such dynamic VLAN.
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