This document provides an overview of the hardware and software architecture of the Cisco 1600 Series Routers.
There are no specific requirements for this document.
The information in this document is based on the Cisco 1600 Series Routers.
The information in this document was created from the devices in a specific lab environment. All of the devices used in this document started with a cleared (default) configuration. If your network is live, make sure that you understand the potential impact of any command.
For more information on document conventions, refer to the Cisco Technical Tips Conventions.
Cisco 1600 Series Routers are composed of these router models:
Cisco 1601 and 1601R—Ethernet/Serial Modular Router
Cisco 1602 and 1602R—Ethernet/Serial Modular Router with 56K CSU/DSU (4-wire)
Cisco 1603 and 1603R—Ethernet/ISDN-BRI (S/T interface) Modular Router
Cisco 1604 and 1604R—Ethernet/ISDN-BRI Modular Router with NT1 (U interface)
Cisco 1605R—Dual Ethernet Modular Router
In addition, all the 1600 router models have one WAN interface card (WIC) slot where you can insert one of the WAN Interface Cards for the Cisco 1600 Series Routers.Figure 1 – Cisco 1601 and 1601R Rear Panel
Figure 2 – Cisco 1602 and 1602R Rear Panel
Figure 3 – Cisco 1603 and 1603R Rear Panel
Figure 4 – Cisco 1604 and 1604R Rear Panel
Figure 5 – Cisco 1605R Rear Panel
Figure 6 represents the basic block diagram of the 1600 router.Figure 6 – Basic Block Diagram of the 1600 Router
The basic characteristics and functions of each block in this platform can be summarized as:
Processor—The processor used in the 160x Series is the Motorola 68360 Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC). The main job of the processor is to load instructions defined in Cisco IOS® software from PCMCIA Flash or from RAM (for the R models) and execute them, which basically involves some manipulation of data. The M68360 is an embedded controller, and has a 32-bit address, a 32-bit data bus, a 33 MHz internal clock, and a built-in Serial Communication Channels (SCC).
Memory—This is discussed in more detail in the Memory Details section.
Buses—Buses are used by the CPU to access various components of the system and transfer instructions and data to or from specified memory addresses.
CPU Bus is for high speed operations, with direct processor access. It has a 32-bit address and 32-bit data at 33 MHz. These include access to dynamic RAM (DRAM), Boot ROM, Non-Volatile RAM (NVRAM), PCMCIA Flash, and WIC.
Input/Output (I/O) Bus allows the M68360 to individually control other devices through the SCCs. This includes Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART), the Ethernet controller, and the WAN port interface.
Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter (UART)—UART is an SCC integrated on the M68360. It provides the necessary user interface. It has one RS232 port, and a data communications equipment (DCE) (console) RJ45.
Note: UART has no Auxiliary (data terminal equipment - DTE) port. Higher console speeds (up to 115.2 Kbps) are supported. The download of Cisco IOS software images over the console port is supported through xmodem or ymodem.
WAN interface cards (WIC)—WICs are media-specific network interfaces responsible for data transfer in and out of the 160x series router. WICs communicate with the CPU through the CPU Bus for packet transfer. Specialized Controllers (or application-specific integrated circuits - ASICs) used for media support perform the above-mentioned functionality. WICs do not support Online Insertion and Removal (OIR).
Power supply—Power supply provides power to various components of the router.
Different kinds of memory reside in the Cisco 1600 Series Router, and each of them is handled in a different way and for different purposes.Figure 7 – Memory Details
DRAM is logically divided into Main Processor memory and Shared Input/Output (I/O) memory.
Main Processor Memory—It is used to store routing tables, fast switching cache, running configuration, and so on. It can take unused shared I/O memory, if needed.
Shared I/O Memory—It is used for temporary storage of packets in system buffers at the time of process switching, and interface buffers during fast switching. Cisco 1600 Series Routers running Cisco IOS software versions prior to the integration of CSCdk40685 (registered customers only) have a fixed I/O memory of 512 KB. After CSCdk40685, if the router has enough memory, it allocates 25% to I/O memory. If not, I/O memory remains at 512 KB.
You can use the show memory summary command to see the distribution of DRAM memory.
Router-1600#show memory summary Head Total(b) Used(b) Free(b) Lowest(b) Largest(b) Processor 20B3A7C 13419908 2334632 11085276 10907924 10907920 I/O 2D80000 4718592 247324 4471268 4466128 4464852 .... ! --- Output Suppressed
Physically, DRAM is a combination of 2 MB on-board non-parity chips, and one Single In-line Memory Module (SIMM) [72-pin, 60 ns, with or without parity]. If SIMM is non-parity, total DRAM can be up to 18 MB. If SIMM is with parity, total DRAM can be up to 16 MB (on-board 2 MB will be disabled).
Note: The Cisco 1605-R Series Router has 8 MB on-board. Therefore, total DRAM can be up to 24 MB on that router. For more information, see Comparison of Cisco 1601, Cisco 1604, and Cisco 1605-R Memory Architectures.
Note: To install or replace the DRAM, see Installing or Replacing the DRAM SIMM in Cisco 1600 Series Routers.
PCMCIA Flash is the only way to permanently store and move a complete Cisco IOS software image, backup configurations, or any other files.
PCMCIA Flash on the Cisco 1600 Series Router is implemented using one slot for Fast PC cards (up to 16MB).
The PCMCIA Flash card on the Cisco 1600 Series Router uses the Filesystem Class "B". This is the same type used for the Cisco 1000 Series Router and Cisco 3600 Series Router. For PCMCIA format compatibility information, see PCMCIA Filesystem Compatibility Matrix.
NVRAM is used for permanent storage of the startup configuration that is writeable. It is also used for permanent storage of hardware revision and identification information, and also Media Access Control (MAC) addresses for LAN interfaces. It is a battery-backed Static RAM (SRAM). The life-span of NVRAM is specified in the maximum number of writes and a maximum time limit. NVRAM size is 8 KB.
BOOT ROM is an Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) used to permanently store startup diagnostic code (ROM Monitor), and RxBoot. Boot ROM size is 2 MB. The Cisco 1600 Series Router runs RxBoot from Boot ROM.
For information on how to upgrade the Boot ROM, see Upgrading the Boot ROMs in Cisco 1600 Series Routers.
Registers are small, fast memory units used to store special purpose information, such as interrupt status, instruction currently in execution, and so on. The location of registers depends upon their use. For example, the main processor contains the instruction register and other control registers. UART contains its own status register such as other I/O devices and data read/write registers on various components. The main processor also contains general purpose registers for integer and floating point data used in an instruction execution.
The different types of memory can be seen in the output of the show version command:
Router-1600#show version Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600-Y-L), Version 12.2(10b), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Fri 12-Jul-02 03:29 by pwade Image text-base: 0x0803A50C, data-base: 0x02005000 ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.1(7)AX [kuong (7)AX], EARLY DEPLOYMENT RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2) ROM: 1600 Software (C1600-BOOT-R), Version 11.1(7)AX, EARLY DEPLOYMENT RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2) Router-1600 uptime is 3 days, 8 hours, 1 minute System returned to ROM by power-on System image file is "flash:c1600-y-l.122-10b.bin" cisco 1604 (68360) processor (revision C) with 4608K/1536K bytes of memory. Processor board ID 04607098, with hardware revision 00000000 Bridging software. X.25 software, Version 3.0.0. Basic Rate ISDN software, Version 1.1. 1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s) 1 ISDN Basic Rate interface(s) U interface with external S bus interface for ISDN Basic Rate interface. System/IO memory with parity disabled 2048K bytes of DRAM onboard 4096K bytes of DRAM on SIMM System running from FLASH 7K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory. 16384K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read ONLY) Configuration register is 0x2102
For more information, see Comparison of Cisco 1601-Cisco 1604 and Cisco 1605-R Memory Architectures.
All Cisco products do not have the same components or mechanisms to boot. This section describes the boot sequence in the Cisco 1600 Series Router.
The boot ROM which is read-only memory contains two programs:
The ROM monitor or ROMmon—The ROMmon is a diagnostic image that provides the user with a limited subset of commands. This diagnostic mode is most often used during recovery procedures (forgotten password or wrong/corrupted Cisco IOS software). It is possible to view or modify the configuration register from this mode and to perform a Cisco IOS software upgrade through the xmodem transfer.
The Bootstrap (RxBoot)—The bootstrap program is written to find and load a copy of Cisco IOS software based on the settings of the configuration register. The Cisco IOS software image can be located either on the system Flash, on a PCMCIA Flash card, or on a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server. Usually, the Cisco IOS software image resides on the PCMCIA Flash card.
When a Cisco 1600 Series Router is first powered up, the boot-up sequence involves these steps:
ROMmon (in Boot ROM) takes control of the Main Processor and handles the following:
Control register settings.
Initial diagnostic tests of memory and other hardware.
Data structure initialization.
Flash file system (MONLIB) setup.
Based on the configuration register value in Non-Volatile RAM (NVRAM), the router either stays in ROMmon, or RxBoot is executed from Boot ROM.
RxBoot analyzes the hardware. Based on the configuration register value, the router either stays in RxBoot, or the Cisco IOS software image file (default, or as defined in the startup configuration) is executed from PCMCIA Flash or RAM (or moved there from the network). This main Cisco IOS software image analyzes the hardware again.
The router configuration file, which is stored in NVRAM, can contain boot system commands. For example, boot system flash slot0:c1600-sy-l.122-1a.bin.
This forces the RxBoot to look for the c1600-sy-l.122-1a.bin file on the Flash device called "slot0:". The boot system directive in the router configuration file overrides the configuration register. If there is no boot system statement, and if the configuration register is at its default value, the RxBoot grabs the first file it finds in its Flash. If that fails, it tries to load an image from boot ROM.
The Cisco IOS software creates some data structures such as Interface Descriptor Blocks (IDBs) in the main processor memory, carve interface, and system buffers on shared input/output (I/O) memory, and loads the startup configuration. RxBoot also performs these functions, but it does not re-analyze the hardware unless the full Cisco IOS software is executed.Figure 8 – Sequence of Operations
Here is an example of this platform booting from Flash:
3d08h: %SYS-5-RELOAD: Reload requested by console. System Bootstrap, Version 11.1(7)AX [kuong (7)AX], EARLY DEPLOYMENT RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2) Copyright (c) 1994-1996 by cisco Systems, Inc. C1600 processor with 6144 Kbytes of main memory program load complete, entry point: 0x4018060, size: 0x1da950 Restricted Rights Legend Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013. cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, California 95134-1706 Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600-Y-L), Version 12.2(10b), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1986-2001 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Fri 12-Jul-02 03:29 by pwade Image text-base: 0x0803A50C, data-base: 0x02005000cisco 1604 (68360) processor (revision C) with 4608K/1536K bytes of memory. Processor board ID 04607098, with hardware revision 00000000 Bridging software. X.25 software, Version 3.0.0. Basic Rate ISDN software, Version 1.1. 1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s) 1 ISDN Basic Rate interface(s) U interface with external S bus interface for ISDN Basic Rate interface. System/IO memory with parity disabled 2048K bytes of DRAM onboard 4096K bytes of DRAM on SIMM System running from FLASH 7K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory. 16384K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read ONLY) Press RETURN to get started! 00:00:36: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from memory by console 00:00:36: %SYS-5-RESTART: System restarted -- Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600-Y-L), Version 12.2(10b), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Fri 12-Jul-02 03:29 by pwade Router-1600>
The switching architecture of the Cisco 1600 Series Router is based on the shared memory architecture. The Cisco 2500, 4x00 and AS5300 Series also use this switching architecture.
Cisco IOS software on shared memory routers uses the system buffers for all packet switching, not just process switching. In addition to the standard public buffer pools, the Cisco IOS software also creates private system buffer pools and special buffer structures for the interface controllers called RX rings and TX rings.
Private buffer pools are static, and are allocated with a fixed number of buffers during initialization of the Cisco IOS software. New buffers cannot be created on demand for these pools. If a buffer is needed, and none is available in the private pool, Cisco IOS software falls back to the public buffer pool for the size that matches the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the interface.
Cisco IOS software creates these rings on behalf of the media controllers and then manages them jointly with the controllers. Each interface has a pair of rings: a receive (RX) ring to receive packets and a transmit (TX) ring to transmit packets.
Receive rings have a constant number of packet buffers allocated to them that equals the size of the ring. The show controllers command below displays the size and the location of the receive and transmit rings:
router#show controllers ethernet 0 QUICC Ethernet unit 0 using SCC1, Microcode ver 3 Current station address 0060.5cbc.3d41, default address 0060.5cbc.3d41 idb at 0x2AFE0EC, driver data structure at 0x2AEF820 SCC Registers: General [GSMR]=0x0:0x1088003C, Protocol-specific [PSMR]=0x80A Events [SCCE]=0x0000, Mask [SCCM]=0x001F, Status [SCCS]=0x0002 Transmit on Demand [TODR]=0x0, Data Sync [DSR]=0xD555 Interrupt Registers: Config [CICR]=0x00368461, Pending [CIPR]=0x0100C402 ... !--- Output suppressed RX ring with 16 entries at 0xFF00420, Buffer size 1524 Rxhead = 0xFF00458 (7), Rxp = 0x2AEF858 (7) 00 pak=0x2B00F34 buf=0x2D8A48C status=9000 pak_size=0 01 pak=0x2B02B24 buf=0x2D8F55C status=9000 pak_size=0 02 pak=0x2B01D2C buf=0x2D8CCF4 status=9000 pak_size=0 03 pak=0x2B00CE0 buf=0x2D89DD0 status=9000 pak_size=0 ... !--- Output suppressed TX ring with 4 entries at 0xFF004A0, tx_count = 0 tx_head = 0xFF004A0 (0), head_txp = 0x2AEF898 (0) tx_tail = 0xFF004A0 (0), tail_txp = 0x2AEF898 (0) 00 pak=0x0000000 buf=0x0000000 status=0000 pak_size=0 01 pak=0x0000000 buf=0x0000000 status=0000 pak_size=0 02 pak=0x0000000 buf=0x0000000 status=0000 pak_size=0 03 pak=0x0000000 buf=0x0000000 status=2000 pak_size=0 ... !--- Output suppressed
The highlighted entries are explained here:
RX ring with 16 entries at 0xFF00420, Buffer size 1524—The size of the receive ring is 16, and it begins at the address 0x0xFF00420 in I/O memory. The size of the buffers for the Ethernet interface is 1524.
TX ring with 4 entries at 0xFF004A0, TX_count = 0—The size of the transmit ring is 4, it begins at the address 0xFF004A0 in I/O memory and there are no packets that await transmission on this interface.
This description is based on the book Inside Cisco IOS Software Architecture, Cisco Press1.
1"CCIE Professional Development: Inside Cisco IOS Software Architecture" by Vijay Bollapragada, Curtis Murphy, Russ White (ISBN 1-57870-181-3).
Step 1: The interface media controller detects a packet on the network media and copies it into a buffer to which the first free element in the receive ring points. Media controllers use the Direct Memory Access (DMA) method to copy packet data into memory.
Step 2: The media controller changes ownership of the packet buffer back to the processor, and issues a receive interrupt to the processor. The media controller does not have to wait for a response from the CPU, and continues to receive incoming packets into the receive ring.
It is possible for the media controller to fill the receive ring before the processor processes all the new buffers in the ring. This condition is called an overrun. When this occurs, all incoming packets are dropped until the processor recovers.
Step 3: The CPU responds to the receive interrupt, and attempts to remove the newly-filled buffer from the receive ring, and replenishes the ring from the private pool of the interface. Notice that packets are not physically moved within the I/O memory. Instead, only the pointers are changed. If the input hold queue of the interface is full, the packet is dropped; otherwise, three outcomes are possible:
3.1: A free buffer is available in the private pool of the interface to replenish the receive ring. The free buffer is linked to the receive ring and the packet now belongs to the private buffers pool of the interface.
3.2: A free buffer is not available in the private pool of the interface, so the receive ring falls back to the global pool that matches the MTU of the interface, in order to be replenished. The fallback counter value increases for the private pool.
3.3: If a free buffer is not available in the public pool as well, the incoming packet is dropped, and the ignore counter value increases. In addition, the interface is throttled and all incoming traffic is ignored on this interface for a short period.
Step 4: After the receive ring is replenished, the CPU begins to switch the packet. Cisco IOS software attempts to switch the packet with the help of the fastest method configured on the interface. On shared memory routers, it first tries Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) switching (if configured), then fast switching (unless the no ip route-cache command is configured on the interface), and finally, process switching if none of the others work.
Step 5: While still in the receive interrupt context, the Cisco IOS software attempts to use the CEF table or the fast switching cache to make a switching decision. Switching can be:
5.1: CEF switching—If there are valid CEF and adjacency table entries, the Cisco IOS software rewrites the Media Access Control (MAC) header on the packet and begins to transmit it (see Step 8). If there is no CEF entry for the destination, the packet is dropped.
5.2: Fast switching—If CEF is not enabled or the packet cannot be CEF switched, the Cisco IOS software attempts to fast-switch the packet. If there is a valid fast cache entry for this destination, the Cisco IOS software rewrites the MAC header information and begins to transmit the packet (see Step 8). If there is no valid fast cache entry, the packet is queued for process switching (see Step 6).
Step 6: Process switching—If both CEF and fast switching fail, the Cisco IOS software falls back to process switching. The packet goes in the queue of the appropriate process (for instance, an IP packet is placed in the queue for the IP Input process), and the receive interrupt is dismissed.
Step 7: Eventually the packet switching process runs, and switches the packet and rewrites the MAC header as needed. Notice that the packet still has not moved from the buffer into which it was originally copied. After the packet is switched, the Cisco IOS software continues to the packet transmit stage.
Step 8: If the packet was CEF or fast switched, the Cisco IOS software checks to see if there are packets on the output queue of the outbound interface, while still in receive interrupt context.
8.1: If there are packets already on the output hold queue for the interface, the Cisco IOS software places the packet on the output hold queue instead of directly into the transmit ring to reduce the possibility of out-of-order packets, and then proceeds to Step 8.3.
8.2: If the output hold queue is empty, the Cisco IOS software places the packet on the transmit ring of the output interface. To do so, it links the packet buffer to a transmit ring descriptor. The receive interrupt is dismissed, and processing continues with Step 11. If there is no room on the transmit ring, the packet is placed on the output hold queue instead, and the receive interrupt is dismissed.
8.3: If the output hold queue is full, the packet is dropped, the output drop counter value increases, and the receive interrupt is dismissed.
Step 9: If the packet was process-switched, the packet is placed on the output queue for the input interface. If the output queue is full, the packet is dropped and the output drop counter value increases.
Step 10: The Cisco IOS software attempts to find a free descriptor in the output interface transmit ring. If a free descriptor exists, the Cisco IOS software removes the packet from the output hold queue and links the buffer to the transmit ring. If the ring is full, the Cisco IOS software leaves the packet in the output hold queue until the media controller transmits a packet from the ring and frees a descriptor.
Step 11: The outbound interface media controller polls its transmit ring periodically for packets that need to be transmitted. As soon as the media controller detects a packet, it copies the packet onto the network media and raises a transmit interrupt to the processor.
Step 12: The Cisco IOS software acknowledges the transmit interrupt, de-links the packet buffer from the transmit ring, and returns the buffer to the pool of buffers from which it originated. The Cisco IOS software then checks the output hold queue for the interface. If any packets await in the output hold queue, the Cisco IOS software removes the next one from the queue and links it to the transmit ring. Finally, the transmit interrupt is dismissed.
- Password Recovery Procedure for the Cisco 1600 Series Router
- Cisco 1600 Series Routers
- ROMmon Recovery for the Cisco 1600 Series Router
- Hardware Troubleshooting for Cisco 1600 Routers
- Maximum Number of Interfaces and Subinterfaces for Cisco IOS Platforms: IDB Limits
- Cisco 1600 Series Product Support Page
- Technical Support - Cisco Systems
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Refer to Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for information on conventions used in this document.