Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide, Release 4.1
Using Templates
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Using Templates

Table Of Contents

Using Templates

Adding Controller Templates

Configuring an NTP Server Template

Configuring General Templates

Configuring QoS Templates

Configuring a Traffic Stream Metrics QoS Template

Configuring WLAN Templates

Security

QoS

Advanced

Configuring a File Encryption Template

Configuring a RADIUS Authentication Template

Configuring a RADIUS Accounting Template

Configuring a LDAP Server Template

Configuring a TACACS+ Server Template

Configuring a Network Access Control Template

Configuring a Local EAP General Template

Configuring a Local EAP Profile Template

Configuring an EAP-FAST Template

Configuring Network User Credential Retrieval Priority Templates

Configuring a Local Network Users Template

Configuring Guest User Templates

Configuring a User Login Policies Template

Configuring a MAC Filter Template

Configuring an Access Point Authorization

Configuring a Manually Disabled Client Template

Configuring a CPU Access Control List (ACL) Template

Configuring a Rogue Policies Template

Configuring a Trusted AP Policies Template

Configuring a Client Exclusion Policies Template

Configuring an Access Point Authentication and MFP Template

Configuring a Web Authentication Template

Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Page

Configuring Access Control List Templates

Configuring a Policy Name Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring High Density Templates

Configuring a Voice Parameter Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring a Video Parameter Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring a Roaming Parameters Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring an RRM Threshold Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring an RRM Interval Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring an 802.11h Template

Configuring a Mesh Template

Configuring a Known Rogue Access Point Template

Configuring a Trap Receiver Template

Configuring a Trap Control Template

Configuring a Telnet SSH Template

Configuring a Syslog Template

Configuring a Local Management User Template

Configuring a User Authentication Priority Template

Applying Controller Templates

Adding Access Point Templates

Configuring Access Point/Radio Templates


Using Templates


This chapter describes how to add and apply controller templates. Information on creating (adding) access point templates is also provided.

Templates allow you to set parameters that you can then apply to multiple devices without having to re-enter the common information.


Note Template information can be overridden on individual devices.


This chapter contains these sections:

Adding Controller Templates

Applying Controller Templates

Adding Access Point Templates

Adding Controller Templates

Follow these steps to add a new controller template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 Choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO.

Step 3 Enter the template name.

Step 4 Provide a description of the template.

Step 5 Click Save.


A summary of the templates that can be added is highlighted below:

Configuring an NTP Server Template

Configuring General Templates

Configuring QoS Templates

Configuring a Traffic Stream Metrics QoS Template

Configuring WLAN Templates

Configuring a File Encryption Template

Configuring a RADIUS Authentication Template

Configuring a RADIUS Accounting Template

Configuring a LDAP Server Template

Configuring a TACACS+ Server Template

Configuring a Network Access Control Template

Configuring a Local EAP General Template

Configuring a Local EAP Profile Template

Configuring an EAP-FAST Template

Configuring Network User Credential Retrieval Priority Templates

Configuring a Local Network Users Template

Configuring Guest User Templates

Configuring a User Login Policies Template

Configuring a MAC Filter Template

Configuring an Access Point Authorization

Configuring a Manually Disabled Client Template

Configuring a CPU Access Control List (ACL) Template

Configuring a Rogue Policies Template

Configuring a Trusted AP Policies Template

Configuring a Client Exclusion Policies Template

Configuring an Access Point Authentication and MFP Template

Configuring a Web Authentication Template

Configuring Access Control List Templates

Configuring a Policy Name Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring High Density Templates

Configuring a Voice Parameter Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring a Video Parameter Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring a Roaming Parameters Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring an RRM Threshold Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring an RRM Interval Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Configuring an 802.11h Template

Configuring a Mesh Template

Configuring a Known Rogue Access Point Template

Configuring a Trap Receiver Template

Configuring a Trap Control Template

Configuring a Telnet SSH Template

Configuring a Syslog Template

Configuring a Local Management User Template

Configuring a User Authentication Priority Template

Configuring Access Point/Radio Templates

Configuring an NTP Server Template

Follow these steps to add a new network time protocol (NTP) server template to the controller configuration or make modifications to an existing NTP template. NTP is used to synchronize computer clocks on the internet.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To modify an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The NTP Server Template window appears (see Figure 10-1), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-1 NTP Servers Template

Step 3 Enter the NTP server IP address.

Step 4 Click Save.


Configuring General Templates

Follow these steps to add a new template with general information for a controller or make a change to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose System > General.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To modify an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The General Template window appears (see Figure 10-2).

Figure 10-2 General Template

Step 4 Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable flow control mode.

Step 5 Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable 802.3 bridging.

Step 6 Specify Layer 2 or Layer 3 transport mode. When set to Layer 3, the LWAPP uses IP addresses to communicate with the access points; these IP addresses are collected from a mandatory DHCP server. When set to Layer 2, the LWAPP uses proprietary code to communicate with the access points.

Step 7 At the Ethernet Multicast Support drop-drop menu, choose Disable to disable multicast support on the controller or Multicast to enable multicast support on the controller. Choose Unicast if the controller, upon receiving a multicast packet, forwards the packets to all the associated access points. H-REAP supports only unicast mode.

Step 8 Choose if you want to enable or disable aggressive load balancing.

Step 9 Choose to enable or disable peer-to-peer blocking mode. If you choose Disable, any same-subnet clients communicate through the controller. If you choose Enable, any same-subnet clients communicate through a higher-level router.

Step 10 At the Over Air AP Provision Mode drop-down menu, choose enable or disable.

Step 11 At the AP Fallback drop-down menu, choose enable or disable. Enabling fallback causes an access point which lost a primary controller connection to automatically return to service when the primary controller returns.

Step 12 Choose to enable or disable Apple talk bridging.

Step 13 Choose to enable or disable the fast SSID option. If enabled, the client connects instantly to the controller between SSIDs without having appreciable loss of connectivity. Normally, each client is connected to a particular WLAN identified by the SSID. If the client moves out of reach of the connected access point, the client has to reconnect to the controller using a different access point. This normal process consumes some time as the DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server has to assign an IP address to the client.

Step 14 Because the master controller is normally not used in a deployed network, the master controller setting is automatically disabled upon reboot or OS code upgrade. You may enable the controller to be configured as the master controller from the Master Controller Mode drop-down menu.

Step 15 Choose to enable or disable access to the controller management interface from wireless clients. Because of IPSec operation, management via wireless is only available to operators logging in across WPA, Static WEP, or VPN Pass Through WLANs. Wireless management is not available to clients attempting to log in via an IPSec WLAN.

Step 16 Choose to enable or disable link aggregation. Link aggregation allows you to reduce the number of IP addresses needed to configure the ports on your controller by grouping all the physical ports and creating a link aggregation group (LAG). In a 4402 model, two ports are combined to form a LAG whereas in a 4404 model, all four ports are combined to form a LAG.

If LAG is enabled on a controller, the following configuration changes occur:

Any dynamic interfaces that you have created will be deleted. This is done to prevent configuration inconsistencies in the interface database.

Interfaces cannot be created with the "Dynamic AP Manager" flag set.


Note You cannot create more than one LAG on a controller.


The advantages of creating a LAG are as follows:

It ensures that if one of the links goes down, the traffic is moved to the other links in the LAG. Hence, as long as one of the physical ports is working, the system remains functional.

It eliminates the need to configure separate backup ports for each interface.

Multiple AP-manager interfaces are not required since only one logical port is visible to the application.


Note When you make changes to the LAG configuration, the controller has to be rebooted for the changes to take effect.


Step 17 Choose to enable or disable symmetric mobility tunneling. With symmetric mobility tunneling, the controller provides inter-subnet mobility for clients roaming from one access point to another within a wireless LAN. The client traffic on the wired network is directly routed by the foreign controller. If a router has reverse path filtering (RPF) enabled (which provides additional checks on incoming packets), the communication is blocked. Symmetric mobility tunneling allows the client traffic to reach the controller designated as the anchor, even with RPF enabled.


Note All controllers in a mobility group should have the same symmetric tunneling mode.



Note For symmetric tunneling to take effect, you must reboot.


Step 18 Enter the operator-defined RF mobility group name in the Default Mobility Domain Name field.

Step 19 At the Mobility Anchor Group Keep Alive Interval, determine the delay between tries for clients attempting to join another access point. With this guest tunneling N+1 redundancy feature, the time it takes for a client to join another access point following a controller failure is decreased because a failure is quickly identified, the clients are moved away from the problem controller, and the clients are anchored to another controller.


Note When you hover over the parameter field with the mouse, the valid range for that field appears.


Step 20 At the Mobility Anchor Group Keep Alive Retries, specify the number of queries to anchor before the client declares it unreachable.


Note When you hover over the parameter field with the mouse, the valid range for that field appears.


Step 21 Enter the RF network group name between 8 and 19 characters. Radio Resource Management (RRM) neighbor packets are distributed among access points within an RF network group. The Cisco access points only accept RRM neighbor packets sent with this RF network name. The RRM neighbor packets sent with different RF network names will be dropped.

Step 22 Specify the time out for idle clients. The factory default is 300 seconds. When the timeout expires, the client loses authentication, briefly disassociates from the access point, reassociates, and re-authenticates.

Step 23 Specify the timeout in seconds for the address resolution protocol. The factory default is 300 seconds.

Step 24 At the CDP on controller drop-down menu, choose if you want to enable CDP on the controller. CDP is a device discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco manufactured equipment (such as routers, bridges, communication servers, and so on).

Step 25 At the Global CDP on APs drop-down menu, choose if you want to enable CDP on the access point.

Step 26 At the Refresh Time Interval parameter, enter the interval at which CDP messages are generated. With the regeneration, the neighbor entries are refreshed.

Step 27 At the Holdtime parameter, enter the time in seconds before the CDP neighbor entry expires.

Step 28 At the CDP Advertisement Version parameter, enter which version of the CDP protocol to use.

Step 29 Click Save.


Configuring QoS Templates

Follow these steps to make modifications to the quality of service profiles.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 On the left sidebar menu, choose System > QoS Profiles. The QoS Template window appears (see Figure 10-3), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-3 QoS Profile Template

Step 3 Set the following values in the Per-User Bandwidth Contracts portion of the window. All have a default of 0 or Off.

Average Data Rate - The average data rate for non-UDP traffic.

Burst Data Rate - The peak data rate for non-UDP traffic.

Average Real-time Rate - The average data rate for UDP traffic.

Burst Real-time Rate - The peak data rate for UDP traffic.

Step 4 Set the following values for the Over-the-Air QoS portion of the window.

Maximum QoS RF Usage per AP - The maximum air bandwidth available to clients. The default is 100%.

QoS Queue Depth - The depth of queue for a class of client. The packets with a greater value are dropped at the access point.

Step 5 Set the following values in the Wired QoS Protocol portion of the window.

Wired QoS Protocol - Choose 802.1P to activate 802. 1P priority tags or None to deactivate 802.1P priority flags.

802.1P Tag - Choose 802.1P priority tag for a wired connection from 0 to 7. This tag is used for traffic and LWAPP packets.

Step 6 Click Save.

Configuring a Traffic Stream Metrics QoS Template

Traffic stream metrics are a series of statistics about VoIP over your wireless LAN and informs you of the QoS of the wireless LAN. These statistics are different than the end-to-end statistics provided by VoIP systems. End-to-end statistics provide information on packet loss and latency covering all the links comprising the call path. However, traffic stream metrics are statistics for only the WLAN segment of the call. Because of this, system administrators can quickly determine whether audio problems are being caused by the WLAN or by other network elements participating in a call. By observing which access points have impaired QoS, system administrators can quickly determine the physical area where the problem is occurring. This is important when lack of radio coverage or excessive interference is the root problem.

Four QoS values (packet latency, packet jitter, packet loss, and roaming time), which can affect the audio quality of voice calls, are monitored. All the wireless LAN components participate in this process. Access points and clients measure the metrics, access points collect the measurements and then send them to the controller. The access points update the controller with traffic stream metric information every 90 seconds, and 10 minutes of data is stored at one time. Cisco Wireless Control System queries the controller for the metrics and displays them in the Traffic Stream Metrics QoS Status. These metrics are compared to threshold values to determine their status level and if any of the statistics are displaying a status level of fair (yellow) or degraded (red), the administrator should investigate the QoS of the wireless LAN.

For the access points to collect measurement values, traffic stream metrics must be enabled on the controller.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 On the left sidebar menu, choose System > Traffic Stream Metrics QoS. The Traffic Stream Metrics QoS Status Configuration window appears (see Figure 10-4).

Figure 10-4 Traffic Stream Metrics QoS Status Template

The Traffic Stream Metrics QoS Status Configuration window shows several QoS values. An administrator can monitor voice and video quality of the following:

Upstream delay

Upstream packet loss rate

Roaming time

Downstream packet loss rate

Downstream delay

Packet Loss Rate (PLR) affects the intelligibility of voice. Packet delay can affect both the intelligibility and conversational quality of the connection. Excessive roaming time produces undesired gaps in audio.

There are three levels of measurement:

Normal: Normal QoS (green)

Fair: Fair QoS (yellow)

Degraded: Degraded QoS (red)

System administrators should employ some judgement when setting the green, yellow, and red alarm levels. Some factors to consider are:

Environmental factors including interference and radio coverage which can affect PLR.

End-user expectations and system administrator requirements for audio quality on mobile devices (lower audio quality can permit greater PLR).

Different codec types used by the phones have different tolerance for packet loss.

Not all calls will be mobile-to-mobile; therefore, some will have less stringent PLR requirements for the wireless LAN.


Configuring WLAN Templates

WLAN templates allow you to define various WLAN profiles for application to different controllers.

In WCS software release 4.0.96.0 and later releases, you can configure multiple WLANs with the same SSID. This feature enables you to assign different Layer 2 security policies within the same wireless LAN. To distinguish among WLANs with the same SSID, you need to create a unique profile name for each WLAN.

These restrictions apply when configuring multiple WLANs with the same SSID:

WLANs with the same SSID must have unique Layer 2 security policies so that clients can make a WLAN selection based on information advertised in the beacons and probes. These are the available Layer 2 security policies:

None (open WLAN)

Static WEP or 802.1

CKIP

WPA/WPA2

Broadcast SSID must be enabled on the WLANs that share an SSID so that the access points can generate probe responses for these WLANs.

Hybrid-REAP access points do not support multiple SSIDs.

The WLAN override feature is not supported for use with multiple SSIDs.

Follow these steps to add a new WLAN template or make modifications to an existing WLAN template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 Choose WLANs > WLAN from the left sidebar menu.

The WLAN Template window appears with a summary of all existing defined WLANs. The following information headings are used to define the WLANs listed on the WLAN Template General window (see Figure 10-5).

Template Name - The user-defined name of the template. Clicking the name displays parameters for this template.

Profile Name - User-defined profile name used to distinguish WLANs with the same SSID.


Note This heading is not present in software release prior to 4.0.96.0.


SSID - Displays the name of the WLAN.

WLAN Status - Sets the status of the WLAN to enabled when checked.

Security Policies - Determines whether 802.1X is enabled. None indicates no 802.1X.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click a URL in the Template Name column. The WLAN Template window appears (see Figure 10-5).

Figure 10-5 WLAN Template

Step 4 Use the Radio Policy drop-down menu to set the WLAN policy to apply to All (802.11a/b/g), 802.11a only, 802.11g only, 802.11b/g only, or 802.11a/g only.

Step 5 Use the Interface drop-down menu to choose the available names of interfaces created by the Controller > Interfaces module.

Step 6 Click the Broadcast SSID to activate SSID broadcasts for this WLAN.

Step 7 Click Save.

Step 8 To further configure the WLAN template, choose from the following:

Click the Security tab to establish which AAA can override the default servers on this WLAN and to establish the security mode for Layer 2 and 3. Continue to the "Security" section.

Click the QoS tab to establish which quality of service will be expected for this WLAN. Continue to the "QoS" section.

Click the Advanced tab to configure any other details about the WLAN, such as DHCP assignments and management frame protection. Continue to the "Advanced" section.

Security

After choosing Security, you have an additional three tabs: Layer 2, Layer 3, and AAA Servers.

Layer 2

When you choose the Layer 2 tab, the window as shown in Figure 10-6 appears.

Figure 10-6 Layer 2 Window


Step 1 Use the Layer 2 Security drop-down menu to choose between None, WPA, WPA-2, Static WEP, 802.1X, Cranite, Fortress, Static WEP-802.1x, CKIP, and WPA1 + WPA2 as described in the table below.

Table 10-1 Layer 2 Security Options

Parameter
Description

None

No Layer 2 security selected.

802.1X

WEP 802.1X data encryption type (Note 1):

40/64 bit key.

104/128 bit key.

128/152 bit key.

WPA

This is a 3.2 controller code option and is not supported in 4.0 or later versions.

WPA-2

This is a 3.2 controller code option and is not supported in 4.0 or later versions.

Static WEP

Static WEP encryption parameters:

Key sizes: 40/64, 104/128 and 128/152 bit key sizes.

Key Index: 1 to 4 (Note 2).

Encryption key required.

Select encryption key format in ASCII or HEX.

Cranite

Configure the WLAN to use the FIPS140-2 compliant Cranite WirelessWall Software Suite, which uses AES encryption and VPN tunnels to encrypt and verify all data frames carried by the Cisco Wireless LAN Solution.

Fortress

FIPS 40-2 compliant Layer 2 security feature.

Static WEP-802.1X

Use this setting to enable both Static WEP and 802.1x policies. If this option is selected, static WEP and 802.1x parameters are displayed at the bottom of the page.

Static WEP encryption parameters:

Key sizes: 40/64, 104/128 and 128/152 bit key sizes.

Key Index: 1 to 4 (Note 2).

Enter encryption key.

Select encryption key format in ASCII or HEX.

WEP 802.1X data encryption type (Note 1):

40/64 bit key.

104/128 bit key.

128/152 bit key.

WPA1+WPA2

Use this setting to enable WPA1, WPA2 or both. See the WPA1 and WPA2 parameters displayed on the window when WPA1+WPA2 is selected. WPA1 enables Wi-Fi Protected Access with TKIP-MIC Data Encryption. When WPA1+WPA2 is selected, you can use Cisco's Centralized Key Management (CCKM) authentication key management, which allows fast exchange when a client roams from one access point to another.

When WPA1+WPA2 is selected as the Layer 2 security policy, and Pre-Shared Key is enabled, than neither CCKM or 802.1X can be enabled. Although, both CCKM and 802.1X can be enabled at the same time.

CKIP

Cisco Key Integrity Protocol (CKIP). A Cisco access point advertises support for CKIP in beacon and probe response packets. CKIP can be configured only when Aironet IE is enabled on the WAN.

When selected, these CKIP parameters are displayed.

Key length: Specify key length.

Key (ASCII or HEX): Specify encryption key.

MMH Mode: Enable or disable (check box).

KP: Enable or disable (check box).


Step 2 Check the MAC Filtering check box if you want to filter clients by MAC address.

Step 3 If you selected either WPA1 or WPA2 in Step 1, you must specify the type of WPA encryption: either TKIP or AES.

Step 4 Choose the desired type of authentication key management. The choices are 802.1x, CCKM, PSK, or CCKM+802.1x.


Note If you choose PSK, you must enter the password and type (ASCII or hexadecimal).


Step 5 Click Save.

Layer 3

When you choose the Layer 3 tab, the window shown in Figure 10-7 appears.

Figure 10-7 Layer 3 Window


Step 1 Use the Layer 3 security drop-down menu to choose between None and VPN Pass Through. The window parameters change according to the selection you make. If you choose VPN pass through, you must enter the VPN gateway address.

Step 2 Check the Web Policy check box if you want to select policies like authentication, passthrough, or conditional web redirect.

Step 3 Click Save.

AAA Servers

When you choose the AAA Servers tab, the window shown in Figure 10-8 appears.

Figure 10-8 AAA Servers Window

Step 4 Use the drop-down menus in the RADIUS and LDAP servers section to choose authentication and accounting servers. This selects the default RADIUS server for the specified WLAN and overrides the RADIUS server that is configured for the network. If all three RADIUS servers are configured for a particular WLAN, server 1 has the highest priority and so on. If no LDAP servers are chosen here, WCS uses the default LDAP server order from the database.

Step 5 Click the Local EAP Authentication check box if you have an EAP profile already configured that you want to enable. Local EAP is an authentication method that allows users and wireless clients to be authenticated locally. It is designed for use in remote offices that want to maintain connectivity to wireless clients when the backend system becomes disrupted or the external authentication server goes down.

Step 6 When AAA Override is enabled, and a client has conflicting AAA and controller WLAN authentication parameters, client authentication is performed by the AAA server. As part of this authentication, the operating system moves clients from the default Cisco WLAN Solution to a VLAN returned by the AAA server and predefined in the controller interface configuration (only when configured for MAC filtering, 802.1X, and/or WPA operation). In all cases, the operating system also uses QoS and ACL provided by the AAA server, as long as they are predefined in the controller interface configuration. (This VLAN switching by AAA override is also referred to as identity networking.)

For instance, if the corporate WLAN primarily uses a management interface assigned to VLAN 2, and if AAA override returns a redirect to VLAN 100, the operating system redirects all client transmissions to VLAN 100, regardless of the physical port to which VLAN 100 is assigned.

When AAA override is disabled, all client authentication defaults to the controller authentication parameter settings, and authentication is only performed by the AAA server if the controller WLANs do not contain any client-specific authentication parameters.

The AAA override values may come from a RADIUS server, for example.

Step 7 Click Save.


QoS

When you select the QoS tab from the WLAN Template window, the window as shown in Figure 10-9 appears.

Figure 10-9 QoS Window


Step 1 Use the QoS drop-down menu to choose Platinum (voice), Gold (video), Silver (best effort), or Bronze (background). Services such as VoIP should be set to gold while non-discriminating services such as text messaging can be set to bronze.

Step 2 Use the WMM Policy drop-down menu to choose Disabled, Allowed (so clients can communicate with the WLAN), or Required to make it mandatory for clients to have WMM enabled for communication.

Step 3 Click the 7920 AP CAC check box if you want to enable support on Cisco 7920 phones.

Step 4 If you want WLAN to support older versions of the software on 7920 phones, click to enable the 7920 Client CAC check box. The CAC limit is set on the access point for newer versions of software.

Step 5 Click Save.


Advanced

When you click the Advanced tab on the WLAN Template window, the window shown in Figure 10-10 appears.

Figure 10-10 Advanced Window


Step 1 Click the check box if you want to enable Hybrid REAP local switching. For more information on Hybrid REAP, see "Configuring Hybrid REAP" section on page 12-4. If you enable it, the hybrid-REAP access point handles client authentication and switches client data packets locally.

H-REAP local switching is only applicable to the Cisco 1130/1240/1250 series access points. It is not supported with L2TP, PPTP, CRANITE, and FORTRESS authentications, and it is not applicable to WLAN IDs 9-16.

Step 2 At the Session Timeout parameter, set the maximum time a client session can continue before requiring reauthorization.

Step 3 Check the Aironet IE check box if you want to enable support for Aironet information elements (IEs) for this WLAN. If Aironet IE support is enabled, the access point sends an Aironet IE 0x85 (which contains the access point name, load, number of associated clients, and so on) in the beacon and probe responses of this WLAN, and the controller sends Aironet IEs 0x85 and 0x95 (which contains the management IP address of the controller and the IP address of the access point) in the reassociation response if it receives Aironet IE 0x85 in the reassociation request.

Step 4 Click if you want to enable IPv6.


Note Layer 3 security must be set to None for this to be enabled.


Step 5 A list of defined access control lists (ACLs) is provided at the Override Interface ACL drop-down menu. (Refer to the "Configuring Access Control List Templates" section for steps on defining ACLs.) Upon choosing an ACL from the list, the WLAN associates the ACL to the WLAN. Selecting an ACL is optional, and the default for this parameter is None.

Step 6 Click the check box if you want to enable automatic client exclusion. If you enable client exclusion, you must also set the Timeout Value in seconds for disabled client machines. Client machines are excluded by MAC address and their status can be observed. A timeout setting of 0 indicates that administrative control is required to re-enable the client.


Note When session timeout is not set, it implies that an excluded client remains and won't timeout from the excluded state. It does not imply that the exclusion feature is disabled.


Step 7 When you click the check box to override DHCP server, another parameter appears where you can enter the IP address of your DHCP server. For some WLAN configurations, this is required. Three valid configurations are as follows:

DHCP Required and a valid DHCP server IP address - All WLAN clients obtain an IP address from the DHCP server.

DHCP is not required and a valid DHCP server IP address - All WLAN clients obtain an IP address from the DHCP server or use a static IP address.

DHCP not required and DHCP server IP address 0.0.0.0 - All WLAN clients are forced to use a static IP address. All DHCP requests are dropped.

An invalid combination is clicking to require DHCP address assignment and entering a DHCP server IP address.

Step 8 If the MFP Signature Generation check box is checked, it enables signature generation for the 802.11 management frames transmitted by an access point associated with this WLAN. Signature generation makes sure that changes to the transmitted management frames by an intruder are detected and reported.

Step 9 At the MFP Client Protection drop-down menu, choose Optional, Disabled, or Required for configuration of individual WLANs of a controller. If infrastructure MFP is not enabled, this drop-down menu is unavailable.


Note Client-side MFP is only available for those WLANs configured to support CCXv5 (or later) clients, and WPA2 must first be configured.


Step 10 Click Save.


Configuring a File Encryption Template

This page enables you to add a new file encryption template or make modifications to an existing file encryption template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > File Encryption.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The File Encryption Template appears (see Figure 10-11).

Figure 10-11 File Encryption Template

Step 4 Check if you want to enable file encryption.

Step 5 Enter an encryption key text string of exactly 16 ASCII characters.

Step 6 Retype the encryption key.

Step 7 Click Save.


Configuring a RADIUS Authentication Template

This page allows you to add a template for RADIUS authentication server information or make modifications to an existing template. After these server templates are configured, controller users who log into the controller through the CLI or GUI are authenticated.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 On the left sidebar menu, choose Security > RADIUS Authentication Servers.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select the template in the Template Name column. The RADIUS Authentication Server Template window appears (see Figure 10-12), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

The IP address of the RADIUS server and the port number for the interface protocol is also displayed.

Figure 10-12 RADIUS Authentication Server Template

Step 4 Use the drop-down menu to choose either ASCII or hex shared secret format.

Step 5 Enter the RADIUS shared secret used by your specified server.

Step 6 Click if you want to enable key wrap. If this option is enabled, the authentication request is sent to RADIUS servers that have key encryption key (KEK) and message authenticator code keys (MACK) configured. Also, when enabled, the parameters below appear:

Shared Secret Format: Determine whether ASCII or hexadecimal.

KEK Shared Secret: Enter KEK shared secret.

MACK Shared Secret: Enter MACK shared secret.

Each time the controller is notified with the shared secret, the existing shared secret is overwritten with the new shared secret.


Note Each time the controller is notified with the shared secret, the existing shared secret is overwritten with the new shared secret.


Step 7 Click if you want to enable administration privileges.

Step 8 Click if you want to enable support for RFC 3576. RFC 3576 is an extension to the Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) protocol. It allows dynamic changes to a user session and includes support for disconnecting users and changing authorizations applicable to a user session. With these authorizations, support is provided for Disconnect and Change-of-Authorization (CoA) messages. Disconnect messages cause a user session to be terminated immediately, whereas CoA messages modify session authorization attributes such as data filters.

Step 9 Click if you want to enable network user authentication. If this option is enabled, this entry is considered as the RADIUS authenticating server for the network user.

Step 10 Click if you want to enable management authentication. If this option is enabled, this entry is considered as the RADIUS authenticating server for the management user.

Step 11 Specify the time in seconds after which the RADIUS authentication request times out and a retransmission is attempted by the controller. You can specify a value between 2 and 30 seconds.

Step 12 If you click to enable the IP security mechanism, additional IP security parameters are added to the window, and the additional steps in 13 to 19 are required. If you disable it, click Save and skip Steps 13 to 19.

Step 13 Use the drop-down menu to choose which IP security authentication protocol to use. The options are HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-MD5, and None.

Message Authentication Codes (MAC) are used between two parties that share a secret key to validate information transmitted between them. HMAC (Hash MAC) is a mechanism based on cryptographic hash functions and can be used in combination with any iterated cryptographic hash function. HMAC-MD5 and HMAC-SHA1 are two constructs of the HMAC using the MD5 hash function and the SHA1 hash function. HMAC also uses a secret key for calculation and verification of the message authentication values.

Step 14 Set the IP security encryption mechanism to use. Options are as follows:

DES—Data Encryption Standard is a method of data encryption using a private (secret) key. DES applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.

Triple DES—Data Encryption Standard that applies three keys in succession.

AES 128 CBC—Advanced Encryption Standard uses keys with a length of 128, 192, or 256 bits to encrypt blocks with a length of 128, 192, or 256 bits. AES 128 CBC uses a 128-bit data path in Cipher Clock Chaining (CBC) mode.

None—No IP security encryption mechanism.

Step 15 The IKE authentication is not an editable field. Internet Key Exchange protocol (IKE) is used as a method of distributing the session keys (encryption and authentication), as well as providing a way for the VPN endpoints to agree on how data should be protected. IKE keeps track of connections by assigning a bundle of security associations (SAs) to each connection.

Step 16 Use the IKE phase 1 drop-down menu to choose either agressive or main. This sets the internet key exchange protocol (IKE). IKE phase 1 is used to negotiate how IKE should be protected. Aggressive mode passes more information in fewer packets, with the benefit of a slightly faster connection, at the cost of transmitting the identities of the security gateways in the clear.

Step 17 At the Lifetime parameter, set the timeout interval (in seconds) when the session expires.

Step 18 Set the IKE Diffie Hellman group. The options are group 1 (768 bits), group 2 (1024 bits), or group 5 (1536 bits). Diffie-Hellman techniques are used by two devices to generate a symmetric key where you can publicly exchange values and generate the same symmetric key.

Although all three groups provide security from conventional attacks, Group 5 is considered more secure because of its larger key size. However, computations involving Group 1 and Group 2 based keys might occur slightly faster because of their smaller prime number size.

Step 19 Click Save.


Configuring a RADIUS Accounting Template

This page allows you to add a new template for RADIUS accounting server information or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > RADIUS Acct Servers.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The RADIUS Accounting Template appears (see Figure 10-13), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates. The IP address of the RADIUS server and the port number for the interface protocols are also displayed.

Figure 10-13 RADIUS Accounting Server Templates

Step 4 Use the Shared Secret Format drop-down menu to choose either ASCII or hexadecimal.

Step 5 Enter the RADIUS shared secret used by your specified server.

Step 6 Retype the shared secret.

Step 7 Click if you want to establish administrative privileges for the server.

Step 8 Click if you want to enable the network user authentication. If this option is enabled, this entry is considered as the RADIUS authenticating server for the network user.

Step 9 Specify the time in seconds after which the RADIUS authentication request will timeout and a retransmission by the controller will occur. You can specify a value between 2 and 30 seconds.

Step 10 Click Save.


Configuring a LDAP Server Template

This section explains how to configure a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server as a backend database, similar to a RADIUS or local user database. An LDAP backend database allows the controller to query an LDAP server for the credentials (username and password) of a particular user. These credentials are then used to authenticate the user. For example, local EAP may use an LDAP server as its backend database to retrieve user credentials. This page allows you to add a new template for an LDAP server or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > LDAP Servers.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The LDAP Server Template appears (see Figure 10-14). The IP address of the LDAP server and the port number for the interface protocols are displayed.

Figure 10-14 LDAP Server Template

Step 4 In the Server User Base DN field, enter the distinguished name of the subtree in the LDAP server that contains a list of all the users.

Step 5 In the Server User Attribute field, enter the attribute that contains the username in the LDAP server.

Step 6 In the Server User Type field, enter the ObjectType attribute that identifies the user.

Step 7 If you are adding a new server, choose Secure from the Use TLS for Sessions to Server drop-down menu if you want all LDAP transaction to use a secure TLS tunnel. Otherwise, choose none.

Step 8 In the Retransmit Timeout field, enter the number of seconds between retransmissions. The valid range is 2 to 30 seconds, and the default value is 2 seconds.

Step 9 Check the Admin Status check box if you want the LDAP server to have administrative privileges.

Step 10 Click Save.


Configuring a TACACS+ Server Template

This page allows you to add a new TACACS+ server template or make modifications to an existing template. After these server templates are configured, controller users who log into the controller through the CLI or GUI are authenticated.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 On the left sidebar menu, choose Security > TACACS+ Server.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a user in the Template Name column. The TACACS+ Server Template appears (see Figure 10-15). The IP address and the port number of the TACACS+ template are displayed.

Figure 10-15 TACACS+ Server Template

Step 4 Select the server type. The choices are authentication, authorization, or accounting.

Step 5 Use the drop-down menu to choose either ASCII or hex shared secret format.

Step 6 Enter the TACACS+ shared secret used by your specified server.

Step 7 Re-enter the shared secret in the Confirm Shared Secret field.

Step 8 Check the Admin Status check box if you want the TACACS+ server to have administrative privileges.

Step 9 Specify the time in seconds after which the TACACS+ authentication request times out and a retransmission is attempted by the controller.

Step 10 Click Save.


Configuring a Network Access Control Template

This page allows you to add a new template for network access control or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Network Access Control.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The Network Access Control Template appears (see Figure 10-16). The IP address and port number for the interface protocols are displayed.

Figure 10-16 Network Access Control Template

Step 4 Enter the shared secret used by your specified server.

Step 5 Re-enter the shared secret in the Confirm Shared Secret field.

Step 6 Check the Admin Status check box if you want the server to have administrative privileges.

Step 7 Click Save.


Configuring a Local EAP General Template

This page allows you to specify a timeout value for local EAP. You can then add a template with this timeout value or make changes to an existing template.


Note If any RADIUS servers are configured on the controller, the controller tries to authenticate the wireless clients using the RADIUS servers first. Local EAP is attempted only if no RADIUS servers are found, either because the RADIUS servers timed out or no RADIUS servers were configured. If four RADIUS servers are configured, the controller attempts to authenticate the client with the first RADIUS server, then the second RADIUS server, and then local EAP. If the client attempts to then reauthenticate manually, the controller tries the third RADIUS server, then the fourth RADIUS server, and then local EAP.



Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Local EAP General.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The Local EAP General Template appears (see Figure 10-17).

Figure 10-17 Local EAP General Template

Step 4 In the Local Auth Active Timeout field, enter the amount of time (in seconds) that the controller attempts to authenticate wireless clients using local EAP after any pair of configured RADIUS servers fail. The valid range is 1 to 3600 seconds, and the default setting is 1000 seconds.

Step 5 Click Save.


Configuring a Local EAP Profile Template

This page allows you to add a new template for the local EAP profile or make modifications to an existing template. Local EAP is an authentication method that allows users and wireless clients to be authenticated locally. It is designed for use in remote offices that want to maintain connectivity to wireless clients when the backend system becomes disrupted or the external authentication server goes down. When you enable local EAP, the controller serves as the authentication server and the local user database, thereby removing dependence on an external authentication server. Local EAP retrieves user credentials from the local user database or the LDAP backend database to authenticate users.


Note The LDAP backend database supports only these local EAP methods: EAP-TLS and EAP-FAST with certificates. LEAP and EAP-FAST with PACs are not supported for use with the LDAP backend database.



Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Local EAP Profiles.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The Local EAP Profiles Template appears (see Figure 10-18).

Figure 10-18 Local EAP Profiles Template

Step 4 Each EAP profile must be associated with an authentication type(s). Choose the desired authentication type from the choices below:

LEAP — This authentication type leverages Cisco Key Integrity Protocol (CKIP) and MMH message integrity check (MIC) for data protection. A username and password are used to perform mutual authentication with the RADIUS server through the access point.

EAP-FAST — This authentication type (Flexile Authentication via Secure Tunneling) uses a three-phased tunnel authentication process to provide advanced 802.1x EAP mutual authentication. A username, password, and PAC (protected access credential) are used to perform mutual authentication with the RADIUS server through the access point.

TLS — This authentication type uses a dynamic session-based WEP key derived from the client adapter and RADIUS server to encrypt data. It requires a client certificate for authentication.

Step 5 Use the Certificate Issues drop-down menu to determine whether Cisco or another vendor issued the certificate for authentication. Only EAP-FAST and TLS require a certificate.

Step 6 If you want the incoming certificate from the client to be validated against the certificate authority (CA) certificates on the controller, check the Check Against CA Certificates check box.

Step 7 If you want the common name (CN) in the incoming certificate to be validated against the CA certificates' CN on the controller, check the Verify Certificate CN Identity check box.

Step 8 If you want the controller to verify that the incoming device certificate is still valid and has not expired, check the Check Against Date Validity check box.

Step 9 If you want the device certificate on the controller to be used for authentication, check the Local Certificate Required check box. This certification is applicable only to EAP-FAST.

Step 10 If you want the wireless clients to send their device certificates to the controller in order to authenticate, check the Client Certificate Required check box. This certification is only applicable to EAP-FAST.

Step 11 Click Save.

Step 12 Follow these steps to enable local EAP on a WLAN:

a. Choose WLAN > WLANs from the left sidebar menu.

b. Click the profile name of the desired WLAN.

c. Click the Security > AAA Servers tab to access the AAA Servers page.

d. Check the Local EAP Authentication check box to enable local EAP for this WLAN.

Step 13 Click Save.


Configuring an EAP-FAST Template

This authentication type (Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling) uses a three-phased tunnel authentication process to provide advanced 802.1x EAP mutual authentication. A username, password, and PAC are used to perform mutual authentication with the RADIUS server through the access point. This page allows you to add a new template for the EAP-FAST profile or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > EAP-FAST Parameters.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The EAP-FAST Parameters Template appears (see Figure 10-18).

Figure 10-19 EAP-FAST Parameters Template

Step 4 In the Time to Live for the PAC field, enter the number of days for the PAC to remain viable. The valid range is 1 to 1000 days, and the default setting is 10 days.

Step 5 In the Authority ID field, enter the authority identifier of the local EAP-FAST server in hexadecimal characters. You can enter up to 32 hexadecimal characters, but you must enter an even number of characters.

Step 6 In the Authority ID field, enter the ID for the authority identifier of the local EAP-FAST server.

Step 7 In the Authority Info field, enter the authority identifier of the local EAP-FAST server in text format.

Step 8 In the Server Key and Confirm Server Key fields, enter the key (in hexadecimal characters) used to encrypt and decrypt PACs.

Step 9 If a local certificate is required, click the check box.

Step 10 If a client certificate is required, click the check box.

Step 11 If an anonymous provision is required, click the check box.

Step 12 If you want to enable anonymous provisioning, check the Client Authentication Provision check box. This feature allows PACs to be sent automatically to clients that do not have one during PAC provisioning. If you disable this feature, PACs must be manually provisioned.

Step 13 Click Save.


Configuring Network User Credential Retrieval Priority Templates

You can specify the order that LDAP and local databases use to retrieve user credential information. This page allows you to add a new template for the network user credential retrieval priority or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Network Users Priority.

To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The Network User Credential Retrieval Priority Template appears (see Figure 10-20).

Figure 10-20 Network User Credential Retrieval Priority Order Template

Step 3 Use the left and right pointing arrows to include or disclude network user credentials in the right-most window.

Step 4 Use the up and down buttons to determine the order credentials are tried.

Step 5 Click Save.

Configuring a Local Network Users Template

With this template, you can store the credentials (username and password) of all the local network users. These credentials are then used to authenticate the users. For example, local EAP may use the local user database as its backend database to retrieve user credentials. This page allows you to add a new local authentication template or make modifications to an existing template. You must create a local net user and define a password when logging in as a web authentication client.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 On the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Local Net Users.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a user in the User Name column. The Local Net Users Template appears (see Figure 10-21).

Figure 10-21 Local Net Users Template

Step 4 If you keep Import from File enabled, you need to enter a file path or click the Browse button to navigate to the file path. Then continue to Step 8. If you disable the import, continue to Step 5.


Note You can only import a .csv file. Any other file formats are not supported. See Figure Figure 10-22 for CSV file format examples.


The first row in the file is the header. The data in the header is not read by the Cisco WCS. The header can either be blank or filled. The Cisco WCS reads data from the second row onwards. It is mandatory to fill the Username and Password fields in all the rows.

Figure 10-22 CSV File Format

Step 5 Enter a username and password.

Step 6 Use the drop-down menu to choose the SSID which this local user is applied to or choose the any SSID option.

Step 7 Enter a user-defined description of this interface. Skip to Step 9.

Step 8 If you want to override the existing template parameter, click to enable this parameter.

Step 9 Click Save.


Configuring Guest User Templates

This page allows you to create a new template for guest user information or make modifications to an existing template. The purpose of a guest user account is to provide a user account for a limited amount of time. A Lobby Ambassador is able to configure a specific time frame for the guest user account to be active. After the specified time period, the guest user account automatically expires. Refer to the "Creating Guest User Accounts" section on page 7-9 for further information on guest access.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Guest Users.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a user in the User Name column. The Guest User Template window appears (see Figure 10-23).

Figure 10-23 Guest User Template

Step 4 Enter a guest name. Maximum size is 24 characters.

Step 5 Click the Generate Password check box if you want a password automatically generated. The Password and Confirm Password parameters are automatically populated. If automatic generation is not enabled, you must supply a password twice.

Step 6 From the SSID drop-down list, choose which SSID this guest user applies to. Only those WLANs for which web security is enabled are listed. The SSID must be a WLAN that has Layer 3 web authentication policy configured.

Step 7 Enter a description of the guest user account.

Step 8 If you are adding a new user, enter the amount of time (in seconds) that the guest user account is to remain active in the Lifetime field.

Step 9 Click Save.


Configuring a User Login Policies Template

This page allows you to add a new user login policies template or make modifications to an existing template. On this template you set the maximum number of concurrent logins that each single user can have.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > User Login Policies.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a user login policy in the Template Name column. The User Login Policies Template window appears (see Figure 10-24).

Figure 10-24 User Login Policies Template

Step 4 You can adjust the maximum number of concurrent logins each single user can have.

Step 5 Click Save to keep this template.

Configuring a MAC Filter Template

This page allows you to add a new MAC filter template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > MAC Filtering.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a MAC address in the MAC Address column. The MAC Filter Templates window appears (see Figure 10-25).

Figure 10-25 MAC Filter Templates

Step 4 If you keep Import From File enabled, you need to enter a file path or click the Browse button to navigate to the file path. Skip to Step 9. If you disable Import from File, continue to Step 5.

The client MAC address appears.

Step 5 Choose the SSID which this MAC filter is applied to or choose the any SSID option.

Step 6 Use the drop-down menu to choose from the available interface names.

Step 7 Enter a user-defined description of this interface. Skip to Step 9.

Step 8 If you want to override the existing template parameter, click to enable this parameter.

Step 9 Click Save.


Configuring an Access Point Authorization

Follow these steps to add an access point authorization template or make changes to an existing template. These templates are devised for Cisco 11xx/12xx series access points converted from IOS to LWAPP or for 1030 access points connecting in bridge mode.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the Security selections in the left sidebar menu, choose AP authorization.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click a MAC address in the AP Base Radio MAC column. The AP Authorization Template appears (see Figure 10-26), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-26 AP Authorization Templates

Step 4 Select the Import from File check box if you want to import a file containing access point MAC addresses.


Note You can only import a .csv file. Any other file formats are not supported.


Step 5 Enter the file path from where you want to import the file.

Step 6 Click Save.


Configuring a Manually Disabled Client Template

This page allows you to add a new manually disabled client template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Disabled Clients.

To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a disabled client in the Template Name column. The Manually Disabled Clients Template window appears (see Figure 10-27).

Figure 10-27 Manually Disabled Clients Template

Step 3 Enter the MAC address of the client you want to disable.

Step 4 Enter a description of the client you are setting to disabled.

Step 5 Click Save.


Configuring a CPU Access Control List (ACL) Template

The existing ACLs established in the "Configuring Access Control List Templates" section is used to set traffic controls between the central processing unit (CPU) and network processing unit (NPU). Follow these steps to add a CPU ACL template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 Choose Security > CPU Access Control List in the left sidebar menu.

Step 3 If you want to create a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template name in the ACL Name column. The CPU Access Control List Template appears (see Figure 10-28).

Figure 10-28 CPU Access Control List Template

Step 4 If you click the check box to enable CPU ACL, two more parameters appear. When CPU ACL is enabled and applied on the controller, WCS displays the details of the CPU ACL against that controller.

Step 5 From the ACL Name drop-down menu, choose a name from the list of defined names.

Step 6 From the CPU ACL Mode drop-down menu, choose which data traffic direction this CPU ACL list controls. The choices are the wired side of the data traffic, the wireless side of the data traffic, or both wired and wireless.

Step 7 Click Save.


Configuring a Rogue Policies Template

This window enables you to configure the rogue policy (for access points and clients) applied to the controller. Follow these steps to add a rogue policy template or modify an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Rogue Policies.

Step 3 If you want to create a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template name in the Template Name column. The Rogue Policy Setup Template appears (see Figure 10-29).

Figure 10-29 Rogue Policy Setup Template

Step 4 Check the Rogue Location Discovery Protocol to enable the discovery of rogue access points.

Step 5 Set the timeout (in seconds) for rogue access point entries.

Step 6 Check the Validate rogue clients against AAA check box to enable the AAA validation of rogue clients.

Step 7 Check the Detect and report Adhoc networks check box to enable detection and reporting of rogue clients participating in adhoc networking.

Step 8 Click Save.


Configuring a Trusted AP Policies Template

Follow these steps to add a trusted AP policy template or modify an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Trusted AP Policies.

Step 3 If you want to create a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template name in the Template Name column. The Trusted AP Policies Template appears (see Figure 10-30).

Figure 10-30 Trusted AP Policies Template

Step 4 Use the drop-down menu to choose which action to take with misconfigured access points. The choices are alarm only or contain.

Step 5 At the Enforced Encryption Policy drop-down menu, choose between none, open, WEP, and WPA.802.11i.

Step 6 At the Rogue Enforced Preamble Policy, choose none, short, or long.

Step 7 Check the Validate SSID checkbox to enable.

Step 8 Check if you want alerted when the trusted access point is missing.

Step 9 Determine an expiration timeout for trusted access point entries. The range is from 120 to 3600 seconds.

Step 10 Click Save.


Configuring a Client Exclusion Policies Template

Follow these steps to add a client exclusion policies template or modify an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 Choose Security > Client Exclusion Policies in the left sidebar menu.

If you want to create a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template name in the Template Name column. The Client Exclusion Policies Template appears (see Figure 10-31).

Figure 10-31 Client Exclusion Policies Template

Step 3 To edit an existing client exclusion policies template, click its name in the Template Name column to go the Client Exclusion Policies Template window. Create or edit a client exclusion policies template by configuring its parameters.

Table 10-2 Client Exclusion Policies Template Parameters

Parameter
Description

Template Name

Enter a name for the client exclusion policy.

Excessive 802.11 Association Failures

Enable to exclude clients with excessive 802.11 association failures.

Excessive 802.11 Authentication Failures

Enable to exclude clients with excessive 802.11 authentication failures.

Excessive 802.1X Authentication Failures

Enable to exclude clients with excessive 802.1X authentication failures.

External Policy Server Failures

Enable to exclude clients with excessive external policy server failures.

Excessive 802.11 Web Authentication Failures

Enable to exclude clients with excessive 802.11 web authentication failures.

IP Theft or Reuse

Enable to exclude clients exhibiting IP theft or reuse symptoms.


Step 4 Click Save.


Configuring an Access Point Authentication and MFP Template

Management frame protection (MFP) provides for the authentication of 802.11 management frames by the wireless network infrastructure. Management frames can be protected in order to detect adversaries who are invoking denial of service attacks, flooding the network with associations and probes, interjecting as rogue access points, and affecting the network performance by attacking the QoS and radio measurement frames.

When enabled, the access point protects the management frames it transmits by adding a message integrity check information element (MIC IE) to each frame. Any attempt to copy, alter, or replay the frame invalidates the MIC, causing any receiving access point configured to detect MFP frames to report the discrepancy. An access point must be a member of a WDS to transmit MFP frames.

When MFP detection is enabled, the access point validates every management frame that it receives from other access points in the network. It ensures that the MIC IE is present (when the originator is configured to transmit MFP frames) and matches the content of the management frame. If it receives any frame that does not contain a valid MIC IE from a BSSID belonging to an access point that is configured to transmit MFP frames, it reports the discrepancy to the network management system.

Follow these steps to add a new template for the access point authentication and management frame protection (MFP) or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, select Security > AP Authentication and MFP.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a MAC address in the AP Base Radio MAC column. The AP Authentication Policy Template appears (see Figure 10-32), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-32 AP Authentication Policy Template

Step 4 From the Protection Type drop-down menu, choose one of the following authentication policies:

None: No access point authentication policy.

AP Authentication: Apply authentication policy.

MFP: Apply management frame protection.

Step 5 Check to enable AP neighbor authentication. With this feature enabled, the access points sending RRM neighbor packets with different RF network names are reported as rogues.

Step 6 Alarm trigger threshold appears only when AP authentication is selected as a protection type. Set the number of hits to be ignored from an alien access point before raising an alarm.

The valid range is from 1 to 255. The default value is 255.

Step 7 Click Save.


Configuring a Web Authentication Template

With web authentication, guests are automatically redirected to a web authentication page when they launch their browsers. Guests gain access to the WLAN through this web portal. Wireless LAN administrators using this authentication mechanism should have the option of providing unencrypted or encrypted guest access. Guest users can then log into the wireless network using a valid username and password, which is encrypted with SSL. Web authentication accounts may be created locally or managed by a RADIUS server. The Cisco Wireless LAN controllers can be configured to support a web authentication client. You can use this template to replace the Web authentication page provided on the controller.

Follow these steps to add a web authentication template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Security > Web Auth Configuration.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The Web Authentication Configuration Template window appears (see Figure 10-33), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-33 Web Authentication Configuration Template

Step 4 Choose the appropriate web authentication type from the drop-down menu. The choices are default internal, customized web authentication, or external.

If you choose default internal, you can still alter the page title, message, and redirect URL, as well as whether the logo displays. Continue to Step 5.

If you choose customized web authentication, click Save and apply this template to the controller. You are prompted to download the web authentication bundle.


Note Before you can choose customized web authentication, you must first download the bundle by going to Config > Controller and choose Download Customized Web Authentication from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO.


If you choose external, you need to enter the URL you want to redirect to after a successful authentication. For example, if the value entered for this field is http://www.company.com, the user would be directed to the company home page.

Step 5 Click to enable Logo Display if you want your company logo displayed.

Step 6 Enter the title you want displayed on the Web authentication page.

Step 7 Enter the message you want displayed on the Web authentication page.

Step 8 Provide the URL where the user is redirected after a successful authentication. For example, if the value entered for this field is http://www.company.com, the user would be directed to the company home page.

Step 9 Click Save.


Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Page

You can download a customized Web authentication page to the controller. A customized web page is created to establish a username and password for user web access.

When downloading customized web authentication, these strict guidelines must be followed:

A username must be provided.

A password must be provided.

A redirect URL must be retained as a hidden input item after extracting from the original URL.

The action URL must be extracted and set from the original URL.

Scripts to decode the return status code must be included.

All paths used in the main page should be of relative type.

Before downloading, the following steps are required:


Step 1 Download the sample login.html bundle file from the server. The .html file is shown in Figure 10-34. The login page is presented to web users the first time they access the WLAN if web authentication is turned on.

Figure 10-34 Login.html

Step 2 Edit the login.html file and save it as a .tar or .zip file.


Note You can change the text of the Submit button to read Accept terms and conditions and Submit.


Step 3 Make sure you have a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server available for the download. Keep these guidelines in mind when setting up a TFTP server:

If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP server must be on the same subnet as the service port because the service port is not routable. However, if you want to put the TFTP server on a different network while the management port is down, add a static route if the subnet where the service port resides has a gateway (config route add IP address of TFTP server).

If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP server can be on the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.

A third-party TFTP server cannot run on the same computer as the Cisco WCS because WCS's built-in TFTP server and third-party TFTP server use the same communication port.

Step 4 Download the .tar or .zip file to the controller(s).


Note The controller allows you to download up to 1 MB of a tar file containing the pages and image files required for the Web authentication display. The 1 MB limit includes the total size of uncompressed files in the bundle.


You can now continue with the download.

Step 5 Copy the file to the default directory on your TFTP server.

Step 6 Choose Configure > Controllers.

Step 7 Choose a controller by clicking the URL for the corresponding IP address. If you select more than one IP address, the customized Web authentication page is downloaded to multiple controllers.

Step 8 From the left sidebar menu, choose System > Commands.

Step 9 From the Upload/Download Commands drop-down menu, choose Download Customized Web Auth and click GO.

Step 10 The IP address of the controller to receive the bundle and the current status are displayed (see Figure 10-35).

Figure 10-35 Download Customized Web Auth Bundle to Controller

Step 11 Choose local machine from the File is Located On parameter. If you know the filename and path relative to the server's root directory, you can also select TFTP server.


Note For a local machine download, either .zip or .tar file options exists, but the WCS does the conversion of .zip to .tar automatically. If you chose a TFTP server download, only .tar files would be specified.


Step 12 Enter the maximum number of times the controller should attempt to download the file in the Maximum Retries parameter.

Step 13 Enter the maximum amount of time in seconds before the controller times out while attempting to download the file in the Timeout parameter.

Step 14 The files are uploaded to the c:\tftp directory. Specify the local file name in that directory or use the Browse button to navigate to it.

Step 15 Click OK.

If the transfer times out for some reason, you can simply choose the TFTP server option in the File Is Located On parameter, and the Server File Name will be populated for you and retried. The local machine option initiates a two-step operation. First, the local file is copied from the administrator's workstation to WCS's own built-in TFTP server. Then the controller retrieves that file. For later operations, the file is already in the WCS server's TFTP directory, and the download web page now automatically populates the filename.

Step 16 Click the "Click here to download a sample tar file" to get an option to open or save the login.tar file.

Step 17 After completing the download, you are directed to the new page and able to authenticate.


Configuring Access Control List Templates

An access control list (ACL) is a set of rules used to limit access to a particular interface (for example, if you want to restrict a wireless client from pinging the management interface of the controller). ACLs can be applied to data traffic to and from wireless clients or to all traffic destined for the controller central processing unit (CPU) and can now support reusable grouped IP addresses and reusable protocols. After ACLs are configured in the template, they can be applied to the management interface, the AP-manager interface, or any of the dynamic interfaces for client data traffic; to the network processing unit (NPU) interface for traffic to the controller CPU; or to a WAN. Follow these steps to add an ACL template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 Choose Access Control > Access Control Lists in the left sidebar menu.

Step 3 If you want to create a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template name in the ACL Name column. The Access Control List name appears in the window.

Step 4 To create reusable grouped IP addresses and protocols, choose Access Control > IP Groups from the left sidebar menu.

Step 5 All the IP address groups are listed. One IP address group can have a maximum of 128 IP address and netmask combinations. To define a new IP address group, choose Add IP Group from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To view or modify an existing IP address group, click the URL of the IP address group. The IP address group window opens.


Note For the IP address of any, an any group is predefined.


Step 6 To define an additional protocol that is not a standard predefined one, choose Access Control > Protocol Groups from the left sidebar menu. The protocol groups with their source and destination port and DSCP are displayed.

Step 7 To create a new protocol group, choose Add Protocol Group from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To view or modify an existing protocol group, click the URL of the group. The Protcol Groups window appears.

Step 8 The rule name is provided for the existing rules, or you can now enter a name for a new rule. ACLs are not required to have rules defined. When a packet matches all the parameters of a rule, the action for this rule is exercised.

Step 9 In the Start Port parameter, enter a value (between 1 and 64) to determine the order of this rule in relation to any other rules defined for this ACL. The rules for each ACL are listed in contiguous sequence from 1 to 64. That is, if rules 1 through 4 are already defined and you add rule 29, it is added as rule 5.


Note If you add or change a sequence number, the operating system adjusts the other rule sequence numbers to retain the contiguous sequence. For instance, if you have sequence numbers 1 through 7 defined and change number 7 to 5, the operating system automatically reassigns sequence 5 to 6 and sequence 6 to 7. Any rules generated can be edited individually and resequenced in the desired order.


Step 10 From the Source Port drop-down menu, specify the source of the packets to which this ACL applies.

Step 11 For the Destination drop-down menu, specify the destination of the packets to which this ACL applies.

Step 12 In the DSCP drop-down menu, choose any or a specific IP address. DSCP is a packet header code that can be used to define the quality of service across the Internet.

Step 13 Click Save.

Step 14 You can now create new mappings from the defined IP address groups and protocol groups. To define a new mapping, choose the ACL template to which you want to map the new groups. All ACL mappings appear on the top of the window, and all ACL rules appear on the bottom.

Step 15 To define a new mapping, choose Add Rule Mappings from the Select a command drop-down menu. The Add Rule Mapping windows appears.

Step 16 Choose the desired IP address groups, protocol groups, and action and click Add. The new mappings will populate the bottom table.

Step 17 Click Save.

Step 18 You can now automatically generate rules from the rule mappings you created. Choose the mappings for which you want to generate rules and click Generate. This automatically creates the rules. These rules are generated with contiguous sequence. That is, if rules 1 through 4 are already defined and you add rule 29, it is added as rule 5.

Existing ACL templates can duplicated into a new ACL template. This duplication clones all the ACL rules and mappings defined in the source ACL template.

Configuring a Policy Name Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Follow these steps to add a new policy name template for 802.11a or 802.11b/g or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose either 802.11a > Parameters or 802.11b/g > Parameters.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a policy name in the Policy Name column. The 802.11a or b/g Parameters Template window appears (see Figure 10-36), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-36 802.11a Parameters Template

Step 4 Click the check box if you want to enable 802.11a or b/g network status.

Step 5 Enter the amount of time between beacons in kilomicroseconds. The valid range is from 100 to 600 milliseconds.

Step 6 Enter the number of beacon intervals that may elapse between transmission of beacon frames containing a traffic indicator message (TIM) element whose delivery count field is 0. This value is transmitted in the DTIM period field of beacon frames. When client devices receive a beacon that contains a DTIM, they normally wake up to check for pending packets. Longer intervals between DTIMS let clients sleep longer and preserve power. Conversely, shorter DTIM periods reduce the delay in receiving packets but use more battery power because clients wake up more often.

Step 7 At the Fragmentation Threshold parameter, determine the size at which packets are fragmented (sent as several pieces instead of as one block). Use a low setting in areas where communication is poor or where there is a great deal of radio interference.

Step 8 Enter the percentage for 802.11e maximum bandwidth.

Step 9 Click if you want short preamble enabled.

Step 10 Click the Pico Cell Mode check box if you want it enabled. This feature enables automatic operating system parameter reconfiguration, allowing the operating system to function efficiently in pico cell deployments.

Step 11 Click the Fast Roaming Mode check box if you want to enable it. Enabling Cisco's Centralized Key Management (CCKM) authentication key management allows fast exchange when a client roams from one access point to another.

Step 12 At the Dynamic Assignment drop-down menu, choose one of three modes:

Automatic - The transmit power is periodically updated for all access points that permit this operation.

On Demand - Transmit power is updated when the Assign Now button is selected.

Disabled - No dynamic transmit power assignments occur, and values are set to their global default.

Step 13 Use the Tx Level drop-down menu to determine the access point's transmit power level. The available options are as follows:

1 - Maximum power allowed per country code setting

2 - 50% power

3 - 25% power

4 - 6.25 to 12.5% power

5 - 0.195 to 6.25% power


Note The power levels and available channels are defined by the country code setting and are regulated on a country by country basis.


Step 14 The Assignment Mode drop-down menu has three dynamic channel modes:

Automatic - The channel assignment is periodically updated for all access points that permit this operation. This is also the default mode.

On Demand - Channel assignments are updated when desired.

OFF - No dynamic channel assignments occur, and values are set to their global default.

Step 15 At the Avoid Foreign AP Interference check box, click if you want to enable it. Enable this parameter to have RRM consider interference from foreign Cisco access points (those non-Cisco access points outside RF/mobility domain) when assigning channels. This foreign 802.11 interference. Disable this parameter to have RRM ignore this interference.

In certain circumstances with significant interference energy (dB) and load (utilization) from foreign access points, RRM may adjust the channel assignment to avoid these channels (and sometimes adjacent channels) in access points close to the foreign access points. This increases capacity and reduces variability for the Cisco Wireless LAN Solution.

Step 16 Click the Avoid Cisco AP Load check box if you want it enabled. Enable this bandwidth-sensing parameter to have controllers consider the traffic bandwidth used by each access point when assigning channels to access points. Disable this parameter to have RRM ignore this value.

In certain circumstances and with denser deployments, there may not be enough channels to properly create perfect channel re-use. In these circumstances, RRM can assign better re-use patterns to those access points that carry more traffic load.

Step 17 Click the Avoid non 802.11 Noise check box if you want to enable it. Enable this noise-monitoring parameter to have access points avoid channels that have interference from non-access point sources, such as microwave ovens or Bluetooth devices. Disable this parameter to have RRM ignore this interference.

In certain circumstances with significant interference energy (dB) from non-802.11 noise sources, RRM may adjust the channel assignment to avoid these channels (and sometimes adjacent channels) in access points close to the noise sources. This increases capacity and reduces variability for the Cisco Wireless LAN Solution.

Step 18 The Signal Strength Contribution check box is always enabled (not configurable). constantly monitors the relative location of all access points within the RF/mobility domain to ensure near-optimal channel re-use. The net effect is an increase in Cisco Wireless LAN Solution capacity and a reduction in co-channel and adjacent channel interference.

Step 19 Data rates are negotiated between the client and the controller. If the data rate is set to Mandatory, the client must support it in order to use the network. If a data rate is set as Supported by the controller, any associated client that also supports that same rate may communicate with the access point using that rate. However, it is not required that a client be able to use all the rates marked supported in order to associate. For each rate, a pull-down selection of Mandatory or Supported is available. Each data rate can also be set to Disabled to match client settings.

Step 20 At the Channel List drop-down menu in the Noise/Interference/Rogue Monitoring Channels section, choose between all channels, country channels, or DCA channels based on the level of monitoring you want. Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) automatically selects a reasonably good channel allocation amongst a set of managed devices connected to the controller.

Step 21 The CCX location measurement interval can only be changed when measurement mode is enabled to broadcast radio measurement requests. When enabled, this enhances the location accuracy of clients.

Step 22 Click Save.


Configuring High Density Templates

A method to mitigate the inter-cell contention problem in high-density networks is to adjust the access point and client station receiver sensitivity, CCA sensitivity, and transmit power parameters in a relatively cooperative manner. By adjusting these variables, the effective cell size can be reduced, not by lowering the transmit power but by increasing the necessary received power before an access point and client consider the channel sufficiently clear for packet transfer. Follow these steps to add a enable high density on a template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose either 802.11a > Parameters.

Step 3 In the General portion of this window, you see a Pico Cell Mode parameter. Click the check box to enable pico cell.


Note In order for this check box to have validity, you must have software version 4.1 or later. If you have an earlier version, this check box value is ignored.


Step 4 Choose 802.11a > Pico Cell from the left sidebar menu. Click which template in the Template Name column you want to modify or choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. The window as shown in Figure 10-37 appears.

Figure 10-37 Pico Cell Parameters Window


Note If the Pico Cell Mode parameter is set to Disabled or V1, the Pico Cell V2 parameters are grayed out.



Note For pico cell V2 to work with Intel 3945 clients, the QBSS feature also has to be enabled (i.e., WMM clients must be set to allowed), and fast roaming cannot be enabled.


Step 5 Go to 802.11a > Parameters and ensure that the 802.11a Network Status check box is not enabled.

Step 6 From the Pico Cell Mode drop-down menu, choose V2. By choosing V2, the parameters for access point and clients share the same values and make communication symmetrical. This selection also allows you to put in values for Rx sensitivity, CCA sensitivity, and transmit power although the defaulted minimum and maximum values represent the Cisco recommended values for most networks.


Note You can only choose V2 if you have software version 4.1 or later.


Step 7 Set the Rx sensitivity based on the desired receiver sensitivity for 802.11a radios. The Current column shows what is currently set on the access point and clients, and the Min and Max columns show the range to which the access points and clients should adapt. Receiver signal strength values falling outside of this range are normally disregarded.

Step 8 Set the CCA sensitivity based on when the access point or client considers the channel clear enough for activity. The current column shows what is currently set on the access point and clients, and Min and Max columns show the range to which the access points and clients should adapt. CCA values falling outside of this range are normally disregarded.

Step 9 Click Save to save these values. Before choosing Reset to Defaults you must turn off the 802.11 network.


Configuring a Voice Parameter Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Follow these steps to add a template for either 802.11a or 802.11b/g voice parameters, such as call admission control and traffic stream metrics, or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose either 802.11a > Voice Parameters or 802.11b/g > Voice Parameters.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The 802.11a or 802.11b/g Voice Parameters window appears (see Figure 10-38), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-38 802.11b/g Voice Parameters Template

Step 4 For end users to experience acceptable audio quality during a VoIP phone call, packets must be delivered from one endpoint to another with low latency and low packet loss. To maintain QoS under differing network loads, call admission control (CAC) is required. CAC on an access point allows it to maintain controlled QoS when the network is experiencing congestion and keep the maximum allowed number of calls to an acceptable quantity. Click the check box to enable CAC.

Step 5 Load-based CAC incorporates a measurement scheme that takes into account the bandwidth consumed by all traffic types from itself, from co-channel access points, and by co-located channel interference. Load-based CAC also covers the additional bandwidth consumption resulting from PHY and channel impairment. To enable load-based CAC for this radio band, check the Use Load-based AC check box.

Step 6 Enter the percentage of maximum bandwidth allowed.

Step 7 Enter the percentage of reserved roaming bandwidth.

Step 8 Click if you want to enable expedited bandwidth as an extension of CAC for emergency calls. You must have an expedited bandwidth IE that is CCXv5 compliant so that a TSPEC request is given higher priority.

Step 9 Click the check box if you want to enable metric collection. Traffic stream metrics are a series of statistics about VoIP over your wireless LAN and informs you of the QoS of the wireless LAN. For the access point to collect measurement values, traffic stream metrics must be enabled. When this is enabled, the controller begins collecting statistical data every 90 seconds for the 802.11b/g interfaces from all associated access points. If you are using VoIP or video, this feature should be enabled.

Step 10 Click Save.


Configuring a Video Parameter Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Follow these steps to add a template for either 802.11a or 802.11b/g video parameters or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose either 802.11a > Video Parameters or 802.11b/g > Video Parameters.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The 802.11a or 802.11b/g Video Parameters window appears (see Figure 10-39), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-39 802.11a Video Parameters Template

Step 4 For end users to experience acceptable audio quality during a VoIP phone call, packets must be delivered from one endpoint to another with low latency and low packet loss. To maintain QoS under differing network loads, call admission control (CAC) is required. CAC on an access point allows it to maintain controlled QoS when the network is experiencing congestion and keep the maximum allowed number of calls to an acceptable quantity. Click the check box to enable CAC.

Step 5 Enter the percentage of maximum bandwidth allowed.

Step 6 Enter the percentage of reserved roaming bandwidth.

Step 7 Click Save.


Configuring a Roaming Parameters Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Follow these steps to add a roaming parameters template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose 802.11a > RRM Thresholds or 802.11b/g > RRM Thresholds.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template name in the Template Name column. The Roaming Parameters Template appears (see Figure 10-40), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-40 802.11 Roaming Parameters Template

Step 4 Use the Mode drop-down menu to choose one of the configurable modes: default values and custom values. When the default values option is chosen, the roaming parameters are unavailable with the default values displayed in the text boxes. When the custom values option is selected, the roaming parameters can be edited in the text boxes. To edit the parameters, continue to Step 5.

Step 5 In the Minimum RSSI field, enter a value for the minimum received signal strength indicator (RSSI) required for the client to associate to an access point. If the client's average received signal power dips below this threshold, reliable communication is usually impossible. Therefore, clients must already have found and roamed to another access point with a stronger signal before the minimum RSSI value is reached.

Range: -80 to -90 dBm

Default: -85 dBm

Step 6 In the Hysteresis field, enter a value to indicate how strong the signal strength of a neighboring access point must be in order for the client to roam to it. This parameter is intended to reduce the amount of "ping ponging" between access points if the client is physically located on or near the border between two access points.

Range: 2 to 4 dB

Default: 2 dB

Step 7 In the Adaptive Scan Threshold field, enter the RSSI value, from a client's associated access point, below which the client must be able to roam to a neighboring access point within the specified transition time. This parameter also provides a power-save method to minimize the time that the client spends in active or passive scanning. For example, the client can scan slowly when the RSSI is above the threshold and scan more rapidly when below the threshold.

Range: -70 to -77 dB

Default: -72 dB

Step 8 In the Transition Time field, enter the maximum time allowed for the client to detect a suitable neighboring access point to roam to and to complete the roam, whenever the RSSI from the client's associated access point is below the scan threshold.

The Scan Threshold and Transition Time parameters guarantee a minimum level of client roaming performance. Together with the highest expected client speed and roaming hysteresis, these parameters make it possible to design a wireless LAN network that supports roaming simply by ensuring a certain minimum overlap distance between access points.

Range: 1 to 10 seconds

Default: 5 seconds

Step 9 Click Save.


Configuring an RRM Threshold Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)


Follow these steps to add a new 802.11a or 802.11b/g RRM threshold template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose 802.11a > RRM Thresholds or 802.11b/g > RRM Thresholds.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template name in the Template Name column. The 802.11a or 802.11b/g RRM Thresholds Template appears (see Figure 10-41), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-41 802.11b/g RRM Thresholds Template

Step 4 Enter the minimum percentage of failed clients that are currently associated with the controller.

Step 5 Enter the minimum number of failed clients that are currently associated with the controller.

Step 6 At the Min SNR Level parameter, enter the minimum signal-to-noise ratio of the client RF session.

Step 7 Enter the maximum number of clients currently associated with the controller.

Step 8 At the RF Utilization parameter, enter the percentage of threshold for either 802.11a or 802.11b/g.

Step 9 Enter an interference threshold.

Step 10 Enter a noise threshold between -127 and 0 dBm. When outside of this threshold, the controller sends an alarm to WCS.

Step 11 At the Channel List drop-down menu in the Noise/Interference/Rogue Monitoring Channels section, choose between all channels, country channels, or DCA channels based on the level of monitoring you want. Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) automatically selects a reasonably good channel allocation amongst a set of managed devices connected to the controller.

Step 12 Click Save.


Configuring an RRM Interval Template (for 802.11a or 802.11b/g)

Follow these steps to add an 802.11a or 802.11b/g RRM interval template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose 802.11a > RRM Intervals or 802.11b/g > RRM Intervals.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template name from the Template Name column. The 802.11a or 802.11b/g RRM Threshold Template appears (see Figure 10-42), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-42 802.11a RRM Intervals Template

Step 4 Enter at which interval you want strength measurements taken for each access point. The default is 300 seconds.

Step 5 Enter at which interval you want noise and interference measurements taken for each access point. The default is 300 seconds.

Step 6 Enter at which interval you want load measurements taken for each access point. The default is 300 seconds.

Step 7 Enter at which interval you want coverage measurements taken for each access point. The default is 300 seconds.

Step 8 Click Save.


Configuring an 802.11h Template

Follow these steps to add an 802.11h template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose 802.11a > 802.11h.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template name from the Template Name column. The 802.11h Template appears (see Figure 10-43), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-43 802.11h Template

Step 4 Check the power constraint check box to enable TPC.

Step 5 Check the channel announcement check box to enable channel announcement. Channel announcement is a method in which the access point announces when it is switching to a new channel and the new channel number.

Step 6 Click Save.


Configuring a Mesh Template

This section provides a template for configuring the access point to establish a connection with the controller. Follow these steps to add a mesh template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Mesh.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click a specific template name. The Mesh Configuration Template window appears (see Figure 10-44).

Figure 10-44 Mesh Configuration Template

Step 4 The Root AP to Mesh AP Range is 12,000 feet by default. Enter the optimum distance (in feet) that should exist between the root access point and the mesh access point. This global parameter applies to all access points when they join the controller and all existing access points in the network.

Step 5 The Mesh Mac Filter is enabled by default. When enabled, this feature secures your network against any rogue access points by not allowing access point that are not defined in the MAC Filter List to attach.

However, if you disable this feature, mesh access points can join the controller.


Note The ability to join a controller without specification within a MAC filter list is only supported on mesh access points.



Note For releases prior to 4.1.82.0, mesh access points do not join the controller unless they are defined in the MAC filter list.


You may want to disable the MAC filter list to allow newly added access points to join the controller. Before enabling the MAC filter list again, you should enter the MAC addresses of the new access points.

After you check the Enable Mesh MAC Filter check box, the access points reboot and then rejoin the controller if defined in the MAC filter list. Access points that are not defined in the MAC list cannot join the controller.

Step 6 The Enable Client Access on Backhaul Link check box is not checked by default. When this option is enabled, mesh access points are able to associate with 802.11a wireless clients over the 802.11a backhaul. This client association is in addition to the existing communication on the 802.11a backhaul between the root and mesh access points.


Note This feature is only applicable to access points with two radios.


Step 7 Click Save.


Configuring a Known Rogue Access Point Template

If you have an established list of known rogue devices, you can configure a template to pass these rogue details to multiple controllers. Follow these steps to add a known rogue template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Known Rogues.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Known Rogue from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click a specific MAC address in the MAC Address column. The Known Rogues Template window appears (see Figure 10-45).

Figure 10-45 Known Rogues Template

Step 4 The Import from File check box is enabled. This enables you to import a .csv file which contains the MAC addresses of access points into the Cisco WCS. If you click to disable the check box, you are required to enter the MAC address of the access point manually (enter this and skip to Step 6). If you are importing a .csv file, continue to Step 5.

Step 5 Enter the file path where the .csv file exists or use the Browse button to navigate there. Skip to Step 9.

Step 6 Use the Status drop-down menu to specify whether the rogue is known or acknowledged.

Step 7 Enter a comment that may be useful to you later.

Step 8 Click the Suppress Alarms check box if you do not want an alarm sent to WCS.

Step 9 Click Save.


Configuring a Trap Receiver Template

Follow these steps to add a new trap receiver template or make modifications to an existing template. If you have monitoring devices on your network that receive SNMP traps, you may want to add a trap receiver template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Management > Trap Receivers.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click a specific template in the Template Name column. The Trap Receiver Template window appears (see Figure 10-46), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-46 Trap Receiver Template

Step 4 Enter the IP address of the server.

Step 5 Click to enable the admin status if you want SNMP traps to be sent to the receiver.

Step 6 Click Save.


Configuring a Trap Control Template

Follow these steps to add a trap control template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Management > Trap Control.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The Trap Controls Template window appears (see Figure 10-47), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-47 Trap Controls Template

Step 4 Check the appropriate check box to enable any of the following miscellaneous traps:

SNMP Authentication - The SNMPv2 entity has received a protocol message that is not properly authenticated. When a user who is configured in SNMP V3 mode tries to access the controller with an incorrect password, the authentication fails and a failure message is displayed. However, no trap logs are generated for the authentication failure.

Link (Port) Up/Down - Link changes states from up or down.

Multiple Users - Two users log in with the same login ID.

Spanning Tree - Spanning Tree traps. Refer to the STP specification for descriptions of individual parameters.

Rogue AP - Whenever a rogue access point is detected or when a rogue access point was detected earlier and no longer exists, this trap is sent with its MAC address.

Controller Config Save - Notification sent when the configuration is modified.

Step 5 Check the appropriate check box to enable any of the following client-related traps:

802.11 Disassociation - The disassociate notification is sent when the client sends a disassociation frame.

802.11 Deauthentication - The deauthenticate notification is sent when the client sends a deauthentication frame.

802.11 Failed Authentication - The authenticate failure notification is sent when the client sends an authentication frame with a status code other than successful.

802.11 Failed Association - The associate failure notification is sent when the client sends an association frame with a status code other than successful.

Excluded - The associate failure notification is sent when a client is excluded.

Step 6 Check the appropriate check box to enable any of the following access point traps:

AP Register - Notification sent when an access point associates or disassociates with the controller.

AP Interface Up/Down - Notification sent when access point interface (802.11a or 802.11b/) status goes up or down.

Step 7 Check the appropriate check box to enable any of the following auto RF profile traps:

Load Profile - Notification sent when Load Profile state changes between PASS and FAIL.

Noise Profile - Notification sent when Noise Profile state changes between PASS and FAIL.

Interference Profile - Notification sent when Interference Profile state changes between PASS and FAIL.

Coverage Profile - Notification sent when Coverage Profile state changes between PASS and FAIL.

Step 8 Check the appropriate check box to enable any of the following auto RF update traps:

Channel Update - Notification sent when access point's dynamic channel algorithm is updated.

Tx Power Update - Notification sent when access point's dynamic transmit power algorithm is updated.

Antenna Update - Notification sent when access point's dynamic antenna algorithm is updated.

Step 9 Check the appropriate check box to enable any of the following AAA traps:

User Auth Failure - This trap is to inform you that a client RADIUS authentication failure has occurred.

RADIUS Server No Response - This trap is to indicate that no RADIUS server(s) are responding to authentication requests sent by the RADIUS client.

Step 10 Check the appropriate check box to enable the following 802.11 security trap:

WEP Decrypt Error - Notification sent when the controller detects a WEP decrypting error.

Step 11 Check the appropriate check box to enable the following WPS trap:

Rogue Auto Containment - Notification sent when a rogue access point is auto-contained.

Step 12 Click Save.


Configuring a Telnet SSH Template

Follow these steps to add a Telnet SSH configuration template or make changes to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Management > Telnet SSH.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The Telnet SSH Configuration Template window appears (see Figure 10-48), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-48 Telnet SSH Configuration Template

Step 4 Enter the number of minutes a Telnet session is allowed to remain inactive before being logged off. A zero means there is no timeout. The valid range is 0 to 160, and the default is 5.

Step 5 At the Maximum Sessions parameter, enter the number of simultaneous Telnet sessions allowed. The valid range is 0 to 5, and the default is 5. New Telnet sessions can be allowed or disallowed on the DS (network) port. New Telnet sessions are always allowed on the service port.

Step 6 Use the Allow New Telnet Session drop-down menu to determine if you want new Telnet sessions allowed on the DS port. New Telnet sessions can be allowed or disallowed on the DS (network) port. New Telnet sessions are always allowed on the service port. The default is no.

Step 7 Use the Allow New SSH Session drop-down menu to determine if you want Secure Shell Telnet sessions allowed. The default is yes.

Step 8 Click Save.


Configuring a Syslog Template

Follow these steps to add a syslog configuration template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Management > Syslog.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a template in the Template Name column. The Syslog Configuration Template window appears (see Figure 10-49), and the number of controllers the template is applied to automatically populates.

Figure 10-49 Syslog Configuration Template

Step 4 Enter a template name. The number of controllers to which this template is applied is displayed.

Step 5 Click to enable syslog.

Step 6 Click Save.


Configuring a Local Management User Template

Follow these steps to add a local management user template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Management > Local Management Users.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a username in the User Name column. The Local Management Users Template appears (see Figure 10-50).

Figure 10-50 Local Management Users Template

Step 4 Enter a template username.

Step 5 Enter a password for this local management user template.

Step 6 Re-enter the password.

Step 7 Use the Access Level drop-down menu to choose either Read Only or Read Write.

Step 8 Click Save.


Configuring a User Authentication Priority Template

Management user authentication priority templates control the order in which authentication servers are used to authenticate a controller's management users. Follow these steps to add a user authentication priority template or make modifications to an existing template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Management > Authentication Priority.

Step 3 To add a new template, choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. To make modifications to an existing template, click to select a username in the Template Name column. The Local Management Users Template appears (Figure 10-51).

Figure 10-51 Authentication Priority Template

Step 4 Enter a template name.

Step 5 The local server is tried first. Choose either RADIUS or TACACS+ to try if local authentication fails.

Step 6 Click Save.


Applying Controller Templates

You can apply a controller template to a controller.


Step 1 Go to Configure > Controller Templates.

Step 2 Using the left sidebar menu, choose the category of templates to apply.

Step 3 Click the URL from the Template Name column that you want to apply to the controller.

Step 4 Click the Apply to Controllers button.


Adding Access Point Templates

This page allows you to add a new access point template.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Access Point Templates.

Step 2 Choose Add Template from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO.

Step 3 Enter the template name.

Step 4 Provide a description of the template.

Step 5 Click Save.


Configuring Access Point/Radio Templates

This page allows you to configure a template of access point information that you can apply to one or more access points.


Step 1 Choose Configure > Access Point Templates.

Step 2 From the Template Name column, click on the template name you want to configure.

Step 3 Choose the AP Parameters tab. The AP/Radio Templates window appears (see Figure 10-52).

Figure 10-52 AP/Radio Templates

Step 4 Click the Location check box and enter the access point location.

Step 5 Click both the Admin Status and Enabled check box to enable access point administrative status.

Step 6 Click the AP Mode check box and use the drop-down menu to set the operational mode of the access point as follows:

Local - Default

Monitor - Monitor mode only

REAP - Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point (REAP) used for Cisco 1030 IEEE 802.11a/b/g remote edge lightweight access points.

Rogue Detected - Monitors the rogue access points but does not transmit or contain rogue access points.

Sniffer - The access point "sniffs" the air on a given channel. It captures and forwards all the packets from the client on that channel to a remote machine that runs airopeek (a packet analyzer for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs). It includes information on timestamp, signal strength, packet size, and so on. If you choose Sniffer as an operation mode, you are required to enter a channel and server IP address on the AP/Radio Templates 802.11b/g or 802.11a parameters tab.


Note The sniffer feature can be enabled only if you are running Airopeek, which is a third-party network analyzer software that supports decoding of data packets. For more information on Airopeek, see http://www.wildpackets.com/products.


Step 7 You must click both the Mirror Mode and Enabled check box to enable access point mirroring mode.

Step 8 Click the check box to enable the country code drop-down menu. A list of country codes is returned. For this access point, choose which country code selection to allow. Access points are designed for use in many countries with varying regulatory requirements. You can configure a country code to ensure that it complies with your country's regulations.


Note Access points may not operate properly if they are not designed for use in your country of operation. For example, an access point with part number AIR-AP1030-A-K9 (which is included in the Americas regulatory domain) cannot be used in Australia. Always be sure to purchase access points that match your country's regulatory domain. For a complete list of country codes supported per product, refer to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/779/smbiz/wireless/approvals.html.


Step 9 Click to enable Stats Collection Interval and then enter the collection period (in seconds) for access point statistics.

Step 10 Choose the bridging option if you want the access point to act as a bridging access point. This feature applies only to Mesh access points.

Step 11 Use the Data Rate drop-down menu to choose a data rate of 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, or 54 Mbps.

Step 12 Use the Ethernet Bridging drop-down menu to choose to enabled or disabled.

Step 13 Click the Cisco Discovery Protocol check box and click Enabled to allow CDP on a single access point or all access points. CDP is a device discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco manufactured equipment (such as routers, bridges, communication servers, and so on).

Step 14 Click the Controllers check box, and then you will be required to enter the Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Controller names.

Step 15 Click the Group VLAN Name check box and then use the drop-down menu to select an established Group VLAN name.

Step 16 Enable local switching by checking the H-REAP Configuration check box. When you enable local switching, any remote access point that advertises this WLAN is able to locally switch data packets (instead of tunneling to the controller).

Step 17 Check the VLAN Support check box to enable it and enter the number of the native VLAN on the remote network (such as 100) in the Native VLAN ID field. This value cannot be zero.


Note By default, a VLAN is not enabled on the hybrid-REAP access point. Once hybrid REAP is enabled, the access point inherits the VLAN name (interface name) and the VLAN ID associated to the WLAN. This configuration is saved in the access point and received after the successful join response. By default, the native VLAN is 1. One native VLAN must be configured per hybrid-REAP access point in a VLAN-enabled domain. Otherwise, the access point cannot send and receive packets to and from the controller. When the client is assigned a VLAN from the RADIUS server, that VLAN is associated to the locally switched WLAN.


Step 18 The SSID-VLAN Mappings section lists all the SSIDs of the controllers which are currently enabled for HREAP local switching. You can edit the number of VLANs from which the clients will get an IP address by clicking the check box and adjusting the value.

Step 19 Save the template.

Step 20 If the updates require a reboot to be reflected, click to check the Reboot AP check box.

Step 21 Choose the Select APs tab. Use the drop-down menu to apply the parameters by controller, floor area, outdoor area, or all. Click Apply.


Note When you apply the template to the access point, WCS checks to see if the access point supports REAP mode and displays the application status accordingly.