Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration Guide, Release 5.0
Chapter 4 - Configuring Controller Settings
Downloads: This chapterpdf (PDF - 1.07MB) The complete bookPDF (PDF - 14.11MB) | Feedback

Configuring Controller SettingsWireless Device Access

Table Of Contents

Configuring Controller SettingsWireless Device Access

Using the Configuration Wizard

Before You Start

Resetting the Device to Default Settings

Resetting to Default Settings Using the CLI

Resetting to Default Settings Using the GUI

Running the Configuration Wizard on the CLI

Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration

Overview of AutoInstall

Obtaining an IP Address Through DHCP and Downloading a Configuration File from a TFTP Server

Selecting a Configuration File

Example of AutoInstall Operation

Managing the System Date and Time

Configuring an NTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time

Configuring the Date and Time Manually

Using the GUI to Configure the Date and Time

Using the CLI to Configure the Date and Time

Configuring 802.11 Bands

Using the GUI to Configure 802.11 Bands

Using the CLI to Configure 802.11 Bands

Configuring 802.11n Parameters

Using the GUI to Configure 802.11n Parameters

Using the CLI to Configure 802.11n Parameters

Configuring DHCP Proxy

Using the CLI to Configure DHCP Proxy

Configuring Administrator Usernames and Passwords

Configuring SNMP

Changing the Default Values of SNMP Community Strings

Using the GUI to Change the SNMP Community String Default Values

Using the CLI to Change the SNMP Community String Default Values

Changing the Default Values for SNMP v3 Users

Using the GUI to Change the SNMP v3 User Default Values

Using the CLI to Change the SNMP v3 User Default Values

Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing

Using the GUI to Configure Aggressive Load Balancing

Using the CLI to Configure Aggressive Load Balancing

Enabling 802.3X Flow Control

Configuring 802.3 Bridging

Using the GUI to Configure 802.3 Bridging

Using the CLI to Configure 802.3 Bridging

Configuring Multicast Mode

Understanding Multicast Mode

Guidelines for Using Multicast Mode

Using the GUI to Enable Multicast Mode

Using the GUI to View Multicast Groups

Using the CLI to Enable Multicast Mode

Using the CLI to View Multicast Groups

Using the CLI to View an Access Point's Multicast Client Table

Configuring Client Roaming

Intra-Controller Roaming

Inter-Controller Roaming

Inter-Subnet Roaming

Voice-over-IP Telephone Roaming

CCX Layer 2 Client Roaming

Using the GUI to Configure CCX Client Roaming Parameters

Using the CLI to Configure CCX Client Roaming Parameters

Using the CLI to Obtain CCX Client Roaming Information

Using the CLI to Debug CCX Client Roaming Issues

Configuring Quality of Service

Configuring Quality of Service Profiles

Using the GUI to Configure QoS Profiles

Using the CLI to Configure QoS Profiles

Configuring Quality of Service Roles

Using the GUI to Configure QoS Roles

Using the CLI to Configure QoS Roles

Configuring Voice and Video Parameters

Call Admission Control

Bandwidth-Based CAC

Load-Based CAC

Expedited Bandwidth Requests

U-APSD

Traffic Stream Metrics

Using the GUI to Configure Voice Parameters

Using the GUI to Configure Video Parameters

Using the GUI to View Voice and Video Settings

Using the CLI to Configure Voice Parameters

Using the CLI to Configure Video Parameters

Using the CLI to View Voice and Video Settings

Configuring EDCA Parameters

Using the GUI to Configure EDCA Parameters

Using the CLI to Configure EDCA Parameters

Configuring Cisco Discovery Protocol

Using the GUI to Configure Cisco Discovery Protocol

Using the GUI to View Cisco Discovery Protocol Information

Using the CLI to Configure Cisco Discovery Protocol

Using the CLI to View Cisco Discovery Protocol Information

Configuring RFID Tag Tracking

Using the CLI to Configure RFID Tag Tracking

Using the CLI to View RFID Tag Tracking Information

Using the CLI to Debug RFID Tag Tracking Issues

Configuring and Viewing Location Settings

Installing the Location Appliance Certificate

Synchronizing the Controller and Location Appliance

Using the CLI to View Location Settings

Configuring the Supervisor 720 to Support the WiSM

General WiSM Guidelines

Configuring the Supervisor

Using the Wireless LAN Controller Network Module


Configuring Controller SettingsWireless Device Access


This chapter describes how to configure settings on the controllers. It contains these sections:

Using the Configuration Wizard

Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration

Managing the System Date and Time

Configuring 802.11 Bands

Configuring 802.11n Parameters

Configuring DHCP Proxy

Configuring Administrator Usernames and Passwords

Configuring SNMP

Changing the Default Values of SNMP Community Strings

Changing the Default Values for SNMP v3 Users

Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing

Enabling 802.3X Flow Control

Configuring 802.3 Bridging

Configuring Multicast Mode

Configuring Client Roaming

Configuring Quality of Service

Configuring Voice and Video Parameters

Configuring EDCA Parameters

Configuring Cisco Discovery Protocol

Configuring RFID Tag Tracking

Configuring and Viewing Location Settings

Configuring the Supervisor 720 to Support the WiSM

Using the Wireless LAN Controller Network Module

Using the Configuration Wizard

This section describes how to configure basic settings on a controller for the first time or after the configuration has been reset to factory defaults. The contents of this chapter are similar to the instructions in the quick start guide that shipped with your controller.

You use the configuration wizard to configure basic settings. You can run the wizard on the CLI or the GUI. This section explains how to run the wizard on the CLI.

This section contains these sections:

Before You Start

Resetting the Device to Default Settings

Running the Configuration Wizard on the CLI

Before You Start

You should collect these basic configuration parameters before configuring the controller:

System name for the controller

802.11 protocols supported: 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n or both

Administrator usernames and passwords (optional)

Distribution system (network) port static IP address, netmask, and optional default gateway IP address

Service port static IP address and netmask (optional)

Distribution system physical port (1000BASE-T, 1000BASE-SX, or 10/100BASE-T)


Note Each 1000BASE-SX connector provides a 100/1000-Mbps wired connection to a network through an 850nM (SX) fiber-optic link using an LC physical connector.


Distribution system port VALN assignment (optional)

Distribution system port web and secure web mode settings: enabled or disabled

Distribution system port Spanning Tree Protocol: enabled/disabled, 802.1D/fast/off mode per port, path cost per port, priority per port, bridge priority, forward delay, hello time, maximum age

WLAN configuration: SSID, VLAN assignments, Layer 2 security settings, Layer 3 security settings, QoS assignments

Mobility Settings: Mobility Group Name (optional)

RADIUS Settings

SNMP Settings

NTP server settings (the wizard prompts you for NTP server settings when you run the wizard on a wireless controller network module installed in a Cisco Integrated Services router)

Other port and parameter settings: service port, Radio Resource Management (RRM), third-party access points, console port, 802.3x flow control, and system logging

Resetting the Device to Default Settings


Note If you need to start over during the initial setup process, you can reset the controller to factory default settings.After resetting the configuration to defaults, you need a serial connection to the controller to use the configuration wizard.


Resetting to Default Settings Using the CLI

Follow these steps to reset the configuration to factory default settings using the CLI.


Step 1 Enter reset system. At the prompt that asks whether you need to save changes to the configuration, enter Y or N. The unit reboots.

Step 2 When you are prompted for a username, enter recover-config to restore the factory default configuration. The controller reboots and displays this message:

Welcome to the Cisco WLAN Solution Wizard Configuration Tool

Step 3 Use the configuration wizard to enter configuration settings.


Resetting to Default Settings Using the GUI

Follow these steps to return to default settings using the GUI.


Step 1 Open your Internet browser. The GUI is fully compatible with Microsoft Internet Explorer version 6.0 or later on s platforms.

Step 2 Enter the controller IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network Password s appears.

Step 3 Enter your username in the User Name field. The default username is admin.

Step 4 Enter the wireless device password in the Password field and press Enter. The default password is admin.

Step 5 Browse to the Commands > Reset to Factory Defaults page.

Step 6 Click Reset. At the prompt, confirm the reset.

Step 7 Reboot the unit and do not save changes.

Step 8 Use the configuration wizard to enter configuration settings.


Running the Configuration Wizard on the CLI

When the controller boots at factory defaults, the bootup script runs the configuration wizard, which prompts the installer for initial configuration settings. Follow these steps to enter settings using the wizard on the CLI.


Note To configure the controller in the Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller Switch, Cisco recommends that you use the GUI configuration wizard that launches from the 3750 Device Manager. Refer to the Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller Switch Getting Started Guide for instructions.



Note The available options appear in brackets after each configuration parameter. The default value appears in all uppercase letters.



Note If you enter an incorrect response, the controller provides you with an appropriate error message, such as "Invalid Response," and returns you to the wizard prompt.



Note Press the hyphen key if you ever need to return to the previous command line.



Step 1 Connect your computer to the controller using a DB-9 null-modem serial cable.

Step 2 Open a terminal emulator session using these settings:

9600 baud

8 data bits

1 stop bit

no parity

no hardware flow control

Step 3 At the prompt, log into the CLI. The default username is admin and the default password is admin.

Step 4 If necessary, enter reset system to reboot the unit and start the wizard.

Step 5 Enter the system name, which is the name you want to assign to the controller. You can enter up to 32 ASCII characters.

Step 6 Enter the administrative username and password to be assigned to this controller. You can enter up to 24 ASCII characters for each. The default administrative username and password are admin and admin, respectively.

Step 7 Enter the service-port interface IP configuration protocol: none or DHCP. If you do not want to use the service port or if you want to assign a static IP Address to the service port, enter none.

Step 8 If you entered none in step 7 and need to enter a static IP address for the service port, enter the service-port interface IP address and netmask for the next two prompts.

Step 9 Enable or disable link aggregation (LAG) by choosing yes or NO. Refer to Chapter 3 for more information on LAG.

Step 10 Enter the IP address of the management interface.

Step 11 Enter the IP address of the management interface netmask.

Step 12 Enter the IP address of the default router.

Step 13 Enter the VLAN identifier of the management interface (either a valid VLAN identifier or 0 for an untagged VLAN). The VLAN identifier should be set to match the switch interface configuration.

Step 14 Enter the network interface (distribution system) physical port number. For the controller, the possible ports are 1 through 4 for a front panel GigE port.

Step 15 Enter the IP address of the default DHCP server that will supply IP addresses to clients, the management interface, and the service port interface if you use one.

Step 16 Enter the IP address of the access point manager interface.

Step 17 Enter the IP address of the controller's virtual interface. You should enter a fictitious, unassigned IP address such as 1.1.1.1.


Note The virtual interface is used to support mobility management, DHCP relay, and embedded Layer 3 security such as guest web authentication and VPN termination. All controllers within a mobility group must be configured with the same virtual interface IP address.


Step 18 If desired, enter the name of the mobility group/RF group to which you want the controller to belong.


Note Although the name that you enter here is assigned to both the mobility group and the RF group, these groups are not identical. Both groups define clusters of controllers, but they have different purposes. All of the controllers in an RF group are usually also in the same mobility group and vice versa. However, a mobility group facilitates scalable, system-wide mobility and controller redundancy while an RF group facilitates scalable, system-wide dynamic RF management. See Chapter 10 and Chapter 11 for more information.


Step 19 Enable or disable symmetric mobility tunneling by entering yes or no. Symmetric mobility tunneling allows inter-subnet mobility to continue when reverse path filtering (RPF) is enabled on a router on any of the subnets. Refer to Chapter 11 for more information.

Step 20 Enter the network name, or service set identifier (SSID). The initial SSID enables basic functionality of the controller and allows access points that have joined the controller to enable their radios.

Step 21 Enter yes to allow clients to assign their own IP address or no to require clients to request an IP address from a DHCP server.

Step 22 To configure a RADIUS server now, enter yes and then enter the IP address, communication port, and secret key of the RADIUS server. Otherwise, enter no. If you enter no, the following message appears: "Warning! The default WLAN security policy requires a RADIUS server. Please see documentation for more details."

Step 23 Enter the code for the country in which the network is located. Enter help to view the list of available country codes.


Note You can enter more than one country code if you want to manage access points in multiple countries from a single controller. To do so, separate the country codes with a comma (for example, US,CA,MX). After the configuration wizard runs, you need to assign each access point joined to the controller to a specific country. See the "Configuring Country Codes" section on page 7-28 for instructions.


Step 24 When you run the wizard on a wireless controller network module installed in a Cisco Integrated Services Router, the wizard prompts you for NTP server settings. The controller network module does not have a battery and cannot save a time setting. It must receive a time setting from an external NTP server when it powers up.

Step 25 Enable or disable support for each of the 802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g lightweight access point networks by entering yes or no.

Step 26 Enable or disable the radio resource management (RRM) auto-RF feature by entering yes or no. Refer to Chapter 10 for more information on RRM.


Note The auto RF feature enables the controller to automatically form an RF group with other controllers. The group dynamically elects a leader to optimize RRM parameter settings, such as channel and transmit power assignment, for the group.


The controller saves your configuration, reboots, and prompts you to log in or to enter recover-config to reset to the factory default configuration and return to the wizard.


Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration

When you boot up a controller that does not have a configuration, the AutoInstall feature can download a configuration file from a TFTP server and then load the configuration onto the controller automatically.


Note The Cisco WiSM controllers do not support the AutoInstall feature.


Overview of AutoInstall

If you create a configuration file on a controller that is already on the network (or through a WCS filter), place that configuration file on a TFTP server, and configure a DHCP server so that a new controller can get an IP address and TFTP server information, the AutoInstall feature can obtain the configuration file for the new controller automatically.

When the controller boots, the AutoInstall process starts. The controller does not take any action until AutoInstall is notified that the configuration wizard has started. If the wizard has not started, the controller has a valid configuration.

If AutoInstall is notified that the configuration wizard has started (which means that the controller does not have a configuration), AutoInstall waits for an additional 30 seconds. This time period gives you an opportunity to respond to the first prompt from the configuration wizard:

Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]:

When the 30-second abort timeout expires, AutoInstall starts the DHCP client. You can abort the AutoInstall task even after this 30-second timeout if you enter Yes at the prompt. However, AutoInstall cannot be aborted if the TFTP task has locked the flash and is in the process of downloading and installing a valid configuration file.

Obtaining an IP Address Through DHCP and Downloading a Configuration File from a TFTP Server

AutoInstall uses the following interfaces:

4400 series controllers

eth0—Service port (untagged)

dtl0—Gigabit port 1 through the NPU (untagged)

2100 series controllers

dtl0—FastEthernet port 1 (untagged)

AutoInstall attempts to obtain an IP address from the DHCP server until the DHCP process is successful or until you abort the AutoInstall process. The first interface to successfully obtain an IP address from the DHCP server registers with the AutoInstall task. The registration of this interface causes AutoInstall to begin the process of obtaining TFTP server information and downloading the configuration file.

Following the acquisition of the DHCP IP address for an interface, AutoInstall begins a short sequence of events to determine the host name of the controller and the IP address of the TFTP server. Each phase of this sequence gives preference to explicitly configured information over default or implied information and to explicit host names over explicit IP addresses.

The process is as follows:

If at least one Domain Name System (DNS) server IP address is learned through DHCP, AutoInstall creates a /etc/resolv.conf file. This file includes the domain name and the list of DNS servers that have been received. The Domain Name Server option provides the list of DNS servers, and the Domain Name option provides the domain name.

If the domain servers are not on the same subnet as the controller, static route entries are installed for each domain server. These static routes point to the gateway that is learned through the DHCP Router option.

The host name of the controller is determined in this order by one of the following:

If the DHCP Host Name option was received, this information (truncated at the first period [.]) is used as the host name for the controller.

A reverse DNS lookup is performed on the controller IP address. If DNS returns a host name, this name (truncated at the first period [.]) is used as the host name for the controller.

The IP address of the TFTP server is determined in this order by one of the following:

If AutoInstall received the DHCP TFTP Server Name option, AutoInstall performs a DNS lookup on this server name. If the DNS lookup is successful, the returned IP address is used as the IP address of the TFTP server.

If the DHCP Server Host Name (sname) field is valid, AutoInstall performs a DNS lookup on this sname. If the DNS lookup is successful, the IP address that is returned is used as the IP address of the TFTP server.

If AutoInstall received the DHCP TFTP Server Address option, this address is used as the IP address of the TFTP server.

AutoInstall performs a DNS lookup on the default TFTP server name (cisco-wlc-tftp). If the DNS lookup is successful, the IP address that is received is used as the IP address of the TFTP server.

If the DHCP server IP address (siaddr) field is non-zero, this address is used as the IP address of the TFTP server.

The limited broadcast address (255.255.255.255) is used as the IP address of the TFTP server.

If the TFTP server is not on the same subnet as the controller, a static route (/32) is installed for the IP address of the TFTP server. This static route points to the gateway that is learned through the DHCP Router option.


Note For more information on configuring DHCP on a controller, see the "Configuring DHCP" section on page 6-7.



Note For more information on configuring a TFTP server on a controller, see Chapter 8.



Note For more information on configuring DHCP and TFTP servers through WCS, see Chapter 10 of the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide, Release 5.0.


Selecting a Configuration File

After the host name and TFTP server have been determined, AutoInstall attempts to download a configuration file. AutoInstall performs three full download iterations on each interface that obtains a DHCP IP address. For example, if a 4400 series controller obtains DHCP IP addresses on both eth0 and dtl0, each interface tries to download a configuration. If the interface cannot download a configuration file successfully after three attempts, the interface does not attempt further.

The first configuration file that is downloaded and installed successfully triggers a reboot of the controller. After the reboot, the controller runs the newly downloaded configuration.

AutoInstall searches for configuration files in the order in which the names are listed:

The filename that is provided by the DHCP Boot File Name option

The filename that is provided by the DHCP File field

host name-confg

host name.cfg

base MAC address-confg (for example, 0011.2233.4455-confg)

serial number-confg

ciscowlc-confg

ciscowlc.cfg

AutoInstall runs through this list until it finds a configuration file. It stops running if it does not find a configuration file after it cycles through this list three times on each registered interface.


Note The downloaded configuration file can be a complete configuration, or it can be a minimal configuration that provides enough information for the controller to be managed by WCS. Full configuration can then be deployed directly from WCS.



Note For information about creating and uploading a configuration file that AutoInstall can obtain from a TFTP server, see Chapter 8.



Note WCS release 5.0 provides AutoInstall capabilities for controllers. A WCS administrator can create a filter that includes the host name, the MAC address, or the serial number of the controller and associate a group of templates (a configuration group) to this filter rule. WCS pushes the initial configuration to the controller when the controller boots up initially. After the controller is discovered, WCS pushes the templates that are defined in the configuration group. For more information about the AutoInstall feature and WCS, see Chapter 15 of the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide, Release 5.0.


Example of AutoInstall Operation

The following is an example of an AutoInstall process from start to finish:

Welcome to the Cisco Wizard Configuration Tool
Use the '-' character to backup
Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]: 
AUTO-INSTALL: starting now...
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP TFTP Filename ==> 'abcd-confg'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP TFTP Server IP ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP siaddr ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP Domain Server[0] ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP Domain Name ==> 'engtest.com'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP yiaddr ==> 172.19.29.253
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP Netmask ==> 255.255.255.0
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP Gateway ==> 172.19.29.1
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' registered
AUTO-INSTALL: interation 1 -- interface 'service-port'
AUTO-INSTALL: DNS reverse lookup 172.19.29.253 ===> 'wlc-1'
AUTO-INSTALL: hostname 'wlc-1'
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP server 1.100.108.2 (from DHCP Option 150)
AUTO-INSTALL: attempting download of 'abcd-confg'
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'TFTP Config transfer starting.' (2)
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP file ==> 'bootfile1'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP TFTP Filename ==> 'bootfile2-confg'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP siaddr ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Domain Server[0] ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Domain Server[1] ==> 1.100.108.3
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Domain Server[2] ==> 1.100.108.4
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Domain Name ==> 'engtest.com'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP yiaddr ==> 1.100.108.238
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Netmask ==> 255.255.254.0
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Gateway ==> 1.100.108.1
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' registered
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'Config file transfer failed - Error from server: File not 
found' (3)
AUTO-INSTALL: attempting download of 'wlc-1-confg'
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'TFTP Config transfer starting.' (2)
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'TFTP receive complete... updating configuration.' (2)
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'TFTP receive complete... storing in flash.' (2)
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'System being reset.' (2)

Resetting system

Managing the System Date and Time

You can configure the controller to obtain the date and time from a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server, or you can configure the date and time manually. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is used as the standard for setting the time zone on the controller.

Configuring an NTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time

Each NTP server IP address is added to the controller database. Each controller searches for an NTP server and obtains the current time upon reboot and at each user-defined polling interval (daily to weekly).

Use these commands to configure an NTP server to obtain the date and time:

1. To specify the NTP server for the controller, enter this command:

config time ntp server index ip_address

2. To specify the polling interval (in seconds), enter this command:

config time ntp interval

Configuring the Date and Time Manually

Follow the instructions in this section to configure the date and time manually using the controller GUI or CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure the Date and Time

Using the controller GUI, follow these steps to configure the local date and time.


Step 1 Click Commands > Set Time to open the Set Time page (see Figure 4-1).

Figure 4-1 Set Time Page

The current date and time appear at the top of the page.

Step 2 In the Timezone section, choose your local time zone from the Location drop-down box.


Note When you choose a time zone that uses Daylight Saving Time (DST), the controller automatically sets its system clock to reflect the time change when DST occurs. In the United States, DST starts on the second Sunday in March and ends on the first Sunday in November.



Note You cannot set the time zone delta on the controller GUI. However, if you do so on the controller CLI, the change is reflected in the Delta Hours and Mins fields on the controller GUI.


Step 3 Click Set Timezone to apply your changes.

Step 4 In the Date section, choose the current local month and day from the Month and Day drop-down boxes, and enter the year in the Year field.

Step 5 In the Time section, choose the current local hour from the Hour drop-down box, and enter the minutes and seconds in the Minutes and Seconds fields.


Note If you change the time zone location after setting the date and time, the values in the Time section are updated to reflect the time in the new time zone location. For example, if the controller is currently configured for noon Eastern time and you change the time zone to Pacific time, the time automatically changes to 9:00 a.m.


Step 6 Click Set Date and Time to apply your changes.

Step 7 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure the Date and Time

Using the controller CLI, follow these steps to configure the local date and time.


Step 1 To configure the current local date and time in GMT on the controller, enter this command:

config time manual mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss


Note When setting the time, the current local time is entered in terms of GMT and as a value between 00:00 and 24:00. For example, if it is 8:00 a.m. Pacific time in the United States, you would enter 16:00 because the Pacific time zone is 8 hours behind GMT.


Step 2 Perform one of the following to set the time zone for the controller:

To set the time zone location in order to have Daylight Saving Time (DST) set automatically when it occurs, enter this command:

config time timezone location location_index

where location_index is a number representing one of the following time zone locations:

1. (GMT-12:00) International Date Line West

2. (GMT-11:00) Samoa

3. (GMT-10:00) Hawaii

4. (GMT-9:00) Alaska

5. (GMT-8:00) Pacific Time (US and Canada)

6. (GMT-7:00) Mountain Time (US and Canada)

7. (GMT-6:00) Central Time (US and Canada)

8. (GMT-5:00) Eastern Time (US and Canada)

9. (GMT-4:00) Atlantic Time (Canada)

10. (GMT-3:00) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

11. (GMT-2:00) Mid-Atlantic

12. (GMT-1:00) Azores

13. (GMT) London, Lisbon, Dublin, Edinburgh (default value)

14. (GMT +1:00) Amsterdam, Berlin, Rome, Vienna

15. (GMT +2:00) Jerusalem

16. (GMT +3:00) Baghdad

17. (GMT +4:00) Muscat, Abu Dhabi

18. (GMT +4:30) Kabul

19. (GMT +5:00) Karachi, Islamabad, Tashkent

20. (GMT +5:30) Colombo, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi

21. (GMT +5:45) Katmandu

22. (GMT +6:00) Almaty, Novosibirsk

23. (GMT +6:30) Rangoon

24. (GMT +7:00) Saigon, Hanoi, Bangkok, Jakatar

25. (GMT +8:00) Hong Kong, Bejing, Chongquing

26. (GMT +9:00) Tokyo, Osaka, Sapporo

27. (GMT +9:30) Darwin

28. (GMT+10:00) Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra

29. (GMT+11:00) Magadan, Solomon Is., New Caledonia

30. (GMT+12:00) Kamchatka, Marshall Is., Fiji


Note If you enter this command, the controller automatically sets its system clock to reflect DST when it occurs. In the United States, DST starts on the second Sunday in March and ends on the first Sunday in November.


To manually set the time zone so that DST is not set automatically, enter this command:

config time timezone delta_hours delta_mins

where delta_hours is the local hour difference from GMT, and delta_mins is the local minute difference from GMT.

When manually setting the time zone, enter the time difference of the local current time zone with respect to GMT (+/-). For example, Pacific time in the United States is 8 hours behind GMT. Therefore, it is entered as -8.


Note You can manually set the time zone and prevent DST from being set only on the controller CLI.


Step 3 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 4 To verify that the controller shows the current local time with respect to the local time zone, enter this command:

show time

Information similar to the following appears:

Time............................................. Mon Nov 26 10:25:33 2007

Timezone delta................................... 0:0
Timezone location................................ (GMT -5:00) Eastern Time (US and Canada)

NTP Servers
    NTP Polling Interval.........................     86400

     Index              NTP Server
    -------  --------------------------------
       1     19.1.1.1


Note If you configured the time zone location, the Timezone Delta value is set to "0:0." If you manually configured the time zone using the time zone delta, the Timezone Location is blank.



Configuring 802.11 Bands

You can configure the 802.11b/g/n (2.4-GHz) and 802.11a/n (5-GHz) bands for the controller to comply with the regulatory requirements in your country. By default, both 802.11b/g/n and 802.11a/n are enabled.

Using the GUI to Configure 802.11 Bands

Using the controller GUI, follow these steps to configure 802.11 bands.


Step 1 Click Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Global Parameters page (see Figure 4-2).

Figure 4-2 802.11a Global Parameters Page

Step 2 To enable the 802.11a or 802.11b/g band, check the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box. To disable the band, uncheck the check box. The default value is enabled. You can enable both the 802.11a and 802.11b/g bands.

Step 3 If you enabled the 802.11b/g band in Step 2, check the 802.11g Support check box if you want to enable 802.11g network support. The default value is enabled. If you disable this feature, the 802.11b band is enabled without 802.11g support.

Step 4 To specify the rate at which the SSID is broadcast by the access point, enter a value between 100 and 600 milliseconds (inclusive) in the Beacon Period field. The default value is 100 milliseconds.

Step 5 To specify the size at which packets are fragmented, enter a value between 256 and 2346 bytes (inclusive) in the Fragmentation Threshold field. Enter a low number for areas where communication is poor or where there is a great deal of radio interference.

Step 6 To make access points advertise their channel and transmit power level in beacons and probe responses, check the DTPC Support check box. Otherwise, uncheck this check box. The default value is enabled.

Client devices using dynamic transmit power control (DTPC) receive the channel and power level information from the access points and adjust their settings automatically. For example, a client device used primarily in Japan could rely on DTPC to adjust its channel and power settings automatically when it travels to Italy and joins a network there.


Note On access points that run Cisco IOS software, this feature is called world mode.


Step 7 Use the Data Rates options to specify the rates at which data can be transmitted between the access point and the client. These data rates are available:

802.11a—6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps

802.11b/g—1, 2, 5.5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, or 54 Mbps

For each data rate, choose one of these options:

Mandatory—Clients must support this data rate in order to associate to an access point on the controller.

Supported—Any associated clients that support this data rate may communicate with the access point using that rate. However, the clients are not required to be able to use this rate in order to associate.

Disabled—The clients specify the data rates used for communication.

Step 8 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 9 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure 802.11 Bands

Using the controller CLI, follow these steps to configure 802.11 bands.


Step 1 To disable the 802.11a band, enter this command:

config 802.11a disable network


Note The 802.11a band must be disabled before you can configure the 802.11a network parameters in this section.


Step 2 To disable the 802.11b/g band, enter this command:

config 802.11b disable network


Note The 802.11b band must be disabled before you can configure the 802.11b network parameters in this section.


Step 3 To specify the rate at which the SSID is broadcast by the access point, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} beaconperiod time_unit

where time_unit is the beacon interval in time units (TU). One TU is 1024 micro seconds. You can configure the access point to send a beacon every 20 to 1000 milliseconds.

Step 4 To specify the size at which packets are fragmented, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} fragmentation threshold

where threshold is a value between 256 and 2346 bytes (inclusive). Specify a low number for areas where communication is poor or where there is a great deal of radio interference.

Step 5 To make access points advertise their channel and transmit power level in beacons and probe responses, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} dtpc {enable | disable}

The default value is enabled. Client devices using dynamic transmit power control (DTPC) receive the channel and power level information from the access points and adjust their settings automatically. For example, a client device used primarily in Japan could rely on DTPC to adjust its channel and power settings automatically when it travels to Italy and joins a network there.


Note On access points that run Cisco IOS software, this feature is called world mode.


Step 6 To specify the rates at which data can be transmitted between the controller and the client, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} rate {disabled | mandatory | supported} rate

where

disabled—The clients specify the data rates used for communication.

mandatory—Specifies that clients support this data rate in order to associate to an access point on the controller.

supportedAny associated clients that support this data rate may communicate with the access point using that rate. However, the clients are not required to be able to use this rate in order to associate.

rate—The rate at which data is transmitted:

6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps (802.11a)

1, 2, 5.5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, or 54 Mbps (802.11b/g)

Step 7 To enable the 802.11a band, enter this command:

config 802.11a enable network

The default value is enabled.

Step 8 To enable the 802.11b band, enter this command:

config 802.11b enable network

The default value is enabled.

Step 9 To enable or disable 802.11g network support, enter this command:

config 802.11b 11gSupport {enable | disable}

The default value is enabled. You can use this command only if the 802.11b band is enabled. If you disable this feature, the 802.11b band is enabled without 802.11g support.

Step 10 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 11 To view the configuration settings for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g band, enter this command:

show {802.11a | 802.11b}

Information similar to the following appears:

802.11a Network............................... Enabled                                                          
11nSupport.................................... Enabled                                                         
      802.11a Low Band........................... Enabled                                                         
      802.11a Mid Band........................... Enabled                                                         
      802.11a High Band.......................... Enabled                                                         
802.11a Operational Rates                         
    802.11a 6M Rate.............................. Mandatory                                                           
    802.11a 9M Rate.............................. Supported                                                           
    802.11a 12M Rate............................. Mandatory                                                           
    802.11a 18M Rate............................. Supported                                                           
    802.11a 24M Rate............................. Mandatory                                                           
    802.11a 36M Rate............................. Supported                                                           
    802.11a 48M Rate............................. Supported                                                           
    802.11a 54M Rate............................. Supported                                                           
...
Beacon Interval.................................. 100
... 
Default Channel............................... 36
Default Tx Power Level........................ 1
DTPC Status................................... Enabled
Fragmentation Threshold....................... 2346

...


Configuring 802.11n Parameters

This section provides instructions for managing 802.11n devices such as the Cisco Aironet 1250 Series Access Points on your network. The 802.11n devices support the 2.4- and 5-GHz bands and offer high-throughput data rates.


Note The 802.11n high-throughput rates are available only on 1250 series access points for WLANs with no Layer 2 encryption or with WPA2/AES encryption enabled.


Using the GUI to Configure 802.11n Parameters

Using the controller GUI, follow these steps to configure 802.11n parameters.


Step 1 Click Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > High Throughput (802.11n) to open the 802.11n (5 GHz or 2.4 GHz) High Throughput page (see Figure 4-3).

Figure 4-3 802.11n (2.4 GHz) High Throughput Page

Step 2 Check the 11n Mode check box to enable 802.11n support on the network. The default value is enabled.

Step 3 To specify the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) rates at which data can be transmitted between the access point and the client, check the check boxes of the desired rates. These data rates, which are calculated for a 20-MHz channel width, are available:

0 (7 Mbps)

1 (14 Mbps)

2 (21 Mbps)

3 (29 Mbps)

4 (43 Mbps)

5 (58 Mbps)

6 (65 Mbps)

7 (72 Mbps)

8 (14 Mbps)

9 (29 Mbps)

10 (43 Mbps)

11 (58 Mbps)

12 (87 Mbps)

13 (116 Mbps)

14 (130 Mbps)

15 (144 Mbps)

Any associated clients that support the selected rates may communicate with the access point using those rates. However, the clients are not required to be able to use this rate in order to associate. The MCS settings determine the number of spatial streams, the modulation, the coding rate, and the data rate values that are used.

Step 4 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 5 To use the 802.11n data rates that you configured, you need to enable WMM on the WLAN. Follow these steps to do so:

a. Click WLANs to open the WLANs page.

b. Click the name of the WLAN for which you want to configure WMM mode.

c. When the WLANs > Edit page appears, click the QoS tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Qos) page.

d. From the WMM Policy drop-down box, choose Required or Allowed to require or allow client devices to use WMM. Devices that do not support WMM cannot join the WLAN.


Note In Layer 2 LWAPP mode when WMM is enabled on any WLAN, the access point sends its priority information on the 802.1q PRI field, with VLAN ID 0 based on the WMM clients' QoS control fields. In Layer 3 LWAPP mode, this information is carried in the DSCP of the LWAPP packet's IP header. Some non-Cisco access switches to which the access point is connected might handle VLAN tag ID 0 inappropriately. For example, the switch might drop packets that are tagged with VLAN ID 0, causing the access point with WMM enabled to be unable to join the controller in Layer 2 LWAPP mode and to reboot repeatedly. Therefore, when the controller is in Layer 2 mode and WMM is enabled, you must put the access points on the trunk port of the switch to enable them to join the controller. If the access point is unable to join the controller after connecting to the trunk port of the switch, you must use the controller in Layer 3 LWAPP mode in order to use WMM.


e. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Note To determine if an access point supports 802.11n, look at the 11n Supported field on either the 802.11a/n (or 802.11b/g/n) Cisco APs > Configure page or the 802.11a/n (or 802.11b/g/n) AP Interfaces > Details page.



Using the CLI to Configure 802.11n Parameters

Using the controller CLI, follow these steps to configure 802.11n parameters.


Step 1 To enable 802.11n support on the network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport {enable | disable}

Step 2 To specify the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) rates at which data can be transmitted between the access point and the client, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport mcs tx {0-15} {enable | disable}

See the descriptions of the 0 through 15 MCS data rates in the "Using the GUI to Configure 802.11n Parameters" section.

Step 3 To use the 802.11n data rates that you configured, you need to enable WMM on the WLAN. Enter this command to do so:

config wlan wmm required wlan_id

The required parameter requires client devices to use WMM. Devices that do not support WMM cannot join the WLAN.


Note In Layer 2 LWAPP mode when WMM is enabled on any WLAN, the access point sends its priority information on the 802.1q PRI field, with VLAN ID 0 based on the WMM clients' QoS control fields. In Layer 3 LWAPP mode, this information is carried in the DSCP of the LWAPP packet's IP header. Some non-Cisco access switches to which the access point is connected might handle VLAN tag ID 0 inappropriately. For example, the switch might drop packets that are tagged with VLAN ID 0, causing the access point with WMM enabled to be unable to join the controller in Layer 2 LWAPP mode and to reboot repeatedly. Therefore, when the controller is in Layer 2 mode and WMM is enabled, you must put the access points on the trunk port of the switch to enable them to join the controller. If the access point is unable to join the controller after connecting to the trunk port of the switch, you must use the controller in Layer 3 LWAPP mode in order to use WMM.


Step 4 To specify the aggregation method used for 802.11n packets, follow these steps:

a. To disable the network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network

b. To specify the aggregation method, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport a-mpdu tx priority {0-7 | all} {enable | disable}

Aggregation is the process of grouping packet data frames together rather than transmitting them separately. Two aggregation methods are available: Aggregated MAC Protocol Data Unit (A-MPDU) and Aggregated MAC Service Data Unit (A-MSDU). A-MPDU is performed in the software whereas A-MSDU is performed in the hardware.

You can specify the aggregation method for various types of traffic from the access point to the clients. Table 4-1 defines the priority levels (0-7) assigned per traffic type.

Table 4-1 Traffic Type Priority Levels

User Priority
Traffic Type

0

Best effort

1

Background

2

Spare

3

Excellent effort

4

Controlled load

5

Video, less than 100-ms latency and jitter

6

Voice, less than 10-ms latency and jitter

7

Network control


You can configure each priority level independently, or you can use the all parameter to configure all of the priority levels at once. When you use the enable command, the traffic associated with that priority level uses A-MPDU transmission. When you use the disable command, the traffic associated with that priority level uses A-MSDU transmission. Configure the priority levels to match the aggregation method used by the clients. By default, only priority level 0 is enabled.

c. To re-enable the network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network

Step 5 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 6 To configure the channel bandwidth for an 802.11n access point, follow these steps:

a. To disable the network, enter this command:

config 802.11a disable network

b. To disable the access point, enter this command:

config 802.11a disable Cisco_AP

c. To set the channel for the access point, enter this command:

config 802.11a channel ap Cisco_AP channel

d. To set the transmit power level for the access point, enter this command:

config 802.11a txpower ap Cisco_AP power_level

e. To convert the channel bandwidth of the radio that is configured for 802.11n support from 20 MHz to 40 MHz, enter this command:

config 802.11a chan_width Cisco_AP {20 | 40_ABOVE | 40_BELOW}

where

20 specifies the default 20-MHz bandwidth. You can use this option to revert the channel bandwidth from 40 MHz back to 20 MHz.

40_ABOVE specifies a 40-MHz bandwidth with the secondary or extension channel in the upper 20-MHz band. Two 20-MHz channels are combined to create the wireless network with the channel above the current channel used for control messages.

40_BELOW specifies a 40-MHz bandwidth with the secondary or extension channel in the lower 20-MHz band. Two 20-MHz channels are combined to create the wireless network with the channel below the current channel used for control messages.

By increasing the channel bandwidth from 20 to 40 MHz, you can increase the throughput of the wireless network.


Note 802.11n access points are configured to operate at 20 MHz by default. If they are configured to operate at 40 MHz, the transmit power and channel assignment must be statically enabled.



Note When the 40-MHz channel bandwidth is used, channels can be combined only in pairs of two. For example, of the available channels 36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, and 64, only pairs of 36 & 40, 44 & 48, 52 & 56, and 60 & 64 are allowed to be combined. If the current channel for the 802.11a radio is set to 40 and you want to set the channel bandwidth to 40 MHz with the ABOVE option, the controller does not allow for this because it would break the pairing. Only the BELOW option can be used. If you want to use the ABOVE option, then the 802.11a radio must be set to use channel 36.



Note If the channel bandwidth is set to 40 MHz and you try to set a channel number on the controller GUI that breaks the channel pairing described in the previous note, an error message appears, and the channel is not set.



Note Cisco recommends that you do not configure 40-MHz channels in the 2.4-GHz radio band because severe co-channel interference can occur.


f. To re-enable the network, enter this command:

config 802.11a enable network

g. To re-enable the access point, enter this command:

config 802.11a enable Cisco_AP

Step 7 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 8 To view the configuration settings for the 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n band, enter this command:

show {802.11a | 802.11b}

Information similar to the following appears:

802.11a Network............................... Enabled                                                         
11nSupport.................................... Enabled                                                         
      802.11a Low Band........................... Enabled                                                         
      802.11a Mid Band........................... Enabled                                                         
      802.11a High Band.......................... Enabled                                                         
802.11a Operational Rates                         
    802.11a 6M Rate.............................. Mandatory                                                           
    802.11a 9M Rate.............................. Supported                                                           
    802.11a 12M Rate............................. Mandatory                                                           
    802.11a 18M Rate............................. Supported                                                           
    802.11a 24M Rate............................. Mandatory                                                           
    802.11a 36M Rate............................. Supported                                                           
    802.11a 48M Rate............................. Supported                                                           
    802.11a 54M Rate............................. Supported                                                           
802.11n MCS Settings:   
MCS 0........................................ Supported                                                           
    MCS 1...................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 2...................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 3...................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 4...................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 5...................................... Supported                                                           
MCS 6...................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 7...................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 8...................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 9...................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 10..................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 11..................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 12..................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 13..................................... Supported                                                           
    MCS 14..................................... Supported                                                           
	MCS 15........................................ Supported
802.11n Status:               
    A-MPDU Tx .................................. Enabled                                                         
        Priority 0............................... Enabled                                                         
        Priority 1............................... Enabled                                                         
        Priority 2............................... Enabled                                                         
        Priority 3............................... Enabled                                                         
        Priority 4............................... Enabled                                                         
        Priority 5............................... Disabled                                                          
        Priority 6............................... Disabled                                                          
        Priority 7............................... Enabled                                                         
    A-MSDU Tx .................................. Enabled                                                         
    Rifs Tx ..................................... Enabled
    Guard Interval ............................. Short                                                       
Beacon Interval................................ 100                                                     
CF Pollable mandatory.......................... Disabled                                                          
CF Poll Request mandatory...................... Disabled                                                          
CFP Period......................................... 4                                                   
CFP Maximum Duration............................. 60                                                    
Default Channel.................................. 36                                                    
Default Tx Power Level........................... 1                                                   
DTPC Status...................................Enabled                                                         
Fragmentation Threshold....................... 2346                                                      
Long Retry Limit.................................. 4                                                   
Maximum Rx Life Time........................... 512                                                     
Max Tx MSDU Life Time............................ 512                           
Medium Occupancy Limit........................... 100
Pico-Cell Status................................. Disabled
Pico-Cell-V2 Status.............................. Disabled
RTS Threshold.................................... 2347
Short Retry Limit................................ 7
TI Threshold..................................... -50
Traffic Stream Metrics Status.................... Enabled
Expedited BW Request Status...................... Disabled
EDCA profile type................................ default-wmm
Voice MAC optimization status.................... Disabled
Call Admission Control (CAC) configuration
	Voice AC - Admission control (ACM)............ Enabled
   Voice max RF bandwidth........................ 75
   Voice reserved roaming bandwidth.............. 6
   Voice load-based CAC mode..................... Disabled
   Voice tspec inactivity timeout................ Disabled
   Video AC - Admission control (ACM)............ Enabled
   Voice Stream-Size............................. 84000
   Voice Max-Streams............................. 2
   Video max RF bandwidth........................ Infinite
   Video reserved roaming bandwidth........... 0 


Configuring DHCP Proxy

When DHCP proxy is enabled on the controller, the controller unicasts DHCP requests from the client to the configured servers. Consequently, at least one DHCP server must be configured on either the interface associated with the WLAN or the WLAN itself.

When DHCP proxy is disabled on the controller, those DHCP packets transmitted to and from the clients are bridged by the controller without any modification to the IP portion of the packet. Packets received from the client are removed from the LWAPP tunnel and transmitted on the upstream VLAN. DHCP packets directed to the client are received on the upstream VLAN, converted to 802.11, and transmitted through an LWAPP tunnel toward the client. As a result, the internal DHCP server cannot be used when DHCP proxy is disabled. The ability to disable DHCP proxy allows organizations to use DHCP servers that do not support Cisco's native proxy mode of operation. It should be disabled only when required by the existing infrastructure.

You can use the controller CLI to enable or disable DHCP proxy on a global basis, rather than on a WLAN basis. DHCP proxy is enabled by default.


Note DHCP proxy must be enabled in order for DHCP option 82 to operate correctly. Refer to the "Configuring DHCP Option 82" section on page 5-51 for information on DHCP option 82.



Note All controllers that will communicate must have the same DHCP proxy setting.



Note Refer to Chapter 6 for information on configuring DHCP servers.


Using the CLI to Configure DHCP Proxy

Using the controller CLI, follow these steps to configure DHCP proxy.


Step 1 To enable or disable DHCP proxy, enter this command:

config dhcp proxy {enable | disable}

Step 2 To view the DHCP proxy configuration, enter this command:

show dhcp proxy

Information similar to the following appears:

DHCP Proxy Behavior: enabled 


Configuring Administrator Usernames and Passwords


Note The controller does not have a password recovery mechanism. If you use WCS to manage the controller, you should be able to access the controller from WCS and create a new admin user without logging into the controller itself. If you have not saved the configuration on the controller after deleting the user, then rebooting (power cycling) the controller should bring it back up with the deleted user still in the system. If you do not have the default admin account or another user account with which you can log in, your only option is to default the controller to factory settings and reconfigure it from scratch or reload the previously saved configuration.


You can configure administrator usernames and passwords to prevent unauthorized users from reconfiguring the controller and viewing configuration information.

On the CLI, enter config mgmtuser add username password read-write to create a username-password pair with read-write privileges. Enter config mgmtuser add username password read-only to create a username-password pair with read-only privileges. Usernames and passwords are case-sensitive and can contain up to 24 ASCII characters. Usernames and passwords cannot contain spaces.

To change the password for an existing username, enter config mgmtuser password username new_password

To list configured users, enter show mgmtuser.

Configuring SNMP

Cisco recommends that you use the GUI to configure SNMP settings on the controller. To use the CLI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Enter config snmp community create name to create an SNMP community name.

Step 2 Enter config snmp community delete name to delete an SNMP community name.

Step 3 Enter config snmp community accessmode ro name to configure an SNMP community name with read-only privileges. Enter config snmp community accessmode rw name to configure an SNMP community name with read-write privileges.

Step 4 Enter config snmp community ipaddr ip-address ip-mask name to configure an IP address and subnet mask for an SNMP community.


Note This command behaves like an SNMP access list. It specifies the IP address from which the device accepts SNMP packets with the associated community. The requesting entity's IP address is ANDed with the subnet mask before being compared to the IP address. If the subnet mask is set to 0.0.0.0, an IP address of 0.0.0.0 matches to all IP addresses. The default value is 0.0.0.0.



Note The controller can use only one IP address range to manage an SNMP community.


Step 5 Enter config snmp community mode enable to enable a community name. Enter config snmp community mode disable to disable a community name.

Step 6 Enter config snmp trapreceiver create name ip-address to configure a destination for a trap.

Step 7 Enter config snmp trapreceiver delete name to delete a trap.

Step 8 Enter config snmp trapreceiver ipaddr old-ip-address name new-ip-address to change the destination for a trap.

Step 9 Enter config snmp trapreceiver mode enable to enable traps. Enter config snmp trapreceiver mode disable to disable traps.

Step 10 Enter config snmp syscontact syscontact-name to configure the name of the SNMP contact. Enter up to 31 alphanumeric characters for the contact name.

Step 11 Enter config snmp syslocation syslocation-name to configure the SNMP system location. Enter up to 31 alphanumeric characters for the location.

Step 12 Use the show snmpcommunity and show snmptrap commands to verify that the SNMP traps and communities are correctly configured.

Step 13 Use the show trapflags command to see the enabled and disabled trapflags. If necessary, use the config trapflags commands to enable or disable trapflags.


Changing the Default Values of SNMP Community Strings

The controller has commonly known default values of "public" and "private" for the read-only and read-write SNMP community strings. Using these standard values presents a security risk. Therefore, Cisco strongly advises that you change these values.

Using the GUI to Change the SNMP Community String Default Values

Follow these steps to change the SNMP community string default values through the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Management and then Communities under SNMP. The SNMP v1 / v2c Community page appears (see Figure 4-4).

Figure 4-4 SNMP v1 / v2c Community Page

Step 2 If "public" or "private" appears in the Community Name column, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired community and choose Remove to delete this community.

Step 3 Click New to create a new community. The SNMP v1 / v2c Community > New page appears (see Figure 4-5).

Figure 4-5 SNMP v1 / v2c Community > New Page

Step 4 In the Community Name field, enter a unique name containing up to 16 alphanumeric characters. Do not enter "public" or "private."

Step 5 In the next two fields, enter the IP address from which this device accepts SNMP packets with the associated community and the IP mask.

Step 6 Choose Read Only or Read/Write from the Access Mode drop-down box to specify the access level for this community.

Step 7 Choose Enable or Disable from the Status drop-down box to specify the status of this community.

Step 8 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 9 Click Save Configuration to save your settings.

Step 10 Repeat this procedure if a "public" or "private" community still appears on the SNMP v1 / v2c Community page.


Using the CLI to Change the SNMP Community String Default Values

Follow these steps to change the SNMP community string default values through the controller CLI.


Step 1 To see the current list of SNMP communities for this controller, enter this command:

show snmp community

Step 2 If "public" or "private" appears in the SNMP Community Name column, enter this command to delete this community:

config snmp community delete name

The name parameter is the community name (in this case, "public" or "private").

Step 3 To create a new community, enter this command:

config snmp community create name

Enter up to 16 alphanumeric characters for the name parameter. Do not enter "public" or "private."

Step 4 To enter the IP address from which this device accepts SNMP packets with the associated community, enter this command:

config snmp community ipaddr ip_address ip_mask name

Step 5 To specify the access level for this community, enter this command, where ro is read-only mode and rw is read/write mode:

config snmp community accessmode {ro | rw} name

Step 6 To enable or disable this SNMP community, enter this command:

config snmp community mode {enable | disable} name

Step 7 To save your changes, enter save config.

Step 8 Repeat this procedure if you still need to change the default values for a "public" or "private" community string.


Changing the Default Values for SNMP v3 Users

The controller uses a default value of "default" for the username, authentication password, and privacy password for SNMP v3 users. Using these standard values presents a security risk. Therefore, Cisco strongly advises that you change these values.


Note SNMP v3 is time sensitive. Make sure that you have configured the correct time and time zone on your controller.


Using the GUI to Change the SNMP v3 User Default Values

Follow these steps to change the SNMP v3 user default values through the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Management > SNMP > SNMP V3 Users to open the SNMP V3 Users page (see Figure 4-6).

Figure 4-6 SNMP V3 Users Page

Step 2 If "default" appears in the User Name column, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired user and choose Remove to delete this SNMP v3 user.

Step 3 Click New to add a new SNMP v3 user. The SNMP V3 Users > New page appears (see Figure 4-7).

Figure 4-7 SNMP V3 Users > New Page

Step 4 In the User Profile Name field, enter a unique name. Do not enter "default."

Step 5 Choose Read Only or Read Write from the Access Mode drop-down box to specify the access level for this user. The default value is Read Only.

Step 6 From the Authentication Protocol drop-down box, choose the desired authentication method: None, HMAC-MD5 (Hashed Message Authentication Coding-Message Digest 5), or HMAC-SHA (Hashed Message Authentication Coding-Secure Hashing Algorithm). The default value is HMAC-SHA.

Step 7 In the Auth Password and Confirm Auth Password fields, enter the shared secret key to be used for authentication. You must enter at least 12 characters.

Step 8 From the Privacy Protocol drop-down box, choose the desired encryption method: None, CBC-DES (Cipher Block Chaining-Digital Encryption Standard), or CFB-AES-128 (Cipher Feedback Mode-Advanced Encryption Standard-128). The default value is CFB-AES-128.


Note In order to configure CBC-DES or CFB-AES-128 encryption, you must have selected either HMAC-MD5 or HMAC-SHA as the authentication protocol in Step 6.


Step 9 In the Priv Password and Confirm Priv Password fields, enter the shared secret key to be used for encryption. You must enter at least 12 characters.

Step 10 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 11 Click Save Configuration to save your settings.

Step 12 Reboot the controller so that the SNMP v3 user that you added takes effect.


Using the CLI to Change the SNMP v3 User Default Values

Follow these steps to change the SNMP v3 user default values through the controller CLI.


Step 1 To see the current list of SNMP v3 users for this controller, enter this command:

show snmpv3user

Step 2 If "default" appears in the SNMP v3 User Name column, enter this command to delete this user:

config snmp v3user delete username

The username parameter is the SNMP v3 username (in this case, "default").

Step 3 To create a new SNMP v3 user, enter this command:

config snmp v3user create username {ro | rw} {none | hmacmd5 | hmacsha} {none | des | aescfb128} auth_key encrypt_key

where

username is the SNMP v3 username;

ro is read-only mode and rw is read-write mode;

none, hmacmd5, and hmacsha are the authentication protocol options;

none, des, and aescfb128 are the privacy protocol options;

auth_key is the authentication shared secret key; and

encrypt_key is the encryption shared secret key.

Do not enter "default" for the username, auth_key, and encrypt_key parameters.

Step 4 To save your changes, enter save config.

Step 5 To reboot the controller so that the SNMP v3 user that you added takes effect, enter reset system.


Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing

Enabling aggressive load balancing on the controller allows lightweight access points to load balance wireless clients across access points in an LWAPP system. You can enable aggressive load balancing using the controller GUI or CLI.

When a wireless client attempts to associate to a lightweight access point, association response packets are sent to the client with an 802.11 response packet including status code 17. This code indicates that the access point is too busy to accept any more associations. The client then attempts to associate to a different access point. For example, if load balancing is enabled and the client count is configured as 5 clients, when a sixth client tries to associate to the access point, the client receives an 802.11 response packet with status code 17, indicating that the access point is busy.


Note When you use Cisco 7921 and 7920 Wireless IP Phones with controllers, make sure that aggressive load balancing is disabled for each controller. Otherwise, the initial roam attempt by the phone may fail, causing a disruption in the audio path.


Using the GUI to Configure Aggressive Load Balancing

Follow these steps to configure aggressive load balancing using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Controller > General to open the General page.

Step 2 From the Aggressive Load Balancing drop-down box, choose either Enabled or Disabled to configure this feature.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure Aggressive Load Balancing

Follow these steps to configure aggressive load balancing using the CLI.


Step 1 To enable or disable aggressive load balancing, enter this command:

config load-balancing status {enable | disable}

Step 2 To set the client count for aggressive load balancing, enter this command:

config load-balancing window clients

You can enter a value between 0 and 20 for the clients parameter.

Step 3 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 4 To verify your settings, enter this command:

show load-balancing

Information similar to the following appears:

Aggressive Load Balancing........................ Enabled
Aggressive Load Balancing Window.............. 5 clients 


Enabling 802.3X Flow Control

802.3X Flow Control is disabled by default. To enable it, enter config switchconfig flowcontrol enable.

Configuring 802.3 Bridging

The controller supports 802.3 frames and the applications that use them, such as those typically used for cash registers and cash register servers. However, to make these applications work with the controller, the 802.3 frames must be bridged on the controller.

Support for raw 802.3 frames allows the controller to bridge non-IP frames for applications not running over IP. Only this raw 802.3 frame format is currently supported:

+-------------------+---------------------+-----------------+------------------------+

| Destination | Source | Total packet | Payload .....
| MAC address | MAC address | length |

+-------------------+----------------------+-----------------+------------------------

You can configure 802.3 bridging through the controller GUI in software release 4.1 or later and through the controller CLI in software release 4.0 or later.


Note You can also configure 802.3 bridging using the Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS). Refer to the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide for instructions.


Using the GUI to Configure 802.3 Bridging

Follow these steps to configure 802.3 bridging using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Controller > General to open the General page (see Figure 4-8).

Figure 4-8 General Page

Step 2 From the 802.3 Bridging drop-down box, choose Enabled to enable 802.3 bridging on your controller or Disabled to disable this feature. The default value is Disabled.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure 802.3 Bridging

Follow these steps to configure 802.3 bridging using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To see the current status of 802.3 bridging for all WLANs, enter this command:

show network

Step 2 To enable or disable 802.3 bridging globally on all WLANs, enter this command:

config network 802.3-bridging {enable | disable}

The default value is disabled.

Step 3 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Configuring Multicast Mode

If your network supports packet multicasting, you can configure the multicast method that the controller uses. The controller performs multicasting in two modes:

Unicast mode—In this mode, the controller unicasts every multicast packet to every access point associated to the controller. This mode is inefficient but might be required on networks that do not support multicasting.

Multicast mode—In this mode, the controller sends multicast packets to an LWAPP multicast group. This method reduces overhead on the controller processor and shifts the work of packet replication to your network, which is much more efficient than the unicast method.

You can enable multicast mode using the controller GUI or CLI.

Understanding Multicast Mode

When you enable multicast mode and the controller receives a multicast packet from the wired LAN, the controller encapsulates the packet using LWAPP and forwards the packet to the LWAPP multicast group address. The controller always uses the management interface for sending multicast packets. Access points in the multicast group receive the packet and forward it to all the BSSIDs mapped to the interface on which clients receive multicast traffic. From the access point perspective, the multicast appears to be a broadcast to all SSIDs.

In controller software release 4.2 or later, Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping is introduced to better direct multicast packets. When this feature is enabled, the controller gathers IGMP reports from the clients, processes them, creates unique multicast group IDs (MGIDs) from the IGMP reports after checking the Layer 3 multicast address and the VLAN number, and sends the IGMP reports to the infrastructure switch. The controller sends these reports with the source address as the interface address on which it received the reports from the clients. The controller then updates the access point MGID table on the access point with the client MAC address. When the controller receives multicast traffic for a particular multicast group, it forwards it to all the access points, but only those access points that have active clients listening or subscribed to that multicast group send multicast traffic on that particular WLAN. IP packets are forwarded with an MGID that is unique for an ingress VLAN and the destination multicast group. Layer 2 multicast packets are forwarded with an MGID that is unique for the ingress interface.


Note IGMP snooping is not supported on the 2100 series controllers and the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Network Module for Cisco Integrated Services Routers.


When IGMP snooping is disabled, the following is true:

The controller always uses Layer 2 MGID when it sends multicast data to the access point. Every interface created is assigned one Layer 2 MGID. For example, the management interface has an MGID of 0, and the first dynamic interface created is assigned an MGID of 8, which increments as each dynamic interface is created.

The IGMP packets from clients are forwarded to the router. As a result, the router IGMP table is updated with the IP address of the clients as the last reporter.

When IGMP snooping is enabled, the following is true:

The controller always uses Layer 3 MGID for all Layer 3 multicast traffic sent to the access point. For all Layer 2 multicast traffic, it continues to use Layer 2 MGID.

IGMP report packets from wireless clients are consumed or absorbed by the controller, which generates a query for the clients. After the router sends the IGMP query, the controller sends the IGMP reports with its interface IP address as the listener IP address for the multicast group. As a result, the router IGMP table is updated with the controller IP address as the multicast listener.

When the client that is listening to the multicast groups roams from one controller to another, the first controller transmits all the multicast group information for the listening client to the second controller. As a result, the second controller can immediately create the multicast group information for the client. The second controller sends the IGMP reports to the network for all multicast groups to which the client was listening. This process aids in the seamless transfer of multicast data to the client.

If the listening client roams to a controller in a different subnet, the multicast packets are tunneled to the anchor controller of the client to avoid the reverse path filtering (RPF) check. The anchor then forwards the multicast packets to the infrastructure switch.


Note The MGIDs are controller specific. The same multicast group packets coming from the same VLAN in two different controllers may be mapped to two different MGIDs.



Note If Layer 2 multicast is enabled, a single MGID is assigned to all the multicast addresses coming from an interface (see Figure 4-11).


Guidelines for Using Multicast Mode

Follow these guidelines when you enable multicast mode on your network:

The Cisco Unified Wireless Network solution uses some IP address ranges for specific purposes, and you should keep these ranges in mind when configuring a multicast group:

224.0.0.0 through 224.0.0.255—Reserved link local addresses

224.0.1.0 through 238.255.255.255—Globally scoped addresses

239.0.0.0 through 239.255.x.y /16—Limited scope addresses

When you enable multicast mode on the controller, you also must configure an LWAPP multicast group address. Access points subscribe to the LWAPP multicast group using IGMP.

Cisco 1100, 1130, 1200, 1230, and 1240 access points use IGMP versions 1, 2, and 3.

Multicast mode works only in Layer 3 LWAPP mode.

Access points in monitor mode, sniffer mode, or rogue detector mode do not join the LWAPP multicast group address.

The LWAPP multicast group configured on the controllers should be different for different controllers.

Multicast mode does not operate across intersubnet mobility events such as guest tunneling. It does, however, operate with interface overrides using RADIUS (but only when IGMP snooping is enabled) and with site-specific VLANs (access point group VLANs).

The controller drops multicast packets sent to UDP port numbers 12222, 12223, and 12224. Therefore, you may want to consider not using these port numbers with the multicast applications on your network.

Cisco recommends that any multicast applications on your network not use the multicast address configured as the LWAPP multicast group address on the controller.

Using the GUI to Enable Multicast Mode

Follow these steps to enable multicast mode using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Controller to open the General page (see Figure 4-9).

Figure 4-9 General Page

Step 2 Choose one of the following options from the Ethernet Multicast Mode drop-down box:

Disabled—Disables multicasting on the controller. This is the default value.

Unicast—Configures the controller to use the unicast method to send multicast packets.

Multicast—Configures the controller to use the multicast method to send multicast packets to an LWAPP multicast group.


Note Hybrid REAP supports unicast mode only.


Step 3 If you chose Multicast in Step 2, enter the IP address of the multicast group in the Multicast Group Address field.

Step 4 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 5 Click Multicast to open the Multicast page (see Figure 4-10).

Figure 4-10 Multicast Page

Step 6 If you want to enable IGMP snooping, check the Enable IGMP Snooping check box. If you want to disable IGMP snooping, leave the check box unchecked. The default value is disabled.

Step 7 To set the IGMP timeout, enter a value between 30 and 300 seconds in the IGMP Timeout field. The controller sends three queries in one timeout value at an interval of timeout/3 to see if any clients exist for a particular multicast group. If the controller does not receive a response through an IGMP report from the client, the controller times out the client entry from the MGID table. When no clients are left for a particular multicast group, the controller waits for the IGMP timeout value to expire and then deletes the MGID entry from the controller. The controller always generates a general IGMP query (that is, to destination address 224.0.0.1) and sends it on all WLANs with an MGID value of 1.

Step 8 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 9 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the GUI to View Multicast Groups

Follow these steps to view multicast groups using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Multicast. The Multicast Groups page appears (see Figure 4-11).

Figure 4-11 Multicast Groups Page

This page shows all the multicast groups and their corresponding MGIDs.

Step 2 Click the link for a specific MGID (such as MGID 550) to see a list of all the clients joined to the multicast group in that particular MGID.


Using the CLI to Enable Multicast Mode

Follow these steps to enable multicast mode using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To enable or disable multicasting on the controller, enter this command:

config network multicast global {enable | disable}

The default value is disabled.


Note The config network broadcast {enable | disable} command allows you to enable or disable broadcasting without enabling or disabling multicasting as well. This command uses the multicast mode currently on the controller to operate.


Step 2 Perform one of the following:

a. To configure the controller to use the unicast method to send multicast packets, enter this command:

config network multicast mode unicast

b. To configure the controller to use the multicast method to send multicast packets to an LWAPP multicast group, enter this command:

config network multicast mode multicast multicast_group_ip_address

Step 3 To enable or disable IGMP snooping, enter this command:

config network multicast igmp snooping {enable | disable}

The default value is disabled.

Step 4 To set the IGMP timeout value, enter this command:

config network multicast igmp timeout timeout

You can enter a timeout value between 30 and 300 seconds. The controller sends three queries in one timeout value at an interval of timeout/3 to see if any clients exist for a particular multicast group. If the controller does not receive a response through an IGMP report from the client, the controller times out the client entry from the MGID table. When no clients are left for a particular multicast group, the controller waits for the IGMP timeout value to expire and then deletes the MGID entry from the controller. The controller always generates a general IGMP query (that is, to destination address 224.0.0.1) and sends it on all WLANs with an MGID value of 1.

Step 5 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config


Using the CLI to View Multicast Groups

Use these commands to view multicast groups using the controller CLI.

To see all the multicast groups and their corresponding MGIDs, enter this command:

show network multicast mgid summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Layer2 MGID Mapping:
-------------------
InterfaceName                    vlanId   MGID
-------------------------------- ------   ----
management                       0        0
test                             0        9
wired                            20       8

Layer3 MGID Mapping:
-------------------
Number of Layer3 MGIDs........................... 1

 Group address    Vlan  MGID
 ---------------  ----  ----
 239.255.255.250  0     550 

To see all the clients joined to the multicast group in a specific MGID, enter this command:

show network multicast mgid detail mgid_value

where the mgid_value parameter is a number between 550 and 4095.

Information similar to the following appears:

Mgid........................................ 550
Multicast Group Address..................... 239.255.255.250
Vlan........................................ 0
Rx Packet Count............................. 807399588
No of clients............................... 1
Client List.................................
        Client MAC             Expire Time (mm:ss)
        00:13:02:23:82:ad      0:20 

Using the CLI to View an Access Point's Multicast Client Table

To help troubleshoot roaming events, you can view an access point's multicast client table from the controller by performing a remote debug of the access point. Follow these steps to do so using the controller CLI:


Step 1 To initiate a remote debug of the access point, enter this command:

debug ap enable Cisco_AP

Step 2 To see all of the MGIDs on the access point and the number of clients per WLAN, enter this command:

debug ap command "show lwapp mcast mgid all" Cisco_AP

Step 3 To see all of the clients per MGID on the access point and the number of clients per WLAN, enter this command:

debug ap command "show lwapp mcast mgid id mgid_value" Cisco_AP


Configuring Client Roaming

The Cisco UWN Solution supports seamless client roaming across lightweight access points managed by the same controller, between controllers in the same mobility group on the same subnet, and across controllers in the same mobility group on different subnets. Also, in controller software release 4.1 or later, client roaming with multicast packets is supported.

You can adjust the default RF settings (RSSI, hysteresis, scan threshold, and transition time) to fine-tune the operation of client roaming using the controller GUI or CLI.

Intra-Controller Roaming

Each controller supports same-controller client roaming across access points managed by the same controller. This roaming is transparent to the client as the session is sustained, and the client continues using the same DHCP-assigned or client-assigned IP address. The controller provides DHCP functionality with a relay function. Same-controller roaming is supported in single-controller deployments and in multiple-controller deployments.

Inter-Controller Roaming

Multiple-controller deployments support client roaming across access points managed by controllers in the same mobility group and on the same subnet. This roaming is also transparent to the client because the session is sustained and a tunnel between controllers allows the client to continue using the same DHCP- or client-assigned IP address as long as the session remains active. The tunnel is torn down, and the client must reauthenticate when the client sends a DHCP Discover with a 0.0.0.0 client IP address or a 169.254.*.* client auto-IP address or when the operator-set session timeout is exceeded.

Inter-Subnet Roaming

Multiple-controller deployments support client roaming across access points managed by controllers in the same mobility group on different subnets. This roaming is transparent to the client because the session is sustained and a tunnel between the controllers allows the client to continue using the same DHCP-assigned or client-assigned IP address as long as the session remains active. The tunnel is torn down, and the client must reauthenticate when the client sends a DHCP Discover with a 0.0.0.0 client IP address or a 169.254.*.* client auto-IP address or when the operator-set user timeout is exceeded.

Voice-over-IP Telephone Roaming

802.11 voice-over-IP (VoIP) telephones actively seek out associations with the strongest RF signal to ensure the best quality of service (QoS) and the maximum throughput. The minimum VoIP telephone requirement of 20-millisecond or shorter latency time for the roaming handover is easily met by the Cisco UWN Solution, which has an average handover latency of 5 or fewer milliseconds when open authentication is used. This short latency period is controlled by controllers rather than allowing independent access points to negotiate roaming handovers.

The Cisco UWN Solution supports 802.11 VoIP telephone roaming across lightweight access points managed by controllers on different subnets, as long as the controllers are in the same mobility group. This roaming is transparent to the VoIP telephone because the session is sustained and a tunnel between controllers allows the VoIP telephone to continue using the same DHCP-assigned IP address as long as the session remains active. The tunnel is torn down, and the VoIP client must reauthenticate when the VoIP telephone sends a DHCP Discover with a 0.0.0.0 VoIP telephone IP address or a 169.254.*.* VoIP telephone auto-IP address or when the operator-set user timeout is exceeded.

CCX Layer 2 Client Roaming

The controller supports five CCX Layer 2 client roaming enhancements:

Access point assisted roaming—This feature helps clients save scanning time. When a CCXv2 client associates to an access point, it sends an information packet to the new access point listing the characteristics of its previous access point. Roaming time decreases when the client recognizes and uses an access point list built by compiling all previous access points to which each client was associated and sent (unicast) to the client immediately after association. The access point list contains the channels, BSSIDs of neighbor access points that support the client's current SSID(s), and time elapsed since disassociation.

Enhanced neighbor list—This feature focuses on improving a CCXv4 client's roam experience and network edge performance, especially when servicing voice applications. The access point provides its associated client information about its neighbors using a neighbor-list update unicast message.

Enhanced neighbor list request (E2E)—The End-2-End specification is a Cisco and Intel joint program that defines new protocols and interfaces to improve the overall voice and roaming experience. It applies only to Intel clients in a CCX environment. Specifically, it enables Intel clients to request a neighbor list at will. When this occurs, the access point forwards the request to the controller. The controller receives the request and replies with the current CCX roaming sublist of neighbors for the access point to which the client is associated.


Note To see whether a particular client supports E2E, click Wireless > Clients on the controller GUI, click the Detail link for the desired client, and look at the E2E Version field under Client Properties.


Roam reason report—This feature enables CCXv4 clients to report the reason why they roamed to a new access point. It also allows network administrators to build and monitor a roam history.

Directed roam request—This feature enables the controller to send directed roam requests to the client in situations when the controller can better service the client on an access point different from the one to which it is associated. In this case, the controller sends the client a list of the best access points that it can join. The client can either honor or ignore the directed roam request. Non-CCX clients and clients running CCXv3 or below must not take any action. No configuration is required for this feature.

Controller software release 4.2 or later supports CCX versions 1 through 5. CCX support is enabled automatically for every WLAN on the controller and cannot be disabled. The controller stores the CCX version of the client in its client database and uses it to generate and respond to CCX frames appropriately. Clients must support CCXv4 or v5 (or CCXv2 for access point assisted roaming) in order to utilize these roaming enhancements. See the "Configuring Cisco Client Extensions" section on page 6-38 for more information on CCX.

The roaming enhancements mentioned above are enabled automatically, with the appropriate CCX support.


Note Hybrid-REAP access points in standalone mode do not support CCX Layer 2 roaming.


Using the GUI to Configure CCX Client Roaming Parameters

Follow these steps to configure CCX client roaming parameters using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > 802.11a/n (or 802.11b/g/n) > Client Roaming. The 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Client Roaming page appears (see Figure 4-12).

Figure 4-12 802.11a > Client Roaming Page

Step 2 If you want to fine-tune the RF parameters that affect client roaming, choose Custom from the Mode drop-down box and go to Step 3. If you want to leave the RF parameters at their default values, choose Default and go to Step 8.

Step 3 In the Minimum RSSI field, enter a value for the minimum received signal strength indicator (RSSI) required for the client to associate to an access point. If the client's average received signal power dips below this threshold, reliable communication is usually impossible. Therefore, clients must already have found and roamed to another access point with a stronger signal before the minimum RSSI value is reached.

Range: -80 to -90 dBm

Default: -85 dBm

Step 4 In the Hysteresis field, enter a value to indicate how much greater the signal strength of a neighboring access point must be in order for the client to roam to it. This parameter is intended to reduce the amount of roaming between access points if the client is physically located on or near the border between two access points.

Range: 2 to 4 dB

Default: 2 dB

Step 5 In the Scan Threshold field, enter the minimum RSSI that is allowed before the client should roam to a better access point. When the RSSI drops below the specified value, the client must be able to roam to a better access point within the specified transition time. This parameter also provides a power-save method to minimize the time that the client spends in active or passive scanning. For example, the client can scan slowly when the RSSI is above the threshold and scan more rapidly when below the threshold.

Range: -70 to -77 dBm

Default: -72 dBm

Step 6 In the Transition Time field, enter the maximum time allowed for the client to detect a suitable neighboring access point to roam to and to complete the roam, whenever the RSSI from the client's associated access point is below the scan threshold.

The Scan Threshold and Transition Time parameters guarantee a minimum level of client roaming performance. Together with the highest expected client speed and roaming hysteresis, these parameters make it possible to design a wireless LAN network that supports roaming simply by ensuring a certain minimum overlap distance between access points.

Range: 1 to 10 seconds

Default: 5 seconds

Step 7 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 8 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 9 Repeat this procedure if you want to configure client roaming for another radio band (802.11a or 802.11b/g).


Using the CLI to Configure CCX Client Roaming Parameters

To configure CCX Layer 2 client roaming parameters, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11bg} l2roam rf-params min-rssi rssi_value roam-hyst hyst_value scan-thres thres_value trans-time time_value


Note See the description, range, and default value of each RF parameter in the "Using the GUI to Configure CCX Client Roaming Parameters" section.


Using the CLI to Obtain CCX Client Roaming Information

Use these commands to view information about CCX Layer 2 client roaming.

1. To view the current RF parameters configured for client roaming for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network, enter this command:

show {802.11a | 802.11b} l2roam rf-params

2. To view the CCX Layer 2 client roaming statistics for a particular access point, enter this command:

show {802.11a | 802.11b} l2roam statistics ap_mac

This command provides the following information:

The number of roam reason reports received

The number of neighbor list requests received

The number of neighbor list reports sent

The number of broadcast neighbor updates sent

3. To view the roaming history for a particular client, enter this command:

show client roam-history client_mac

This command provides the following information:

The time when the report was received

The MAC address of the access point to which the client is currently associated

The MAC address of the access point to which the client was previously associated

The channel of the access point to which the client was previously associated

The SSID of the access point to which the client was previously associated

The time when the client disassociated from the previous access point

The reason for the client roam

Using the CLI to Debug CCX Client Roaming Issues

If you experience any problems with CCX Layer 2 client roaming, enter this command:

debug l2roam [detail | error | packet | all] {enable | disable}

Configuring Quality of Service

Quality of service (QoS) refers to the capability of a network to provide better service to selected network traffic over various technologies. The primary goal of QoS is to provide priority including dedicated bandwidth, controlled jitter and latency (required by some real-time and interactive traffic), and improved loss characteristics.

The controller supports four QoS levels:

Platinum/Voice—Ensures a high quality of service for voice over wireless.

Gold/Video—Supports high-quality video applications.

Silver/Best Effort—Supports normal bandwidth for clients. This is the default setting.

Bronze/Background—Provides the lowest bandwidth for guest services.

VoIP clients should be set to Platinum, Gold, or Silver while low-bandwidth clients can be set to Bronze.

You can configure the bandwidth of each QoS level using QoS profiles and then apply the profiles to WLANs. The profile settings are pushed to the clients associated to that WLAN. In addition, you can create QoS roles to specify different bandwidth levels for regular and guest users. Follow the instructions in this section to configure QoS profiles and QoS roles.

Configuring Quality of Service Profiles

You can use the controller GUI or CLI to configure the Platinum, Gold, Silver, and Bronze QoS profiles.

Using the GUI to Configure QoS Profiles

Follow these steps to configure QoS profiles using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Disable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks so that you can configure the QoS profiles.

To disable the radio networks, click Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Network, uncheck the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and click Apply.

Step 2 Click Wireless > QoS > Profiles to open the QoS Profiles page.

Step 3 Click the name of the profile that you want to configure to open the Edit QoS Profile page (see Figure 4-13).

Figure 4-13 Edit QoS Profile Page

Step 4 To change the description of the profile, modify the contents of the Description field.

Step 5 To define the average data rate for TCP traffic per user, enter the rate in Kbps in the Average Data Rate field. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the profile.

Step 6 To define the peak data rate for TCP traffic per user, enter the rate in Kbps in the Burst Data Rate field. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the profile.


Note The Burst Data Rate should be greater than or equal to the Average Data Rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may block traffic to and from the wireless client.


Step 7 To define the average real-time rate for UDP traffic on a per user basis, enter the rate in Kbps in the Average Real-Time Rate field. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the profile.

Step 8 To define the peak real-time rate for UDP traffic on a per user basis, enter the rate in Kbps in the Burst Real-Time Rate field. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the profile.


Note The Burst Real-Time Rate should be greater than or equal to the Average Real-Time Rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may block traffic to and from the wireless client.


Step 9 In the Maximum RF Usage Per AP field, enter the maximum percentage of bandwidth given to a user class.

For example, if you set 50% for Bronze QoS, all the Bronze WLAN users combined will not get more than 50% of the available RF bandwidth. Actual throughput could be less than 50%, but it will never be more than 50%.

Step 10 In the Queue Depth field, enter the maximum number of packets that access points keep in their queues. Any additional packets are dropped.

Step 11 To define the maximum value (0-7) for the priority tag associated with packets that fall within the profile, choose 802.1p from the Protocol Type drop-down box and enter the maximum priority value in the 802.1p Tag field.

The tagged packets include LWAPP data packets (between access points and the controller) and packets sent toward the core network.


Note If a QoS profile has 802.1p tagging configured and if this QoS profile is assigned to a WLAN that uses an untagged interface on the controller, then the client traffic will be blocked.


Step 12 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 13 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 14 Re-enable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks.

To enable the radio networks, click Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Network, check the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and click Apply.

Step 15 Follow the instructions in the "Assigning a QoS Profile to a WLAN" section on page 6-30 to assign a QoS profile to a WLAN.


Using the CLI to Configure QoS Profiles

Follow these steps to configure the Platinum, Gold, Silver, and Bronze QoS profiles using the CLI.


Step 1 To disable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks so that you can configure the QoS profiles, enter these commands:

config 802.11a disable network

config 802.11b disable network

Step 2 To change the profile description, enter this command:

config qos description {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} description

Step 3 To define the average data rate in Kbps for TCP traffic per user, enter this command:

config qos average-data-rate {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} rate


Note For the rate parameter, you can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the QoS profile.


Step 4 To define the peak data rate in Kbps for TCP traffic per user, enter this command:

config qos burst-data-rate {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} rate

Step 5 To define the average real-time rate in Kbps for UDP traffic per user, enter this command:

config qos average-realtime-rate {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} rate

Step 6 To define the peak real-time rate in Kbps for UDP traffic per user, enter this command:

config qos burst-realtime-rate {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} rate

Step 7 To specify the maximum percentage of RF usage per access point, enter this command:

config qos max-rf-usage {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} usage_percentage

Step 8 To specify the maximum number of packets that access points keep in their queues, enter this command:

config qos queue_length {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} queue_length


Note If a QoS profile has 802.1p tagging configured and if this QoS profile is assigned to a WLAN that uses an untagged interface on the controller, then the client traffic will be blocked.


Step 9 To define the maximum value (0-7) for the priority tag associated with packets that fall within the profile, enter these commands:

config qos protocol-type {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} dot1p

config qos dot1p-tag {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} tag

Step 10 To re-enable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks so that you can configure the QoS profiles, enter these commands:

config 802.11a enable network

config 802.11b enable network

Step 11 Follow the instructions in the "Assigning a QoS Profile to a WLAN" section on page 6-30 to assign a QoS profile to a WLAN.


Configuring Quality of Service Roles

After you configure a QoS profile and apply it to a WLAN, it limits the bandwidth level of clients associated to that WLAN. Multiple WLANs can be mapped to the same QoS profile, which can result in bandwidth contention between regular users (such as employees) and guest users. In order to prevent guest users from using the same level of bandwidth as regular users, you can create QoS roles with different (and presumably lower) bandwidth contracts and assign them to guest users.

You can use the controller GUI or CLI to configure up to ten QoS roles for guest users.


Note If you choose to create an entry on the RADIUS server for a guest user and enable RADIUS authentication for the WLAN on which web authentication is performed rather than adding a guest user to the local user database from the controller, you need to assign the QoS role on the RADIUS server itself. To do so, a "guest-role" Airespace attribute needs to be added on the RADIUS server with a datatype of "string" and a return value of "11." This attribute is sent to the controller when authentication occurs. If a role with the name returned from the RADIUS server is found configured on the controller, the bandwidth associated to that role is enforced for the guest user after authentication completes successfully.


Using the GUI to Configure QoS Roles

Follow these steps to configure QoS roles using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > QoS > Roles to open the QoS Roles for Guest Users page (see Figure 4-14).

Figure 4-14 QoS Roles for Guest Users Page

This page shows any existing QoS roles for guest users.


Note If you want to delete a QoS role, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that role and choose Remove.


Step 2 To create a new QoS role, click New. The QoS Role Name > New page appears.

Step 3 In the Role Name field, enter a name for the new QoS role. The name should uniquely identify the role of the QoS user (such as Contractor, Vendor, and so on).

Step 4 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 5 To edit the bandwidth of a QoS role, click the name of the QoS role. The Edit QoS Role Data Rates page appears (see Figure 4-15).

Figure 4-15 Edit QoS Role Data Rates Page


Note The values that you configure for the per-user bandwidth contracts affect only the amount of bandwidth going downstream (from the access point to the wireless client). They do not affect the bandwidth for upstream traffic (from the client to the access point).


Step 6 To define the average data rate for TCP traffic on a per user basis, enter the rate in Kbps in the Average Data Rate field. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the QoS role.

Step 7 To define the peak data rate for TCP traffic on a per user basis, enter the rate in Kbps in the Burst Data Rate field. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the QoS role.


Note The Burst Data Rate should be greater than or equal to the Average Data Rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may block traffic to and from the wireless client.


Step 8 To define the average real-time rate for UDP traffic on a per user basis, enter the rate in Kbps in the Average Real-Time Rate field. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the QoS role.

Step 9 To define the peak real-time rate for UDP traffic on a per user basis, enter the rate in Kbps in the Burst Real-Time Rate field. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the QoS role.


Note The Burst Real-Time Rate should be greater than or equal to the Average Real-Time Rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may block traffic to and from the wireless client.


Step 10 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 11 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 12 To apply a QoS role to a guest user, follow the steps in the "Using the GUI to Configure Local Network Users" section on page 5-30.


Using the CLI to Configure QoS Roles

Follow these steps to configure QoS roles using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To create a QoS role for a guest user, enter this command:

config netuser guest-role create role_name


Note If you want to delete a QoS role, enter this command:
config netuser guest-role delete role_name


Step 2 To configure the bandwidth contracts for a QoS role, enter these commands:

config netuser guest-role qos data-rate average-data-rate role_name rateConfigures the average data rate for TCP traffic on a per user basis.

config netuser guest-role qos data-rate burst-data-rate role_name rateConfigures the peak data rate for TCP traffic on a per user basis.


Note The Burst Data Rate should be greater than or equal to the Average Data Rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may block traffic to and from the wireless client.


config netuser guest-role qos data-rate average-realtime-rate role_name rateConfigures the average real-time rate for UDP traffic on a per user basis.

config netuser guest-role qos data-rate burst-realtime-rate role_name rateConfigures the peak real-time rate for UDP traffic on a per user basis.


Note The Burst Real-Time Rate should be greater than or equal to the Average Real-Time Rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may block traffic to and from the wireless client.



Note For the role_name parameter in each of these commands, enter a name for the new QoS role. The name should uniquely identify the role of the QoS user (such as Contractor, Vendor, and so on). For the rate parameter, you can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the QoS role.


Step 3 To apply a QoS role to a guest user, enter this command:

config netuser guest-role apply username role_name

For example, the role of Contractor could be applied to guest user jsmith.


Note If you do not assign a QoS role to a guest user, the Role field in the User Details shows the role as "default." The bandwidth contracts for this user are defined in the QoS profile for the WLAN.



Note If you want to unassign a QoS role from a guest user, enter this command: config netuser guest-role apply username default. This user now uses the bandwidth contracts defined in the QoS profile for the WLAN.


Step 4 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 5 To see a list of the current QoS roles and their bandwidth parameters, enter this command:

show netuser guest-roles

Information similar to the following appears:

Role Name........................................ Contractor
     Average Data Rate........................... 10
     Burst Data Rate............................. 10
     Average Realtime Rate....................... 100
     Burst Realtime Rate......................... 100

Role Name........................................ Vendor
     Average Data Rate........................... unconfigured
     Burst Data Rate............................. unconfigured
     Average Realtime Rate....................... unconfigured
     Burst Realtime Rate...................... unconfigured 


Configuring Voice and Video Parameters

Three parameters on the controller affect voice and/or video quality:

Call admission control

Expedited bandwidth requests

Unscheduled automatic power save delivery

Each of these parameters is supported in Cisco Compatible Extensions (CCX) v4 and v5. See the "Configuring Cisco Client Extensions" section on page 6-38 for more information on CCX.


Note CCX is not supported on the AP1030.


Traffic stream metrics (TSM) can be used to monitor and report issues with voice quality.

Call Admission Control

Call admission control (CAC) enables an access point to maintain controlled quality of service (QoS) when the wireless LAN is experiencing congestion. The Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) protocol deployed in CCXv3 ensures sufficient QoS as long as the wireless LAN is not congested. However, in order to maintain QoS under differing network loads, CAC in CCXv4 is required. Two types of CAC are available: bandwidth-based CAC and load-based CAC.

Bandwidth-Based CAC

Bandwidth-based, or static, CAC enables the client to specify how much bandwidth or shared medium time is required to accept a new call and in turn enables the access point to determine whether it is capable of accommodating this particular call. The access point rejects the call if necessary in order to maintain the maximum allowed number of calls with acceptable quality.

The QoS setting for a WLAN determines the level of bandwidth-based CAC support. To use bandwidth-based CAC with voice applications, the WLAN must be configured for Platinum QoS. To use bandwidth-based CAC with video applications, the WLAN must be configured for Gold QoS. Also, make sure that WMM is enabled for the WLAN. See the "Configuring 802.3 Bridging" section for QoS and WMM configuration instructions.


Note You must enable admission control (ACM) for CCXv4 clients that have WMM enabled. Otherwise, bandwidth-based CAC does not operate properly.


Load-Based CAC

Load-based CAC incorporates a measurement scheme that takes into account the bandwidth consumed by all traffic types (including that from clients), co-channel access point loads, and co-located channel interference, for voice applications. Load-based CAC also covers the additional bandwidth consumption resulting from PHY and channel impairment.

In load-based CAC, the access point continuously measures and updates the utilization of the RF channel (that is, the percentage of bandwidth that has been exhausted), channel interference, and the additional calls that the access point can admit. The access point admits a new call only if the channel has enough unused bandwidth to support that call. By doing so, load-based CAC prevents over-subscription of the channel and maintains QoS under all conditions of WLAN loading and interference.


Note Load-based CAC is supported only on lightweight access points. If you disable load-based CAC, the access points start using bandwidth-based CAC.


Expedited Bandwidth Requests

The expedited bandwidth request feature enables CCXv5 clients to indicate the urgency of a WMM traffic specifications (TSPEC) request (for example, an e911 call) to the WLAN. When the controller receives this request, it attempts to facilitate the urgency of the call in any way possible without potentially altering the quality of other TSPEC calls that are in progress.

You can apply expedited bandwidth requests to both bandwidth-based and load-based CAC. Expedited bandwidth requests are disabled by default. When this feature is disabled, the controller ignores all expedited requests and processes TSPEC requests as normal TSPEC requests.

See Table 4-2 for examples of TSPEC request handling for normal TSPEC requests and expedited bandwidth requests.

Table 4-2 TSPEC Request Handling Examples

CAC Mode
Reserved bandwidth for voice calls 1
Usage 2
Normal TSPEC Request
TSPEC with Expedited
Bandwidth Request

Bandwidth-based CAC

75% (default setting)

Less than 75%

Admitted

Admitted

Between 75% and 90% (reserved bandwidth for voice calls exhausted)

Rejected

Admitted

More than 90%

Rejected

Rejected

Load-based CAC

Less than 75%

Admitted

Admitted

Between 75% and 85% (reserved bandwidth for voice calls exhausted)

Rejected

Admitted

More than 85%

Rejected

Rejected

1 For bandwidth-based CAC, the voice call bandwidth usage is per access point and does not take into account co-channel access points. For load-based CAC, the voice call bandwidth usage is measured for the entire channel.

2 Bandwidth-based CAC (consumed voice and video bandwidth) or load-based CAC (channel utilization [Pb]).



Note When video ACM is enabled, the controller rejects a video TSPEC if the Nom-MSDU size in the TSPEC is greater than 149 or the mean data rate is greater than 1 Kb/s.


U-APSD

Unscheduled automatic power save delivery (U-APSD) is a QoS facility defined in IEEE 802.11e that extends the battery life of mobile clients. In addition to extending battery life, this feature reduces the latency of traffic flow delivered over the wireless media. Because U-APSD does not require the client to poll each individual packet buffered at the access point, it allows delivery of multiple downlink packets by sending a single uplink trigger packet. U-APSD is enabled automatically when WMM is enabled.

Traffic Stream Metrics

In a voice-over-wireless LAN (VoWLAN) deployment, traffic stream metrics (TSM) can be used to monitor voice-related metrics on the client-access point air interface. It reports both packet latency and packet loss. An administrator can isolate poor voice quality issues by studying these reports.

The metrics consist of a collection of uplink (client side) and downlink (access point side) statistics between an access point and a client device that supports CCX v4 or later. If the client is not CCX v4 or CCXv5 compliant, only downlink statistics are captured. The client and access point measure these metrics. The access point also collects the measurements every 5 seconds, prepares 90-second reports, and then sends the reports to the controller. The controller organizes the uplink measurements on a client basis and the downlink measurements on an access point basis and maintains an hour's worth of historical data. To store this data, the controller requires 32 MB of additional memory for uplink metrics and 4.8 MB for downlink metrics.

TSM can be configured through either the GUI or the CLI on a per radio-band basis (for example, all 802.11a radios). The controller saves the configuration in flash memory so that it persists across reboots. After an access point receives the configuration from the controller, it enables TSM on the specified radio band.


Note Access points support TSM in both local and hybrid-REAP modes.


Using the GUI to Configure Voice Parameters

Follow these steps to configure voice parameters using the GUI.


Step 1 Make sure that the WLAN is configured for WMM and the Platinum QoS level.

Step 2 Disable all WLANs with WMM enabled and click Apply.

Step 3 To disable the radio network, click Wireless and then Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, uncheck the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and click Apply.

Step 4 Click Voice under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n. The 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Voice Parameters page appears (see Figure 4-16).

Figure 4-16 802.11a > Voice Parameters Page

Step 5 To enable bandwidth-based CAC for this radio band, check the Admission Control (ACM) check box. The default value is disabled.

Step 6 To enable load-based CAC for this radio band, check both the Admission Control (ACM) check box and the Load-based AC check box. The default value for both check boxes is disabled.

Step 7 In the Max RF Bandwidth field, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for voice applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects new calls on this radio band.

Range: 40 to 85%

Default: 75%

Step 8 In the Reserved Roaming Bandwidth field, enter the percentage of maximum allocated bandwidth reserved for roaming voice clients. The controller reserves this much bandwidth from the maximum allocated bandwidth for roaming voice clients.

Range: 0 to 25%

Default: 6%

Step 9 To enable expedited bandwidth requests, check the Expedited Bandwidth check box. The default value is disabled.

Step 10 To enable TSM, check the Metrics Collection check box. The default value is disabled.

Step 11 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 12 Re-enable all WMM WLANs and click Apply.

Step 13 To re-enable the radio network, click Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, check the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and click Apply.

Step 14 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 15 Repeat this procedure if you want to configure voice parameters for another radio band (802.11a or 802.11b/g).


Using the GUI to Configure Video Parameters

Follow these steps to configure video parameters using the GUI.


Step 1 Make sure that the WLAN is configured for WMM and the Gold QoS level.

Step 2 Disable all WLANs with WMM enabled and click Apply.

Step 3 To disable the radio network, click Wireless and then Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, uncheck the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and click Apply.

Step 4 Click Video under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n. The 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Video Parameters page appears (see Figure 4-16).

Figure 4-17 802.11a > Video Parameters Page

Step 5 To enable video CAC for this radio band, check the Admission Control (ACM) check box. The default value is disabled.

Step 6 In the Max RF Bandwidth field, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for video applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects new requests on this radio band.

Range: 0 to 100% (However, the maximum RF bandwidth cannot exceed 100% for voice + video.)

Default: 0%


Note If this parameter is set to zero (0), the controller assumes that the operator does not want to do any bandwidth allocation and, therefore, allows all bandwidth requests.


Step 7 In the Reserved Roaming Bandwidth field, enter the percentage of maximum allocated bandwidth reserved for roaming video clients. The controller reserves this much bandwidth from the maximum allocated bandwidth for roaming video clients.

Range: 0 to 25%

Default: 0%

Step 8 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 9 Re-enable all WMM WLANs and click Apply.

Step 10 To re-enable the radio network, click Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, check the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and click Apply.

Step 11 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 12 Repeat this procedure if you want to configure video parameters for another radio band (802.11a or 802.11b/g).


Using the GUI to View Voice and Video Settings

Follow these steps to view voice and video settings using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Clients to open the Clients page (see Figure 4-18).

Figure 4-18 Clients Page

Step 2 Click the MAC address of the desired client to open the Clients > Detail page (see Figure 4-19).

Figure 4-19 Clients > Detail Page

This page shows the U-APSD status (if enabled) for this client under Quality of Service Properties.

Step 3 Click Back to return to the Clients page.

Step 4 Follow these steps to see the TSM statistics for a particular client and the access point to which this client is associated.

a. Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired client and choose 802.11aTSM or 802.11b/gTSM. The Clients > AP page appears (see Figure 4-20).

Figure 4-20 Clients > AP Page

b. Click the Detail link for the desired access point to open the Clients > AP > Traffic Stream Metrics page (see Figure 4-21).

Figure 4-21 Clients > AP > Traffic Stream Metrics Page

This page shows the TSM statistics for this client and the access point to which it is associated. The statistics are shown in 90-second intervals. The timestamp field shows the specific interval when the statistics were collected.

Step 5 Follow these steps to see the TSM statistics for a particular access point and a particular client associated to this access point.

a. Click Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n. The 802.11a/n Radios or 802.11b/g/n Radios page appears (see Figure 4-22).

Figure 4-22 802.11a/n Radios Page

b. Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and choose 802.11aTSM or 802.11b/gTSM. The AP > Clients page appears (see Figure 4-23).

Figure 4-23 AP > Clients Page

c. Click the Detail link for the desired client to open the AP > Clients > Traffic Stream Metrics page (see Figure 4-24).

Figure 4-24 AP > Clients > Traffic Stream Metrics Page

This page shows the TSM statistics for this access point and a client associated to it. The statistics are shown in 90-second intervals. The timestamp field shows the specific interval when the statistics were collected.


Using the CLI to Configure Voice Parameters

Follow these steps to configure voice parameters using the CLI.


Step 1 To see all of the WLANs configured on the controller, enter this command:

show wlan summary

Step 2 To make sure that the WLAN you are planning to modify is configured for WMM and the QoS level is set to Platinum, enter this command:

show wlan wlan_id

Step 3 To disable all WLANs with WMM enabled prior to changing the voice parameters, enter this command:

config wlan disable wlan_id

Step 4 To disable the radio network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network

Step 5 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config

Step 6 To enable or disable bandwidth-based voice CAC for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice acm {enable | disable}

Step 7 To set the percentage of maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for voice applications on the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice max-bandwidth bandwidth

The bandwidth range is 40 to 85%, and the default value is 75%. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects new calls on this network.

Step 8 To set the percentage of maximum allocated bandwidth reserved for roaming voice clients, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice roam-bandwidth bandwidth

The bandwidth range is 0 to 25%, and the default value is 6%. The controller reserves this much bandwidth from the maximum allocated bandwidth for roaming voice clients.

Step 9 To process or ignore the TSPEC inactivity timeout received from an access point, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice tspec-inactivity-timeout {enable | ignore}

Step 10 To enable or disable load-based CAC for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice load-based {enable | disable}

Step 11 To enable or disable expedited bandwidth requests for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} exp-bwreq {enable | disable}

Step 12 To enable or disable TSM for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} tsm {enable | disable}

Step 13 To re-enable all WLANs with WMM enabled, enter this command:

config wlan enable wlan_id

Step 14 To re-enable the radio network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network

Step 15 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Using the CLI to Configure Video Parameters

Follow these steps to configure video parameters using the CLI.


Step 1 To see all of the WLANs configured on the controller, enter this command:

show wlan summary

Step 2 To make sure that the WLAN you are planning to modify is configured for WMM and the QoS level is set to Gold, enter this command:

show wlan wlan_id

Step 3 To disable all WLANs with WMM enabled prior to changing the video parameters, enter this command:

config wlan disable wlan_id

Step 4 To disable the radio network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network

Step 5 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config

Step 6 To enable or disable video CAC for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac video acm {enable | disable}

Step 7 To set the percentage of maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for video applications on the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac video max-bandwidth bandwidth

The bandwidth range is 0 to 100%, and the default value is 0%. However, the maximum RF bandwidth cannot exceed 100% for voice + video. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects new calls on this network.


Note If this parameter is set to zero (0), the controller assumes that the operator does not want to do any bandwidth allocation and, therefore, allows all bandwidth requests.


Step 8 To set the percentage of maximum allocated bandwidth reserved for roaming video clients, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac video roam-bandwidth bandwidth

The bandwidth range is 0 to 25%, and the default value is 0%. The controller reserves this much bandwidth from the maximum allocated bandwidth for roaming video clients.

Step 9 To re-enable all WLANs with WMM enabled, enter this command:

config wlan enable wlan_id

Step 10 To re-enable the radio network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network

Step 11 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Using the CLI to View Voice and Video Settings

Use these commands to view voice and video settings using the CLI.

1. To see the CAC configuration for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network, enter this command:

show {802.11a | show 802.11b}

2. To see the CAC statistics for a particular access point, enter this command:

show ap stats {802.11a | 802.11b} ap_name

Information similar to the following appears:

Call Admission Control (CAC) Stats
  Voice Bandwidth in use(% of config bw)......... 0
Total channel MT free........................ 0
Total voice MT free.......................... 0
Na Direct.................................... 0
Na Roam...................................... 0
  Video Bandwidth in use(% of config bw)......... 0
  Total num of voice calls in progress........... 0
  Num of roaming voice calls in progress......... 0
  Total Num of voice calls since AP joined....... 0
  Total Num of roaming calls since AP joined..... 0
Total Num of exp bw requests received.......... 5
  Total Num of exp bw requests admitted....... 2
 
Num of voice calls rejected since AP joined.... 0
  Num of roam calls rejected since AP joined..... 0
  Num of calls rejected due to insufficient bw....0
  Num of calls rejected due to invalid params.... 0
  Num of calls rejected due to PHY rate.......... 0
  Num of calls rejected due to QoS policy........ 0 

In the example above, "MT" is medium time, "Na" is the number of additional calls, and "exp bw" is expedited bandwidth.


3. To see the U-APSD status for a particular client, enter this command:

show client detail client_mac

4. To see the TSM statistics for a particular client and the access point to which this client is associated, enter this command:

show client tsm {802.11a | 802.11b} client_mac [ap_mac | all]

The optional all command shows all access points to which this client has associated. Information similar to the following appears:

AP Interface Mac:                   00:0b:85:01:02:03
Client Interface Mac:               00:01:02:03:04:05
Measurement Duration:               90 seconds

  Timestamp                           1st Jan 2006, 06:35:80 
    UpLink Stats
    ================
       Average Delay (5sec intervals)............................35
       Delay less than 10 ms.....................................20
       Delay bet 10 - 20 ms......................................20
       Delay bet 20 - 40 ms......................................20
       Delay greater than 40 ms..................................20
      Total packet Count.........................................80
      Total packet lost count (5sec).............................10
      Maximum Lost Packet count(5sec)............................5
      Average Lost Packet count(5secs)...........................2
    DownLink Stats
    ================
       Average Delay (5sec intervals)............................35
       Delay less than 10 ms.....................................20
       Delay bet 10 - 20 ms......................................20
       Delay bet 20 - 40 ms......................................20
       Delay greater than 40 ms..................................20
      Total packet Count.........................................80
      Total packet lost count (5sec).............................10
      Maximum Lost Packet count(5sec)............................5
      Average Lost Packet count(5secs)...........................2


Note The statistics are shown in 90-second intervals. The timestamp field shows the specific interval when the statistics were collected.


5. To see the TSM statistics for a particular access point and a particular client associated to this access point, enter this command:

show ap stats {802.11a | 802.11b} ap_name tsm [client_mac | all]

The optional all command shows all clients associated to this access point. Information similar to the following appears:

AP Interface Mac:                   00:0b:85:01:02:03
Client Interface Mac:               00:01:02:03:04:05
Measurement Duration:               90 seconds

  Timestamp                           1st Jan 2006, 06:35:80 
    UpLink Stats
    ================
       Average Delay (5sec intervals)............................35
       Delay less than 10 ms.....................................20
       Delay bet 10 - 20 ms......................................20
       Delay bet 20 - 40 ms......................................20
       Delay greater than 40 ms..................................20
      Total packet Count.........................................80
      Total packet lost count (5sec).............................10
      Maximum Lost Packet count(5sec)............................5
      Average Lost Packet count(5secs)...........................2
    DownLink Stats
    ================
       Average Delay (5sec intervals)............................35
       Delay less than 10 ms.....................................20
       Delay bet 10 - 20 ms......................................20
       Delay bet 20 - 40 ms......................................20
       Delay greater than 40 ms..................................20
      Total packet Count.........................................80
      Total packet lost count (5sec).............................10
      Maximum Lost Packet count(5sec)............................5
      Average Lost Packet count(5secs)...........................2


Note The statistics are shown in 90-second intervals. The timestamp field shows the specific interval when the statistics were collected.


Configuring EDCA Parameters

Enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) parameters are designed to provide preferential wireless channel access for voice, video, and other quality-of-service (QoS) traffic. Follow the instructions in this section to configure EDCA parameters using the controller GUI or CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure EDCA Parameters

Follow these steps to configure EDCA parameters using the controller GUI.


Step 1 To disable the radio network, click Wireless and then Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, uncheck the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and click Apply.

Step 2 Click EDCA Parameters under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n. The 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) > EDCA Parameters page appears (see Figure 4-25).

Figure 4-25 802.11a > EDCA Parameters Page

Step 3 Choose one of the following options from the EDCA Profile drop-down box:

WMM—Enables the Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) default parameters. This is the default value. Choose this option when voice or video services are not deployed on your network.

Spectralink Voice Priority—Enables Spectralink voice priority parameters. Choose this option if Spectralink phones are deployed on your network to improve the quality of calls.

Voice Optimized—Enables EDCA voice-optimized profile parameters. Choose this option when voice services other than Spectralink are deployed on your network.

Voice & Video Optimized—Enables EDCA voice- and video-optimized profile parameters. Choose this option when both voice and video services are deployed on your network.


Note If you deploy video services, admission control (ACM) must be disabled.


Step 4 If you want to enable MAC optimization for voice, check the Enable Low Latency MAC check box. Otherwise, leave this check box unchecked, which is the default value. This feature enhances voice performance by controlling packet retransmits and appropriately aging out voice packets on lightweight access points, thereby improving the number of voice calls serviced per access point.


Note You should enable low latency MAC only if the WLAN allows WMM clients. If WMM is enabled, then low latency MAC can be used with any of the EDCA profiles. Refer to the "Configuring QoS Enhanced BSS" section on page 6-32 for instructions on enabling WMM.


Step 5 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 To re-enable the radio network, click Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, check the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and click Apply.

Step 7 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure EDCA Parameters

Follow these steps to configure EDCA parameters using the CLI.


Step 1 To disable the radio network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network

Step 2 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config

Step 3 To enable a specific EDCA profile, enter this command:

config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} edca-parameters ?

where ? is one of the following:

wmm-default

svp-voice

optimized-voice

optimized-video-voice


Note Refer to the "Using the GUI to Configure EDCA Parameters" section above for a description of each option.


Step 4 To view the current status of MAC optimization for voice, enter this command:

show {802.11a | 802.11b}

Information similar to the following appears:

Voice-mac-optimization...................Disabled 

Step 5 To enable or disable MAC optimization for voice, enter this command:

config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} voice-mac-optimization {enable | disable}

This feature enhances voice performance by controlling packet retransmits and appropriately aging out voice packets on lightweight access points, thereby improving the number of voice calls serviced per access point. The default value is disabled.

Step 6 To re-enable the radio network, enter this command:

config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network

Step 7 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Configuring Cisco Discovery Protocol

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a device discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco-manufactured equipment. A device enabled with CDP sends out periodic interface updates to a multicast address in order to make itself known to neighboring devices.

The default value for the frequency of periodic transmissions is 60 seconds, and the default advertised time-to-live value is 180 seconds. The second and latest version of the protocol, CDPv2, introduces new time-length-values (TLVs) and provides a reporting mechanism that allows for more rapid error tracking, thereby reducing down time.

CDPv1 and CDPv2 are supported on the following devices:

2100 and 4400 series controllers


Note CDP is not supported on the controllers that are integrated into Cisco switches and routers, including those in the Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller Switch, the Cisco WiSM, and the Cisco 28/37/38xx Series Integrated Services Router. However, you can use the show ap cdp neighbors [detail] {Cisco_AP | all} command on these controllers in order to see the list of CDP neighbors for the access points that are connected to the controller.


LWAPP-enabled access points

An access point connected directly to a 2100 series controller

This support enables network management applications to discover Cisco devices.

These TLVs are supported by both the controller and the access point:

Device-ID TLV: 0x0001—The host name of the controller, the access point, or the CDP neighbor.

Address TLV: 0x0002—The IP address of the controller, the access point, or the CDP neighbor.

Port-ID TLV: 0x0003—The name of the interface on which CDP packets are sent out.

Capabilities TLV: 0x0004—The capabilities of the device. The controller sends out this TLV with a value of Host: 0x10, and the access point sends out this TLV with a value of Transparent Bridge: 0x02.

Version TLV: 0x0005—The software version of the controller, the access point, or the CDP neighbor.

Platform TLV: 0x0006—The hardware platform of the controller, the access point, or the CDP neighbor.

These TLVs are supported only by the access point:

Full/Half Duplex TLV: 0x000b—The full- or half-duplex mode of the Ethernet link on which CDP packets are sent out. This TLV is not supported on access points that are connected directly to a 2100 series controller.

Power Consumption TLV: 0x0010—The maximum amount of power consumed by the access point. This TLV is not supported on access points that are connected directly to a 2100 series controller.

You can configure CDP and view CDP information using the GUI in controller software release 4.1 or later or the CLI in controller software release 4.0 or later. Figure 4-26 shows a sample network that you can use as a reference when performing the procedures in this section.


Note Changing the CDP configuration on the controller does not change the CDP configuration on the access points connected to the controller. You must enable and disable CDP separately for each access point.


Figure 4-26 Sample Network Illustrating CDP

Using the GUI to Configure Cisco Discovery Protocol

Follow these steps to configure CDP using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Controller > CDP > Global Configuration to open the CDP > Global Configuration page (see Figure 4-27).

Figure 4-27 CDP > Global Configuration Page

Step 2 Check the CDP Protocol Status check box to enable CDP on the controller or uncheck it to disable this feature. The default value is checked.

Step 3 From the CDP Advertisement Version drop-down box, choose v1 or v2 to specify the highest CDP version supported on the controller. The default value is v1.

Step 4 In the Refresh-time Interval field, enter the interval at which CDP messages are to be generated. The range is 5 to 254 seconds, and the default value is 60 seconds.

Step 5 In the Holdtime field, enter the amount of time to be advertised as the time-to-live value in generated CDP packets. The range is 10 to 255 seconds, and the default value is 180 seconds.

Step 6 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 7 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 8 Perform one of the following:

To enable or disable CDP on a specific access point, follow these steps:

a. Click Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
b. Click the link for the desired access point.
c. Click the Advanced tab to open the All APs > Details (Advanced) page (see Figure 4-28).

Figure 4-28 All APs > Details (Advanced) Page

d. Check the Cisco Discovery Protocol check box to enable CDP on this access point or uncheck it to disable this feature. The default value is enabled.
e. Click Apply to commit your changes.

To enable or disable CDP on all access points currently associated to the controller, follow these steps:

a. Click Wireless > Access Points > AP Configuration > CDP Template to open the AP Configuration > CDP Template page.
b. Check the CDP State check box to enable CDP on all access points associated to the controller or uncheck it to disable CDP on all access points. The default value is checked.
c. Click Apply to All APs to commit your changes.

Step 9 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the GUI to View Cisco Discovery Protocol Information

Follow these steps to view CDP information using the controller GUI.


Step 1 To see a list of all CDP neighbors on all interfaces, click Monitor > CDP > Interface Neighbors. The CDP > Interface Neighbors page appears (see Figure 4-29).

Figure 4-29 CDP > Interface Neighbors Page

This page shows the following information:

The controller port on which the CDP packets were received

The name of each CDP neighbor

The IP address of each CDP neighbor

The port used by each CDP neighbor for transmitting CDP packets

The time left (in seconds) before each CDP neighbor entry expires

The functional capability of each CDP neighbor, defined as follows: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge, S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater, or M - Remotely Managed Device

The hardware platform of each CDP neighbor device

Step 2 To see more detailed information about each interface's CDP neighbor, click the name of the desired interface neighbor. The CDP > Interface Neighbors > Detail page appears (see Figure 4-30).

Figure 4-30 CDP > Interface Neighbors > Detail Page

This page shows the following information:

The controller port on which the CDP packets were received

The name of the CDP neighbor

The IP address of the CDP neighbor

The port used by the CDP neighbor for transmitting CDP packets

The CDP version being advertised (v1 or v2)

The time left (in seconds) before the CDP neighbor entry expires

The functional capability of the CDP neighbor, defined as follows: Router, Trans Bridge,
Source Route Bridge, Switch, Host, IGMP, Repeater, or Remotely Managed Device

The hardware platform of the CDP neighbor device

The software running on the CDP neighbor

Step 3 To see a list of CDP neighbors for all access points connected to the controller, click AP Neighbors. The CDP AP Neighbors page appears (see Figure 4-31).

Figure 4-31 CDP AP Neighbors Page

Step 4 To see a list of CDP neighbors for a specific access point, click the CDP Neighbors link for the desired access point. The CDP > AP Neighbors page appears (see Figure 4-33).

Figure 4-32 CDP > AP Neighbors Page

This page shows the following information:

The name of each access point

The IP address of each access point

The name of each CDP neighbor

The IP address of each CDP neighbor

The port used by each CDP neighbor

The CDP version being advertised (v1 or v2)

Step 5 To see detailed information about an access point's CDP neighbors, click the name of the desired access point. The CDP > AP Neighbors > Detail page appears (see Figure 4-33).

Figure 4-33 CDP > AP Neighbors > Detail Page

This page shows the following information:

The name of the access point

The MAC address of the access point's radio

The IP address of the access point

The interface on which the CDP packets were received

The name of the CDP neighbor

The IP address of the CDP neighbor

The port used by the CDP neighbor

The CDP version being advertised (v1 or v2)

The time left (in seconds) before the CDP neighbor entry expires

The functional capability of the CDP neighbor, defined as follows: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge,
B - Source Route Bridge, S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater, or M - Remotely Managed Device

The hardware platform of the CDP neighbor device

The software running on the CDP neighbor

Step 6 To see CDP traffic information, click Traffic Metrics. The CDP > Traffic Metrics page appears (see Figure 4-34).

Figure 4-34 CDP > Traffic Metrics Page

This page shows the following information:

The number of CDP packets received by the controller

The number of CDP packets sent from the controller

The number of packets that experienced a checksum error

The number of packets dropped due to insufficient memory

The number of invalid packets


Using the CLI to Configure Cisco Discovery Protocol

Use these commands to configure CDP using the controller CLI.

1. To enable or disable CDP on the controller, enter this command:

config cdp {enable | disable}

CDP is enabled by default.

2. To specify the interval at which CDP messages are to be generated, enter this command:

config cdp timer seconds

The range is 5 to 254 seconds, and the default value is 60 seconds.

3. To specify the amount of time to be advertised as the time-to-live value in generated CDP packets, enter this command:

config cdp holdtime seconds

The range is 10 to 255 seconds, and the default value is 180 seconds.

4. To specify the highest CDP version supported on the controller, enter this command:

config cdp advertise {v1 | v2}

The default value is v1.

5. To enable or disable CDP on all access points that are joined to the controller, enter this command:

config ap cdp {enable | disable} all

The config ap cdp disable all command disables CDP on all access points that are joined to the controller and all access points that join in the future. CDP remains disabled on both current and future access points even after the controller or access point reboots. To enable CDP, enter config ap cdp enable all.


Note After you enable CDP on all access points joined to the controller, you may disable and then re-enable CDP on individual access points using the command in #6 below. After you disable CDP on all access points joined to the controller, you may not enable and then disable CDP on individual access points.


6. To enable or disable CDP on a specific access point, enter this command:

config ap cdp {enable | disable} Cisco_AP

7. To save your settings, enter this command:

save config

Using the CLI to View Cisco Discovery Protocol Information

Use these commands to obtain information about CDP neighbors on the controller.

1. To see the status of CDP and to view CDP protocol information, enter this command:

show cdp

2. To see a list of all CDP neighbors on all interfaces, enter this command:

show cdp neighbors [detail]

The optional detail command provides detailed information for the controller's CDP neighbors.


Note This command shows only the CDP neighbors of the controller. It does not show the CDP neighbors of the controller's associated access points. Additional commands are provided below to show the list of CDP neighbors per access point.


3. To see all CDP entries in the database, enter this command:

show cdp entry all

4. To see CDP traffic information on a given port (for example, packets sent and received, CRC errors, and so on), enter this command:

show cdp traffic

5. To see the CDP status for a specific access point, enter this command:

show ap cdp Cisco_AP

6. To see the CDP status for all access points that are connected to the controller, enter this command:

show ap cdp all

7. To see a list of all CDP neighbors for a specific access point, enter this command:

show ap cdp neighbors [detail] Cisco_AP


Note The access point sends CDP neighbor information to the controller only when the information changes.


8. To see a list of all CDP neighbors for all access points connected to the controller, enter this command:

show ap cdp neighbors [detail] all

Information similar to the following appears when you enter show ap cdp neighbors all:

AP Name 					AP IP 				Neighbor Name 		 Neighbor IP				 		Neighbor Port
-------- 					-------- 				------------- 		 ----------- 						------------- 
AP0013.601c.0a0    10.76.108.123        6500-1 					 	 10.76.108.207 		 GigabitEthernet1/26
AP0013.601c.0b0    10.76.108.111        6500-1 		 	 10.76.108.207 		 GigabitEthernet1/27
AP0013.601c.0c0 	 	 10.76.108.125        6500-1 	 	 	 10.76.108.207 	 GigabitEthernet1/28 

Information similar to the following appears when you enter show ap cdp neighbors detail all:

AP Name: AP0013.601c.0a0
AP IP Address: 10.76.108.125
----------------------------------
Device ID: 6500-1
Entry address(es): 10.76.108.207
Platform: cisco WS-C6506-E,  Capabilities: Router Switch IGMP 
Interface: Port - 1,  Port ID (outgoing port): GigabitEthernet1/26
Holdtime: 157 sec 

Version:
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software  IOS (tm) s72033_rp Software 
(s72033_rp-PSV-M), Version 12.2(18)SXD5, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: 
http://www.cisco.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2005 by cisco Systems, Inc. 
Compiled Fri 13-Ma 


Note The access point sends CDP neighbor information to the controller only when the information changes.


Use these commands to obtain CDP debug information for the controller.

1. To obtain debug information related to CDP packets, enter this command:

debug cdp packets

2. To obtain debug information related to CDP events, enter this command:

debug cdp events

Configuring RFID Tag Tracking

The controller enables you to configure radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag tracking. RFID tags are small wireless devices that are affixed to assets for real-time location tracking. They operate by advertising their location using special 802.11 packets, which are processed by access points, the controller, and the location appliance.

The controller supports tags from AeroScout, WhereNet, and Pango (an InnerWireless company). Some of the tags from these vendors comply with Cisco Compatible Extensions for RFID Tags. See Table 4-3 for details. The location appliance receives telemetry and chokepoint information from tags that are compliant with this CCX specification.

Table 4-3 Cisco Compatible Extensions for RFID Tags Summary

Partners
AeroScout
WhereNet
Pango (InnerWireless)

Product Name

T2

T3

Wheretag IV

V3

Telemetry

Temperature

X

X

 

X

Pressure

       

Humidity

       

Status

       

Fuel

       

Quantity

       

Distance

       

Motion Detection

X

X

 

X

Number of Panic Buttons

1

2

0

1

Tampering

 

X

X

X

Battery Information

X

X

X

X

Multiple-Frequency Tags1

X

X

X

 

1 For chokepoint systems, note that the tag can work only with chokepoints coming from the same vendor.



Note Network Mobility Services Protocol (NMSP) runs on location appliance software release 3.0 or later. In order for NMSP to function properly, the TCP port (16113) over which the controller and location appliance communicate must be open (not blocked) on any firewall that exists between these two devices. Refer to the Cisco Location Appliance Configuration Guide, Release 3.0 for additional information on NMSP and RFID tags.


The Cisco-approved tags support these capabilities:

Information notifications—Enable you to view vendor-specific and emergency information.

Information polling—Enables you to monitor battery status and telemetry data. Many telemetry data types provide support for sensory networks and a large range of applications for RFID tags.

Measurement notifications—Enable you to deploy chokepoints at strategic points within your buildings or campuses. Whenever an RFID tag moves to within a defined proximity of a chokepoint, the tag begins transmitting packets that advertise its location in relation to the chokepoint.

The number of tags supported varies depending on controller platform. Table 4-4 lists the number of tags supported per controller.

Table 4-4 RFID Tags Supported per Controller

Controller
Number of RFID Tags Supported

Cisco WiSM

5000

4404

2500

4402

1250

Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller Switch

1250

2106 and 2006

500

Controller Network Module within the Cisco 28/37/38xx Series Integrated Services Routers

500


You can configure and view RFID tag tracking information through the controller CLI.

Using the CLI to Configure RFID Tag Tracking

Follow these steps to configure RFID tag tracking parameters using the CLI.


Step 1 To enable or disable RFID tag tracking, enter this command:

config rfid status {enable | disable}

The default value is enabled.

Step 2 To specify a static timeout value (between 60 and 7200 seconds), enter this command:

config rfid timeout seconds

The static timeout value is the amount of time that the controller maintains tags before expiring them. For example, if a tag is configured to beacon every 30 seconds, Cisco recommends that you set the timeout value to 90 seconds (approximately three times the beacon value). The default value is 1200 seconds.

Step 3 To enable or disable RFID tag mobility for specific tags, enter these commands:

config rfid mobility vendor_name enable—Enables client mobility for a specific vendor's tags. When you enter this command, tags are unable to obtain a DHCP address for client mode when attempting to check and/or download a configuration.

config rfid mobility vendor_name disable—Disables client mobility for a specific vendor's tags. When you enter this command, tags can obtain a DHCP address. If a tag roams from one subnet to another, it obtains a new address rather than retaining the anchor state.


Note These commands can be used only for Pango tags. Therefore, the only valid entry for vendor_name is "pango" in all lowercase letters.



Using the CLI to View RFID Tag Tracking Information

Use these commands to view RFID tag tracking information using the controller CLI.

1. To see the current configuration for RFID tag tracking, enter this command:

show rfid config

Information similar to the following appears:

RFID Tag data Collection......................... Enabled
RFID timeout..................................... 1200 seconds
RFID mobility................................. Oui:00:14:7e : Vendor:pango 
								 			 	 	State:Disabled

2. To see detailed information for a specific RFID tag, enter this command:

show rfid detail mac_address

where mac_address is the tag's MAC address.

Information similar to the following appears:

RFID address..................................... 00:12:b8:00:20:52
Vendor........................................... G2
Last Heard....................................... 51 seconds ago
Packets Received................................. 2
Bytes Received................................... 324
Cisco Type.......................................

Content Header
=================
Version.......................................... 1
Tx Power......................................... 12 dBm
Channel.......................................... 1
Reg Class........................................ 12
Burst Length..................................... 1

CCX Payload
===========
Last Sequence Control............................ 0
Payload length................................... 127
Payload Data Hex Dump
 
01 09 00 00 00 00 0b 85 52 52 52 02 07 4b ff ff
7f ff ff ff 03 14 00 12 7b 10 48 53 c1 f7 51 4b
50 ba 5b 97 27 80 00 67 00 01 03 05 01 42 34 00
00 03 05 02 42 5c 00 00 03 05 03 42 82 00 00 03
05 04 42 96 00 00 03 05 05 00 00 00 55 03 05 06
42 be 00 00 03 02 07 05 03 12 08 10 00 01 02 03
04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 03 0d 09 03
08 05 07 a8 02 00 10 00 23 b2 4e 03 02 0a 03
 
Nearby AP Statistics:
      lap1242-2(slot 0, chan 1) 50 seconds ag.... -76 dBm
      lap1242(slot 0, chan 1) 50 seconds ago..... -65 dBm

3. To see a list of all RFID tags currently connected to the controller, enter this command:

show rfid summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Total Number of RFID   : 24
----------------- -------- ------------------ ------ ---------------------
     RFID ID      VENDOR       Closest AP      RSSI  Time Since Last Heard
----------------- -------- ------------------ ------ ---------------------
00:04:f1:00:00:03 Wherenet HReap               -70      151 seconds ago
00:04:f1:00:00:05 Wherenet HReap               -66      251 seconds ago
00:0c:cc:5b:f8:1e Aerosct  HReap               -40        5 seconds ago
00:0c:cc:5c:05:10 Aerosct  HReap               -68       25 seconds ago
00:0c:cc:5c:06:69 Aerosct  HReap               -54        7 seconds ago
00:0c:cc:5c:06:6b Aerosct  HReap               -68      245 seconds ago
00:0c:cc:5c:06:b5 Aerosct  cisco1242           -67       70 seconds ago
00:0c:cc:5c:5a:2b Aerosct  cisco1242           -68       31 seconds ago
00:0c:cc:5c:87:34 Aerosct  HReap               -40        5 seconds ago

00:14:7e:00:05:4d Pango cisco1242 -66 298 seconds ago

4. To see a list of RFID tags that are associated to the controller as clients, enter this command:

show rfid client

When the RFID tag is in client mode, information similar to the following appears:

------------------ 	-------- --------- ----------------- ------ ----------------
                         			 	 	 	 	 Heard                                             
   RFID Mac      	 			 	 VENDOR   Sec Ago    Associated AP    Chnl    Client State  
------------------ 	-------- --------- ----------------- ------ ----------------

00:14:7e:00:0b:b1 	 	 Pango 	 	 	 	 	 35  	 	 AP0019.e75c.fef4 	 	 1  	 	 	 	 Probing  

When the RFID tag is not in client mode, the above fields are blank.

Using the CLI to Debug RFID Tag Tracking Issues

If you experience any problems with RFID tag tracking, use these debug commands.

To configure MAC address debugging, enter this command:

debug mac addr mac_address


Note Cisco recommends that you perform the debugging on a per-tag basis. If you enable debugging for all of the tags, the console or Telnet screen is inundated with messages.


To enable or disable debugging for the 802.11 RFID tag module, enter this command:

debug dot11 rfid {enable | disable}

Configuring and Viewing Location Settings

This section provides instructions for configuring and viewing location settings from the controller CLI.


Note Access points in monitor mode should not be used for location purposes.


Installing the Location Appliance Certificate

A self-signed certificate (SSC) is required on the location appliance. This certificate, which is comprised of the location appliance MAC address and a 20-byte key hash, must be present on the controller. Otherwise, the controller cannot authenticate the location appliance, and they can never establish a connection. WCS usually pushes the certificate to the controller automatically, but you can install the certificate on the controller using the controller CLI if necessary (for example, if the controller is not connected to WCS or if an error or certificate mismatch occurs on WCS).


Note If an error occurs on WCS and prevents the location appliance certificate from being pushed to the controller, make sure that the time zone has been synchronized on the controller and the location appliance before following this procedure. Follow the instructions in the "Synchronizing the Controller and Location Appliance" section to do so.


Follow these steps to install the location appliance certificate on the controller.


Step 1 To obtain the key hash value of the location appliance certificate, enter this command:

debug pm pki enable

Information similar to the following appears:

Thu Oct 11 08:52:26 2007: sshpmGetIssuerHandles: Calculate SHA1 hash on Public Key Data
Thu Oct 11 08:52:26 2007: sshpmGetIssuerHandles: Key Data  30820122 300d0609 2a864886 
f70d0101
Thu Oct 11 08:52:26 2007: sshpmGetIssuerHandles: Key Data  01050003 82010f00 3082010a 
02820101
Thu Oct 11 08:52:26 2007: sshpmGetIssuerHandles: Key Data  009a98b5 d2b7c77b 036cdb87 
5bd20e5a
Thu Oct 11 08:52:26 2007: sshpmGetIssuerHandles: Key Data  894c66f4 df1cbcfb fe2fcf01 
09b723aa
Thu Oct 11 08:52:26 2007: sshpmGetIssuerHandles: Key Data  5c0917f1 ec1d5061 2d386351 
573f2c5e
Thu Oct 11 08:52:30 2007: sshpmGetIssuerHandles: Key Data  b9020301 0001
Thu Oct 11 08:52:30 2007: sshpmGetIssuerHandles: SSC Key Hash is 
4869b32638c00ffca88abe9b1a8e0525b9344b8b 

Step 2 To install the location appliance certificate on the controller, enter this command:

config auth-list add lbs-ssc lbs_mac lbs_key

where

lbs_mac is the MAC address of the location appliance, and

lbs_key is the 20-byte key hash value of the certificate.

Step 3 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 4 To verify that the location appliance certificate is installed on the controller, enter this command:

show auth-list

Information similar to the following appears:

Authorize APs against AAA ....................... disabled
Allow APs with Self-Signed Certificate (SSC) .... enabled

Mac Addr                  Cert Type    Key Hash
-----------------------   ----------   -------------------------------------------
00:13:80:60:48:3e         SSC 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 ecefbb0622ef76c997ac7d73e413ee499e24769e 


Synchronizing the Controller and Location Appliance

For controller software release 4.2 or later, if a location appliance (release 3.1 or later) is installed on your network, the time zone must be set on the controller to ensure proper synchronization between the two systems. Also, Cisco highly recommends that the time be set for networks that do not have location appliances. Refer to the "Managing the System Date and Time" section for instructions on setting the time and date on the controller.


Note The time zone can be different for the controller and the location appliance, but the time zone delta must be configured accordingly, based on GMT.


Using the CLI to View Location Settings

The controller determines the location of client devices by gathering received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurements from access points all around the client of interest. The controller can obtain location reports from up to 16 access points for both clients and RFID tags.

Use these commands to view location information using the controller CLI.

1. To view the current location configuration values, enter this command:

show location summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Location Summary :
 
 Algorithm used:                         Average
 Client RSSI expiry timeout:             150 sec, half life: 60 sec
 Calibrating Client RSSI expiry timeout: 30 sec, half life: 0 sec
 Rogue AP RSSI expiry timeout:           1200 sec, half life: 120 sec
 RFID Tag RSSI expiry timeout: 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 60 sec, half life: 120 sec 

2. To see the location-based RFID statistics, enter this command:

show location statistics rfid

Information similar to the following appears:

RFID Statistics
 
Database Full :         0        Failed Delete:         0
Null Bufhandle:         0        Bad Packet:            0
Bad LWAPP Data:         0        Bad LWAPP Encap:       0
Off Channel:            0        Bad CCX Version:       0
Bad AP Info :           0 
Above Max RSSI:         0        Below Max RSSI:        0
Invalid RSSI:           0        Add RSSI Failed:       0
Oldest Expired RSSI: 	 	0        Smallest Overwrite: 	 0 

3. To clear the location-based RFID statistics, enter this command:

clear location statistics rfid

4. To clear a specific RFID tag or all of the RFID tags in the entire database, enter this command:

clear location rfid {mac_address | all}

5. To see whether location presence (S69) is supported on a client, enter this command:

show client detail client_mac

When location presence is supported by a client and enabled on a location server, the location server can provide the client with its location upon request. Location presence is enabled automatically on CCXv5 clients.

Information similar to the following appears:

Client MAC Address............................... 00:40:96:b2:a3:44
Client Username ................................. N/A
AP MAC Address................................... 00:18:74:c7:c0:90
Client State..................................... Associated
Wireless LAN Id.................................. 1
BSSID............................................ 00:18:74:c7:c0:9f
Channel.......................................... 56
IP Address....................................... 192.168.10.28
Association Id................................... 1
Authentication Algorithm......................... Open System
Reason Code...................................... 0
Status Code...................................... 0
Session Timeout.................................. 0
Client CCX version............................... 5
Client E2E version............................... No E2E support
Diagnostics Capability........................... Supported
S69 Capability................................... Supported
Mirroring........................................ Disabled
QoS Level........................................ Silver
...

Note See the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide, Release 5.0 or the Cisco Location Appliance Configuration Guide, Release 4.0 for instructions on enabling location presence on a location server.


6. To see the status of active Network Mobility Services Protocol (NMSP) connections, enter this command:

show nmsp status

Information similar to the following appears:

LocServer IP    TxEchoResp RxEchoReq  TxData  RxData
-------------- ----------- ---------  ------- ------- 

171.71.132.158 21642 21642 51278 21253

7. To see the NMSP counters, enter this command:

show nmsp statistics {summary | connection all}

where

summary shows the common NMSP counters, and

connection all shows the connection-specific NMSP counters.

Information similar to the following appears for the show nmsp statistics summary command:

NMSP Global Counters                    

Client Measure Send Fail:               0                                         
Tag Measure Send Fail:                  0                                         
Rouge AP Measure Send Fail:             0                                         
Rouge Client Measure Send Fail:         0                                         
Client Info Send Fail:                  0                                         
Rouge AP Info Send Fail:                0                                         
Rouge Client Info Send Fail:            0                                         
Send RSSI with no entry:                0                                         
Send too big msg:                       0                                         
Partial SSL write:                      0                                         
Transmit Q full:                        0                                         
Measmt Send Not Called:                 0                                         
Info Send Not Called:                   0                                         
Max Measure Notify Msg:                 0                                         
Max Info Notify Msg:                    0                                         
Max Tx Q Size:                          0                                         
Max Rx Size:                            0                                         
Max Info Notify Q Size:                 0
Max Client Info Notify Delay:           0                                         
Max Rouge AP Info Notify Delay:         0                                         
Max Rouge Client Info Notify Delay:     0                                         
Max Client Measure Notify Delay:        0                                         
Max Tag Measure Notify Delay:           0                                         
Max Rouge AP Measure Notify Delay:      0                                         
Max Rouge Client Measure Notify Delay:  0                                         
Max Client Stats Notify Delay:          0                                         
Max Tag Stats Notify Delay: 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	0 

8. To clear the NMSP statistics, enter this command:

clear nmsp statistics

Configuring the Supervisor 720 to Support the WiSM

When you install a WiSM in a Cisco Catalyst 6500 switch or a Cisco 7600 series router, you must configure the Supervisor 720 to support the WiSM. When the supervisor detects the WiSM, the supervisor creates ten Gigabit Ethernet interfaces, ranging from Gigslot/1 to Gigslot/8. For example, if the WiSM is in slot 9, the supervisor creates interfaces Gig9/1 through Gig9/8. The first eight Gigabit Ethernet interfaces must be organized into two Etherchannel bundles of four interfaces each. The remaining two Gigabit Ethernet interfaces are used as service-port interfaces, one for each controller on the WiSM. You must manually create VLANs to communicate with the ports on the WiSM.


Note The WiSM is supported on Cisco 7600 series routers running only Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)SXF5.


General WiSM Guidelines

Keep these general guidelines in mind when you add a WiSM to your network:

The switch or router ports leading to the controller service port are automatically configured and cannot be manually configured.

The switch or router ports leading to the controller data ports should be configured as edge ports to avoid sending unnecessary BPDUs.

The switch or router ports leading to the controller data ports should not be configured with any additional settings (such as port channel or SPAN destination) other than settings necessary for carrying data traffic to and from the controllers.

The WiSM controllers support Layer 3 LWAPP mode, but they do not support Layer 2 LWAPP mode.


Note Refer to Chapter 3 for information on configuring the WiSM's ports and interfaces.


Configuring the Supervisor

Log into the switch or router CLI and, beginning in Privileged Exec mode, follow these steps to configure the supervisor to support the WiSM:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface vlan

Create a VLAN to communicate with the data ports on the WiSM and enter interface config mode.

Step 3 

ip address ip-address gateway

Assign an IP address and gateway to the VLAN.

Step 4 

ip helper-address ip-address

Assign a helper address to the VLAN.

Step 5 

end

Return to global config mode.

Step 6 

wism module module_number
controller { 1 | 2}
allowed-vlan vlan_number

Create Gigabit port-channel interfaces automatically for the specified WiSM controller and configure the port-channel interfaces as trunk ports. Also, specify the VLAN you created earlier as the allowed VLAN on the port-channel trunk. VLAN traffic is carried on the trunk between the WiSM controller and the supervisor.

Note Services might be temporarily interrupted (for approximately two pings) after you enter this command.

Step 7 

wism module module_number
controller { 1 | 2}
native-vlan vlan_number

For the native VLAN on the ports, specify the VLAN that you created earlier to communicate with the WiSM data ports.

Step 8 

interface vlan

Create a VLAN to communicate with the service ports on the WiSM.

Step 9 

ip address ip_address gateway

Assign an IP address and gateway to the VLAN.

Step 10 

end

Return to global config mode.

Step 11 

wism service-vlan vlan

Configure the VLAN that you created in steps 8 through 10 to communicate with the WiSM service ports.

Step 12 

end

Return to global config mode.

Step 13 

show wism status

Verify that the WiSM is operational.


Note The commands used for communication between the Cisco WiSM, the Supervisor 720, and the 4404 controllers are documented in Configuring a Cisco Wireless Services Module and Wireless Control System at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/wireless/technology/wism/technical/reference/appnote.html#wp39498


Using the Wireless LAN Controller Network Module

Keep these guidelines in mind when using a wireless LAN controller network module (CNM) installed in a Cisco Integrated Services Router:

The CNM does not support IPSec. To use IPSec with the CNM, configure IPSec on the router in which the CNM is installed. Click this link to browse to IPSec configuration instructions for routers:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk583/tk372/tech_configuration_guides_list.html

The CNM does not have a battery and cannot save a time setting. It must receive a time setting from an external NTP server when it powers up. When you install the module, the configuration wizard prompts you for NTP server information.

To access the CNM bootloader, Cisco recommends that you reset the CNM from the router. If you reset the CNM from a CNM user interface, the router might reset the CNM while you are using the bootloader.

When you reset the CNM from a CNM interface, you have 17 minutes to use the bootloader before the router automatically resets the CNM. The CNM bootloader does not run the Router Blade Configuration Protocol (RBCP), so the RBCP heartbeat running on the router times out after 17 minutes, triggering a reset of the CNM.

If you reset the CNM from the router, the router stops the RBCP heartbeat exchange and does not restart it until the CNM boots up. To reset the CNM from the router, enter one of these commands on the router CLI:

service-module wlan-controller 1/0 reset (for Fast Ethernet CNM versions)

service-module integrated-service-engine 1/0 reset (for Gigabit Ethernet CNM versions)

Gigabit Ethernet versions of the Controller Network Module are supported on Cisco 28/37/38xx Series Integrated Services Routers running Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T2 or later.