The FIPS 140-2 Publication, Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules, details the U.S. government requirements for cryptographic modules. FIPS 140-2 specifies that a cryptographic module shall be a set of hardware, software, firmware, or some combination thereof that implements cryptographic functions or processes, including cryptographic algorithms and, optionally, key generation, and is contained within a defined cryptographic boundary.
FIPS specifies certain cryptographic algorithms as secure, and it identifies which algorithms should be used if a cryptographic module is to be called FIPS compliant.
A cryptographic module must perform power-up self-tests and conditional self-tests to ensure that it is functioning properly.
Power-up self-tests run automatically after the device powers up. A device goes into FIPS mode only after all self-tests are successfully completed. If any self-test fails, the device logs a system message and moves into an error state.
The device uses a cryptographic algorithm known-answer test (KAT) to test FIPS mode for each FIPS 140-2-approved cryptographic function (encryption, decryption, authentication, and random number generation) implemented on the device. The device applies the algorithm to data for which the correct output is already known. It then compares the calculated output to the previously generated output. If the calculated output does not equal the known answer, the KAT fails.
Conditional self-tests run automatically when an applicable security function or operation is invoked. Unlike the power-up self-tests, conditional self-tests are executed each time their associated function is accessed.
Conditional self-tests include the following:
Pair-wise consistency test
This test is run when a public or private key-pair is generated.
Continuous random number generator test
This test is run when a random number is generated.
The Cisco TrustSec manager also runs a bypass test to ensure that encrypted text is never sent as plain text.
A bypass test failure on CTS-enabled ports causes only those
corresponding ports to be shut down. The bypass test might fail because of packet drops
caused by data path congestion. In such cases, we recommend that you try
bringing up the port again.
FIPS Error State
When the system is booted up in FIPS mode, the FIPS power-up self-tests run on the supervisor and line card modules. If any of these bootup tests fail, the whole system is moved to the FIPS error state. In this state, as per the FIPS requirement, all cryptographic keys are deleted, and all line cards are shut down. This mode is exclusively meant for debugging purposes.
Once the switch is in the FIPS error state, any reload of a line card moves it to the failure state. To move the switch back to FIPS mode, it has to be rebooted. However, once the switch is in FIPS mode, any power-up self-test failure on a subsequent line card reload or insertion affects only that line card, and only the corresponding line card is moved to the failure state.
RADIUS keywrap support is an extension of the RADIUS protocol. It provides a FIPS-certifiable means for the Cisco Access Control Server (ACS) to authenticate RADIUS messages and distribute session keys.
RADIUS keywrap increases RADIUS protocol security by using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) keywrap algorithm to transfer keys while an HMAC-SHA1 algorithm is used to protect packet integrity. It specifies that the key encryption key (KEK) and the hash key must be different from each other, should not be based on a password, and must be cryptographically independent of the RADIUS shared secret used in calculating the response authenticator.
The proxy and message authenticator are not supported for RADIUS keywrap.
When FIPS mode is enabled, RADIUS keywrap is enabled automatically. As a result, keywrap attributes are added to any RADIUS request that contains EAP attributes but is not meant for protected access credential (PAC) provisioning. The attributes are sent to the Cisco ACS, which distributes the EAP-TLS session key to an IEEE 802.1X EAP authenticator. The session key is encrypted using AES, and the RADIUS message is authenticated using HMAC-SHA-1.
Cisco ACS Release 5.2 supports the RADIUS keywrap feature.
Virtualization Support for FIPS
You can configure FIPS mode and run FIPS self-tests only in the default virtual device context (VDC). For more information on VDCs, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide.
Licensing Requirements for FIPS
This table shows the licensing requirements for FIPS.
FIPS requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For an explanation of the Cisco NX-OS licensing scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for FIPS
FIPS has the following prerequisites:
Disable Telnet. Users should log in using Secure Shell (SSH) only.
Disable SNMPv1 and v2. Any existing user accounts on the device that have been configured for SNMPv3 should be configured only with SHA for authentication and AES/3DES for privacy.
Delete all SSH server RSA1 key-pairs.
Enable HMAC-SHA1 message integrity checking (MIC) for use during the Cisco TrustSec Security Association Protocol (SAP) negotiation. To do so, enter the sap hash-algorithm HMAC-SHA-1 command from the cts-manual or cts-dot1x mode. Note that this command is not supported for F1 Series modules.
Guidelines and Limitations for FIPS
FIPS has the following configuration guidelines and limitations:
The RADIUS keywrap feature works only with Cisco ACS Release 5.2 or later releases.
The user authentication mechanisms supported for SSH are
usernames and passwords, public keys, and X.509 certificates.
Your passwords should have a minimum of eight alphanumeric characters.
The F1 Series modules do not support FIPS mode. However, you can deploy an F1 Series module in a Cisco NX-OS device that is operating in FIPS mode.
The F1 Series modules do not support the cts-dot1x mode or the cts-manual mode.
Digital image signing is supported on Cisco Nexus 7000 Series switches that contain the Supervisor 2 module.
The M2 Series modules do not support FIPS mode. However, you can deploy an M2 Series module in a Cisco NX-OS device that is operating in FIPS mode.
Default Settings for FIPS
This table lists the default settings for FIPS parameters.
Default FIPS Parameters
This section describes how to configure FIPS mode on Cisco NX-OS devices.