Cisco ASA Series Command Reference, S Commands
same-security-traffic -- shape
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Table of Contents

same-security-traffic through shape Commands

same-security-traffic

sasl-mechanism

sast

scansafe

scansafe general-options

scep-enrollment enable

scep-forwarding-url

secondary

secondary-authentication-server-group

secondary-color

secondary-pre-fill-username

secondary-text-color

secure-unit-authentication

secondary-username-from-certificate

security-group

security-level

send response

seq-past-window

serial-number

server (pop3s, imap4s, smtps)

server (ssh pubkey-chain)

server authenticate-client

server backup

server primary

server trust-point

server-port

server-separator

server-type

service

service (ctl-provider)

service (object service)

service call-home

service password-recovery

service-object

service-policy (class)

service-policy (global)

session

session console

session do

session ip

session-limit

session-timeout

set as-path

set automatic-tag

set community

set connection

set connection advanced-options

set connection advanced-options tcp-state-bypass

set connection decrement-ttl

set connection timeout

set local-preference

set metric

set metric (BGP, OSPF, RIP)

set metric-type

set metric-type internal

set ip next-hop BGP

set origin (BGP)

set weight

setup

sfr

shape

same-security-traffic through shape Commands

same-security-traffic

To permit communication between interfaces with equal security levels, or to allow traffic to enter anciscoasad exit the same interface, use the same-security-traffic command in global configuration mode. To disable the same-security traffic, use the no form of this command.

same-security-traffic permit { inter-interface | intra-interface }

no same-security-traffic permit { inter-interface | intra-interface }

 
Syntax Description

inter-interface

Permits communication between different interfaces that have the same security level.

intra-interface

Permits communication in and out of the same interface.

 
Defaults

This command is disabled by default.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

7.2(1)

The intra-interface keyword now allows all traffic to enter and exit the same interface, and not just IPsec traffic.

 
Usage Guidelines

Allowing communication between same security interfaces (enabled by the same-security-traffic inter-interface command) provides the following benefits:

  • You can configure more than 101 communicating interfaces. If you use different levels for each interface, you can configure only one interface per level (0 to 100).
  • You can allow traffic to flow freely between all same security interfaces without access lists.

The same-security-traffic intra-interface command lets traffic enter and exit the same interface, which is normally not allowed. This feature might be useful for VPN traffic that enters an interface, but is then routed out the same interface. The VPN traffic might be unencrypted in this case, or it might be reencrypted for another VPN connection. For example, if you have a hub and spoke VPN network, where the ASA is the hub, and remote VPN networks are spokes, for one spoke to communicate with another spoke, traffic must go into the ASA and then out again to the other spoke.


Note All traffic allowed by the same-security-traffic intra-interface command is still subject to firewall rules. Be careful not to create an asymmetric routing situation that can cause return traffic not to traverse the ASA.


Examples

The following example shows how to enable the same-security interface communication:

ciscoasa(config)# same-security-traffic permit inter-interface
 

The following example shows how to enable traffic to enter and exit the same interface:

ciscoasa(config)# same-security-traffic permit intra-interface
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

show running-config same-security-traffic

Displays the same-security-traffic configuration.

sasl-mechanism

To specify a SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer) mechanism for authenticating an LDAP client to an LDAP server, use the sasl-mechanism command in aaa-server host configuration mode. The SASL authentication mechanism options are digest-md5 and kerberos .

To disable an authentication mechanism, use the no form of this command.

sasl-mechanism {digest-md5 | kerberos server-group-name}

no sasl-mechanism {digest-md5 | kerberos server-group-name}


Note Because the ASA serves as a client proxy to the LDAP server for VPN users, the LDAP client referred to here is the ASA.


 
Syntax Description

 
Syntax DescriptionSyntax Description

digest-md5

The ASA responds with an MD5 value computed from the username and password.

kerberos

The ASA responds by sending the username and realm using the GSSAPI (Generic Security Services Application Programming Interface) Kerberos mechanism.

server-group-name

Specifies the Kerberos aaa-server group, up to 64 characters.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values. The ASA passes the authentication parameters to the LDAP server in plain text.


Note We recommend that you secure LDAP communications with SSL using the ldap-over-ssl command if you have not configured SASL.


 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

aaa-server host configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.1(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

Use this command to specify ASA authentication to an LDAP server using SASL mechanisms.

Both the ASA and the LDAP server can support multiple SASL authentication mechanisms. When negotiating SASL authentication, the ASA retrieves the list of SASL mechanisms configured on the server and sets the authentication mechanism to the strongest mechanism configured on both the ASA and the server. The Kerberos mechanism is stronger than the Digest-MD5 mechanism. To illustrate, if both the LDAP server and the ASA support both mechanisms, the ASA selects Kerberos, the stronger of the mechanisms.

When disabling the SASL mechanisms, you must enter a separate no command for each mechanism you want to disable because they are configured independently. Mechanisms that you do not specifically disable remain in effect. For example, you must enter both of the following commands to disable both SASL mechanisms:

no sasl-mechanism digest-md5

no sasl-mechanism kerberos server-group-name

Examples

The following examples, entered in aaa-server host configuration mode, enable the SASL mechanisms for authentication to an LDAP server named ldapsvr1 with an IP address of 10.10.0.1. This example enables the SASL digest-md5 authentication mechanism:

ciscoasa(config)# aaa-server ldapsvr1 protocol ldap
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server ldapsvr1 host 10.10.0.1
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-host)# sasl-mechanism digest-md5
 

The following example enables the SASL Kerberos authentication mechanism and specifies kerb-servr1 as the Kerberos AAA server:

ciscoasa(config)# aaa-server ldapsvr1 protocol ldap
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server ldapsvr1 host 10.10.0.1
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-host)# sasl-mechanism kerberos kerbsvr1
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

ldap-over-ssl

Specifies that SSL secures the LDAP client-server connection.

server-type

Specifies the LDAP server vendor as either Microsoft or Sun.

ldap attribute-map (global configuration mode)

Creates and names an LDAP attribute map for mapping user-defined attribute names to Cisco LDAP attribute names.

sast

To specify the number of SAST certificates to create in the CTL record, use the sast command in ctl-file configuration mode. To set the number of SAST certificates in the CTL file back to the default value of 2, use the no form of this command.

sast number_sasts

no sast number_sasts

 
Syntax Description

number_sasts

Specifies the number of SAST keys to create. The default is 2. maximum allowed is 5.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Ctl-file configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.0(4)

The command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

CTL files are signed by a System Administrator Security Token (SAST).

Because the Phone Proxy generates the CTL file, it needs to create the SAST key to sign the CTL file itself. This key can be generated on the ASA. A SAST is created as a self-signed certificate.

Typically, a CTL file contains more than one SAST. In case a SAST is not recoverable, the other one can be used to sign the file later.

Examples

The following example shows the use of the sast command to create 5 SAST certificates in the CTL file:

ciscoasa(config-ctl-file)# sast 5
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

ctl-file (global)

Specifies the CTL file to create for Phone Proxy configuration or the CTL file to parse from Flash memory.

ctl-file (phone-proxy)

Specifies the CTL file to use for Phone Proxy configuration.

phone-proxy

Configures the Phone Proxy instance.

scansafe

To enable Cloud Web Security inspection for a context, use the scansafe command in context configuration mode. To disable Cloud Web Security, use the no form of this command.

scansafe [ license key ]

no scansafe [ license key ]

 
Syntax Description

license key

Enters an authentication key for this context. If you do not specify a key, the context uses the license configured in the system configuration. The ASA sends the authentication key to the Cloud Web Security proxy servers to indicate from which organization the request comes. The authentication key is a 16-byte hexidecimal number.

 
Command Default

By default, the context uses the license entered in the system configuration.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.0(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

In multiple context mode, you must allow Cloud Web Security per context.

Examples

The following sample configuration enables Cloud Web Security in context one with the default license and in context two with the license key override:

! System Context
!
scansafe general-options
server primary ip 180.24.0.62 port 8080
retry-count 5
license 366C1D3F5CE67D33D3E9ACEC265261E5
!
context one
allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/0.1
allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/1.1
allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/3.1
scansafe
config-url disk0:/one_ctx.cfg
!
context two
allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/0.2
allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/1.2
allocate-interface GigabitEthernet0/3.2
scansafe license 366C1D3F5CE67D33D3E9ACEC26789534
config-url disk0:/two_ctx.cfg
!

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class-map type inspect scansafe

Creates an inspection class map for whitelisted users and groups.

default user group

Specifies the default username and/or group if the ASA cannot determine the identity of the user coming into the ASA.

http [ s ] (parameters)

Specifies the service type for the inspection policy map, either HTTP or HTTPS.

inspect scansafe

Enables Cloud Web Security inspection on the traffic in a class.

license

Configures the authentication key that the ASA sends to the Cloud Web Security proxy servers to indicate from which organization the request comes.

match user group

Matches a user or group for a whitelist.

policy-map type inspect scansafe

Creates an inspection policy map so you can configure essential parameters for the rule and also optionally identify the whitelist.

retry-count

Enters the retry counter value, which is the amount of time that the ASA waits before polling the Cloud Web Security proxy server to check its availability.

scansafe general-options

Configures general Cloud Web Security server options.

server { primary | backup }

Configures the fully qualified domain name or IP address of the primary or backup Cloud Web Security proxy servers.

show conn scansafe

Shows all Cloud Web Security connections, as noted by the capitol Z flag.

show scansafe server

Shows the status of the server, whether it’s the current active server, the backup server, or unreachable.

show scansafe statistics

Shows total and current http connections.

user-identity monitor

Downloads the specified user or group information from the AD agent.

whitelist

Performs the whitelist action on the class of traffic.

scansafe general-options

To configure communication with the Cloud Web Security proxy server, use the scansafe general-options command in global configuration mode. To remove the server configuration, use the no form of this command.

scansafe general-options

no scansafe general-options

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Command Default

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.0(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

You can configure a primary and backup proxy server for Cloud Web Security.

Examples

The following example configures a primary server:

scansafe general-options
server primary ip 180.24.0.62 port 8080
retry-count 5
license 366C1D3F5CE67D33D3E9ACEC265261E5
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class-map type inspect scansafe

Creates an inspection class map for whitelisted users and groups.

default user group

Specifies the default username and/or group if the ASA cannot determine the identity of the user coming into the ASA.

http [ s ] (parameters)

Specifies the service type for the inspection policy map, either HTTP or HTTPS.

inspect scansafe

Enables Cloud Web Security inspection on the traffic in a class.

license

Configures the authentication key that the ASA sends to the Cloud Web Security proxy servers to indicate from which organization the request comes.

match user group

Matches a user or group for a whitelist.

policy-map type inspect scansafe

Creates an inspection policy map so you can configure essential parameters for the rule and also optionally identify the whitelist.

retry-count

Enters the retry counter value, which is the amount of time that the ASA waits before polling the Cloud Web Security proxy server to check its availability.

scansafe

In multiple context mode, allows Cloud Web Security per context.

server { primary | backup }

Configures the fully qualified domain name or IP address of the primary or backup Cloud Web Security proxy servers.

show conn scansafe

Shows all Cloud Web Security connections, as noted by the capitol Z flag.

show scansafe server

Shows the status of the server, whether it’s the current active server, the backup server, or unreachable.

show scansafe statistics

Shows total and current http connections.

user-identity monitor

Downloads the specified user or group information from the AD agent.

whitelist

Performs the whitelist action on the class of traffic.

scep-enrollment enable

To enable or disable the Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol for a tunnel group, use the scep-enrollment enable command in tunnel-group general-attributes mode.

To remove the command from the configuration, use the no form of this command.

scep-enrollment enable

no scep-enrollment enable

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

By default, this command is not present in the tunnel group configuration.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Tunnel-group general-attributes configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.4(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

Only the Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client, Release 3.0 and later, supports this feature.

The ASA can proxy SCEP requests between AnyConnect and a third-party certificate authority. The certificate authority only needs to be accessible to the ASA if it is acting as the proxy. For the ASA to provide this service, the user must authenticate using any of the methods supported by AAA before the ASA sends an enrollment request. You can also use Host Scan and dynamic access policies to enforce rules of eligibility to enroll.

The ASA supports this feature only with an AnyConnect SSL or IKEv2 VPN session. It supports all SCEP-compliant certificate authorities, including IOS CS, Windows Server 2003 CA, and Windows Server 2008 CA.

Clientless (browser-based) access does not support SCEP Proxy, although WebLaunch—clientless-initiated AnyConnect—does support it.

The ASA does not support polling for certificates.

The ASA supports load balancing for this feature.

Example

The following example, entered in global configuration mode, creates a remote access tunnel group named remotegrp and enables SCEP for the group policy:

ciscoasa(config)# tunnel-group remotegrp type remote-access
ciscoasa(config)# tunnel-group remotegrp general-attributes
ciscoasa(config-tunnel-general)# scep-enrollment enable
INFO: 'authentication aaa certificate' must be configured to complete setup of this option.

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

crypto ikev2 enable

Enables IKEv2 negotiation on the interface on which IPsec peers communicate.

scep-forwarding-url

Enrolls the SCEP certificate authority for the group policy.

secondary-pre-fill-username clientless

Supplies a common, secondary password when a certificate is unavailable for WebLaunch support of the SCEP proxy.

secondary-authentication-server-group

Supplies the username when a certificate is unavailable.

scep-forwarding-url

To enroll an SCEP certificate authority for a group policy, use the scep-forwarding-url command in group-policy configuration mode.

To remove the command from the configuration, use the no form of this command.

scep-forwarding-url { none | value [ URL ]}

no scep-forwarding-url

 
Syntax Description

none

Specifies no certificate authority for the group policy.

URL

Specifies the SCEP URL of the certificate authority.

value

Enables this feature for clientless connections.

 
Defaults

By default, this command is not present.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Group-policy configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.4(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

Enter this command once per group policy to support a third-party digital certificate.

Example

The following example, entered in global configuration mode, creates a group policy named FirstGroup and enrolls a certificate authority for the group policy:

ciscoasa(config)# group-policy FirstGroup internal
ciscoasa(config)# group-policy FirstGroup attributes
ciscoasa(config-group-policy)# scep-forwarding-url value http://ca.example.com:80/
Attempting to retrieve the CA/RA certificate(s) using the URL. Please wait ...
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

crypto ikev2 enable

Enables IKEv2 negotiation on the interface on which IPsec peers communicate.

scep-enrollment enable

Enables Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol for a tunnel group.

secondary-pre-fill-username clientless

Supplies a common, secondary password when a certificate is unavailable for WebLaunch support of the SCEP proxy.

secondary-authentication-server-group

Supplies the username when a certificate is unavailable.

secondary

To give the secondary unit higher priority in a failover group, use the secondary command in failover group configuration mode. To restore the default, use the no form of this command.

secondary

no secondary

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

If primary or secondary is not specified for a failover group, the failover group defaults to primary .

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Failover group configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

Assigning a primary or secondary priority to a failover group specifies which unit the failover group becomes active on when both units boot simulataneously (within a unit polltime). If one unit boots before the other, then both failover groups become active on that unit. When the other unit comes online, any failover groups that have the second unit as a priority do not become active on the second unit unless the failover group is configured with the preempt command or is manually forced to the other unit with the no failover active command.

Examples

The following example configures failover group 1 with the primary unit as the higher priority and failover group 2 with the secondary unit as the higher priority. Both failover groups are configured with the preempt command, so the groups will automatically become active on their preferred unit as the units become available.

ciscoasa(config)# failover group 1
ciscoasa(config-fover-group)# primary
ciscoasa(config-fover-group)# preempt 100
ciscoasa(config-fover-group)# exit
ciscoasa(config)# failover group 2
ciscoasa(config-fover-group)# secondary
ciscoasa(config-fover-group)# preempt 100
ciscoasa(config-fover-group)# mac-address e1 0000.a000.a011 0000.a000.a012
ciscoasa(config-fover-group)# exit
ciscoasa(config)#
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

failover group

Defines a failover group for Active/Active failover.

preempt

Forces the failover group to become active on its preferred unit when the unit becomes available.

primary

Gives the primary unit a higher priority than the secondary unit.

secondary-authentication-server-group

To specify a secondary authentication server group to associate with the session when double authentication is enabled, use the secondary-authentication-server-group command in tunnel-group general-attributes mode. To remove the attribute from the configuration, use the no form of this command.

secondary-authentication-server-group [ interface_name ] { none | LOCAL | groupname [ LOCAL ]} [ use-primary-username ]}

no secondary-authentication-server-group

 
Syntax Description

interface_name

(Optional) Specifies the interface where the IPsec tunnel terminates.

LOCAL

(Optional) Requires authentication against the local user database if all of the servers in the server group have been deactivated due to communication failures. If the server group name is either LOCAL or NONE, do not use the LOCAL keyword here.

none

(Optional) Specifies the server group name as NONE , indicating that authentication is not required.

groupname [ LOCAL ]

Identifies the previously configured authentication server or group of servers. Optionally, this can be the LOCAL group.

use-primary-username

Use the primary username as the username for the secondary authentication.

 
Defaults

The default value is none .

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Tunnel-group general-attributes configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.2(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

This command is meaningful only when double authentication is enabled. The secondary-authentication-server-group command specifies the secondary AAA server group. The secondary server group cannot be an SDI server group.

If the use-primary-username keyword is configured, then only one username is requested in the login dialog.

If the usernames are extracted from a digital certificate, only the primary username is used for authentication.

Examples

The following example, entered in global configuration mode, creates a remote access tunnel group named remotegrp and specifies the use of the group sdi_server as the primary server group and the group ldap_ server as the secondary authentication server group for the connection:

ciscoasa(config)# tunnel-group remotegrp type remote-access
ciscoasa(config)# tunnel-group remotegrp general-attributes
ciscoasa(config-tunnel-webvpn)# authentication-server-group sdi_server
ciscoasa(config-tunnel-webvpn)# secondary-authentication-server-group ldap_server
ciscoasa(config-tunnel-webvpn)#

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

pre-fill-username

Enables the pre-fill username feature.

show running-config tunnel-group

Shows the indicated tunnel-group configuration.

tunnel-group general-attributes

Specifies the general attributes for the named tunnel-group.

username-from-certificate

Specifies the field in a certificate to use as the username for authorization.

secondary-color

To set a secondary color for the WebVPN login, home page, and file access page, use the secondary-color command in webvpn mode. To remove a color from the configuration and reset the default, use the no form of this command.

secondary-color [ color ]

no secondary-color

 
Syntax Description

color

(Optional) Specifies the color. You can use a comma separated RGB value, an HTML color value, or the name of the color if recognized in HTML.

  • RGB format is 0,0,0, a range of decimal numbers from 0 to 255 for each color (red, green, blue); the comma separated entry indicates the level of intensity of each color to combine with the others.
  • HTML format is #000000, six digits in hexadecimal format; the first and second represent red, the third and fourth green, and the fifth and sixth represent blue.
  • Name length maximum is 32 characters

 
Defaults

The default secondary color is HTML #CCCCFF, a lavender shade.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Webvpn

  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

The number of RGB values recommended for use is 216, many fewer than the mathematical possibilities. Many displays can handle only 256 colors, and 40 of those look differently on MACs and PCs. For best results, check published RGB tables. To find RGB tables online, enter RGB in a search engine.

Examples

The following example shows how to set an HTML color value of #5F9EAO, which is a teal shade:

ciscoasa(config)# webvpn
ciscoasa(config-webvpn)# secondary-color #5F9EAO

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

title-color

Sets a color for the WebVPN title bar on the login, home page, and file access page

secondary-pre-fill-username

To enable the extraction of a username from a client certificate for use in double authentication for a clientless or an AnyConnect connection, use the secondary-pre-fill-username command in tunnel-group webvpn-attributes mode. To remove the attribute from the configuration, use the no form of this command.

secondary-pre-fill-username { clientless | ssl-client } [ hide ]

secondary-pre-fill-username { clientless | ssl-client } hide [ use-primary-password | use-common-password [ type_num ] password ]

no secondary-no pre-fill-username

 
Syntax Description

clientless

Enables this feature for clientless connections.

hide

Hides the username to be used for authentication from the VPN user.

password

Enter the password string.

ssl-client

Enables this feature for AnyConnect VPN client connections.

type_num

Enter one of the following options:

  • 0 if the password to be entered is plain text.
  • 8 if the password to be entered is encrypted. The password appears as asterisks as you type.

use-common-password

Specifies a common secondary authentication password to use without prompting the user for it.

use-primary-password

Reuses the primary authentication password for secondary authentication without prompting the user for it.

 
Defaults

This feature is disabled by default. Entering this command without the hide keyword reveals the extracted username to the VPN user. The user receives a password prompt if you specify neither the use-primary-password nor the use-common-password keywords. The default value of type_num is 8.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Tunnel-group webvpn-attributes configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.2(1)

This command was introduced.

8.3(2)

Added [ use-primary-password | use-common-password [ type_num ] password ] to the command.

 
Usage Guidelines

To enable this feature, you must also enter the secondary-username-from-certificate command in tunnel-group general-attributes mode.

This command is meaningful only if double authentication is enabled. The secondary-pre-fill-username command enables the use of a username extracted from the certificate field specified in the secondary-username-from-certificate command as the username for secondary username/password authentication. To use this secondary-pre-fill username-from-certificate feature, you must configure both commands.


Note Clientless and SSL-client connections are not mutually exclusive options. Only one can be specified per command line, but both can be enabled at the same time.


If you hide the second username and use a primary or common password, the user experience is similar to single authentication. Using the primary or common password makes the use of device certificates to authenticate a device a seamless user experience.

The use-primary-password keyword specifies the use of the primary password as the secondary password for all authentications.

The use-common-password keyword specifies the use of a common secondary password for all secondary authentications. If a device certificate installed on the endpoint contains a BIOS ID or some other identifier, a secondary authentication request can use the pre-filled BIOS ID as the second username and use a common password configured for all authentications in that tunnel group.

Examples

The following example creates an IPsec remote access tunnel group named remotegrp, and specifies the reuse of a name from the digital certificate on the endpoint as the name to be used for an authentication or authorization query when the connections are browser-based.

ciscoasa(config)# tunnel-group remotegrp type ipsec_ra
ciscoasa(config)# tunnel-group remotegrp webvpn-attributes
ciscoasa(config-tunnel-webvpn)# secondary-pre-fill-username clientless
 

The following example performs the same function as the previous command, but hides the extracted username from the user:

ciscoasa(config-tunnel-webvpn)# secondary-pre-fill-username clientless hide
 

The following example performs the same function as the previous command, except that it applies only to AnyConnect connections:

ciscoasa(config-tunnel-webvpn)# secondary-pre-fill-username ssl-client hide
 

The following example hides the username and reuses the primary authentication password for secondary authentication without prompting the user:

ciscoasa(config-tunnel-webvpn)# secondary-pre-fill-username ssl-client hide use-primary-password
 

The following example hides the username and uses the password you enter for secondary authentication:

ciscoasa(config-tunnel-webvpn)# secondary-pre-fill-username ssl-client hide use-common-password **********
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

pre-fill-username

Enables the pre-fill username feature.

show running-config tunnel-group

Shows the indicated tunnel-group configuration.

tunnel-group general-attributes

Specifies the general attributes for the named tunnel-group.

username-from-certificate

Specifies the field in a certificate to use as the username for authorization.

secondary-text-color

To set the secondary text color for the WebVPN login, home page and file access page, use the secondary-text-color command in webvpn mode. To remove the color from the configuration and reset the default, use the no form of this command.

secondary-text-color [ black | white ]

no secondary-text-color

 
Syntax Description

auto

Chooses black or white based on the settings for the text-color command. That is, if the primary color is black, this value is white.

black

The default secondary text color is black.

white

You can change the text color to white.

 
Defaults

The default secondary text color is black.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Webvpn

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

Examples

The following example shows how to set the secondary text color to white:

ciscoasa(config)# webvpn
ciscoasa(config-webvpn)# secondary-text-color white
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

text-color

Sets a color for text in the WebVPN title bar on the login, home page and file access page

secure-unit-authentication

To enable secure unit authentication, use the secure-unit-authentication enable command in group-policy configuration mode. To disable secure unit authentication, use the secure-unit-authentication disable command. To remove the secure unit authentication attribute from the running configuration, use the no form of this command. secure-unit-authentication { enable | disable }

no secure-unit-authentication

 
Syntax Description

disable

Disables secure unit authentication.

enable

Enables secure unit authentication.

 
Defaults

Secure unit authentication is disabled.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Group-policy configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

Secure unit authentication requires that you have an authentication server group configured for the tunnel group the hardware client(s) use.

If you require secure unit authentication on the primary ASA, be sure to configure it on any backup servers as well.

The no option allows inheritance of a value for secure unit authentication from another group policy.

Secure unit authentication provides additional security by requiring VPN hardware clients to authenticate with a username and password each time the client initiates a tunnel. With this feature enabled, the hardware client does not have a saved username and password.


Note With this feature enabled, to bring up a VPN tunnel, a user must be present to enter the username and password.


Examples

The following example shows how to enable secure unit authentication for the group policy named FirstGroup:

ciscoasa(config)# group-policy FirstGroup attributes
ciscoasa(config-group-policy)# secure-unit-authentication enable
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

ip-phone-bypass

Lets IP phones connect without undergoing user authentication. Secure unit authentication remains in effect.

leap-bypass

Lets LEAP packets from wireless devices behind a VPN hardware client travel across a VPN tunnel prior to user authentication, when enabled. This lets workstations using Cisco wireless access point devices establish LEAP authentication. Then they authenticate again per user authentication.

user-authentication

Requires users behind a hardware client to identify themselves to the ASA before connecting.

secondary-username-from-certificate

To specify the field in a certificate to use as the secondary username for double authentication for a clientless or AnyConnect (SSL-client) connection, use the secondary-username-from-certificate command in tunnel-group general-attributes mode.

To remove the attribute from the configuration and restore default values, use the no form of this command.

secondary-username-from-certificate { primary-attr [ secondary-attr ] | use-entire-name | use-script }

no secondary-username-from-certificate

 
Syntax Description

primary-attr

Specifies the attribute to use to derive a username for an authorization query from a certificate. If pre-fill-username is enabled, the derived name can also be used in an authentication query.

secondary-attr

(Optional) Specifies an additional attribute to use with the primary attribute to derive a username for an authentication or authorization query from a digital certificate. If pre-fill-username is enable, the derived name can also be used in an authentication query.

use-entire-name

Specifies that the ASA must use the entire subject DN (RFC1779) to derive a name for an authorization query from a digital certificate.

use-script

Specifies the use of a script file generated by ASDM to extract the DN fields from a certificate for use as a username.

 
Defaults

This feature is disabled by default and is meaningful only when double authentication is enabled.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Tunnel-group general-attributes configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.2(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

This command is meaningful only when double authentication is enabled.

When double authentication is enabled. this command selects one or more fields in a certificate to use as the username. The secondary-username-from-certificate command forces the security appliance to use the specified certificate field as the second username for the second username/password authentication.

To use this derived username in the pre-fill username from certificate feature for the secondary username/password authentication or authorization, you must also configure the pre-fill-username and secondary-pre-fill-username commands in tunnel-group webvpn-attributes mode. That is, to use the secondary pre-fill username feature, you must configure both commands.

Possible values for primary and secondary attributes include the following:

 

Attribute
Definition

C

Country: the two-letter country abbreviation. These codes conform to ISO 3166 country abbreviations.

CN

Common Name: the name of a person, system, or other entity. Not available a s a secondary attribute.

DNQ

Domain Name Qualifier.

EA

E-mail address.

GENQ

Generational Qualifier.

GN

Given Name.

I

Initials.

L

Locality: the city or town where the organization is located.

N

Name.

O

Organization: the name of the company, institution, agency, association or other entity.

OU

Organizational Unit: the subgroup within the organization (O).

SER

Serial Number.

SN

Surname.

SP

State/Province: the state or province where the organization is located

T

Title.

UID

User Identifier.

UPN

User Principal Name.

use-entire-name

Use entire DN name. Not available a s a secondary attribute.

use-script

Use a script file generated by ASDM.


Note If you also specify the secondary-authentication-server-group command, along with the secondary-username-from-certificate command, only the primary username is used for authentication.


Examples

The following example, entered in global configuration mode, creates a remote access tunnel group named remotegrp and specifies the use of CN (Common Name) as the primary attribute and OU as the secondary attribute to use to derive a name for an authorization query from a digital certificate:

ciscoasa(config)# tunnel-group remotegrp type remote-access
ciscoasa(config)# tunnel-group remotegrp general-attributes
ciscoasa(config-tunnel-general)# username-from-certificate CN
ciscoasa(config-tunnel-general)# secondary-username-from-certificate OU
ciscoasa(config-tunnel-general)#
 

The following example shows how to modify the tunnel-group attributes to configure the pre-fill username.

username-from-certificate {use-entire-name | use-script | <primary-attr>} [secondary-attr] secondary-username-from-certificate {use-entire-name | use-script | <primary-attr>} [secondary-attr] ; used only for double-authentication

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

pre-fill-username

Enables the pre-fill username feature.

secondary-pre-fill-username

Enables username extraction for clientless or AnyConnect client connection

username-from-certificate

Specifies the field in a certificate to use as the username for authorization.

show running-config tunnel-group

Shows the indicated tunnel-group configuration.

secondary-authentication-server-group

Specifies the secondary AAA server group. If the usernames are extracted from a digital certificate, only the primary username is used for authentication.

security-group

To add a security group to a security object group for use with Cisco TrustSec, use the security-group command in object-group security configuration mode. To remove the security group, use the no form of this command.

security-group { tag sgt# | name sg_name }

no security-group { tag sgt# | name sg_name }

 
Syntax Description

tag sgt#

Specifies the security group object as an inline tag. Enter a number from 1 to 65533 for a Tag security type.

An SGT is assigned to a device through IEEE 802.1X authentication, web authentication, or MAC authentication bypass (MAB) by the ISE. Security group names are created on the ISE and provide user-friendly names for security groups. The security group table maps SGTs to security group names.

name sg_name

Specifies the security group object as a named object. Enter a 32-byte case-sensitive string for a Name security type. The sg_name can contain any character including [a-z], [A-Z], [0-9], [!@#$%^&()-_{}. ].

 
Command Default

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Object-group security configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.0(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

You can create security group object groups for use in features that support Cisco TrustSec by including the group in an extended ACL, which in turn can be used in an access rule, for example.

When integrated with Cisco TrustSec, the ASA downloads security group information from the ISE. The ISE acts as an identity repository, by providing Cisco TrustSec tag to user identity mapping and Cisco TrustSec tag to server resource mapping. You provision and manage security group access lists centrally on the ISE.

However, the ASA might have localized network resources that are not defined globally that require local security groups with localized security policies. Local security groups can contain nested security groups that are downloaded from the ISE. The ASA consolidates local and central security groups.

To create local security groups on the ASA, you create a local security object group. A local security object group can contain one or more nested security object groups or Security IDs or security group names. User can also create a new Security ID or security group name that does not exist on the ASA.

You can use the security object groups you create on the ASA to control access to network resources. You can use the security object group as part of an access group or service policy.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a security group object:

ciscoasa(config)# object-group security mktg-sg
ciscoasa(config)# security-group name mktg
ciscoasa(config)# security-group tag 1
 

The following example shows how to configure a security group object:

ciscoasa(config)# object-group security mktg-sg-all
ciscoasa(config)# security-group name mktg-managers
ciscoasa(config)# group-object mktg-sg // nested object-group

 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

object-group security

Creates a security group object.

security-level

To set the security level of an interface, use the security-level command in interface configuration mode. To set the security level to the default, use the no form of this command. The security level protects higher security networks from lower security networks by imposing additional protection between the two.

security-level number

no security-level

 
Syntax Description

number

An integer between 0 (lowest) and 100 (highest).

 
Defaults

By default, the security level is 0.

If you name an interface “inside” and you do not set the security level explicitly, then the ASA sets the security level to 100 (see the nameif command). You can change this level if desired.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Interface configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was moved from a keyword of the nameif command to an interface configuration mode command.

 
Usage Guidelines

The level controls the following behavior:

  • Network access—By default, there is an implicit permit from a higher security interface to a lower security interface (outbound). Hosts on the higher security interface can access any host on a lower security interface. You can limit access by applying an access list to the interface.

For same security interfaces, there is an implicit permit for interfaces to access other interfaces on the same security level or lower.

  • Inspection engines—Some inspection engines are dependent on the security level. For same security interfaces, inspection engines apply to traffic in either direction.

NetBIOS inspection engine—Applied only for outbound connections.

OraServ inspection engine—If a control connection for the OraServ port exists between a pair of hosts, then only an inbound data connection is permitted through the ASA.

  • Filtering—HTTP(S) and FTP filtering applies only for outbound connections (from a higher level to a lower level).

For same security interfaces, you can filter traffic in either direction.

  • NAT control—When you enable NAT control, you must configure NAT for hosts on a higher security interface (inside) when they access hosts on a lower security interface (outside).

Without NAT control, or for same security interfaces, you can choose to use NAT between any interface, or you can choose not to use NAT. Keep in mind that configuring NAT for an outside interface might require a special keyword.

  • established command—This command allows return connections from a lower security host to a higher security host if there is already an established connection from the higher level host to the lower level host.

For same security interfaces, you can configure established commands for both directions.

Normally, interfaces on the same security level cannot communicate. If you want interfaces on the same security level to communicate, see the same-security-traffic command. You might want to assign two interfaces to the same level and allow them to communicate if you want to create more than 101 communicating interfaces, or you want protection features to be applied equally for traffic between two interfaces; for example, you have two departments that are equally secure.

If you change the security level of an interface, and you do not want to wait for existing connections to time out before the new security information is used, you can clear the connections using the clear local-host command.

Examples

The following example configures the security levels for two interfaces to be 100 and 0:

ciscoasa(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/0
ciscoasa(config-if)# nameif inside
ciscoasa(config-if)# security-level 100
ciscoasa(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
ciscoasa(config-if)# no shutdown
ciscoasa(config-if)# interface gigabitethernet0/1
ciscoasa(config-if)# nameif outside
ciscoasa(config-if)# security-level 0
ciscoasa(config-if)# ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
ciscoasa(config-if)# no shutdown
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

clear local-host

Resets all connections.

interface

Configures an interface and enters interface configuration mode.

nameif

Sets the interface name.

vlan

Assigns a VLAN ID to a subinterface.

send response

To send a RADIUS Accounting-Response Start and Accounting-Response Stop message to the sender of the RADIUS Accounting-Request Start and Stop messages, use the send response command in radius-accounting parameter configuration mode, which is accessed by using the inspect radius-accounting command.

This option is disabled by default.

send response

no send response

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

No default behaviors or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Radius-accounting parameter configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.2(1)

This command was introduced.

Examples

The following example shows how to send a response with RADIUS accounting:

hostname(config)# policy-map type inspect radius-accounting ra
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# send response
ciscoasa(config-pmap-p)# send response
 

 
Related Commands

Commands
Description

inspect radius-accounting

Sets inspection for RADIUS accounting.

parameters

Sets parameters for an inspection policy map.

seq-past-window

To set the action for packets that have past-window sequence numbers (the sequence number of a received TCP packet is greater than the right edge of the TCP receiving window), use the seq-past-window command in tcp-map configuration mode. To set the value back to the default, use the no form of this command. This command is part of the TCP normalization policy enabled using the set connection advanced-options command.

seq-past-window { allow | drop }

no seq-past-window

 
Syntax Description

allow

Allows packets that have past-window sequence numbers. This action is only allowed if the queue-limit command is set to 0 (disabled).

drop

Drops packets that have past-window sequence numbers.

 
Defaults

The default action is to drop packets that have past-window sequence numbers.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Tcp-map configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.2(4)/8.0(4)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

To enable TCP normalization, use the Modular Policy Framework:

1. tcp-map —Identifies the TCP normalization actions.

a. seq-past-window —In tcp-map configuration mode, you can enter the seq-past-window command and many others.

2. class-map —Identify the traffic on which you want to perform TCP normalization.

3. policy-map —Identify the actions associated with each class map.

a. class —Identify the class map on which you want to perform actions.

b. set connection advanced-options —Identify the tcp-map you created.

4. service-policy —Assigns the policy map to an interface or globally.

Examples

The following example sets the ASA to allow packets that have past-window sequence numbers:

ciscoasa(config)# tcp-map tmap
ciscoasa(config-tcp-map)# seq-past-window allow
ciscoasa(config)# class-map cmap
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match any
ciscoasa(config)# policy-map pmap
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class cmap
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# set connection advanced-options tmap
ciscoasa(config)# service-policy pmap global
ciscoasa(config)#
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class-map

Identifies traffic for a service policy.

policy-map

dentifies actions to apply to traffic in a service policy.

queue-limit

Sets the out-of-order packet limit.

set connection advanced-options

Enables TCP normalization.

service-policy

Applies a service policy to interface(s).

show running-config tcp-map

Shows the TCP map configuration.

tcp-map

Creates a TCP map and allows access to tcp-map configuration mode.

serial-number

To include the ASA serial number in the certificate during enrollment, use the serial-number command in crypto ca trustpoint configuration mode. To restore the default setting, use the no form of the command.

serial-number

no serial-number

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

The default setting is to not include the serial number.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Crypto ca trustpoint configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

Examples

The following example enters crypto ca trustpoint configuration mode for trustpoint central, and includes the ASA serial number in the enrollment request for trustpoint central:

ciscoasa(config)# crypto ca trustpoint central
ciscoasa(ca-trustpoint)# serial-number
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

crypto ca trustpoint

Enters trustpoint configuration mode.

server (pop3s, imap4s, smtps)

To specify a default e-mail proxy server, use the server command in the applicable e-mail proxy configuration mode. To remove the attribute from the configuration, use the no version of this command. The ASA sends requests to the default e-mail server when the user connects to the e-mail proxy without specifying a server. If you do not configure a default server, and a user does not specify a server, the ASA returns an error.

server { ipaddr or hostname }

no server

 
Syntax Description

hostname

The DNS name of the default e-mail proxy server.

ipaddr

The IP address of the default e-mail proxy server.

 
Defaults

There is no default e-mail proxy server by default.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Pop3s configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

Imap4s configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

Smtps configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

Examples

The following example shows how to set a default POP3S e-mail server with an IP address. of 10.1.1.7:

ciscoasa(config)# pop3s
ciscoasa(config-pop3s)# server 10.1.1.7
 

server (ssh pubkey-chain)

To manually add or delete SSH servers and their keys from the ASA database for the on-board Secure Copy (SCP) client, use the server command in ssh pubkey-chain configuration mode. To remove a server and its host key, use the no form of this command.

server ip_address

no server ip_address

 
Syntax Description

ip_address

Specifies the SSH server IP address.

 
Command Default

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Ssh pubkey-chain configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.1(5)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

You can copy files to and from the ASA using the on-board SCP client. The ASA stores the SSH host key for each SCP server to which it connects. You can manually add or delete servers and their keys from the ASA database if desired.

For each server, you can specify the key-string (public key) or key-hash (hashed value) of the SSH host.

Examples

The following example adds an already hashed host key for the server at 10.86.94.170:

ciscoasa(config)# ssh pubkey-chain
ciscoasa(config-ssh-pubkey-chain)# server 10.86.94.170
ciscoasa(config-ssh-pubkey-server)# key-hash sha256 65:d9:9d:fe:1a:bc:61:aa:64:9d:fc:ee:99:87:38:df:a8:8e:d9:e9:ff:42:de:e8:8d:2d:bf:a9:2b:85:2e:19
 

The following example adds a host string key for the server at 10.7.8.9:

ciscoasa(config)# ssh pubkey-chain

ciscoasa(config-ssh-pubkey-chain)# server 10.7.8.9

ciscoasa(config-ssh-pubkey-server)# key-string

Enter the base 64 encoded RSA public key.

End with the word "exit" on a line by itself

ciscoasa(config-ssh-pubkey-server-string)# c1:b1:30:29:d7:b8:de:6c:97:77:10:d7:46:41:63:87

ciscoasa(config-ssh-pubkey-server-string)# exit

 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

copy

Copies a file to or from the ASA.

key-hash

Enters a hashed SSH host key.

key-string

Enters a public SSH host key.

ssh pubkey-chain

Manually adds or deletes servers and their keys from the ASA database.

ssh stricthostkeycheck

Enables SSH host key checking for the on-board Secure Copy (SCP) client.

server authenticate-client

To enable the ASA to authenticate the TLS client during TLS handshake, use the server authenticate-client command in tls-proxy configuration mode.

To bypass client authenticaion, use the no form of this command.

server authenticate-client

no server authenticate-client

 
Syntax Description

This command has arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

This command is enabled by default, which means the TLS client is required to present a certificate during handshake with the ASA.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Tls-proxy configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.0(4)

The command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

Use the server authenticate-client command to control whether a client authentication is required during TLS Proxy handshake. When enabled (by default), the security appliance sends a Certificate Request TLS handshake message to the TLS client, and the TLS client is required to present its certificate.

Use the no form of this command to disable client authentication. Disabling TLS client authentication is suitable when the ASA must interoperate with CUMA client or clients such as a Web browser that are incapable of sending a client certificate.

Examples

The following example configures a TLS proxy instance with client authentication disabled:

ciscoasa(config)# tls-proxy mmp_tls
ciscoasa(config-tlsp)# no server authenticate-client
ciscoasa(config-tlsp)# server trust-point cuma_server_proxy
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

tls-proxy

Configures the TLS proxy instance.

server backup

To configure the backup Cloud Web Security proxy server, use the server backup command in scansafe general-options configuration mode. To remove the server, use the no form of this command.

server backup { ip ip_address | fqdn fqdn } [ port port ]

no server backup [ ip ip_address | fqdn fqdn ] [ port port ]

 
Syntax Description

ip ip_address

Specifies the server IP address.

fqdn fqdn

Specifies the server fully-qualified domain name (FQDN).

port port

(Optional) By default, the Cloud Web Security proxy server uses port 8080 for both HTTP and HTTPS traffic; do not change this value unless directed to do so.

 
Command Default

The default port is 8080.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Scansafe general-options configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.0(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

When you subscribe to the Cisco Cloud Web Security service, you are assigned a primary Cloud Web Security proxy server and backup proxy server. See the server primary command to configure the primary server. These servers are routinely polled to check for their availability. If your ASA is unable to reach the Cloud Web Security proxy server (for example, if no SYN/ACK packets arrive from the proxy server), then the proxy server is polled through a TCP three-way handshake to check its availability. If the proxy server is unavailable after a configured number of retries (default is five), the server is declared as unreachable, and the backup proxy server becomes active.

The ASA automatically falls back to the primary Cloud Web Security proxy server from the backup server after continued polling shows that the primary server is active for two consecutive retry count periods. You can change this polling interval using the retry-count command.

 

Traffic Conditions Under Which Proxy Server Is Not Reachable
Server Timeout Calculation
Connection Timeout Result

High traffic

Client half open connection timeout + ASA TCP connection timeout

(30 + 30) = 60 seconds

Single connection failure

Client half open connection timeout + ((retry threshold - 1) x (ASA TCP connection timeout))

(30 + ((5-1) x (30)) = 150 seconds

Idle—No connections are passing

15 minutes + ((retry threshold) x (ASA TCP connection timeout))

900 + (5 x (30) = 1050 seconds

Examples

The following example configures a primary and backup server:

scansafe general-options
server primary ip 10.24.0.62 port 8080
server backup ip 10.10.0.7 port 8080
retry-count 7
license 366C1D3F5CE67D33D3E9ACEC265261E5
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class-map type inspect scansafe

Creates an inspection class map for whitelisted users and groups.

default user group

Specifies the default username and/or group if the ASA cannot determine the identity of the user coming into the ASA.

http [ s ] (parameters)

Specifies the service type for the inspection policy map, either HTTP or HTTPS.

inspect scansafe

Enables Cloud Web Security inspection on the traffic in a class.

license

Configures the authentication key that the ASA sends to the Cloud Web Security proxy servers to indicate from which organization the request comes.

match user group

Matches a user or group for a whitelist.

policy-map type inspect scansafe

Creates an inspection policy map so you can configure essential parameters for the rule and also optionally identify the whitelist.

retry-count

Enters the retry counter value, which is the amount of time that the ASA waits before polling the Cloud Web Security proxy server to check its availability.

scansafe

In multiple context mode, allows Cloud Web Security per context.

scansafe general-options

Configures general Cloud Web Security server options.

show conn scansafe

Shows all Cloud Web Security connections, as noted by the capitol Z flag.

show scansafe server

Shows the status of the server, whether it’s the current active server, the backup server, or unreachable.

show scansafe statistics

Shows total and current http connections.

user-identity monitor

Downloads the specified user or group information from the AD agent.

whitelist

Performs the whitelist action on the class of traffic.

server primary

To configure the primary Cloud Web Security proxy server, use the server primary command in scansafe general-options configuration mode. To remove the server, use the no form of this command.

server primary { ip ip_address | fqdn fqdn } [ port port ]

no server primary [ ip ip_address | fqdn fqdn ] [ port port ]

 
Syntax Description

ip ip_address

Specifies the server IP address.

fqdn fqdn

Specifies the server fully-qualified domain name (FQDN).

port port

(Optional) By default, the Cloud Web Security proxy server uses port 8080 for both HTTP and HTTPS traffic; do not change this value unless directed to do so.

 
Command Default

The default port is 8080.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Scansafe general-options configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.0(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

When you subscribe to the Cisco Cloud Web Security service, you are assigned a primary Cloud Web Security proxy server and backup proxy server. See the server backup command to configure the backup server. These servers are routinely polled to check for their availability. If your ASA is unable to reach the Cloud Web Security proxy server (for example, if no SYN/ACK packets arrive from the proxy server), then the proxy server is polled through a TCP three-way handshake to check its availability. If the proxy server is unavailable after a configured number of retries (default is five), the server is declared as unreachable, and the backup proxy server becomes active.

The ASA automatically falls back to the primary Cloud Web Security proxy server from the backup server after continued polling shows that the primary server is active for two consecutive retry count periods. You can change this polling interval using the retry-count command.

 

Traffic Conditions Under Which Proxy Server Is Not Reachable
Server Timeout Calculation
Connection Timeout Result

High traffic

Client half open connection timeout + ASA TCP connection timeout

(30 + 30) = 60 seconds

Single connection failure

Client half open connection timeout + ((retry threshold - 1) x (ASA TCP connection timeout))

(30 + ((5-1) x (30)) = 150 seconds

Idle—No connections are passing

15 minutes + ((retry threshold) x (ASA TCP connection timeout))

900 + (5 x (30) = 1050 seconds

Examples

The following example configures a primary and backup server:

scansafe general-options
server primary ip 10.24.0.62 port 8080
server backup ip 10.10.0.7 port 8080
retry-count 7
license 366C1D3F5CE67D33D3E9ACEC265261E5
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class-map type inspect scansafe

Creates an inspection class map for whitelisted users and groups.

default user group

Specifies the default username and/or group if the ASA cannot determine the identity of the user coming into the ASA.

http [ s ] (parameters)

Specifies the service type for the inspection policy map, either HTTP or HTTPS.

inspect scansafe

Enables Cloud Web Security inspection on the traffic in a class.

license

Configures the authentication key that the ASA sends to the Cloud Web Security proxy servers to indicate from which organization the request comes.

match user group

Matches a user or group for a whitelist.

policy-map type inspect scansafe

Creates an inspection policy map so you can configure essential parameters for the rule and also optionally identify the whitelist.

retry-count

Enters the retry counter value, which is the amount of time that the ASA waits before polling the Cloud Web Security proxy server to check its availability.

scansafe

In multiple context mode, allows Cloud Web Security per context.

scansafe general-options

Configures general Cloud Web Security server options.

server { primary | backup }

Configures the fully qualified domain name or IP address of the primary or backup Cloud Web Security proxy servers.

show conn scansafe

Shows all Cloud Web Security connections, as noted by the capitol Z flag.

show scansafe server

Shows the status of the server, whether it’s the current active server, the backup server, or unreachable.

show scansafe statistics

Shows total and current HTTP(S) connections.

user-identity monitor

Downloads the specified user or group information from the AD agent.

whitelist

Performs the whitelist action on the class of traffic.

server trust-point

To specify the proxy trustpoint certificate to present during TLS handshake, use the server trust-point command in TLS server configuration mode.

server trust-point proxy_trustpoint

 
Syntax Description

proxy_trustpoint

Specifies the trustpoint defined by the crypto ca trustpoint command.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

TLS-proxy configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.0(4)

The command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

The trustpoint can be self-signed, enrolled with a certificate authority, or from an imported credential. The server trust-point command has precedence over the global ssl trust-point command.

The server trust-point command specifies the proxy trustpoint certificate presented during TLS handshake. The certificate must be owned by the ASA (identity certificate). The certificate can be self-signed, enrolled with a certificate authority, or from an imported credential.

Create TLS proxy instances for each entity that can initiate a connection. The entity that initiates the TLS connection is in the role of TLS client. Because the TLS Proxy has strict definition of client proxy and server proxy, two TLS proxy instances must be defined if either of the entities could initiate the connection.


Note When you are creating the TLS proxy instance to use with the Phone Proxy, the server trustpoint is the internal Phone Proxy trustpoint created the CTL file instance. The trustpoint name is in the form internal_PP_<ctl-file_instance_name>


Examples

The following example shows the use of the server trust-point command to specify the proxy trustpoint certificate to present during TLS handshake:

ciscoasa(config-tlsp)# server trust-point ent_y_proxy
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

client (tls-proxy)

Configures trustpoints, keypairs, and cipher suites for a TLS proxy instance.

client trust-point

Specifies the proxy trustpoint certificate to present during TLS handshake.

ssl trust-point

Specifies the certificate trustpoint that represents the SSL certificate for an interface.

tls-proxy

Configures a TLS proxy instance.

server-port

To configure a AAA server port for a host, use the server-port command in aaa-server host mode. To remove the designated server port, use the no form of this command.

server-port port-number

no server-port port-number

 
Syntax Description

port-number

A port number in the range of 0 through 65535.

 
Defaults

The default server ports are as follows:

  • SDI—5500
  • LDAP—389
  • Kerberos—88
  • NT—139
  • TACACS+—49

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Aaa-server group

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

Examples

The following example configures an SDI AAA server named srvgrp1 to use server port number 8888:

ciscoasa(config)# aaa-server srvgrp1 protocol sdi
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server srvgrp1 host 192.168.10.10
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-host)# server-port 8888
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

aaa-server host

Configures host-specific AAA server parameters.

clear configure aaa-server

Removes all AAA server configurations.

show running-config aaa-server

Displays AAA server statistics for all AAA servers, for a particular server group, for a particular server within a particular group, or for a particular protocol.

server-separator

To specify a character as a delimiter between the e-mail and VPN server names, use server-separator command in the applicable e-mail proxy mode. To revert to the default, “:”, use the no form of this command.

server-separator { symbol }

no server-separator

 
Syntax Description

symbol

The character that separates the e-mail and VPN server names. Choices are “@,” (at) “|” (pipe), “:”(colon), “#” (hash), “,” (comma), and “;” (semi-colon).

 
Defaults

The default is “@” (at).

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Pop3s

  • Yes

  • Yes

Imap4s

  • Yes

  • Yes

Smtps

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

The server separator must be different from the name separator.

Examples

The following example shows how to set a pipe (|) as the server separator for IMAP4S:

ciscoasa(config)# imap4s
ciscoasa(config-imap4s)# server-separator |

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

name-separator

Separates the e-mail and VPN usernames and passwords.

server-type

To manually configure the LDAP server model, use the server-type command in aaa-server host configuration mode. The ASA supports the following server models:

  • Microsoft Active Directory
  • Sun Microsystems JAVA System Directory Server, formerly named the Sun ONE Directory Server
  • Generic LDAP directory servers that comply with LDAPv3 (no password management)

To disable this command, use the no form of this command.

server-type {auto-detect | microsoft | sun | generic | openldap | novell}

no server-type {auto-detect | microsoft | sun | generic | openldap | novell}

 
Syntax Description

 
Syntax DescriptionSyntax Description

auto-detect

Specifies that the ASA determines the LDAP server type through auto-detection.

generic

Specifies LDAP v3-compliant directory servers other than Sun and Microsoft LDAP directory servers. Password management is not supported with generic LDAP servers.

microsoft

Specifies that the LDAP server is a Microsoft Active Directory.

openldap

Specifies that the LDAP server is an OpenLDAP server.

novell

Specifies that the LDAP server is a Novell server.

sun

Specifies that the LDAP server is a Sun Microsystems JAVA System Directory Server.

 
Defaults

By default, auto-detection attempts to determine the server type.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Aaa-server host configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.1(1)

This command was introduced.

8.0(2)

Support for the OpenLDAP and Novell server types was added.

 
Usage Guidelines

The ASA supports LDAP version 3 and is compatible with the Sun Microsystems JAVA System Directory Server, the Microsoft Active Directory, and other LDAPv3 directory servers.


Note • Sun—The DN configured on the ASA to access a Sun directory server must be able to access the default password policy on that server. We recommend using the directory administrator, or a user with directory administrator privileges, as the DN. Alternatively, you can place an ACI on the default password policy.

  • Microsoft—You must configure LDAP over SSL to enable password management with Microsoft Active Directory.
  • Generic—Password management features are not supported.


 

By default, the ASA auto-detects whether it is connected to a Microsoft directory server, a Sun LDAP directory server, or a generic LDAPv3 server. However, if auto-detection fails to determine the LDAP server type and if you know the server is either a Microsoft or Sun server, you can use the server-type command to manually configure the server as either a Microsoft or a Sun Microsystems LDAP server.

Examples

The following example, entered in aaa-server host configuration mode, configures the server type for the LDAP server ldapsvr1 at IP address 10.10.0.1. The first example configures a Sun Microsystems LDAP server.

ciscoasa(config)# aaa-server ldapsvr1 protocol ldap
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server ldapsvr1 host 10.10.0.1
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-host)# server-type sun
 

The following example specifies that the ASA use auto-detection to determine the server type:

ciscoasa(config)# aaa-server ldapsvr1 protocol LDAP
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-group)# aaa-server ldapsvr1 host 10.10.0.1
ciscoasa(config-aaa-server-host)# server-type auto-detect
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

ldap-over-ssl

Specifies that SSL secures the LDAP client-server connection.

sasl-mechanism

Configures SASL authentication between the LDAP client and server.

ldap attribute-map (global configuration mode)

Creates and names an LDAP attribute map for mapping user-defined attribute names to Cisco LDAP attribute names.

service

To enable resets for denied TCP connections, use the service command in global configuration mode. To disable resets, use the no form of this command.

service { resetinbound [ interface interface_name ] | resetoutbound [ interface interface_name ] | resetoutside }

no service { resetinbound [ interface interface_name ] | resetoutbound [ interface interface_name ] | resetoutside }

 
Syntax Description

interface interface_name

Enables or disables resets for the specified interface.

resetinbound

Sends TCP resets for all inbound TCP sessions that attempt to transit the ASA and are denied by the ASA based on access lists or AAA settings. The ASA also sends resets for packets that are allowed by an access list or AAA, but do not belong to an existing connection and are denied by the stateful firewall. Traffic between same security level interfaces is also affected. When this option is not enabled, the ASA silently discards denied packets. If you do not specify an interface, then this setting applies to all interfaces.

resetoutbound

Sends TCP resets for all outbound TCP sessions that attempt to transit the ASA and are denied by the ASA based on access lists or AAA settings. The ASA also sends resets for packets that are allowed by an access list or AAA, but do not belong to an existing connection and are denied by the stateful firewall. Traffic between same security level interfaces is also affected. When this option is not enabled, the ASA silently discards denied packets. This option is enabled by default. You might want to disable outbound resets to reduce the CPU load during traffic storms, for example.

resetoutside

Enables resets for TCP packets that terminate at the least secure interface and are denied by the ASA based on access lists or AAA settings . The ASA also sends resets for packets that are allowed by an access list or AAA, but do not belong to an existing connection and are denied by the stateful firewall. When this option is not enabled, the ASA silently discards the packets of denied packets. We recommend that you use the resetoutside keyword with interface PAT. This keyword allows the ASA to terminate the IDENT from an external SMTP or FTP server. Actively resetting these connections avoids the 30-second timeout delay.

 
Defaults

By default, service resetoutbound is enabled for all interfaces.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.1(1)

The interface keyword and the resetoutbound command were added.

 
Usage Guidelines

You might want to explicitly send resets for inbound traffic if you need to reset identity request (IDENT) connections. When you send a TCP RST (reset flag in the TCP header) to the denied host, the RST stops the incoming IDENT process so that you do not have to wait for IDENT to time out. Waiting for IDENT to time out can cause traffic to slow because outside hosts keep retransmitting the SYN until the IDENT times out, so the service resetinbound command might improve performance.

Examples

The following example disables outbound resets for all interfaces except for the inside interface:

ciscoasa(config)# no service resetoutbound
ciscoasa(config)# service resetoutbound interface inside
 

The following example enables inbound resets for all interfaces except for the DMZ interface:

ciscoasa(config)# service resetinbound
ciscoasa(config)# no service resetinbound interface dmz
 

The following example enables resets for connections that terminate on the outside interface:

ciscoasa(config)# service resetoutside
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

show running-config service

Displays the service configuration.

service (ctl-provider)

To specify the port to which the Certificate Trust List provider listens, use the service command in CTL provider configuration mode. To remove the configuration, use the no form of this command.

service port listening_port

no service port listening_port

 
Syntax Description

port listening_port

Specifies the certificate to be exported to the client.

 
Defaults

Default port is 2444.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Ctl provider configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.0(2)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

Use the service command in CTL provider configuration mode to specify the port to which the CTL provider listens. The port must be the one listened to by the CallManager servers in the cluster (as configured under Enterprise Parameters on the CallManager administration page). The default port is 2444.

Examples

The following example shows how to create a CTL provider instance:

ciscoasa(config)# ctl-provider my_ctl
ciscoasa(config-ctl-provider)# client interface inside 172.23.45.1
ciscoasa(config-ctl-provider)# client username CCMAdministrator password XXXXXX encrypted
ciscoasa(config-ctl-provider)# export certificate ccm_proxy
ciscoasa(config-ctl-provider)# ctl install
 

 
Related Commands

Commands
Description

client

Specifies clients allowed to connect to the CTL provider and also username and password for client authentication.

ctl

Parses the CTL file from the CTL client and install trustpoints.

ctl-provider

Configures a CTL provider instance in CTL provider mode.

export

Specifies the certificate to be exported to the client

tls-proxy

Defines a TLS proxy instance and sets the maximum sessions.

service (object service)

To define the protocol and optional attributes for a service object, use the service command in object service configuration mode. Use the no form of this command to remove the definition.

service { protocol | { tcp | udp } [ source operator number ] [ destination operator number ] | { icmp | icmp6 } [ icmp_type [ icmp_code ]]}

no service { protocol | { tcp | udp } [ source operator number ] [ destination operator number ] | { icmp | icmp6 } [ icmp_type [ icmp_code ]]}

 
Syntax Description

destination operator number

(Optional) For tcp and udp protocols, specifies the destination port name or number, between 0 and 65535. For a list of supported names, see the CLI help. Operators include:

  • eq —Equals the port number.
  • gt —Greater than the port number.
  • lt —Less than the port number.
  • neq —Not equal to the port number.
  • range —A range of ports. Specify two numbers separated by a space, such as range 1024 4500 .

{ icmp | icmp6 } [ icmp_type [ icmp_code ]]

Specifies that the service type is for ICMP or ICMP version 6 connections. You can optionally specify the ICMP type by name or number, between 0 and 255. (For available optional ICMP type names, see the CLI help.) If you specify a type, you can optionally include an ICMP code, between 1 and 255.

protocol

Identifies the protocol name or number, between 0 and 255. For a list of supported names, see the CLI help.

source operator number

(Optional) For tcp and udp protocols, specifies the source port name or number, between 0 and 65535. For a list of supported names, see the CLI help. The operators are the same as those for destination .

tcp

Specifies that the service type is for TCP connections.

udp

Specifies that the service type is for UDP connections.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Object service configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.3(1)

This command was introduced.

9.0(1)

Support for ICMP code was added.

 
Usage Guidelines

You can use service objects by name in other parts of your configuration, for example ACLs (the access-list command) and NAT (the nat command).

If you configure an existing service object with a different protocol and port, the new configuration replaces the existing protocol and port with the new ones.

Examples

The following example shows how to create a service object for SSH traffic:

ciscoasa(config)# service object SSH
ciscoasa(config-service-object)# service tcp destination eq ssh
 

The following example shows how to create a service object for EIGRP traffic:

ciscoasa(config)# service object EIGRP
ciscoasa(config-service-object)# service eigrp
 

The following example shows how to create a service object for traffic coming from port 0 through 1024 to HTTPS:

ciscoasa(config)# service object HTTPS
ciscoasa(config-service-object)# service tcp source range 0 1024 destination eq https
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

clear configure object

Clears all objects created.

object-group service

Configures a service object.

show running-config object service

Shows the current service object configuration.

service call-home

To enable the Call Home service, use the service call-home command in global configuration mode. To disable the Call Home service, use the no form of this command.

service call-home

no service call-home

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

By default, the service Call Home command is disabled.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.2(2)

This command was introduced.

Examples

The following example shows how to enable the Call Home service:

ciscoasa(config)# service call-home
 

The following example shows how to disable the Call Home service:

hostname(config)# no service call-home

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

call-home (global configuration)

Enters Call Home configuration mode.

call-home test

Manually sends a Call Home test message.

show call-home

Displays Call Home configuration information.

service password-recovery

To enable password recovery, use the service password-recovery command in global configuration mode. To disable password recovery, use the no form of this command. Password recovery is enabled by default, but you might want to disable it to ensure that unauthorized users cannot use the password recovery mechanism to compromise the ASA.

service password-recovery

no service password-recovery

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

Password recovery is enabled by default.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

On the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance, if you forget the passwords, you can boot the ASA into ROMMON by pressing the Escape key on the terminal keyboard when prompted during startup. Then set the ASA to ignore the startup configuration by changing the configuration register (see the config-register command). For example if your configuration register is the default 0x1, then change the value to 0x41 by entering the confreg 0x41 command. After reloading the ASA, it loads a default configuration, and you can enter privileged EXEC mode using the default passwords. Then load the startup configuration by copying it to the running configuration and reset the passwords. Finally, set the ASA to boot as before by setting the configuration register to the original setting. For example, enter the config-register 0x1 command in global configuration mode.

On the PIX 500 series security appliance, boot the ASA into monitor mode by pressing the Escape key on the terminal keyboard when prompted during startup. Then download the PIX password tool to the ASA, which erases all passwords and aaa authentication commands.

On the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance, the no service password-recovery command prevents a user from entering ROMMON with the configuration intact. When a user enters ROMMON, the ASA prompts the user to erase all Flash file systems. The user cannot enter ROMMON without first performing this erasure. If a user chooses not to erase the Flash file system, the ASA reloads. Because password recovery depends on using ROMMON and maintaining the existing configuration, this erasure prevents you from recovering a password. However, disabling password recovery prevents unauthorized users from viewing the configuration or inserting different passwords. In this case, to recover the system to an operating state, load a new image and a backup configuration file, if available. The service password-recovery command appears in the configuration file for informational purposes only; when you enter the command at the CLI prompt, the setting is saved in NVRAM. The only way to change the setting is to enter the command at the CLI prompt. Loading a new configuration with a different version of the command does not change the setting. If you disable password recovery when the ASA is configured to ignore the startup configuration at startup (in preparation for password recovery), then the ASA changes the setting to boot the startup configuration as usual. If you use failover, and the standby unit is configured to ignore the startup configuration, then the same change is made to the configuration register when the no service password recovery command replicates to the standby unit.

On the PIX 500 series security appliance, the no service password-recovery command forces the PIX password tool to prompt the user to erase all Flash file systems. The user cannot use the PIX password tool without first performing this erasure. If a user chooses not to erase the Flash file system, the ASA reloads. Because password recovery depends on maintaining the existing configuration, this erasure prevents you from recovering a password. However, disabling password recovery prevents unauthorized users from viewing the configuration or inserting different passwords. In this case, to recover the system to an operating state, load a new image and a backup configuration file, if available.

Examples

The following example disables password recovery for the ASA 5500 series:

ciscoasa(config)# no service password-recovery
WARNING: Executing "no service password-recovery" has disabled the password recovery mechanism and disabled access to ROMMON. The only means of recovering from lost or forgotten passwords will be for ROMMON to erase all file systems including configuration files and images. You should make a backup of your configuration and have a mechanism to restore images from the ROMMON command line.
 

The following example for the ASA 5500 series shows when to enter ROMMON at startup and how to complete a password recovery operation.

Use BREAK or ESC to interrupt boot.
Use SPACE to begin boot immediately.
Boot interrupted.
 
 
Use ? for help.
rommon #0> confreg
 
Current Configuration Register: 0x00000001
Configuration Summary:
boot default image from Flash
 
Do you wish to change this configuration? y/n [n]: n
 
rommon #1> confreg 0x41
 
Update Config Register (0x41) in NVRAM...
 
rommon #2> boot
Launching BootLoader...
Boot configuration file contains 1 entry.
 
 
Loading disk0:/ASA_7.0.bin... Booting...
###################
...
Ignoring startup configuration as instructed by configuration register.
Type help or '?' for a list of available commands.
ciscoasa> enable
Password:
ciscoasa# configure terminal
ciscoasa(config)# copy startup-config running-config
 
Destination filename [running-config]?
Cryptochecksum(unchanged): 7708b94c e0e3f0d5 c94dde05 594fbee9
 
892 bytes copied in 6.300 secs (148 bytes/sec)
ciscoasa(config)# enable password NewPassword
ciscoasa(config)# config-register 0x1
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

config-register

Sets the ASA to ignore the startup configuration when it reloads.

enable password

Sets the enable password.

password

Sets the login password.

service-object

To add a service or service object to a service object group that is not pre-defined as TCP, UDP, or TCP-UDP, use the service-object command in object-group service configuration mode. To remove a service, use the no form of this command.

service-object { protocol | { tcp | udp | tcp-udp } [ source operator number ] [ destination operator number ] | { icmp | icmp6 } [ icmp_type [ icmp_code ]] | object name }

no service-object { protocol | { tcp | udp | tcp-udp } [ source operator number ] [ destination operator number ] | { icmp | icmp6 } [ icmp_type [ icmp_code ]] | object name }

 
Syntax Description

destination operator number

(Optional) For tcp , udp , or tcp-udp protocols, specifies the destination port name or number, between 0 and 65535. For a list of supported names, see the CLI help. Operators include:

  • eq —Equals the port number.
  • gt —Greater than the port number.
  • lt —Less than the port number.
  • neq —Not equal to the port number.
  • range —A range of ports. Specify two numbers separated by a space, such as range 1024 4500 .

{ icmp | icmp6 } [ icmp_type [ icmp_code ]]

Specifies that the service type is for ICMP or ICMP version 6 connections. You can optionally specify the ICMP type by name or number, between 0 and 255. (For available optional ICMP type names, see the CLI help.) If you specify a type, you can optionally include an ICMP code, between 1 and 255.

protocol

Identifies the protocol name or number, between 0 and 255. For a list of supported names, see the CLI help.

source operator number

(Optional) For tcp , udp , or tcp-udp protocols, specifies the source port name or number, between 0 and 65535. For a list of supported names, see the CLI help. The operators are the same as those for destination .

tcp

Specifies that the service type is for TCP connections.

tcp-udp

Specifies that the service type is for TCP or UDP connections.

udp

Specifies that the service type is for UDP connections.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Object-group service configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.0(1)

This command was introduced.

8.3(1)

The object keyword was added to support service objects (the object service command).

9.0(1)

Support for ICMP code was added.

 
Usage Guidelines

When you create a service object group with the object-group service command, and you do not pre-define the protocol type for the whole group, then you can add multiple services and service objects to the group of various protocols, including ports, using the service-object command. When you create a service object group for a specific protocol type using the object-group service [ tcp | udp | tcp-udp ] command, then you can only identify the destination ports for the object group using the port-object command.

Examples

The following example shows how to add both TCP and UDP services to a service object group:

ciscoasa(config)# object-group service CommonApps
ciscoasa(config-service-object-group)# service-object tcp destination eq ftp
ciscoasa(config-service-object-group)# service-object tcp-udp destination eq www
ciscoasa(config-service-object-group)# service-object tcp destination eq h323
ciscoasa(config-service-object-group)# service-object tcp destination eq https
ciscoasa(config-service-object-group)# service-object udp destination eq ntp
 

The following example shows how to add multiple service objects to a service object group:

hostname(config)# service object SSH
hostname(config-service-object)# service tcp destination eq ssh
 
hostname(config)# service object EIGRP
hostname(config-service-object)# service eigrp
 
hostname(config)# service object HTTPS
hostname(config-service-object)# service tcp source range 0 1024 destination eq https
 
ciscoasa(config)# object-group service Group1
ciscoasa(config-service-object-group)# service-object object SSH
ciscoasa(config-service-object-group)# service-object object EIGRP
ciscoasa(config-service-object-group)# service-object object HTTPS
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

clear configure object-group

Removes all the object-group commands from the configuration.

network-object

Adds a network object to a network object group.

object service

Adds a service object.

object-group

Defines object groups to optimize your configuration.

port-object

Adds a port object to a service object group.

show running-config object-group

Displays the current object groups.

service-policy (class)

To apply a hierarchical policy map under another policy map, use the service-policy command in class configuration mode. To disable the service policy, use the no form of this command. Hierarchical policies are supported only for QoS traffic shaping when you want to perform priority queueing on a subset of shaped traffic.

service-policy policymap_name

no service-policy policymap_name

 
Syntax Description

policymap_name

Specifies the policy map name that you configured in the policy-map command. You can only specify a Layer 3/4 policy map that includes the priority command.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Class configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.2(4)/8.0(4)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

Hierarchical priority queueing is used on interfaces on which you enable a traffic shaping queue. A subset of the shaped traffic can be prioritized. The standard priority queue is not used (the priority-queue command).

For hierarchical priority-queueing, perform the following tasks using Modular Policy Framework:

1. class-map —Identify the traffic on which you want to perform priority queueing.

2. policy-map (for priority queueing)—Identify the actions associated with each class map.

a. class —Identify the class map on which you want to perform actions.

b. priority —Enable priority queueing for the class map. You can only include the priority command in this policy map if you want to use is hierarchically.

3. policy-map (for traffic shaping)—Identify the actions associated with the class-default class map.

a. class class-default —Identify the class-default class map on which you want to perform actions.

b. shape —Apply traffic shaping to the class map.

c. service-policy —Call the priority queueing policy map in which you configured the priority command so you can apply priority queueing to a subset of shaped traffic.

4. service-policy —Assigns the policy map to an interface or globally.

Examples

The following example enables traffic shaping for all traffic on the outside interface, and prioritizes traffic within VPN tunnel-grp1 with the DSCP bit set to ef:

ciscoasa(config)# class-map TG1-voice
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match tunnel-group tunnel-grp1
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match dscp ef
 
ciscoasa(config)# policy-map priority-sub-policy
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class TG1-voice
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# priority
 
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# policy-map shape_policy
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class class-default
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# shape
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# service-policy priority-sub-policy
 
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# service-policy shape_policy interface outside
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class (policy-map)

Identifies a class map for a policy map.

clear configure service-policy

Clears service policy configurations.

clear service-policy

Clears service policy statistics.

policy-map

Identifies actions to perform on class maps.

priority

Enables priority queuing.

service-policy (global)

Applies a policy map to an interface.

shape

Enables traffic shaping.

show running-config service-policy

Displays the service policies configured in the running configuration.

show service-policy

Displays the service policy statistics.

service-policy (global)

To activate a policy map globally on all interfaces or on a targeted interface, use the service-policy command in global configuration mode. To disable the service policy, use the no form of this command. Use the service-policy command to enable a set of policies on an interface.

service-policy policymap_name [ global | interface intf ] [ fail-close ]

no service-policy policymap_name [ global | interface intf ] [ fail-close ]

 
Syntax Description

fail-close

Generates a syslog (767001) for IPv6 traffic that is dropped by application inspections that do not support IPv6 traffic. By default, syslogs are not generated.

global

Applies the policy map to all interfaces.

interface intf

Applies the policy map to a specific interface.

policymap_name

Specifies the policy map name that you configured in the policy-map command. You can only specify a Layer 3/4 policy map, and not an inspection policy map ( policy-map type inspect ).

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

9.0(1)

We added the fail-close keyword.

 
Usage Guidelines

To enable the service policy, use the Modular Policy Framework:

1. class-map —Identify the traffic on which you want to perform priority queueing.

2. policy-map —Identify the actions associated with each class map.

a. class —Identify the class map on which you want to perform actions.

b. commands for supported features —For a given class map, you can configure many actions for various features, including QoS, application inspection, CSC or AIP SSM, TCP and UDP connections limits and timeout, and TCP normalization. See the CLI configuration guide for more details about the commands available for each feature.

3. service-policy —Assigns the policy map to an interface or globally.

Interface service policies take precedence over the global service policy for a given feature. For example, if you have a global policy with inspections, and an interface policy with TCP normalization, then both inspections and TCP normalization are applied to the interface. However, if you have a global policy with inspections, and an interface policy with inspections, then only the interface policy inspections are applied to that interface.

By default, the configuration includes a global policy that matches all default application inspection traffic and applies inspection to the traffic globally. You can only apply one global policy, so if you want to alter the global policy, you need to either edit the default policy or disable it and apply a new one.

The default service policy includes the following command:

service-policy global_policy global
 

Examples

The following example shows how to enable the inbound_policy policy map on the outside interface:

ciscoasa(config)# service-policy inbound_policy interface outside
 

The following commands disable the default global policy, and enables a new one called new_global_policy on all other ASA interfaces:

ciscoasa(config)# no service-policy global_policy global
ciscoasa(config)# service-policy new_global_policy global
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

clear configure service-policy

Clears service policy configurations.

clear service-policy

Clears service policy statistics.

service-policy (class)

Applies a hierarchical policy under another policy map.

show running-config service-policy

Displays the service policies configured in the running configuration.

show service-policy

Displays the service policy statistics.

session

To establish a Telnet session from the ASA to a module, such as an IPS SSP or a CSC SSM, to access the module CLI, use the session command in privileged EXEC mode.

session id

 
Syntax Description

id

Specifies the module ID:

  • Physical module— 1 (for slot number 1)
  • Software module, ASA FirePOWER— sfr
  • Software module, IPS— ips
  • Software module, ASA CX— cxsc

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command.

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Privileged EXEC

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

8.6(1)

Added the ips module ID for the IPS SSP software module.

9.1(1)

Support for the ASA CX module was added (the cxsc keyword).

9.2(1)

Support for the ASA FirePOWER module was added (the sfr keyword).

 
Usage Guidelines

This command is only available when the module is in the Up state. See the show module command for state information.

To end a session, enter exit or Ctrl-Shift-6, then the x key.

Note that the session 1 command does not work with the following hardware modules:

  • ASA CX
  • ASA FirePOWER

Examples

The following example sessions to a module in slot 1:

ciscoasa# session 1
Opening command session with slot 1.
Connected to slot 1. Escape character sequence is 'CTRL-^X'.
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

debug session-command

Shows debugging messages for sessions.

session console

To establish a virtual console session from the ASA to a software module, such as an IPS SSP software module, use the session console command in privileged EXEC mode. This command might be useful if you cannot establish a Telnet session using the session command because the control plane is down.

session id console

 
Syntax Description

id

Specifies the module ID:

  • ASA FirePOWER module— sfr
  • IPS module— ips
  • ASA CX module— cxsc

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command.

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Privileged EXEC

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.6(1)

This command was introduced.

9.1(1)

Support for the ASA CX module was added (the cxsc keyword).

9.2(1)

Support for the ASA FirePOWER module was added (the sfr keyword).

 
Usage Guidelines

To end a session, enter Ctrl-Shift-6, then the x key.

Do not use this command in conjunction with a terminal server where Ctrl-Shift-6, x is the escape sequence to return to the terminal server prompt. Ctrl-Shift-6, x is also the sequence to escape the module console and return to the ASA prompt. Therefore, if you try to exit the module console in this situation, you instead exit all the way to the terminal server prompt. If you reconnect the terminal server to the ASA, the module console session is still active; you can never exit to the ASA prompt. You must use a direct serial connection to return the console to the ASA prompt.

Use the session command instead.

Examples

The following example creates a console session to the IPS module:

ciscoasa# session ips console
 
Establishing console session with slot 1
Opening console session with module ips.
Connected to module ips. Escape character sequence is 'CTRL-SHIFT-6 then x'.
 
sensor login: service
Password: test

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

session

Initiates a Telnet session to a module.

show module log console

Displays console log information.

session do

To establish a Telnet session and perform a command from the ASA to a module, use the session do command in privileged EXEC mode.

session id do command

 
Syntax Description

id

Specifies the module ID:

  • Physical module— 1 (for slot number 1)
  • Software module, ASA FirePOWER— sfr
  • Software module, IPS— ips
  • Software module, ASA CX— cxsc

command

Performs a command on the module. Supported commands include:

  • setup host ip ip_address / mask , gateway_ip —Sets the management IP address and gateway.
  • get-config —Gets the module configuration.
  • password-reset —Resets the module password to the default.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command.

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Privileged EXEC

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.1(1)

This command was introduced.

8.6(1)

Added the ips module ID for the IPS SSP software module.

8.4(4.1)

We added support for the ASA CX module.

9.2(1)

We added support for the ASA FirePOWER module, including the sfr keyword.

 
Usage Guidelines

This command is only available when the module is in the Up state. See the show module command for state information.

To end a session, enter exit or Ctrl-Shift-6, then the X key.

Examples

The following example sets the management IP address to 10.1.1.2/24, with a default gateway of 10.1.1.1:

ciscoasa# session 1 do setup host ip 10.1.1.2/24,10.1.1.1

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

debug session-command

Shows debugging messages for sessions.

session ip

To configure logging IP addresses for the module, such as an IPS SSP or a CSC SSM, use the session ip command in privileged EXEC mode.

session id ip { address address mask | gateway address }

 
Syntax Description

id

Specifies the module ID:

  • Physical module— 1 (for slot number 1)
  • Software module, IPS— ips

address address

Sets the syslog server address.

gateway address

Sets the gateway to the syslog server.

mask

Sets the subnet mask.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command.

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Privileged EXEC

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.1(1)

This command was introduced.

8.4(4.1)

We added support for the ASA CX module.

8.6(1)

Added the ips module ID for the IPS SSP software module.

 
Usage Guidelines

This command is only available when the module is in the Up state. See the show module command for state information.

To end a session, enter exit or Ctrl-Shift-6, then the X key.

Examples

The following example sessions to a module in slot 1:

ciscoasa# session 1 ip address
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

debug session-command

Shows debugging messages for sessions.

session-limit

Set the maximum number of concurrent MDM proxy sessions. Use in config-mdm-proxy mode. The no form of this command must specify the configured limit.

session-limit session-limit

no session-limit session-limit

 
Syntax Description

session-limit

Set the maximum number of concurrent MDM sessions. The valid range is between 1 and 10000; Default is 1000.

 
Defaults

The default session limit is 1000.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

config-mdm-proxy

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.3(1)

Command introduced for MDM proxy service.

 
Usage Guidelines

Examples

The following example shows the session limit being set to 5000 for the MDM proxy service.

ciscoasa (config)# mdm-proxy
ciscoasa (config-mdm-proxy)# session-limit 5000

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

mdm-proxy

Enter config-mdm-proxy mode and configure the MDM Proxy service.

show running-config mdm-proxy

View the current MDM proxy configuration.

session-timeout

Set the maximum duration in seconds for MDM proxy enrollment and check-in sessions.Use in config-mdm-proxy mode. The no form of this command must specify the configured timeouts.

session-timeout [enrollment seconds ] [checkin seconds ]

no session-timeout [enrollment seconds ] [checkin seconds ]

 
Syntax Description

seconds

Maximum duration in seconds for MDM enrollment and check-in sessions. The valid range is between 60 and 600. Default is 300 seconds.

 
Defaults

The default session timeout is 300 seconds.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

config-mdm-proxy

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.3(1)

Command introduced for MDM proxy service.

 
Usage Guidelines

Examples

The following example shows the session timout being set to 600 seconds for the MDM proxy checkin sessions:

ciscoasa (config)# mdm-proxy
ciscoasa (config-mdm-proxy)# session-timeout checkin 600

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

mdm-proxy

Enter config-mdm-proxy mode and configure the MDM Proxy service.

show running-config mdm-proxy

View the current MDM proxy configuration.

set as-path

To modify an autonomous system path for BGP routes, use the set as-path command in route-map configuration mode. To not modify the autonomous system path, use the no form of this command.

set as-path {tag | prepend as-path-string}

no set as-path {tag | prepend as-path-string}

 
Syntax Descriptionno set as-path {tag | prepend as-path-string}

as-path-string

Number of an autonomous system to prepend to the AS_PATH attribute. The range of values for this argument is any valid autonomous system number from 1 to 65535. Multiple values can be entered; up to 10 AS numbers can be entered.

For more details about autonomous system number formats, see the router bgp command.

prepend

Appends the string following the keyword prepend to the autonomous system path of the route that is matched by the route map. Applies to inbound and outbound BGP route maps.

tag

Converts the tag of a route into an autonomous system path. Applies only when redistributing routes into BGP.

 
Defaults

An autonomous system path is not modified.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

The only global BGP metric available to influence the best path selection is the autonomous system path length. By varying the length of the autonomous system path, a BGP speaker can influence the best path selection by a peer further away.

By allowing you to convert the tag into an autonomous system path, the set as-path tag variation of this command modifies the autonomous system length. The set as-path prepend variation allows you to "prepend" an arbitrary autonomous system path string to BGP routes. Usually the local autonomous system number is prepended multiple times, increasing the autonomous system path length.

Cisco implementation of 4-byte autonomous system numbers uses asplain—65538 for example—as the default regular expression match and output display format for autonomous system numbers, but you can configure 4-byte autonomous system numbers in both the asplain format and the asdot format as described in RFC 5396. To change the default regular expression match and output display of 4-byte autonomous system numbers to asdot format, use the bgp asnotation dot command followed by the clear bgp * command to perform a hard reset of all current BGP sessions.

Examples

The following example converts the tag of a redistributed route into an autonomous system path:

ciscoasa(config)# route-map set-as-path-from-tag
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set as-path tag
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# router bgp 100
ciscoasa(config-router)# address-family ipv4
ciscoasa(config-router-af)# redistribute ospf 109 route-map set-as-path-from-tag
 

The following example prepends 100 100 100 to all the routes that are advertised to 10.108.1.1:

ciscoasa(config)# route-map set-as-path
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match as-path 1
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set as-path prepend 100 100 100
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# router bgp 100
ciscoasa(config-router)# address-family ipv4
ciscoasa(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.108.1.1 route-map set-as-path out
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

clear bgp

Resets BGP connections using hard or soft reconfiguration.

bgp asnotation dot

Changes the default display and regular expression match format of Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 4-byte autonomous system numbers from asplain format (decimal values) to dot notation.

set automatic-tag

To automatically compute the tag value, use the set automatic-tag command in route-map configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of this command.

set automatic-tag

no set automatic-tag

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

This command is disabled by default.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

You must have a match clause (even if it points permit everything) if you want to set tags.

Use the route-map global configuration command and the match and set route-map configuration commands, to define the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another. Each route-map command has a list of match and set commands associated with it. The match commands specify the match criteria --the conditions under which redistribution is allowed for the current route-map command. The set commands specify the set actions --the particular redistribution actions to perform if the criteria enforced by the match commands are met. The no route-map command deletes the route map.

The set route-map configuration commands specify the redistribution set actions to be performed when all the match criteria of a route map are met. When all match criteria are met, all set actions are performed.

Examples

The following example configures the Cisco ASA software to automatically compute the tag value for the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) learned routes:

ciscoasa(config-route-map)# route-map tag
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match as-path 10
iscoasa(config-route-map)# set automatic-tag
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# router bgp 100
ciscoasa(config-router)# address-family ipv4
ciscoasa(config-router-af)# table-map tag

set community

To set the BGP communities attribute, use the set community route map configuration command. To delete the entry, use the no form of this command.

set community {community-number [additive] | [well-known-community] [additive] | none}

no set community

 
Syntax Descriptionno set as-path {tag | prepend as-path-string}

additive

(Optional) Adds the community to the already existing community.

community-number

Specifies that community number. Valid values are from 1 to 4294967200, no-export, or no-advertise.

none

(Optional) Removes the community attribute from the prefixes that pass the route map.

well-known-community

(Optional) Well-known communities can be specified by using the following keywords:

  • internet
  • local-as
  • no-advertise
  • no-export

 
Defaults

No BGP communities attributes exist.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

You must have a match clause (even if it points to a "permit everything" list) if you want to set tags.

Use the route-map global configuration command, and the match and set route map configuration commands, to define the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another. Each route-map command has a list of match and set commands associated with it. The match commands specify the match criteria—the conditions under which redistribution is allowed for the current route-map command. The set commands specify the set actions—the particular redistribution actions to perform if the criteria enforced by the match commands are met. The no route-map command deletes the route map.

The set route map configuration commands specify the redistribution set actions to be performed when all of the match criteria of a route map are met. When all match criteria are met, all set actions are performed.

Examples

In the following example, routes that pass the autonomous system path access list 1 have the community set to 109. Routes that pass the autonomous system path access list 2 have the community set to no-export (these routes will not be advertised to any external BGP [eBGP] peers).

ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set community 10
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match as-path 1
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set community 109
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set community 20
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match as-path 2
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set community no-export

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

match as-path

Match a BGP autonomous system path that is specified by an access list.

set connection

To specify connection limits within a policy map for a traffic class, use the set connection command in class configuration mode. To remove these specifications, thereby allowing unlimited connections, use the no form of this command.

set connection {[ conn-max n ] [ embryonic-conn-max n ] [ per-client-embryonic-max n ] [ per-client-max n ] [ random-sequence-number { enable | disable }]}

no set connection {[ conn-max n ] [ embryonic-conn-max n ] [ per-client-embryonic-max n ] [ per-client-max n ] [ random-sequence-number { enable | disable }]}

 
Syntax Description

conn-max n

Sets the maximum number of simultaneous TCP and/or UDP connections that are allowed, between 0 and 2000000. The default is 0, which allows unlimited connections. For example, if two servers are configured to allow simultaneous TCP and/or UDP connections, the connection limit is applied to each configured server separately. When configured under a class, this argument restricts the maximum number of simultaneous connections that are allowed for the entire class. In this case, one attack host can consume all the connections and leave none of the rest of the hosts matched in the access list under the class.

embryonic-conn-max n

Sets the maximum number of simultaneous embryonic connections allowed, between 0 and 2000000. The default is 0, which allows unlimited connections.

per-client-embryonic-max n

Sets the maximum number of simultaneous embryonic connections allowed per client, between 0 and 2000000. A client is defined as the host that sends the initial packet of a connection (that builds the new connection) through the ASA. If an access-list is used with a class-map to match traffic for this feature, the embryonic limit is applied per-host, and not the cumulative embryonic connections of all clients that match the access list. The default is 0, which allows unlimited connections. This keyword is not available for management class maps.

per-client-max n

Sets the maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed per client, between 0 and 2000000. A client is defined as the host that sends the initial packet of a connection (that builds the new connection) through the ASA. If an access-list is used with a class-map to match traffic for this feature, the connection limit is applied per-host, and not the cumulative connections of all clients that match the access list. The default is 0, which allows unlimited connections. This keyword is not available for management class maps. When configured under a class, this keyword restricts the maximum number of simultaneous connections that are allowed for each host that is matched through an access list under the class.

random-sequence-number { enable | disable }

Enables or disables TCP sequence number randomization. This keyword is not available for management class maps. See the “Usage Guidelines” section for more information.

 
Defaults

For the conn-max , embryonic-conn-max , per-client-embryonic-max , and per-client-max parameters, the default value of n is 0, which allows unlimited connections.

Sequence number randomization is enabled by default.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Class configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

7.1(1)

The per-client-embryonic-max and per-client-max keywords were added.

8.0(2)

This command is now available for a Layer 3/4 management class map, for to-the-ASA management traffic. Only the conn-max and embryonic-conn-max keywords are available.

9.0(1)

The maximum number of connections was increased from 65535 to 2000000.

 
Usage Guidelines

Configure this command using Modular Policy Framework. First define the traffic to which you want to apply the timeout using the class-map command (for through traffic) or class-map type management command (for management traffic). Then enter the policy-map command to define the policy, and enter the class command to reference the class map. In class configuration mode, you can enter the set connection command. Finally, apply the policy map to an interface using the service-policy command. For more information about how Modular Policy Framework works, see the CLI configuration guide.


Note Depending on the number of CPU cores on your ASA model, the maximum concurrent and embryonic connections may exceed the configured numbers due to the way each core manages connections. In the worst case scenario, the ASA allows up to n-1 extra connections and embryonic connections, where n is the number of cores. For example, if your model has 4 cores, if you configure 6 concurrent connections and 4 embryonic connections, you could have an additional 3 of each type. To determine the number of cores for your model, enter the show cpu core command.


TCP Intercept Overview

Limiting the number of embryonic connections protects you from a DoS attack. The ASA uses the per-client limits and the embryonic connection limit to trigger TCP Intercept, which protects inside systems from a DoS attack perpetrated by flooding an interface with TCP SYN packets. An embryonic connection is a connection request that has not finished the necessary handshake between source and destination. TCP Intercept uses the SYN cookies algorithm to prevent TCP SYN-flooding attacks. A SYN-flooding attack consists of a series of SYN packets usually originating from spoofed IP addresses. The constant flood of SYN packets keeps the server SYN queue full, which prevents it from servicing connection requests. When the embryonic connection threshold of a connection is crossed, the ASA acts as a proxy for the server and generates a SYN-ACK response to the client SYN request. When the ASA receives an ACK back from the client, it can then authenticate the client and allow the connection to the server.

TCP Sequence Randomization

Each TCP connection has two ISNs: one generated by the client and one generated by the server. The ASA randomizes the ISN of the TCP SYN passing in both the inbound and outbound directions.

Randomizing the ISN of the protected host prevents an attacker from predecting the next ISN for a new connection and potentially hijacking the new session.

TCP initial sequence number randomization can be disabled if required. For example:

  • If another in-line firewall is also randomizing the initial sequence numbers, there is no need for both firewalls to be performing this action, even though this action does not affect the traffic.
  • If you use eBGP multi-hop through the ASA, and the eBGP peers are using MD5. Randomization breaks the MD5 checksum.
  • You use a WAAS device that requires the ASA not to randomize the sequence numbers of connections.

Examples

The following is an example of the use of the set connection command configure the maximum number of simultaneous connections as 256 and to disable TCP sequence number randomization:

ciscoasa(config)# policy-map localpolicy1
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class local_server
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# set connection conn-max 256 random-sequence-number disable
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)#
 

You can enter this command with multiple parameters or you can enter each parameter as a separate command. The ASA combines the commands into one line in the running configuration. For example, if you entered the following two commands in class configuration mode:

ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# set connection conn-max 600
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# set connection embryonic-conn-max 50
 

The output of the show running-config policy-map command would display the result of the two commands in a single, combined command:

set connection conn-max 600 embryonic-conn-max 50
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class

Specifies a class-map to use for traffic classification.

clear configure policy-map

Removes all policy-map configuration, except that if a policy-map is in use in a service-policy command, that policy-map is not removed.

policy-map

Configures a policy; that is, an association of a traffic class and one or more actions.

show running-config policy-map

Displays all current policy-map configurations.

show service-policy

Displays service policy configuration. Use the set connection keyword to view policies that include the set connection command.

set connection advanced-options

To customize TCP normalization, use the set connection advanced-options command in class configuration mode. To remove the TCP normalization options, use the no form of this command.

set connection advanced-options tcp_mapname

no set connection advanced-options tcp_mapname

 
Syntax Description

tcp_mapname

Name of a TCP map created by the tcp-map command.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Class configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

To customize TCP normalization with a TCP map, use the Modular Policy Framework:

1. tcp-map —Identify the TCP normalization actions.

2. class-map —Identify the traffic on which you want to perform TCP normalization actions.

3. policy-map —Identify the actions associated with the class map.

a. class —Identify the class map on which you want to perform actions.

b. set connection advanced options —Apply a TCP map to the class map.

4. service-policy —Assigns the policy map to an interface or globally.

Examples

The following example shows the use of the set connection advanced-options command to specify the use of a TCP map named localmap:

ciscoasa(config)# access-list http-server permit tcp any host 10.1.1.1
ciscoasa(config)# class-map http-server
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match access-list http-server
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# exit
ciscoasa(config)# tcp-map localmap
ciscoasa(config)# policy-map global_policy global
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# description This policy map defines a policy concerning connection to http server.
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class http-server
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# set connection advanced-options localmap
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)#
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class

Specifies a class-map to use for traffic classification.

class-map

Configures a traffic class by issuing at most one (with the exception of tunnel-group and default-inspection-traffic) match command, specifying match criteria, in the class-map configuration mode.

clear configure policy-map

Remove all policy-map configuration, except that if a policy-map is in use in a service-policy command, that policy-map is not removed.

policy-map

Configures a policy; that is, an association of a traffic class and one or more actions.

show running-config policy-map

Display all current policy-map configurations.

tcp-map

Creates a TCP map.

set connection advanced-options tcp-state-bypass

To enable TCP state bypass, use the set connection advanced-options command in class configuration mode. The class configuration mode is accessible from the policy-map configuration mode. To disable TCP state bypass, use the no form of this command.

set connection advanced-options tcp-state-bypass

no set connection advanced-options tcp-state-bypass

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

By default, TCP state bypass is disabled.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Class configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

8.2(1)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

To enable TCP state bypass, use the Modular Policy Framework:

1. class-map —Identify the traffic on which you want to perform TCP state bypass.

2. policy-map —Identify the actions associated with the class map.

a. class —Identify the class map on which you want to perform actions.

b. set connection advanced options tcp-state-bypass —Apply TCP state bypass to the class map.

3. service-policy —Assigns the policy map to an interface or globally.

Allowing Outbound and Inbound Flows through Separate Devices

By default, all traffic that goes through the ASA is inspected using the Adaptive Security Algorithm and is either allowed through or dropped based on the security policy. The ASA maximizes the firewall performance by checking the state of each packet (is this a new connection or an established connection?) and assigning it to either the session management path (a new connection SYN packet), the fast path (an established connection), or the control plane path (advanced inspection).

TCP packets that match existing connections in the fast path can pass through the ASA without rechecking every aspect of the security policy. This feature maximizes performance. However, the method of establishing the session in the fast path using the SYN packet, and the checks that occur in the fast path (such as TCP sequence number), can stand in the way of asymmetrical routing solutions: both the outbound and inbound flow of a connection must pass through the same ASA.

For example, a new connection goes to ASA 1. The SYN packet goes through the session management path, and an entry for the connection is added to the fast path table. If subsequent packets of this connection go through ASA 1, then the packets will match the entry in the fast path, and are passed through. But if subsequent packets go to ASA 2, where there was not a SYN packet that went through the session management path, then there is no entry in the fast path for the connection, and the packets are dropped.

If you have asymmetric routing configured on upstream routers, and traffic alternates between two ASAs, then you can configure TCP state bypass for specific traffic. TCP state bypass alters the way sessions are established in the fast path and disables the fast path checks. This feature treats TCP traffic much as it treats a UDP connection: when a non-SYN packet matching the specified networks enters the ASA, and there is not a fast path entry, then the packet goes through the session management path to establish the connection in the fast path. Once in the fast path, the traffic bypasses the fast path checks.

Unsupported Features

The following features are not supported when you use TCP state bypass:

  • Application inspection—Application inspection requires both inbound and outbound traffic to go through the same ASA, so application inspection is not supported with TCP state bypass.
  • AAA authenticated sessions—When a user authenticates with one ASA, traffic returning via the other ASA will be denied because the user did not authenticate with that ASA.
  • TCP Intercept, maximum embryonic connection limit, TCP sequence number randomization—The ASA does not keep track of the state of the connection, so these features are not applied.
  • TCP normalization—The TCP normalizer is disabled.
  • SSM functionality—You cannot use TCP state bypass and any application running on an SSM, such as IPS or CSC.

NAT Guidelines

Because the translation session is established separately for each ASA, be sure to configure static NAT on both ASAs for TCP state bypass traffic; if you use dynamic NAT, the address chosen for the session on ASA 1 will differ from the address chosen for the session on ASA 2.

Connection Timeout Guidelines

If there is no traffic on a given connection for 2 minutes, the connection times out. You can override this default using the set connection timeout tcp command. Normal TCP connections timeout by default after 60 minutes.

Examples

The following is an example configuration for TCP state bypass:

ciscoasa(config)# access-list tcp_bypass extended permit tcp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.224 any
 
ciscoasa(config)# class-map tcp_bypass
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# description "TCP traffic that bypasses stateful firewall"
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match access-list tcp_bypass
 
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# policy-map tcp_bypass_policy
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class tcp_bypass
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# set connection advanced-options tcp-state-bypass
 
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# service-policy tcp_bypass_policy outside
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class

Identifies a class map in the policy map.

class-map

Creates a class map for use in a service policy.

policy-map

Configures a policy map that associates a class map and one or more actions.

service-policy

Assigns a policy map to an interface.

set connection timeout

Sets the connection timeouts.

set connection decrement-ttl

To decrement the time to live value within a policy map for a traffic class, use the set connection decrement-ttl command in class configuration mode. To not decrement the time to live, use the no form of this command.

set connection decrement-ttl

no set connection decrement-ttl

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

By default, the ASA does not decrement the time to live.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Class configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.2(2)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

This command, along with the icmp unreachable command, is required to allow a traceroute through the ASA that shows the ASA as one of the hops.

Examples

The following example enables time to live decrements and sets the ICMP unreachable rate limit:

ciscoasa(config)# policy-map localpolicy1
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class local_server
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# set connection decrement-ttl
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# exit
ciscoasa(config)# icmp unreachable rate-limit 50 burst-size 6
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class

Specifies a class map to use for traffic classification.

icmp unreachable

Controls the rate at which ICMP unreachables are allowed through the ASA.

policy-map

Configures a policy; that is, an association of a traffic class and one or more actions.

show running-config policy-map

Displays all current policy map configurations.

show service-policy

Displays service policy configuration.

set connection timeout

To specify connection timeouts within a policy map for a traffic class, use the set connection timeout command in class configuration mode. To remove the timeout, use the no form of this command.

set connection timeout {[ embryonic hh : mm : ss ] [ idle hh : mm : ss [ reset ]] [ half-closed hh : mm : ss ] [ dcd [ retry_interval [ max_retries ]]]}

no set connection timeout {[ embryonic hh : mm : ss ] [ idle hh : mm : ss [ reset ]] [ half-closed hh : mm : ss ] [ dcd [ retry_interval [ max_retries ]]]}

 
Syntax Description

dcd

Enables dead connection detection (DCD). DCD detects a dead connection and allows it to expire, without expiring connections that can still handle traffic. You configure DCD when you want idle, but valid connections to persist. After a TCP connection times out, the ASA sends DCD probes to the end hosts to determine the validity of the connection. If one of the end hosts fails to respond after the maximum retries are exhausted, the ASA frees the connection. If both end hosts respond that the connection is valid, the ASA updates the activity timeout to the current time and reschedules the idle timeout accordingly.

embryonic hh : mm : ss

Sets the timeout period until a TCP embryonic (half-open) connection is closed, between 0:0:5 and 1193:0:0. The default is 0:0:30. You can also set the value to 0, which means the connection never times out. A TCP connection for which a three-way handshake is not complete is an embryonic connection.

half-closed hh : mm : ss

Sets the idle timeout period until a half-closed connection is closed, between 0:5:0 (for 9.1(1) and earlier) or 0:0:30 (for 9.1(2) and later) and 1193:0:0. The default is 0:10:0. You can also set the value to 0, which means the connection never times out. Half-closed connections are not affected by DCD. Also, the ASA does not send a reset when taking down half-closed connections.

idle hh : mm : ss

Sets the idle timeout period after which an established connection of any protocol closes. The valid range is from 0:0:1 to 1193:0:0.

max_retries

Sets the number of consecutive failed retries for DCD before declaring the connection as dead. The minimum value is 1 and the maximum value is 255. The default is 5.

reset

For TCP traffic only, sends a TCP RST packet to both end systems after idle connections are removed.

retry_interval

Time duration in hh : mm : ss format to wait after each unresponsive DCD probe before sending another probe, between 0:0:1 and 24:0:0. The default is 0:0:15.

 
Defaults

Unless you change the default globally using the timeout command, the defaults are:

  • The default embryonic timeout is 30 seconds.
  • The default half-closed idle timeout is 10 minutes.
  • The default dcd max_retries value is 5.
  • The default dcd retry_interval value is 15 seconds.
  • The default idle timeout is 1 hour.
  • The default udp idle timeout is 2 minutes.
  • The default icmp idle timeout is 2 seconds.
  • The default esp and ha idle timeout is 30 seconds.
  • For all other protocols, the default idle timeout is 2 minutes.
  • To never time out, enter 0:0:0.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Class configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

7.2(1)

Support for DCD was added.

8.2(2)

The tcp keyword was deprecated in favor of the idle keyword, which controls the idle timeout for all protocols.

9.1(2)

The minimum half-closed value was lowered to 30 seconds (0:0:30).

 
Usage Guidelines

Configure this command using Modular Policy Framework. First define the traffic to which you want to apply the timeout using the class-map command. Then enter the policy-map command to define the policy, and enter the class command to reference the class map. In class configuration mode, you can enter the set connection timeout command. Finally, apply the policy map to an interface using the service-policy command. For more information about how Modular Policy Framework works, see the CLI configuration guide.

The show service-policy command to includes counters to show the amount of activity from DCD.

Examples

The following example sets the connection timeouts for all traffic:

ciscoasa(config)# class-map CONNS
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match any
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# policy-map CONNS
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class CONNS
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# set connection timeout idle 2:0:0 embryonic 0:40:0 half-closed 0:20:0 dcd
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# service-policy CONNS interface outside
 

You can enter set connection commands with multiple parameters, or you can enter each parameter as a separate command. The ASA combines the commands into one line in the running configuration. For example, if you entered the following two commands in class configuration mode:

ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# set connection timeout idle 2:0:0
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# set connection timeout embryonic 0:40:0
 

Then the output of the show running-config policy-map command would display the result of the two commands in the following single, combined command:

set connection timeout tcp 2:0:0 embryonic 0:40:0
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class

Specifies a class-map to use for traffic classification.

clear configure policy-map

Remove all policy-map configuration, except that if a policy-map is in use in a service-policy command, that policy-map is not removed.

policy-map

Configures a policy; that is, an association of a traffic class and one or more actions.

set connection

Configure connection values.

show running-config policy-map

Display all current policy-map configurations.

show service-policy

Displays counters for DCD and other service activity.

set local-preference

To specify a preference value for the autonomous system path, use the set local-preference command in route-map configuration mode. To delete an entry, use the no form of this command.

set local-preference number-value

no set local-preference number-value

 
Syntax Description

number-value

Preference value. An integer from 0 to 4294967295.

 
Defaults

Preference value is 100.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

The preference is sent only to all routers in the local autonomous system.

Use the route-map global configuration command, and the match and set route-map configuration commands, to define the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another. Each route-map command has a list of match and set commands associated with it. The match commands specify the match criteria --the conditions under which redistribution is allowed for the current route-map command. The set commands specify the set actions --the particular redistribution actions to perform if the criteria enforced by the match commands are met. The no route-map command deletes the route map.

The set route-map configuration commands specify the redistribution set actions to be performed when all the match criteria of a route map are met. When all match criteria are met, all set actions are performed.

You can change the default preference value with the bgp default local-preference command.

Examples

The following example sets the local preference to 100 for all routes that are included in access list 1:

ciscoasa(config-route-map)# route-map map-preference
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match as-path 1
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set local-preference 100
 

set metric

To set the metric value of a route for OSPF and other dynamic routing protocols in a route map, use the set metric command in route-map configuration mode. To return to the default metric value for OSPF and other dynamic routing protocols, use the no form of this command.

set metric metric-value | [ bandwidth delay reliability loading mtu ]

no set metric metric-value | [ bandwidth delay reliability loading mtu ]

 
Syntax Description

bandwidth

EIGRP bandwidth of a route, in kbps. Valid values range from 0 to 4294967295.

delay

EIGRP route delay, in tens of microseconds. Valid values range from 0 to 4294967295.

loading

Effective EIGRP bandwidth of a route expressed as a number from 0 to 255. The value 255 means 100 percent loading.

metric-value

Metric value of a route for OSPF and other dynamic routing protocols (except for EIGRP), expressed as a number. Valid values range from 0 to 4294967295.

mtu

Minimum MTU size of a route for EIGRP, in bytes. Valid values range from 0 to 4294967295.

reliability

Likelihood of successful packet transmission for EIGRP expressed as a number from 0 to 255. The value 255 means 100 percent reliability; 0 means no reliability.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

8.2(5)

Added the bandwidth , delay , reliability , loading , and mtu arguments to support EIGRP in a route map.

9.0(1)

Multiple context mode is supported.

 
Usage Guidelines

The no set metric command allows you to return to the default metric value for OSPF and other dynamic routing protocols. In this context, the metric-value argument is an integer from 0 to 4294967295.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a route map for OSPF routing:

ciscoasa(config)# route-map maptag1 permit 8
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set metric 5
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match metric 5
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# show route-map
route-map maptag1 permit 8
set metric 5
match metric 5
 

The following example shows how to set the metric value for EIGRP in a route map:

ciscoasa(config)# access-list route-out line 1 standard permit 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
ciscoasa(config)# route-map rmap permit 10
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set metric 10000 60 100 1 1500
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# show route-map rmap
route-map rmap, permit, sequence 10
Match clauses:
ip address (access-lists): route-out
Set clauses:
metric 10000 60 100 1 1500
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# show running-config route-map
route-map rmap permit 10
match ip address route-out
set metric 10000 60 100 1 1500
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

match interface

Distributes any routes that have their next hop out of one of the interfaces specified,

match ip next-hop

Distributes any routes that have a next-hop router address that is passed by one of the access lists specified.

route-map

Defines the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another.

set metric (BGP, OSPF, RIP)

To set the metric value for a routing protocol, use the set metric command in route-map configuration mode. To return to the default metric value, use the no form of this command.

set metric metric-value

no set metric

 
Syntax Descriptionno set as-path {tag | prepend as-path-string}

metric-value

Metric value or Bandwidth in Kbits per second; an integer value from 0 to 4294967295. This argument applies to all routing protocols except Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP).

 
Defaults

The dynamically learned metric value.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

We recommend that you consult your Cisco technical support representative before changing the default value.

Use the route-map global configuration command, and the match and set route-map configuration commands, to define the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another. Each route-map command has a list of match and set commands associated with it. The match commands specify the match criteria—the conditions under which redistribution is allowed for the current route-map command. The set commands specify the set actions—the particular redistribution actions to perform if the criteria enforced by the match commands are met. The no route-map command deletes the route map.

The set route-map configuration commands specify the redistribution set actions to be performed when all the match criteria of a route map are met. When all match criteria are met, all set actions are performed.

Examples

The following example sets the metric value for the routing protocol to 100:

ciscoasa(config-route-map)# route-map set-metric 100
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set metric 100

set metric-type

To specify the type of OSPF metric routes, use the set metric-type command in route-map configuration mode. To return to the default setting, use the no form of this command.

set metric-type { type-1 | type-2 }

no set metric-type

 
Syntax Description

type-1

Specifies the type of OSPF metric routes that are external to a specified autonomous system.

type-2

Specifies the type of OSPF metric routes that are external to a specified autonomous system.

 
Defaults

The default is type-2.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

9.0(1)

Multiple context mode is supported.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure a route map for OSPF routing:

ciscoasa(config)# route-map maptag1 permit 8
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set metric 5
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match metric 5
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set metric-type type-2
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# show route-map
route-map maptag1 permit 8
set metric 5
set metric-type type-2
match metric 5
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# exit
ciscoasa(config)#
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

match interface

Distributes any routes that have their next hop out one of the interfaces specified,

route-map

Defines the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another.

set metric

Specifies the metric value in the destination routing protocol for a route map.

set metric-type internal

To set the Multi Exit Discriminator (MED) value on prefixes advertised to external BGP (eBGP) neighbors to match the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) metric of the next hop, use the set metric-type internal command in route-map configuration mode. To return to the default, use the no form of this command.

set metric-type internal

no set metric-type internal

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Command Default

This command is disabled by default.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

This command will cause BGP to advertise a MED value that corresponds to the IGP metric associated with the next hop of the route. This command applies to generated, internal BGP (iBGP)-, and eBGP-derived routes.

If this command is used, multiple BGP speakers in a common autonomous system can advertise different MED values for a particular prefix. Also, note that if the IGP metric changes, BGP will readvertise the route every 10 minutes.

Use the route-map global configuration command and the match and set route-map configuration commands to define the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another. Each route-map command has a list of match and set commands associated with it. The match commands specify the match criteria—the conditions under which redistribution is allowed for the current route-map command. The set commands specify the set actions—the particular redistribution actions to perform if the criteria enforced by the match commands are met. The no route-map command deletes the route map.

The set route-map configuration commands specify the redistribution set actions to be performed when all of the match criteria of the route map are met. When all match criteria are met, all set actions are performed.


Note This command is not supported for redistributing routes into the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).


Examples

In the following example, the MED value for all the advertised routes to neighbor 172.16.2.3 is set to the corresponding IGP metric of the next hop:

ciscoasa(config)# router bgp 109
ciscoasa(config-router)# address-family ipv4
ciscoasa(config-router-af)# network 172.16.0.0
ciscoasa(config-router-af)# neighbor 172.16.2.3 remote-as 200
ciscoasa(config-router-af)# neighbor 172.16.2.3 route-map setMED out
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# route-map setMED permit 10
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match as-path as-path-acl
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set metric-type internal
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# ip as-path access-list as-path-acl permit .*
 

set ip next-hop BGP

To indicate where to output packets that pass a match clause of a route map for policy routing, use the set ip next-hop command in route-map configuration mode. To delete an entry, use the no form of this command.

set ip next-hop ip-address [... ip-address] [peer-address]

no set ip next-hop ip-address [... ip-address] [peer-address]

 
Syntax Descriptionno set as-path {tag | prepend as-path-string}

ip-address

IP address of the next hop to which packets are output. It need not be an adjacent router.

peer-address

(Optional) Sets the next hop to be the BGP peering address.

 
Defaults

This command is disabled by default.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

An ellipsis (...) in the command syntax indicates that your command input can include multiple values for the ip-address argument.

Use the ip policy route-map interface configuration command, the route-map global configuration command, and the match and set route-map configuration commands to define the conditions for policy routing packets. The ip policy route-map command identifies a route map by name. Each route-map command has a list of match and set commands associated with it. The match commands specify the match criteria—the conditions under which policy routing occurs. The set commands specify the set actions—the particular routing actions to perform if the criteria enforced by the match commands are met.

If the first next hop specified with the set next-hop command is down, the optionally specified IP addresses are tried in turn.

When the set next-hop command is used with the peer-address keyword in an inbound route map of a BGP peer, the next hop of the received matching routes will be set to be the neighbor peering address, overriding any third-party next hops. So the same route map can be applied to multiple BGP peers to override third-party next hops.

When the set next-hop command is used with the peer-address keyword in an outbound route map of a BGP peer, the next hop of the advertised matching routes will be set to be the peering address of the local router, thus disabling the next hop calculation. The set next-hop command has finer granularity than the (per-neighbor) neighbor next-hop-self command, because you can set the next hop for some routes, but not others. The neighbor next-hop-self command sets the next hop for all routes sent to that neighbor.

The set clauses can be used in conjunction with one another. They are evaluated in the following order:

1. set next-hop

2. set interface

3. set default next-hop

4. set default interface


Note To avoid a common configuration error for reflected routes, do not use the set next-hop command in a route map to be applied to BGP route reflector clients.


Examples

In the following example, three routers are on the same LAN (with IP addresses 10.1.1.1, 10.1.1.2, and 10.1.1.3). Each is in a different autonomous system. The set ip next-hop peer-address command specifies that traffic from the router (10.1.1.3) in remote autonomous system 300 for the router (10.1.1.1) in remote autonomous system 100 that matches the route map is passed through the router bgp 200, rather than sent directly to the router (10.1.1.1) in autonomous system 100 over their mutual connection to the LAN.

ciscoasa(config)# router bgp 200
ciscoasa(config-router)# address-family ipv4
ciscoasa(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.1.1.3 remote-as 300
ciscoasa(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.1.1.3 route-map set-peer-address out
ciscoasa(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.1.1.1 remote-as 100
ciscoasa(config-route-af)# route-map set-peer-address permit 10
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop peer-address

set origin (BGP)

To set the BGP origin code, use the set origin command in route-map configuration mode. To delete an entry, use the no form of this command.

set origin {igp | egp autonomous-system-number | incomplete}

no set origin {igp | egp autonomous-system-number | incomplete}

 
Syntax Description

autonomous-system-number

Number of a remote autonomous system number. The range of values for this argument is any valid autonomous system number from 1 to 65535.

egp

Local External Gateway Protocol (EGP) system.

igp

Remote Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) system.

incomplete

Unknown heritage.

 
Defaults

The origin of the route is based on the path information of the route in the main IP routing table.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

You must have a match clause (even if it points to a "permit everything" list) if you want to set the origin of a route. Use this command to set a specific origin when a route is redistributed into BGP. When routes are redistributed, the origin is usually recorded as incomplete, identified with a ? in the BGP table.

Use the route-map global configuration command, and the match and set route-map configuration commands, to define the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another. Each route-map command has a list of match and set commands associated with it. The match commands specify the match criteria—the conditions under which redistribution is allowed for the current route-map command. The set commands specify the set actions—the particular redistribution actions to perform if the criteria enforced by the match commands are met. The no route-map command deletes the route map.

The set route-map configuration commands specify the redistribution set actions to be performed when all of the match criteria of a route map are met. When all match criteria are met, all set actions are performed.

Examples

The following example sets the origin of routes that pass the route map to IGP:

ciscoasa(config-route-map)# route-map set_origin
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match as-path 10
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# set origin igp

set weight

To specify the BGP weight for the routing table, use the set weight command in route-map configuration mode. To delete an entry, use the no form of this command.

set weight number

no set weight number

 
Syntax Description

number

Weight value. It can be an integer ranging from 0 to 65535.

 
Defaults

The weight is not changed by the specified route map.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Route-map configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

The implemented weight is based on the first matched autonomous system path. Weights indicated when an autonomous system path is matched override the weights assigned by global neighbor commands. In other words, the weights assigned with the set weight route-map configuration command override the weights assigned using the neighbor weight command.

Examples

The following example sets the BGP weight for the routes matching the autonomous system path access list to 200:

ciscoasa(config-route-map)# route-map set-weight
ciscoasa(config-route-map)# match as-path as_path_acl
iscoasa(config-route-map)# set weight 200

setup

To configure a minimal configuration for the ASA using interactive prompts, enter the setup command in global configuration mode.

setup

 
Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

 
Defaults

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Global configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.0(1)

This command was introduced.

8.4(1)

In routed mode for the ASA 5510 and higher, the interface configured is now the Management slot / port interface, and not the “inside” interface. For the ASA 5505, the interface configured is the VLAN 1 interface, not “inside”.

9.0(1)

The default configuration prompt was changed, and Ctrl + Z to exit the setup process was enabled.

 
Usage Guidelines

The setup prompt automatically appears at boot time if there is no startup configuration in flash memory.

The setup command walks you through minimal configuration to establish ASDM connectivity. This command is designed for a unit that has either no configuration or a partial configuration. If your model supports a factory default configuration, we recommend using the factory default configuration instead of the setup command (to restore the default configuration, use the configure factory-default command).

The setup command requires an already-named interface called “management”.

When you enter the setup command, you are asked for the information in Table 1-1 . If there is already a configuration for the listed parameter, it appears in brackets, so you can either accept it as the default or override it by entering a new value. The exact prompts available may differ per model. The system setup command includes a subset of these prompts.

 

Table 1-1 Setup Prompts

Prompt
Description
Pre-configure Firewall now through interactive prompts [yes]?

Enter yes or no . If you enter yes , the setup continues. If no , the setup stops and the global configuration prompt (ciscoasa(config)#) appears.

Firewall Mode [Routed]:

Enter routed or transparent .

Enable password:

Enter an enable password. (The password must have at least three characters.)

Allow password recovery [yes]?

Enter yes or no .

Clock (UTC):

You cannot enter anything in this field. The UTC time is used by default.

Year:

Enter the year using four digits, for example, 2005. The year range is 1993 to 2035.

Month:

Enter the month using the first three characters of its name, for example, Sep for September.

Day:

Enter the day of the month, from 1 to 31.

Time:

Enter the hour, minutes, and seconds in 24-hour time format, for example, enter 20:54:44 for 8:54 p.m and 44 seconds.

Host name:

Enter the hostname that you want to display in the command line prompt.

Domain name:

Enter the domain name of the network on which the ASA runs.

IP address of host running Device Manager:

Enter the IP address of the host that needs to access ASDM.

Use this configuration and save to flash (yes)?

Enter yes or no . If you enter yes , the inside interface is enabled and the requested configuration is written to the Flash partition.

If you enter no , the setup prompt repeats, beginning with the first question:

Pre-configure Firewall now through interactive prompts [yes]?
 

Enter Ctrl + Z to exit the setup or yes to repeat the prompt.

Examples

The following example shows how to complete the setup command:

ciscoasa(config)# setup
Pre-configure Firewall now through interactive prompts [yes]? yes
Firewall Mode [Routed]: routed
Enable password [<use current password>]: writer
Allow password recovery [yes]? yes
Clock (UTC):
Year: 2005
Month: Nov
Day: 15
Time: 10:0:0
Inside IP address: 192.168.1.1
Inside network mask: 255.255.255.0
Host name: tech_pubs
Domain name: example.com
IP address of host running Device Manager: 10.1.1.1
 
The following configuration will be used:
Enable password: writer
Allow password recovery: yes
Clock (UTC): 20:54:44 Sep 17 2005
Firewall Mode: Routed
Inside IP address: 192.168.1.1
Inside network mask: 255.255.255.0
Host name: tech_pubs
Domain name: example.com
IP address of host running Device Manager: 10.1.1.1
 
Use this configuration and write to flash? yes
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

configure factory-default

Restores the default configuration.

sfr

To redirect traffic to the ASA FirePOWER module, use the sfr command in class configuration mode. To remove the redirect, use the no form of this command.

sfr { fail-close | fail-open } [ monitor-only ]

no sfr { fail-close | fail-open } [ monitor-only ]

 
Syntax Description

fail-close

Sets the ASA to block the traffic if the module is unavailable.

fail-open

Sets the ASA to allow the traffic through, applying ASA policies only, if the module is unavailable.

monitor-only

Sends a read-only copy of traffic to the module, i.e. passive mode. If you do not include the keyword, the traffic is sent in inline mode.

 
Command Default

No default behavior or values.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Class configuration

  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

9.2(1)

We introduced this command.

 
Usage Guidelines

You can access the class configuration mode by first entering the policy-map command.

Before or after you configure the sfr command on the ASA, configure the security policy on the module using FireSIGHT Management Center.

To configure the sfr command, you must first configure the class-map command, policy-map command, and the class command.

Traffic Flow

The ASA FirePOWER module runs a separate application from the ASA. It is, however, integrated into the ASA traffic flow. When you apply the sfr command for a class of traffic on the ASA, traffic flows through the ASA and the module in the following way:

1. Traffic enters the ASA.

2. Incoming VPN traffic is decrypted.

3. Firewall policies are applied.

4. Traffic is sent to the ASA FirePOWER module over the backplane.

5. The module applies its security policy to the traffic and takes appropriate actions.

6. In inline mode, valid traffic is sent back to the ASA over the backplane; the ASA FirePOWER module might block some traffic according to its security policy, and that traffic is not passed on. In passive mode, no traffic is returned, and the module cannot block traffic.

7. Outgoing VPN traffic is encrypted.

8. Traffic exits the ASA.

Compatibility with ASA Features

The ASA includes many advanced application inspection features, including HTTP inspection. However, the ASA FirePOWER module provides more advanced HTTP inspection than the ASA provides, as well as additional features for other applications, including monitoring and controlling application usage.

To take full advantage of the ASA FirePOWER module features, see the following guidelines for traffic that you send to the ASA FirePOWER module:

  • Do not configure ASA inspection on HTTP traffic.
  • Do not configure Cloud Web Security (ScanSafe) inspection. If you configure both ASA FirePOWER inspection and Cloud Web Security inspection for the same traffic, the ASA only performs ASA FirePOWER inspection.
  • Other application inspections on the ASA are compatible with the ASA FirePOWER module, including the default inspections.
  • Do not enable the Mobile User Security (MUS) server; it is not compatible with the ASA FirePOWER module.
  • If you enable failover, when the ASA fails over, any existing ASA FirePOWER flows are transferred to the new ASA. The ASA FirePOWER module in the new ASA begins inspecting the traffic from that point forward; old inspection states are not transferred.

Monitor-Only Mode

The traffic flow in monitor-only mode is the same as it is for inline mode. The only difference is that the ASA FirePOWER module does not pass traffic back to the ASA. Instead, the module applies the security policy to the traffic and lets you know what it would have done if it were operating in inline mode, e.g. traffic might be marked “would have dropped” in events. You can use this information for traffic analysis and to help you decide if inline mode is desirable.


Note You cannot configure both monitor-only mode and normal inline mode at the same time on the ASA. Only one type of security policy is allowed. In multiple context mode, you cannot configure monitor-only mode for some contexts, and regular inline mode for others.


Examples

The following example diverts all HTTP traffic to the ASA FirePOWER module, and blocks all HTTP traffic if the module fails for any reason:

ciscoasa(config)# access-list ASASFR permit tcp any any eq port 80
ciscoasa(config)# class-map my-sfr-class
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match access-list ASASFR
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# policy-map my-sfr-policy
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class my-sfr-class
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# sfr fail-close
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# service-policy my-cx-policy global
 

The following example diverts all IP traffic destined for the 10.1.1.0 network and the 10.2.1.0 network to the ASA FirePOWER module, and allows all traffic through if the module fails for any reason.

ciscoasa(config)# access-list my-sfr-acl permit ip any 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
ciscoasa(config)# access-list my-sfr-acl2 permit ip any 10.2.1.0 255.255.255.0
ciscoasa(config)# class-map my-sfr-class
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match access-list my-sfr-acl
ciscoasa(config)# class-map my-sfr-class2
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match access-list my-sfr-acl2
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# policy-map my-sfr-policy
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class my-sfr-class
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# sfr fail-open
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class my-sfr-class2
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# sfr fail-open
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# service-policy my-sfr-policy interface outside
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class

Specifies a class map to use for traffic classification.

class-map

Identifies traffic for use in a policy map.

hw-module module reload

Reloads the module.

hw-module module reset

Performs a reset and then reloads the module.

hw-module module shutdown

Shuts down the module.

policy-map

Configures a policy; that is, an association of a traffic class and one or more actions.

show asp table classify domain sfr

Shows the NP rules created to send traffic to the ASA FirePOWER module.

show module

Shows the module status.

show running-config policy-map

Displays all current policy map configurations.

show service-policy

Shows service policy statistics.

sw-module module sfr reload

Reloads the software module.

sw-module module sfr reset

Resets the software module.

sw-module module sfr recover

Installs the software module boot image.

sw-module module sfr shutdown

Shuts down the software module.

shape

To enable QoS traffic shaping, use the shape command in class configuration mode. If you have a device that transmits packets at a high speed, such as a ASA with Fast Ethernet, and it is connected to a low speed device such as a cable modem, then the cable modem is a bottleneck at which packets are frequently dropped. To manage networks with differing line speeds, you can configure the ASA to transmit packets at a fixed slower rate, called traffic shaping . To remove this configuration, use the no form of this command.


Note Traffic shaping is only supported on the ASA 5505, 5510, 5520, 5540, and 5550. Multi-core models (such as the ASA 5500-X) do not support shaping.


shape average rate [ burst_size ]

no shape average rate [ burst_size ]

 
Syntax Description

average rate

Sets the average rate of traffic in bits per second over a given fixed time period, between 64000 and 154400000. Specify a value that is a multiple of 8000. See the “Usage Guidelines” section for more information about how the time period is calculated.

burst_size

Sets the average burst size in bits that can be transmitted over a given fixed time period, between 2048 and 154400000. Specify a value that is a multiple of 128. If you do not specify the burst_size , the default value is equivalent to 4-milliseconds of traffic at the specified average rate. For example, if the average rate is 1000000 bits per second, 4 ms worth = 1000000 * 4/1000 = 4000.

 
Defaults

If you do not specify the burst_size , the default value is equivalent to 4-milliseconds of traffic at the specified average rate. For example, if the average rate is 1000000 bits per second, 4 ms worth = 1000000 * 4/1000 = 4000.

 
Command Modes

The following table shows the modes in which you can enter the command:

 

Command Mode
Firewall Mode
Security Context
Routed
Transparent
Single
Multiple
Context
System

Class configuration

  • Yes

  • Yes

 
Command History

Release
Modification

7.2(4)/8.0(4)

This command was introduced.

 
Usage Guidelines

To enable traffic shaping, use the Modular Policy Framework:

1. policy-map —Identify the actions associated with the class-default class map.

a. class class-default —Identify the class-default class map on which you want to perform actions.

b. shape —Apply traffic shaping to the class map.

c. (Optional) service-policy —Call a different policy map in which you configured the priority command so you can apply priority queueing to a subset of shaped traffic.

2. service-policy —Assigns the policy map to an interface or globally.

Traffic Shaping Overview

Traffic shaping is used to match device and link speeds, thereby controlling packet loss, variable delay, and link saturation, which can cause jitter and delay.

  • Traffic shaping must be applied to all outgoing traffic on a physical interface or in the case of the ASA 5505, on a VLAN. You cannot configure traffic shaping for specific types of traffic.
  • Traffic shaping is implemented when packets are ready to be transmitted on an interface, so the rate calculation is performed based on the actual size of a packet to be transmitted, including all the possible overhead such as the IPsec header and L2 header.
  • The shaped traffic includes both through-the-box and from-the-box traffic.
  • The shape rate calculation is based on the standard token bucket algorithm. The token bucket size is twice the burst size value. See the CLI configuration guide for more information about the token bucket.
  • When bursty traffic exceeds the specified shape rate, packets are queued and transmitted later. Following are some characteristics regarding the shape queue (for information about hierarchical priority queueing, see the priority command):

The queue size is calculated based on the shape rate. The queue can hold the equivalent of 200-milliseconds worth of shape rate traffic, assuming a 1500-byte packet. The minimum queue size is 64.

When the queue limit is reached, packets are tail-dropped.

Certain critical keep-alive packets such as OSPF Hello packets are never dropped.

The time interval is derived by time_interval = burst_size / average_rate . The larger the time interval is, the burstier the shaped traffic might be, and the longer the link might be idle. The effect can be best understood using the following exaggerated example:

Average Rate = 1000000

Burst Size = 1000000

In the above example, the time interval is 1 second, which means, 1 Mbps of traffic can be bursted out within the first 10 milliseconds of the 1-second interval on a 100 Mbps FE link and leave the remaining 990 milliseconds idle without being able to send any packets until the next time interval. So if there is delay-sensitive traffic such as voice traffic, the Burst Size should be reduced compared to the average rate so the time interval is reduced.

How QoS Features Interact

You can configure each of the QoS features alone if desired for the ASA. Often, though, you configure multiple QoS features on the ASA so you can prioritize some traffic, for example, and prevent other traffic from causing bandwidth problems.

See the following supported feature combinations per interface:

  • Standard priority queuing (for specific traffic) + Policing (for the rest of the traffic).

You cannot configure priority queueing and policing for the same set of traffic.

  • Traffic shaping (for all traffic on an interface) + Hierarchical priority queueing (for a subset of traffic).

You cannot configure traffic shaping and standard priority queueing for the same interface; only hierarchical priority queueing is allowed. For example, if you configure standard priority queueing for the global policy, and then configure traffic shaping for a specific interface, the feature you configured last is rejected because the global policy overlaps the interface policy.

Typically, if you enable traffic shaping, you do not also enable policing for the same traffic, although the ASA does not restrict you from configuring this.

Examples

The following example enables traffic shaping for all traffic on the outside interface, and prioritizes traffic within VPN tunnel-grp1 with the DSCP bit set to ef:

ciscoasa(config)# class-map TG1-voice
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match tunnel-group tunnel-grp1
ciscoasa(config-cmap)# match dscp ef
 
ciscoasa(config)# policy-map priority-sub-policy
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class TG1-voice
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# priority
 
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# policy-map shape_policy
ciscoasa(config-pmap)# class class-default
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# shape
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# service-policy priority-sub-policy
 
ciscoasa(config-pmap-c)# service-policy shape_policy interface outside
 

 
Related Commands

Command
Description

class

Identifies the class map on which you want to perform actions in a policy map.

police

Enables QoS policing.

policy-map

Identifies actions to apply to traffic in a service policy.

priority

Enables QoS priority queueing.

service-policy (class)

Applies a hierarchical policy map.

service-policy (global)

Applies a service policy to interface(s).

show service-policy

Shows QoS statistics.