Cisco IOS H.323 Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 12.4T
Last Updated: December 14, 2011
This chapter provides an overview of the ITU- H.323 standard for sending and receiving audio, video, and data on an IP-based internetwork.
Prerequisites for Configuring an H.323 Network
#Client Name Key #----------- ------------------- gk215.cisco.com testing123
Where gk215.cisco.com is resolved to the IP address of the gatekeeper requesting authentication
firstname.lastname@example.org Password = "thiswouldbethepassword" User-Service-Type = Framed-User, Login-Service = Telnet
Where email@example.com is the h323-id of the gateway authenticating to gatekeeper gk215.cisco.com.
Restrictions for Configuring an H.323 Network
This section describes the following restrictions:
H.323 Version 2 Restrictions
H.323 Signaling Enhancement Restrictions
Source Call Signal Address and H.245 Empty Capabilities Set Restrictions
Call Transfer Restrictions
Ecosystem Gatekeeper Interoperability Restrictions
Information About H.323
The table below lists H.323 standards and applicable Cisco VoIP features.
1 To learn about restrictions that apply to Version 2, see the "H.323 Version 2 Restrictions" section on page 10 .
The figure below shows a typical H.323 network. Network components are described below.
An H.323 terminal is an endpoint in the network that provides for real-time, two-way communications with another H.323 terminal, gateway, or multipoint control unit (MCU). The communications consist of control, indications, audio, moving color video pictures, or data between the two terminals. A terminal may provide audio only; audio and data; audio and video; or audio, data, and video. The terminal can be a computer-based video conferencing system or other device.
A gatekeeper supports a broad variety of H.323 terminal implementations from many different vendors. These terminals must support the standard H.323 Registration, Admission, and Status (RAS) protocol to function with the gatekeeper.
Gatekeepers recognize one of two types of terminal aliases, or terminal names:
If an H.323 network deploys interzone communication, each terminal should at least have a fully qualified e-mail name as its H.323 identification (ID), for example, firstname.lastname@example.org. The domain name of the e-mail ID should be the same as the configured domain name for the gatekeeper of which it is to be a member. As in the previous example, the domain name would be cisco.com.
Multipoint Control Unit
A multipoint control unit (MCU) is an endpoint on the network that allows three or more endpoints to participate in a multipoint conference. It controls and mixes video, audio, and data from endpoints to create a robust multimedia conference. An MCU may also connect two endpoints in a point-to-point conference, which may later develop into a multipoint conference.
An H.323 gateway is an endpoint on the LAN that provides real-time communications between H.323 terminals on the LAN and other ITU terminals on a WAN or to other H.323 gateways.
Gateways allow H.323 terminals to communicate with devices that are running other protocols. They provide protocol conversion between the devices that are running different types of protocols. For example, the figure below shows a gateway between an H.323 terminal and a non-H.323 terminal.
H.323 proxies are special types of gateways that relay H.323 calls to another H.323 endpoint. They can be used to isolate sections of an H.323 network for security purposes, to manage quality of service (QoS), or to perform special application-specific routing tasks.
An H.323 gatekeeper is an H.323 entity on the LAN that provides address translation and that controls access to the LAN for H.323 terminals, gateways, and MCUs.
Gatekeepers are optional nodes that manage endpoints in an H.323 network. The endpoints communicate with the gatekeeper using the RAS protocol.
Endpoints attempt to register with a gatekeeper on startup. When they wish to communicate with another endpoint, they request admission to initiate a call using a symbolic alias for the endpoint, such as an E.164 address or an e-mail address. If the gatekeeper decides that the call can proceed, it returns a destination IP address to the originating endpoint. This IP address may not be the actual address of the destination endpoint, but it may be an intermediate address, such as the address of a proxy or a gatekeeper that routes call signaling.
The Cisco gatekeeper provides H.323 call management, including admission control, bandwidth management, and routing services for calls in the network.
The Cisco H.323-compliant Multimedia Conference Manager (MCM) is a subset of gatekeeper functionality available in a special image.
An endpoint that detects the failure of its gatekeeper can safely recover from that failure by utilizing an alternate gatekeeper for future requests, including requests for existing calls. A gateway can only be registered to a single GK at a time. Only one GK is allowed to manage a single zone. The cluster manages up to five similarly configured zones and shares resources between the alternate gatekeepers in the cluster for each zone. You can define up to 100 zones in a single GK.
A calling endpoint can recover from a call setup failure by sending a setup message to one of the alternate endpoints so that it is possible for a call to finish even if a gateway goes down and the gatekeeper is not yet aware of the problem. Cisco supports a maximum of 20 alternates for each endpoint, and any alternates received through registration, admission, and status protocol (RAS) messages are merged with those entered manually in the gatekeeper command-line interface. If more than 20 alternates are submitted, the total list of alternates reverts back to 20.
The Gatekeeper Transaction Message Protocol (GKTMP) servers can set triggers for disengage request (DRQ) and resource availability indication (RAI) messages. Other messages are extended to contain more parameters for added call control.
The gatekeeper sends detailed call information to a RADIUS distributed client/server system that can be used for billing purposes. RADIUS servers use the vendor-specific attribute (VSA) capability to configure features for individual users.
Cost and priority fields are included with each remote zone definition, which ensures that the zones with lower cost are given an advantage over zones with higher cost.
Load balancing allows the gatekeeper to move registered H.323 endpoints to an alternate gatekeeper or to reject new calls and registrations once a certain threshold is met.
Border elements (BE) exchange addressing information and participate in call authorization between the administrative domains. The BEs are often located with a gatekeeper. The BE can reduce the routing information passed though the network by aggregating address information.
An H.323 endpoint is an H.323 terminal, gateway, or MCU. An endpoint can call and be called.
H.323 endpoints are grouped into zones. Each zone has one gatekeeper that manages all the endpoints in the zone. A zone is an administrative convenience similar to a Domain Name System (DNS) domain. (Because a zone is, by definition, the area of control of a gatekeeper, the terms "zone name" and "gatekeeper name" are used synonymously in this chapter.)
Discovery and Registration
Gateways and gatekeepers communicate using the Registration, Admission, and Status (RAS) protocol for discovery and registration. When endpoints are brought online, they first attempt to discover their gatekeeper. They discover their gatekeeper either by sending multicast a discovery request or by being configured with the address and, optionally, with the name of the gatekeeper and by sending a unicast discovery request. Following successful discovery, each endpoint registers with the gatekeeper. The gatekeeper keeps track of which endpoints are online and available to receive calls.
Cisco IOS Network Address Translation (NAT) supports all H.225 and H.245 message types, including those sent in the RAS protocol.
In a typical H.323 call setup scenario, after RAS messages are exchanged, H.225 setup messages are sent over a control channel. For example, in the figure below, both gateways are registered to the same gatekeeper, and the gatekeeper has chosen direct call signaling.
Fast connect allows endpoints to establish media channels without waiting for a separate H.245 connection to be opened. This streamlines the number of messages that are exchanged and the amount of processing that must be done before endpoint connections can be established. A high-level view of the fast-connect procedures within the H.323 protocol follows:
Fast connect is not explicitly configurable. All H.323 Version 2 VoIP endpoints are capable of initiating or accepting fast-connect calls. It is assumed that the gateway is capable of sending and receiving fast-connect procedures unless its corresponding dial peer has been configured for the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). RSVP means the quality of service is set by the req-qos command to a value other than the default of best-effort. If the dial peer has been configured for RSVP, traditional "slow" connect procedures are followed, and the endpoint neither attempts to initiate fast connect nor responds to a fast-connect request from its peer.
A terminating endpoint can reject fast connect by simply omitting the fastStart element from all H.225 messages up to and including connect. In this case, normal H.245 procedures are followed and a separate H.245 TCP connection is established. So, if an endpoint does not support the fast-connect procedures, normal H.245 procedures are followed. In addition, certain conditions can cause a fast-connect call to fall back to normal H.245 procedures to complete the call.
Once a media connection has been opened (an audio path has been established), either endpoint has the option of switching to H.245 procedures (if they are needed) by using H.245 tunneling, whereby H.245 messages are encapsulated within the h245Control element of H.225 messages.
The dtmf-relay command is the only H.245-cognizant command that can initiate H.245-tunneling procedures from a fast-connect call. If H.245 tunneling is active on the call, switching to a separate H.245 connection is not supported.
A Cisco terminating endpoint accepts a fast-connect request only if a pair of symmetric codecs (codecs that in both directions are equivalent or identical) can be selected from a list that has been offered. The originating endpoint is constrained only by what it can send through the codec (or voice class codec list) associated with the dial peer.
If the Cisco originating endpoint has offered multiple codecs and the terminating endpoint selects a pair of asymmetric (mismatched) codecs, the originating endpoint initiates separate H.245 procedures to correct the asymmetric codec situation.
Fast connect is backward compatible with H.323 Version 1 configurations.
Either gateway may terminate a call in one of the following ways:
An endpoint receiving an endSessionCommand message without first having transmitted it carries out steps 1 and 7 above, except that in Step 5, the gateway waits for the endSessionCommand message from the first endpoint.
Terminating a call may not terminate a conference; a conference may be explicitly terminated using an H.245 message (dropConference). In this case, the gateways wait for the multipoint controller to terminate the calls as described.
In networks that contain a gatekeeper, the gatekeeper needs to know about the release of bandwidth. After performing steps 1 to 6 in the preceding section, each endpoint transmits an H.225 disengage request (DRQ) message (3) to its gatekeeper as shown in the figure below. The gatekeeper responds with a disengage confirm (DCF) message (4). After sending the DRQ message, the endpoints do not send further unsolicited information request response (IRR) messages that relate to that call to the gatekeeper. At this point, the call is terminated. The figure below shows the direct call model. The DRQ and DCF messages are sent on the RAS channel.
Cisco IOS H.323 gateways will terminate a call if a TCP connection is closed while the call is in progress, or if a TCP connection error is detected when signaling message are sent or received.
Security for RAS protocol signaling between H.323 endpoints and gatekeepers is enhanced in H.323 Version 2 software by including secure endpoint registration of the Cisco gateway to the Cisco gatekeeper and secure per-call authentication. In addition, it provides for the protection of specific messages related to Open Settlement Protocol (OSP) and to other messages as required via encryption tokens. The authentication type is "password with hashing" as described in the ITU H.235 specifications. Specifically, the encryption method is to use the MD5 algorithm, with password hashing. This functionality is provided by the security token required-forcommand on the gatekeeper and the security password command on the gateway.
The gatekeeper can interact with a RADIUS security server to perform the authentications. The gateway can also authenticate an external application by using the Gatekeeper Transaction Message Protocol (GKTMP) application programming interface (API).
Per-call authentication is accomplished by validating account and pin numbers that are entered by the user connected to the calling gateway by using an IVR prompt.
The security mechanisms described above require the gateway and gatekeeper clocks to be synchronized within 30 seconds of each other by using a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server.
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Any Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and phone numbers used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses and phone numbers. Any examples, command display output, network topology diagrams, and other figures included in the document are shown for illustrative purposes only. Any use of actual IP addresses or phone numbers in illustrative content is unintentional and coincidental.
1 To learn about restrictions that apply to Version 2, see the "H.323 Version 2 Restrictions" section on page 10 .
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