IP Routing: BGP Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
iBGP Multipath Load Sharing
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iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

This feature module describes the iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Restrictions for iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

  • Route Reflector Limitation—With multiple iBGP paths installed in a routing table, a route reflector will advertise only one of the paths (one next hop).
  • Memory Consumption Restriction—Each IP routing table entry for a BGP prefix that has multiple iBGP paths uses approximately 350 bytes of additional memory. We recommend not using this feature on a router with a low amount of available memory and especially when the router is carrying a full Internet routing table.

Information about iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

iBGP Multipath Load Sharing Overview

When a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) speaking router with no local policy configured receives multiple network layer reachability information (NLRI) from the internal BGP (iBGP) for the same destination, the router will choose one iBGP path as the best path. The best path is then installed in the IP routing table of the router. For example, in the figure below, although there are three paths to autonomous system 200, Router 2 determines that one of the paths to autonomous system 200 is the best path and uses this path only to reach autonomous system 200.

Figure 1. Non-MPLS Topology with One Best Path

The iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature enables the BGP speaking router to select multiple iBGP paths as the best paths to a destination. The best paths or multipaths are then installed in the IP routing table of the router. For example, on router 2 in the figure below, the paths to routers 3, 4, and 5 are configured as multipaths and can be used to reach autonomous system 200, thereby equally sharing the load to autonomous system 200.

Figure 2. Non-MPLS Topology with Three Multipaths

The iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature functions similarly in a Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Virtual Private Network (VPN) with a service provider backbone. For example, on router PE1 in the figure below, the paths to routers PE2, PE3, and PE4 can be selected as multipaths and can be used to equally share the load to site 2.

Figure 3. MPLS VPN with Three Multipaths

For multiple paths to the same destination to be considered as multipaths, the following criteria must be met:

  • All attributes must be the same. The attributes include weight, local preference, autonomous system path (entire attribute and not just length), origin code, Multi Exit Discriminator (MED), and Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) distance.
  • The next hop router for each multipath must be different.

Even if the criteria are met and multiple paths are considered multipaths, the BGP speaking router will still designate one of the multipaths as the best path and advertise this best path to its neighbors.

The iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature is similar to BGP multipath support for external BGP (eBGP) paths; however, the iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature is applied to internal rather than eBGP paths.

Benefits of iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

Configuring multiple iBGP best paths enables a router to evenly share the traffic destined for a particular site.

How to Configure IBGP Multipath Load Sharing

Configuring iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

To configure the iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature, use the following command in router configuration mode:

Command

Purpose

Device(config-router)# maximum-paths ibgp maximum-number

Controls the maximum number of parallel iBGP routes that can be installed in a routing table.

Verifying iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

To verify that the iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature is configured correctly, perform the following steps:

SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    Enter the show ip bgp network-number EXEC command to display attributes for a network in a non-MPLS topology, or the show ip bgp vpnv4 all ip-prefix EXEC command to display attributes for a network in an MPLS VPN:

    2.    In the display resulting from the show ip bgp network-number EXEC command or the show ip bgp vpnv4 all ip-prefix EXEC command, verify that the intended multipaths are marked as “multipaths." Notice that one of the multipaths is marked as “best.”

    3.    Enter the show ip route ip-address EXEC command to display routing information for a network in a non-MPLS topology or the show ip route vrf vrf-name ip-prefix EXEC command to display routing information for a network in an MPLS VPN:

    4.    Verify that the paths marked as "multipath” in the display resulting from the show ip bgp ip-prefix EXEC command or the show ip bgp vpnv4 all ip-prefix EXEC command are included in the routing information. (The routing information is displayed after performing Step 3.)


DETAILED STEPS
    Step 1   Enter the show ip bgp network-number EXEC command to display attributes for a network in a non-MPLS topology, or the show ip bgp vpnv4 all ip-prefix EXEC command to display attributes for a network in an MPLS VPN:

    Example:
    Device# show ip bgp 10.22.22.0
    
    BGP routing table entry for 10.22.22.0/24, version 119
    Paths:(6 available, best #1)
    Multipath:iBGP
    Flag:0x820
      Advertised to non peer-group peers:
      10.1.12.12 
      22
        10.2.3.8 (metric 11) from 10.1.3.4 (100.0.0.5)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath, best
          Originator:100.0.0.5, Cluster list:100.0.0.4
      22
        10.2.1.9 (metric 11) from 10.1.1.2 (100.0.0.9)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath
          Originator:100.0.0.9, Cluster list:100.0.0.2
      22
        10.2.5.10 (metric 11) from 10.1.5.6 (100.0.0.10)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath
          Originator:100.0.0.10, Cluster list:100.0.0.6
      22
        10.2.4.10 (metric 11) from 10.1.4.5 (100.0.0.10)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath
          Originator:100.0.0.10, Cluster list:100.0.0.5
      22
        10.2.6.10 (metric 11) from 10.1.6.7 (100.0.0.10)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath
          Originator:100.0.0.10, Cluster list:100.0.0.7
    
    Device# show ip bgp vpnv4 all 10.22.22.0
    
    BGP routing table entry for 100:1:10.22.22.0/24, version 50
    Paths:(6 available, best #1)
    Multipath:iBGP
      Advertised to non peer-group peers:
      200.1.12.12 
      22
        10.22.7.8 (metric 11) from 10.11.3.4 (100.0.0.8)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath, best
          Extended Community:RT:100:1
          Originator:100.0.0.8, Cluster list:100.1.1.44
      22
        10.22.1.9 (metric 11) from 10.11.1.2 (100.0.0.9)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath
          Extended Community:RT:100:1
          Originator:100.0.0.9, Cluster list:100.1.1.22
      22
        10.22.6.10 (metric 11) from 10.11.6.7 (100.0.0.10)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath
          Extended Community:RT:100:1
          Originator:100.0.0.10, Cluster list:100.0.0.7
      22
        10.22.4.10 (metric 11) from 10.11.4.5 (100.0.0.10)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath
          Extended Community:RT:100:1
          Originator:100.0.0.10, Cluster list:100.0.0.5
      22
        10.22.5.10 (metric 11) from 10.11.5.6 (100.0.0.10)
          Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, multipath
          Extended Community:RT:100:1
          Originator:100.0.0.10, Cluster list:100.0.0.6
    
    Step 2   In the display resulting from the show ip bgp network-number EXEC command or the show ip bgp vpnv4 all ip-prefix EXEC command, verify that the intended multipaths are marked as “multipaths." Notice that one of the multipaths is marked as “best.”
    Step 3   Enter the show ip route ip-address EXEC command to display routing information for a network in a non-MPLS topology or the show ip route vrf vrf-name ip-prefix EXEC command to display routing information for a network in an MPLS VPN:

    Example:
    Device# show ip route 10.22.22.0
    
    Routing entry for 10.22.22.0/24
      Known via "bgp 1", distance 200, metric 0
      Tag 22, type internal
      Last update from 10.2.6.10 00:00:03 ago
      Routing Descriptor Blocks:
      * 10.2.3.8, from 10.1.3.4, 00:00:03 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
        10.2.1.9, from 10.1.1.2, 00:00:03 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
        10.2.5.10, from 10.1.5.6, 00:00:03 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
        10.2.4.10, from 10.1.4.5, 00:00:03 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
        10.2.6.10, from 10.1.6.7, 00:00:03 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
    
    Device# show ip route vrf PATH 10.22.22.0
    
    Routing entry for 10.22.22.0/24
      Known via "bgp 1", distance 200, metric 0
      Tag 22, type internal
      Last update from 10.22.5.10 00:01:07 ago
      Routing Descriptor Blocks:
      * 10.22.7.8 (Default-IP-Routing-Table), from 10.11.3.4, 00:01:07 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
        10.22.1.9 (Default-IP-Routing-Table), from 10.11.1.2, 00:01:07 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
        10.22.6.10 (Default-IP-Routing-Table), from 10.11.6.7, 00:01:07 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
        10.22.4.10 (Default-IP-Routing-Table), from 10.11.4.5, 00:01:07 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
        10.22.5.10 (Default-IP-Routing-Table), from 10.11.5.6, 00:01:07 ago
          Route metric is 0, traffic share count is 1
          AS Hops 1
    
    Step 4   Verify that the paths marked as "multipath” in the display resulting from the show ip bgp ip-prefix EXEC command or the show ip bgp vpnv4 all ip-prefix EXEC command are included in the routing information. (The routing information is displayed after performing Step 3.)

    Monitoring and Maintaining iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

    To display iBGP Multipath Load Sharing information, use the following commands in EXEC mode, as needed:

    Command

    Purpose

    Device# show ip bgp ip-prefix

    Displays attributes and multipaths for a network in a non-MPLS topology.

    Device# show ip bgp vpnv4 all  ip-prefix

    Displays attributes and multipaths for a network in an MPLS VPN.

    Device# show ip route ip-prefix

    Displays routing information for a network in a non-MPLS topology.

    Device# show ip route vrf  vrf-name ip-prefix

    Displays routing information for a network in an MPLS VPN.

    Configuration Examples for iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

    Example: iBGP Multipath Load Sharing in a Non-MPLS Topology

    Both examples assume that the appropriate attributes for each path are equal and that the next hop router for each multipath is different.

    The following example shows how to set up the iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature in a non-MPLS topology (see the figure below).

    Figure 4. Non-MPLS Topology Example

    Router 2 Configuration

    router bgp 100
    maximum-paths ibgp 3

    Example: iBGP Multipath Load Sharing in an MPLS VPN Topology

    The following example shows how to set up the iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature in an MPLS VPN topology (see the figure below).

    Figure 5. MPLS VPN Topology Example

    Router PE1 Configuration

    router bgp 100
    address-family ipv4 unicast vrf site2
     maximum-paths ibgp 3

    Additional References

    Related Documents

    Related Topic

    Document Title

    Cisco IOS commands

    Cisco IOS Master Command List, All Releases

    BGP commands

    Cisco IOS IP Routing: BGP Command Reference

    BGP multipath load sharing for both eBGP and iBGP in an MPLS-VPN

    “BGP Multipath Load Sharing for Both eBGP and iBGP in an MPLS-VPN” module in the IP Routing: BGP Configuration Guide

    Advertising the bandwidth of an autonomous system exit link as an extended community

    “BGP Link Bandwidth” module in the IP Routing: BGP Configuration Guide

    Standards

    Standard

    Title

    No new or modified standards are supported by this feature, and support for existing standards has not been modified by this feature.

    MIBs

    MIBs

    MIBs Link

    No new or modified MIBs are supported by this feature, and support for existing MIBs has not been modified by this feature.

    To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco IOS XE software releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

    http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​go/​mibs

    RFCs

    RFC

    Title

    No new or modified RFCs are supported by this feature, and support for existing RFCs has not been modified by this feature.

    Technical Assistance

    Description

    Link

    The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

    http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​cisco/​web/​support/​index.html

    Feature Information for iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

    The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

    Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

    Table 1 Feature Information for iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

    Feature Name

    Releases

    Feature Information

    iBGP Multipath Load Sharing

    12.2(14)S

    12.2(2)T

    The iBGP Multipath Load Sharing feature enables the BGP speaking router to select multiple iBGP paths as the best paths to a destination.

    The following command was introduced: maximum-paths ibgp

    The following commands were modified: show ip bgp, show ip bgp vpnv4, show ip route, and show ip route vrf.