--ATM Adaptation Layer. ATM adaptation layer. Service-dependent sublayer of the data link layer. The AAL accepts data from different applications and presents it to the ATM layer in the form of 48-byte ATM payload segments.
--ATM adaptation layer 2. ATM adaptation layer 2. One of four AALs recommended by the ITU-T. AAL2 is used for connection-oriented services that support a variable bit rate, such as some isochronous video and voice traffic.
--ATM adaptation layer 5. ATM adaptation layer 5. One of four AALs recommended by the ITU-T. AAL5 supports connection-oriented, VBR services, and is used predominantly for the transfer of classical IP over ATM and LANE traffic.
ADSL--Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.
ATM--Asynchronous Transfer Mode. Asynchronous Transfer Mode - International standard for cell relay in which multiple service types (such as voice, video, or data) are conveyed in fixed-length (53-byte) cells. An internationally standardized implementation of cell relay technology, ATM represents the first worldwide standard to be embraced by the computer, communications, and entertainment industry. ATM is a high-bandwidth, low-delay, connection-oriented, packet-like switching and multiplexing technique for data transmission that communicates all types of information (traditionally data, burst data, voice, video, image, and cell) over a common backbone using fixed cell lengths. ATM uses a 53-byte cell format that includes a 5-byte header and 48 bytes of payload. Because of the architecture, ATM has the capability to run from 45 Mbps using a DS3 to 2.5 Gbps using an OC-48.
broadband--Transmission system that multiplexes multiple independent signals onto one cable. In telecommunications terminology, any channel having a bandwidth greater than a voice-grade channel (4 kHz).
CBR--constant bit rate. QOS class defined by the ATM Forum for ATM networks. CBR is used for connections that depend on precise clocking to ensure undistorted delivery.
CPE--customer premises equipment. Customer Premises Equipment. Devices that a subscriber is responsible for in order to make use of telecommunications. CPE includes PCs, telephones, TVs, scanners, and much more. These devices or terminating equipment---such as terminals, telephones, and modems---are generally supplied by the telephone company, installed at customer sites, and connected to the telephone company network.
CO--Central Office - Local telephone company office to which all local loops in a given area connect and in which circuit switching of subscriber lines occurs. CO refers to the physical facility that contains the telephone switching system, transmission equipment, and other support systems that provide telephone and other telecommunications services to local telephone subscribers. There are numerous types of telephone switching systems, such as 1ESS, 4ESS, 5ESS, DMS 10/100/250/500, EAX2, or GTD5 that can be housed in a central office. The central office is not to be confused with the point of presence (POP) of the interexchange carrier, even though both perform many similar functions.
DSLAM--Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer. A device that concentrates traffic in DSL implementations through a process of time-division multiplexing (TDM) at the CO or remote line shelf. This device is usually located in the CO for termination of multiple customer DSL devices.
DWRED--Distributed Weighted Random Early Detection. Random Early Detection (RED) is a congestion avoidance mechanism that takes advantage of TCP's congestion control mechanism. By randomly dropping packets prior to periods of high congestion, RED tells the packet source to decrease its transmission rate. Assuming the packet source is using TCP, it will decrease its transmission rate until all the packets reach their destination, indicating that the congestion is cleared.
Weighted RED (WRED) generally drops packets selectively based on IP precedence. Packets with a higher IP precedence are less likely to be dropped than packets with a lower precedence. Thus, higher priority traffic is delivered with a higher probability than lower priority traffic. However, you can also configure WRED to ignore IP precedence when making drop decisions so that non-weighted RED behavior is achieved.
ILMI--Interim Local Management Interface. Specification developed by the ATM Forum for incorporating network-management capabilities into the ATM UNI.
POTS--plain old telephone service. Basic analog telephone service, usually associated with residential or business subscribers.
PPP over ATM--Point-to-Point Protocol. A successor to SLIP, PPP provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over synchronous and asynchronous circuits.
PVC--permanent virtual circuit. Virtual circuit that is permanently established. PVCs save bandwidth associated with circuit establishment and tear down in situations where certain virtual circuits must exist all the time.
QoS--quality of service. Measure of performance for a transmission system that reflects its transmission quality and service availability.
RSVP--Resource Reservation Protocol. The Resource Reservation Protocol is a network-control protocol that enables Internet applications to obtain special qualities of service (QoSs) for their data flows.
SVC--switched virtual circuit. Virtual circuit that is dynamically established on demand and is torn down when transmission is complete. SVCs are used in situations where data transmission is sporadic. Called a switched virtual connection in ATM terminology.
ToS--type of service. See COS.
UBR--unspecified bit rate. QOS class defined by the ATM Forum for ATM networks. UBR allows any amount of data up to a specified maximum to be sent across the network, but there are no guarantees in terms of cell loss rate and delay.
UNI--User-Network Interface. ATM Forum specification that defines an interoperability standard for the interface between ATM-based products (a router or an ATM switch) located in a private network and the ATM switches located within the public carrier network.
VBR--variable bit rate. QOS class defined by the ATM Forum for ATM networks. VBR is subdivided into a real time (RT) class and non-real time (NRT) class.
VC--virtual circuit. Logical circuit created to ensure reliable communication between two network devices. A virtual circuit is defined by a virtual path identifier/virtual channel identifier (VPI/VCI) pair, and can be either a PVC or a SVC. Virtual circuits are used in Frame Relay and X.25. In ATM, a virtual circuit is called a virtual channel.