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Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CallManager)

Understanding and Using Partitions and Calling Search Spaces with Cisco CallManager

Document ID: 22325

Updated: Nov 01, 2007

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Introduction

This document explains how partitions and calling search spaces (CSSes) work and how they can be used to apply call routing restrictions by class of user and/or geographical location. This document also addresses configuration and basic troubleshooting.

Partitions can be seen as a collection of route patterns. Directory numbers, route patterns, and translation patterns can all belong to specific partitions.

CSSes are an ordered list of route partitions and they determine which partitions calling devices must search when they attempt to complete a call. In order to reach a certain destination, the called party's partition must belong to the calling party's CSS.

When you attempt to make a call, Cisco CallManager looks into the CSS of the calling party and checks if the called party belongs to a partition within the CSS. If it does, the call is placed or the translation pattern is executed. If not, the call is rejected or the translation pattern is ignored.

You can again assign different CSSes to IP phones, directory numbers, call forward all (CFA)/call forward no answer (CFNA)/call forward busy (CFB) destinations, gateways, and translation patterns.

Partitions and CSSes facilitate call routing by dividing the route plan into logical subsets based on organization, location, and/or call type.

The best way to understand how partitions and CSSes work is through an example. The next section provides the two examples routing by class of user and routing by geographic location.

Symptoms

This is a list of possible symptoms if you are not able to make the call due to mis-configurations in partitions or calling search spaces:

  • Reorder tone is heard before or after the complete number is dialed.

  • The Meet-me Conference fails with a reorder tone.

  • The "Your call cannot be completed as dialed" message is played by the Annunciator.

  • Outgoing calls to PSTN or PBX network through a Cisco IOS® gateway never complete.

Prerequisites

Requirements

Cisco recommends that you have knowledge of these topics:

  • Cisco CallManager configuration.

  • Route Pattern configuration.

  • IP phones configuration.

Components Used

The information in this document is based on the Cisco CallManager server 3.2, 3.3, and 4.0.

The information in this document was created from the devices in a specific lab environment. All of the devices used in this document started with a cleared (default) configuration. If your network is live, make sure that you understand the potential impact of any command.

Conventions

Refer to the Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for more information on document conventions.

Examples

Route by Class of User

This example illustrates how a company can restrict call routing for a certain group of users.

In this organization there are three types of users:

  • Lab environment

  • Employees

  • Management

From within the lab environment, only internal calls can be made.

Normal employees are not allowed to dial international numbers. Management can call any number. Three partitions are created in order to route by class of user:

  1. Internal = Red partition

  2. No-International = Blue partition

  3. International = Green partition

These three partitions are used to categorize the possible call destinations. All IP phones (directory numbers) are placed in the Internal (red) partition.

These two route patterns are configured on the gateway:

  1. All calls except international numbers.

  2. International numbers.

Route pattern 1 is assigned to partition No-International (blue).

Route pattern 2 is assigned to partition International (green).

Based on these mentioned restrictions, these three CSSes are configured and assigned to the appropriate devices:

  1. CSS 1 contains partition(s): Internal (red)

  2. CSS 2 contains partition(s): Internal (red), and No-International (blue)

  3. CSS 3 contains partition(s): Internal (red), No-International (blue), and International (green)

  • IP phones in the lab environment are assigned to CSS 1.

  • IP phones from Employees are assigned to CSS 2.

  • IP phones from Management are assigned to CSS 3.

In the figure, there are three IP phones and one gateway with two route patterns.

part-css-image30.gif

Example 1: Lab Phone Calls

  • Internal Number

    Called Party = Red partition

    Calling Party Search Space 1 contains = Red partition

    Call routed = Yes (Red partition is included in the CSS)

  • External Non-International number

    Called Party = Blue partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red partition

    Call routed = No (Blue partition is not included in the CSS)

  • External International Number

    Called Party = Green partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red partition

    Call routed = No (Green partition is not included in the CSS)

Example 2: Employee Calls

  • Internal Number

    Called Party = Red partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red and Blue partition

    Call routed = Yes (Red partition is included in the CSS)

  • External Non-International Number

    Called Party = Blue partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red and Blue partition

    Call routed = Yes (Blue partition is included in the CSS)

  • External International Number

    Called Party = Green partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red and Blue partition

    Call routed = No (Green partition is not included in the CSS)

Example 3: Manager Calls

  • Internal Number

    Called Party = Red partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red and Blue partition

    Call routed = Yes (Red partition is included in the CSS)

  • External Non-International Number

    Called Party = Blue partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Green partition

    Call routed = Yes (Blue partition is included in the CSS)

  • External International Number

    Called Party = Green partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Green partition

    Call routed = Yes (Green partition is included in the CSS)

Route by Geographical Location

It is also possible to restrict call routing based on different types of users and location.

Consider a company where the employees are located in two different locations:

  • Location 1 with area code 1 and gateway 1.

  • Location 2 with area code 2 and gateway 2.

And where the employees are divided into two different user classes:

  • Employees

  • Managers

These restrictions are applied:

  • Employees and managers can call internally.

  • Employees and managers can call locally within area 1 and 2.

    • When you dial a number with area code 1, the call needs to be routed through gateway 1 in location 1.

    • When you dial a number with area code 2, the call needs to be routed through gateway 2 in location 2.

  • Managers can dial to all possible destinations.

  • Calls can be routed via gateway 1 or 2.

Based on these restrictions, these partitions are configured:

  • Internal = Red partition

  • Location 1 users = Blue partition

  • Location 2 users = Orange partition

  • Managers = Green partition

All IP phones are put into the Internal partition (red).

There are two gateways located in two different locations, for which these three route patterns are configured:

  • Where area code 1 exists, send call to gateway 1.

    This belongs to location 2 users (orange).

    Calls from location 2 that dial to location 1 need to be routed via this route pattern through gateway 1.

  • Where area code 2 exists, send call to gateway 2.

    This belongs to location 1 users (blue).

    Calls from location 1 that dial to location 2 need to be routed via this route pattern through gateway 2.

  • All calls send the call to route list with gateways 1 and 2.

    This belongs to the managers.

    Calls from location 1 or 2 that dial outside can be routed either via gateway 1 or gateway 2.

Note: For simplicity, assume that users always have to dial the area code, even if they are in the same area.

These CSSes are used:

  • CSS 1 contains partition(s): Internal (red)

  • CSS 2 contains partition(s): Internal (red), location 1 users (blue), and location 2 users (orange)

  • CSS 3 contains partition(s): Internal (red), location 1 users (blue), location 2 users (orange), and managers (green)

part-css-image31.gif

Gateway 1

  • Route pattern where area code 1 exists belongs to partition Blue.

  • Route pattern for all calls belongs to partition Green.

  • Gateway CSS looks in partition Red.

Gateway 2

  • Route pattern where area code 2 exists belongs to partition Orange.

  • Route pattern for all calls belongs to partition Green.

  • Gateway CSS looks in partition Red.

Manager IP Phone in Location 1

  • 1000 belongs to partition Red.

  • CSS looks in partitions Red, Blue, Orange and Green.

Employee IP Phone in Location 1

  • 2000 belongs to partition Red.

  • CSS looks in partitions Red, Blue, and Orange.

Manager IP Phone in Location 2

  • 3000 belongs to partition Red.

  • CSS looks in partitions Red, Blue, Orange, and Green.

Employee IP Phone in Location 2

  • 4000 belongs to partition Red.

  • CSS looks in partitions Red, Blue, and Orange.

Example 1: Employee in Location 1 Calls

  • Internal Number

    Called Party = Red partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Orange partitions

    Call routed = Yes

  • External Number in area 1

    Called Party matches the route pattern where area code 1 exists = Blue partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Orange partitions

    Call routed = Yes, via gateway 1

  • External Number in area 2

    Called Party matches the route pattern where area code 2 exists = Orange partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Orange partitions

    Call routed = Yes, via gateway 2

  • External Number outside area 1 and 2

    Called Party matches the route pattern for all calls = Green partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Orange partitions

    Call routed = No

Example 2: Employee in Location 2 Calls

  • Internal Number

    Called Party = Red partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Orange

    Call routed = Yes

  • External Number in area 2

    Called Party matches the route pattern where area code 2 exists = Orange partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Orange partitions

    Call routed = Yes, via gateway 2

  • External Number in area 1

    Called Party matches the route pattern where area code 1 exists = Blue partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Orange partitions

    Call routed = Yes, via gateway 1

  • External Number outside area 1 and 2

    Called Party matches the route pattern for all calls = Green partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, and Orange partitions

    Call routed = No

Example 3: Manager in Location 1 Calls

  • Internal Number

    Called Party = Red partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, Orange, and Green partitions

    Call routed = Yes

  • External Number in area 1

    Called Party matches the route pattern where area code 1 exists = Blue partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, Orange, and Green partitions

    Call routed = Yes, via gateway 1

  • External Number in area 2

    Called Party matches the route pattern where area code 2 exists = Orange partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, Orange, and Green partitions

    Call routed = Yes, via gateway 2

  • External Number outside area 1 and 2

    Called Party matches the route pattern for all calls = Green partition

    Calling Party Search Space contains = Red, Blue, Orange, and Green partitions

    Call routed = Yes, either via gateway 1 or 2

Note: Remember that the device and the line could have a calling search space if it is an IP phone. As such, the line calling search space takes precedence over the device calling search space.

Note: Any device that makes a call can explicitly reach any dial plan entry that is left in the <None> partition. In order to avoid unexpected results, Cisco recommends that you do not leave dial plan entries in the <None> partition.

Partition Name Limitations

The maximum length of the combined CSS clause (device and pattern) comprises 1024 characters that includes separator characters between partition names (for example, "partition 1:partition 2:partition 3"). Because the CSS clause uses partition names, the maximum number of partitions in a CSS varies depending on the length of the partition names. Also, because the CSS clause combines the CSS of the device and the CSS of the route pattern, the maximum character limit for an individual CSS specifies 512 (half of the combined CSS clause limit of 1024 characters).

When you create partitions and calling search spaces, keep the names of partitions short relative to the number of partitions that you plan to include in a calling search space.

Note: If you rename a partition, the partition immediately ceases to function and functions properly only after the Callmanager is restarted. Alternatively, if you cannot immediately restart CallManager, you can create a new partition and then delete the old partition. This procedure does not require a CallManager restart.

Calling Search Space Partition Limitations
Partition Name Length Maximum Number of Partitions
2 characters 170
3 characters 128
4 characters 102
5 characters 86
... ...
10 characters 46

Configure Partitions and Calling Search Spaces in Cisco CallManager 3.x

Refer to the procedures given in these links for Cisco CallManager 3.2 and 3.3 in order to configure the partitions and CSSes.

Configure Partitions and Calling Search Spaces in Cisco CallManager 3.2

Use these two procedures in order to configure partitions and CSSes in Cisco CallManager 3.2:

Define the Partitions in Cisco CallManager 3.2

Complete these steps in order to define the partitions in Cisco CallManager 3.2.

  1. Select Route Plan > Partition from the main Cisco CallManager Administration page and click Add a New Partition in the opening window.

    part-css-image-a.gif

  2. Configure partition(s) names and click Insert (you can insert multiple partitions in a single operation).

    part-css-image-b.gif

    If you need to modify any changes, you can do so in this window.

    part-css-image-c.gif

  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 in order to define all required partitions.

Define the CSSes in Cisco CallManager 3.2

Complete these steps in order to define CSSes in Cisco CallManager 3.2.

  1. Select Route Plan > Calling Search Space from the main Cisco CallManager Administration page, and click Add a New Calling Search Space in the window that opens.

    part-css-image-j.gif

  2. Enter a name for your CSS, and assign the desired partition to the CSS from the Available Partitions list. Select each partition you want to add, and click the small arrows in order to move it to the Selected Partitions list.

    part-css-image-k.gif

  3. Click Insert in order to insert the CSS.

    part-css-image-l.gif

  4. Assign the appropriate partition to the device(s), route pattern(s), or translation pattern(s) you use.

    This example shows how to assign these parameters to the lines on an IP phone. Click the line number that you want to change.

    part-css-image-m.gif

  5. When a window similar to this appears, select the appropriate partition from the Partition drop-down list, and click Update. Next, restart the IP phone, or click Reset Devices.

    part-css-image-n.gif

  6. In order to configure a route pattern, open the Route Pattern configuration, and choose the appropriate partion from the Partition drop-down list.

  7. Click Update.

  8. Assign the appropriate CSS to the IP phone.

    1. Open the IP phone configuration.

    2. From the Calling Search Space drop-down list, select the appropriate CSS, and click Update.

      part-css-image-bb.gif

Configure Partitions and CSSes in Cisco CallManager 3.3

Use these two procedures in order to configure partitions and CSSes in Cisco CallManager 3.3:

Define the Partitions in Cisco CallManager 3.3

Complete these steps in order to define partitions.

  1. Select Route Plan > Partition from the main Cisco CallManager Administration page, and click Add a New Partition in the window that opens.

    part-css-image-d.gif

  2. Configure partition(s) names, and click Insert (you can insert multiple partitions in a single operation).

    part-css-image-e.gif

    You can modify any changes in this window.

    part-css-image-f.gif

Define the CSS in Cisco CallManager 3.3

Complete these steps in order to define the CSS in Cisco CallManager 3.3.

  1. Select Route Plan > Calling Search Space from the main Cisco CallManager Administration page, and click Add a New Calling Search Space in the window that opens.

    part-css-image-p.gif

  2. Enter a name for your CSS, and assign the desired partition to the CSS from the Available Partitions list. Select each partition, and click the small arrows in order to move it to the Selected Partitions list.

    part-css-image-q.gif

  3. Click Insert in order to insert the CSS.

    part-css-image-r.gif

  4. Assign the appropriate partition to the device(s), route pattern(s), or translation pattern(s) you use.

    This example shows how to assign these parameters to the lines on an IP phone. Click the line number that you want to change.

    part-css-image-s.gif

  5. When a window similar to this appears, select the appropriate partition from the Partition drop-down list, and click Update. Next, restart the IP phone, or click Reset Devices.

    part-css-image-t.gif

  6. Open the Route Pattern configuration, and choose the appropriate partition from the Partition drop-down list.

  7. Click Update in order to configure a route pattern.

    part-css-image-z.gif

  8. Assign the appropriate CSS to the IP phone.

    1. Open the IP phone configuration.

    2. From the Calling Search Space drop-down list, select the appropriate CSS and click Update.

      part-css-image-cc.gif

Configure Partitions and Calling Search Spaces in Cisco CallManager 4.x

Use these two procedures to configure partitions and CSSes in Cisco CallManager 4.x:

Define the Partitions in Cisco CallManager 4.x

Complete these steps in order to define the partitions in Cisco CallManager 4.x.

  1. Select Route Plan > Partition from the main Cisco CallManager Administration page, and click Add a New Partition in the window that opens.

    part-css-image-g.gif

  2. Configure partition(s) names, and click Insert (you can insert multiple partitions in a single operation).

    part-css-imageh.gif

    You can modify any changes in this window.

    part-css-image34-i.gif

  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 to define all required partitions.

Define the Calling Search Space Cisco CallManager 4.x

Complete these steps in order to define CSSes.

  1. Select Route Plan > Calling Search Spaces from the main Cisco CallManager Administration page, and click Add a New Calling Search Space in the window that opens.

    part-css-image-u.gif

  2. Enter a name for your your CSS, and assign the desired partition to the CSS from the Available Partitions list. Select each partition, and click the small arrows in order to move it to the Selected Partitions list.

    part-css-image-v.gif

  3. Click Insert in order to insert the CSS.

    part-css-image-w.gif

  4. Assign the appropriate partition to the device(s), route pattern(s), or translation pattern(s) you use.

    This example shows how to assign these parameters to the lines on an IP phone. Click the line number that you want to change.

    part-css-image-x.gif

  5. When a window similar to this appears, select the appropriate partition from the Partition drop-down list, and click Update. Next, restart the IP phone, or click Reset Devices.

    part-css-image-y.gif

  6. In order to configure a route pattern, open the Route Pattern configuration, and choose the appropriate partition from the Partition drop-down list. Click Update.

    part-css-image-aa.gif

  7. Assign the appropriate CSS to the IP phone.

    1. Open the IP phone configuration.

    2. From the Calling Search Space drop-down list, select the appropriate CSS, and click Update.

      part-css-image-dd.gif

Verify

Find the Association between the Directory Numbers and Calling Search Spaces

You can find the association between the DNs and CSSes in the SQL database NumPlan. Run the appropriate SQL Query in order to access the table that contains the DNs and the CSS identifier. In order to know the name of the CSS, you need to go to the CallingSearchSpace table and locate the identifier.

This is an example for the Numplan and CallingSearchSpace databases where extension number 3001 uses the CSS named CSS_E:

Table name: NumPlan
column name: DNOrPattern 
value: 3001

!--- 3001 is the directory number.

column name: fkCallingSearchSpace_SharedLineAppearvalue:

!--- This value is the CSS identifier:

	 {7AD3D293-A28E-4568-857F-E259A58DDA87}

Table name: CallingSearchSpace 
column name: pkid

!--- This value is the CSS identifier:

value: {7AD3D293-A28E-4568-857F-E259A58DDA87}
column name: Name
value: CSS_E

!--- CSS_E is the name of the CSS.

Troubleshoot

Basically, a call routing problem occurs when the call does not get to where you expect it to be. The user picks up the phone, starts to dial, and gets a reorder tone even before the dialing is completed, or the user might finish dialing and then get the reorder tone.

It might be beneficial to learn the CCM trace. Usually the best way to find a device in the CCM trace is to search for the DN configured on the device. If the calling device is a gateway (the call comes in on a gateway) and the gateway does not receive calling party number information, you can search for the device name of the gateway in the trace. You can use CallManager Serviceability in order to search for the device and view the related traces.

When you look into the Cisco CallManager traces, this line displays when a phone attempts to make a call:

Digit analysis: match(fqcn="2001", cn="2001", pss=":
Internal:No-International", dd="")
  • "cn" stands for the calling number. In this case it is 2001.

  • "pss" stands for phone search space, which is the CSS linked to this phone.

  • "dd" stands for the destination. It displays all the digits dialed so far.

In this example, Cisco CallManager looks into the Internal (red) and No-International (blue) partitions for matching route patterns, translation patterns, or directory numbers.

Whenever a digit is dialed and as long as Cisco CallManager finds matching patterns within these partitions, these lines in the traces display:

Digit analysis: match(fqcn="2001", cn="2001", 
pss=":Internal:No-International", dd="0")

Digit analysis: potentialMatches=PotentialMatchesExist

If Cisco CallManager finds a matching pattern which is not part of these partitions, these lines display:

Digit analysis: match(fqcn="2001", cn="2001", 
pss=":Internal:No-International", dd="00")

Digit analysis: potentialMatches=NoPotentialMatchesExist
StationD: 06b3b5a8 StartTone tone=37(ReorderTone)

The user then hears a reorder (fast busy) tone.

Note:  In Cisco CallManager 4.0, instead of the "fast busy tone" the user sees the "Stop tone" message. This message is also heard in the IP phone.

Note:  "Your call cannot be completed as dialed. Please consult your directory and call again or ask your operator."

When the complete number is dialed and matches any partition within the CSS, you see these lines:

Digit analysis: match(fqcn="2001", cn="2001", 
pss=":Internal:No-International", dd="027045429#")

Digit analysis: analysis results
PretransformCallingPartyNumber=2001
CallingPartyNumber=2001
DialingPartition=No-International
DialingPattern=0[1-9]!#
DialingRoutePatternRegularExpression=(0[1-9]X+#)
DialingWhere=
PatternType=Enterprise
PotentialMatches=NoPotentialMatchesExist
DialingSdlProcessId=(1,32,1)
PretransformDigitString=027045429#
PretransformTagsList=SUBSCRIBER
PretransformPositionalMatchList=027045429#
CollectedDigits=027045429#
TagsList=SUBSCRIBER
PositionalMatchList=027045429#
DisplayName=
RouteBlockFlag=RouteThisPattern
InterceptPartition=
InterceptPattern=
InterceptWhere=
InterceptSdlProcessId=(0,0,0)
InterceptSsType=0
InterceptSsKey=0

The destination 027045429 is part of the No-International partition.

Related Information

Updated: Nov 01, 2007
Document ID: 22325