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Cisco Extensible Network Controller (XNC)

Cisco Extensible Network Controller with Cisco Monitor Manager Solution: Increase Network Traffic Visibility

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What You Will Learn

This document discusses a software-defined networking (SDN) approach to network traffic monitoring and visibility using and proposes the use of standard Top of Rack (TOR) switches as matrix switches. This approach uses OpenFlow along with Cisco XNC which provides new ways to use general switching devices as fully functional network traffic monitoring switches without the limitations observed in some conventional approaches that exists today.

Challenge

Ethernet networks have traditionally been built in a static way. Typically, after the system is cabled and powered, depending on size and scale, it is extremely difficult to make changes, especially without accurate and complete documentation and planning. Customization of the network has largely been an overlay, with configuration of specific device features to build, create, and maintain massively scalable Ethernet fabrics. When something in the network goes wrong and troubleshooting and monitoring become essential to the state of the business, network administrators have a number of options to choose from to help keep business functioning as usual.

Why Matrix Switches?

To understand the need for matrix switches, consider some of the methods commonly deployed in the data center to monitor network traffic and flows.

Hubs

For a long time, hubs were used for network monitoring in the Ethernet segment. The use of hubs to monitor network data traffic presents numerous fundamental problems. The most notable problem is that hubs forward all traffic on all ports to all other ports. Hubs also increase the total size of the collision domain, preventing the network from operating efficiently. In contrast, a network switch reduces this domain by learning MAC addresses connected to each physical interface and therefore can forward traffic destined for those ports respectively. The end nodes connected to the switch do not all see all traffic on other devices, and they each receive only the frames that they are intended to receive. In general, hubs also support only half-duplex and 10- and 100-Mbps transfer speeds.

Cisco Switched Port Analyzer

The Cisco® Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN) feature was introduced on switches to address the fundamental difference between switches and hubs. When a hub receives a packet on one port, the hub sends a copy of that packet from all ports except the one on which the hub received the packet. The switch builds a Layer 2 forwarding table on the basis of the source MAC addresses of the various packets that the switch receives. After this forwarding table is built, the switch forwards traffic destined for a MAC address directly to the corresponding port. To be able to monitor traffic on the switches, the SPAN feature is needed (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Cisco SPAN

SPAN uses the following terminology:

Ingress traffic: Traffic that enters the switch

Egress traffic: Traffic that leaves the switch

Source (SPAN) port: A port that is monitored with the SPAN feature

Source (SPAN) VLAN: A VLAN whose traffic is monitored with the SPAN feature

Destination (SPAN) port: A port that monitors source ports, usually ports with a sniffer connected

SPAN, however, also has limitations. In most common hardware switching architectures that exist today, a single application-specific circuit (ASIC), or multiple ASICs grouped together to build a switching fabric, forward packets at the hardware level, and very little data-plane information is sent to the CPU. Even modular chassis today have adopted the distributed forwarding model; however, when the software needs to tell the hardware to duplicate and redirect packets as in the case of SPAN, that process consumes additional CPU cycles. As a result, the number of SPAN and port monitoring sessions that can be configured on the switch is limited. Number of factors affect network device performance when using SPAN:

Process of sending packets to the CPU and forwarding them to their destinations

Basic monitoring of the interface

Volume of SPAN traffic (even more crucial on a 10 Gigabit Ethernet network)

Network Taps

Another method of packet monitoring uses physical hardware taps. These network taps can be extremely useful in monitoring traffic because they provide direct inline access to data flowing through the network. In many cases, it is desirable for a third party to monitor the traffic between two points in the network. If the network between points A and B consists of a physical cable, a network tap may be the best way to accomplish this monitoring. The network tap has at least three ports: anA port, aBport, and amonitorport. A tap inserted between the A and B ports passes all traffic through unimpeded, but it also copies that same data to its monitor port, enabling a third party to listen (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Network Tap

Taps have a number of benefits:

They can handle full-duplex data transmission

They are nonobtrusive and not detectable by the network, with no physical or logical addressing

Some support full inline power with the capability to build a distributed tap

Whether you are trying to gain visibility into the server-to-server data communication at the edge or virtual edge of your network or to provide a copy of traffic to the intrusion prevention system (IPS) appliance at the Internet edge of your network, you can use network taps nearly anywhere in the environment. However, this deployment can add significant costs and operation complexities, introducing cabling challenges in a large scale environment.

The Solution: Cisco XNC with Monitor Manager

An alternative solution to help with monitoring and troubleshooting tasks in the data center is a device that is especially designated to allow the aggregation of multiple taps and that also connects to multiple monitoring systems. This solution is referred to as a matrix switch. Matrix switches link all the monitoring devices directly to specific points in the network fabric that handle the packets that need to be observed.

In Figure 3, the Cisco Nexus® 3000 or Cisco Nexus 3100 Series Switch is connected to various points in the network at which packet monitoring is advantageous. From each network element, SPAN ports or optical taps can be used to send traffic flows directly to this matrix switch. The matrix switch itself is directly connected to all the tools used to monitor the events in the network fabric. These monitoring devices include remote monitor (RMON) probes, application firewalls, IPS devices, and packet sniffer tools.

With the Cisco Monitor Manager solution, customers have the flexibility to use more than one Cisco Nexus 3000 or Cisco Nexus 3100 Series Switch connected in any topology according to the monitoring needs. Monitoring devices can also be connected to any of the Cisco Nexus 3000 or Cisco Nexus 3100 Series Switches.

Figure 3. Matrix Switch Solution with Cisco Monitor Manager

Cisco Extensible Network Controller with Cisco Monitor Manager

Cisco’s approach provides an alternative to the static matrix network and current solutions for network tapping and monitoring. It also introduces an SDN approach into the data center in a nonintrusive way. By using the power of OpenFlow and the Cisco Extensible Network Controller (XNC), the network administrator can dynamically program the matrix switch with a configuration that allows traffic to enter the matrix switch on a certain set of ports connected to the network elements. The administrator can also apply a number of actions, based on match criteria, when the traffic egresses the switch toward the numerous monitoring tools. After the SPAN or optical tap traffic reaches the matrix switch, the administrator can use OpenFlow and the programming capability of Cisco XNC to apply a variety of actions to the switch.

The Cisco Monitor Manager application allows one or more Cisco Nexus 3000 or Cisco Nexus 3100 Series Switches enabled for OpenFlow to be combined to provide a fully functional monitoring network. When this system is coupled with the power of Cisco XNC, the end user has a fully distributed monitoring network that works as one logical device, with the capability to change the filtering and forwarding rules dynamically. Additionally, because Cisco XNC supports common programmable interfaces, network operators can write applications to detect and capture unique traffic according to administrative requirements or very specific business logic. This solution thus allows unique and important traffic patterns to flow directly to the analysis tools in real time. With the elasticity and ease of use of the complete monitoring solution, Cisco Monitor Manager and Cisco XNC can provide greater business agility through a cost-effective and scalable approach for traffic monitoring (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Cisco XNC with Cisco Monitor Manager

With Cisco XNC and the Cisco Monitor Manager application, administrators can perform actions such as creating filters to match specific traffic and redirect those to one or more tools. This can be achieved using GUI (Figure 5) or using REST API.

Filter just HTTP or FTP traffic with specific destination IP address and port information

Replicate packets from a single input source port to multiple egress ports where tools are connected

Tag traffic that matches a filter criteria with a specific VLAN ID for easy service identification

Tag traffic as they enter a specific input SPAN or optical tap port allowing for easy identification of the source. Cisco XNC Q-in-Q allows to preserve any existing VLAN tag and add a second VLAN tag to identify the port

In addition, Cisco XNC with Monitor Manager is integrated with Network Slicing, which allows customers to manage independent monitoring networks using a centralized Cisco XNC. For example, if you have 5 datacenters and want to deploy independent Monitor Manager solution for each datacenter, you can manage all these 5 independent deployments using single Cisco XNC instance by creating a logical partition (Network Slice) for each monitoring network. Also, with Cisco XNC RBAC support, users can be assigned to specific logical partitions (Network Slices) and they will be able to manage only that portion of the monitoring network.

All these features can be very attractive to organizations that have or require some type of monitoring solution today. As the size and scale of these enterprises grow, more SPAN ports and more taps will be required. Consequently, the matrix switch packet monitoring use case has been gaining popularity as the industry realizes its elasticity and its potential savings in time, money and resources as a solution for observing network traffic. Cisco’s solution also provides various access mechanisms to the Monitor Manager functions

Web based GUI interface for all configuration and user management

Robust REST API for programmatic access of functions and to enable event driven filtering and forwarding approach

Figure 5. Cisco Monitor Manager Access Mechanisms

Today, with the current general availability release version of the Cisco XNC and the Cisco Monitor Manager application, you can build a solution that addresses scalability requirements and that can be cost effective compared to traditional approaches.

Monitor Manager Embedded Option

In order to reduce the overhead involved in the traffic monitoring solution deployment and simple when customers want to deploy the solution using single switch (Nexus 3000/3100), customers have the option of using Monitor Manager Embedded option, which allows them to run the Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager on the Nexus 3000/3100 Linux container without any need for separate Virtual Machine. In this option a special XNC OVA
(Open Virtual Appliance) is provided, which needs to be deployed on the Nexus 3000/3100 and activated. All the features of Monitor Manager application are available in this option as well except:

It can be used to manage flows only on the switch on which the Monitor Manager Embedded OVA is deployed

Only single instance can be deployed in each switch (No high availability support)

Device Support Matrix for Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager Application

Table 1. Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager Application Device Support Matrix

Device Model

Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager Version

Monitor Manager Embedded Support

Cisco Nexus 3000 (3048/3064/3016)

Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager version 1.0

Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager version 1.5

Yes

Cisco Nexus 3100
(3132/3172)

Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager version 1.0

Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager version 1.5

Yes

Cisco Nexus 5548

Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager version 1.0

No

Cisco Nexus 6001

Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager version 1.0

No

Features of the Cisco SDN Solution with Cisco XNC and Cisco Monitor Manager

Table 1 presents the main features of Cisco XNC with Cisco Monitor Manager.

Table 2. Cisco Monitor Manager Features

Cisco XNC with Cisco Monitor Manager Network Application Features

Functional Area

Feature Description

Configuration

GUI

Cisco XNC with the Monitor Manager application provides a web-based GUI for management of all configurations and functions. The GUI provides access features, including:

Topology and device management and assignment of port type
Mapping of the ports to the end monitoring or analysis tools
Configuration of filters to match traffic according to business needs
Set up of traffic flows from network edge ports to tool delivery ports
Event logging and troubleshooting
RBAC user and role management

Northbound API

The Cisco XNC and Monitor Manager REST-based API provides access to all functions that can be performed through the GUI.

Traffic Delivery (Basic)

One-to-one connection

Establish a one-to-one connection from an edge network port to a tool delivery port across the network with no oversubscription.

One-to-many connection

Establish a one-to-many connection from an edge network port to multiple tool delivery ports.

Many-to-one connection

Establish a many-to-one connection from multiple edge network ports to a single tool delivery port.

Combination

One-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-one connections can be established for different flows at the same time in the same monitored network.

Port-speed adaptation

One-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-one connections can be established between ports with different speeds. For instance, a 40-Gbps port can deliver traffic to a 10-Gbps tool port to allow use of traditional tools over high-speed production networks interfaces.

Failure resiliency

In the event of path failure, each flow is automatically rerouted to an alternative path by the controller. Ifrerouting is not possible, an event is logged.

Traffic Delivery (Advanced)

Packet filtering

Traffic forwarding is based on the full flow specification, allowing detailed traffic filtering to limit the traffic to the delivery port to just what is strictly necessary.

VLAN tag rewrite

The original VLAN tag can be changed from the edge port to the delivery port either through the filter mechanism or by tagging at the edge port.

VLAN tag insertion

An additional VLAN tag can be added to the original packet to be delivered, to allow a tool to identify the origin of the traffic.

Q-in-Q support

If the packet is already tagged, Cisco XNC with Monitor Manager application can add a second tag which allows the user to preserve the original tag information and also identify the edge tap/SPAN port from which the traffic is received.

Network Design

Multilevel design

Cisco XNC with the Cisco Monitor Manager application can support multiple Cisco Nexus 3000 Series Switches connected in any topology. Analysis and monitoring devices can be connected anywhere in the topology. Typical tapping network architectures are:

Two- or three-level networks (edge, distribution layer [optional], and core) in which the delivery ports are connected to the core switches
Nonblocking leaf-and-spine architectures, in which both the edge and the delivery ports are connected to the leaf switches

Port-type assignment

Ports must be designated as edge tap or SPAN (input) or delivery (output) ports to be used for configuring network connections. This feature, in combination with RBAC, increases network security.

Inter-Switch Links (ISLs)

Ports that connecting switches are self-discovered and do not require additional type configuration. ISLs can use individual ports or PortChannels.

Load balancing

Data paths are evenly spread across available equal-cost links.

Loop prevention

Built-in logic prevents creation of network loops. This feature supports one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many connection policies.

Scalability

Cisco XNC supports a large-scale monitoring network. Monitor Manager with Cisco XNC can support up to 40 switches and 2000 edge and delivery ports per instance.

High availability

Cisco XNC supports high availability through active-active clustering. In Cisco XNC Release 1.0, up to five instances can be part of the same cluster.

Security and Operations

Role-based access control (RBAC)

Each individual port can be exclusively assigned to one or more user groups.

Logging

Cisco XNC provides system logs as well as user audit logs. In addition, it supports different logging levels depending on system needs.

Path rerouting to guarantee delivery

If traffic is critical, data loss can impair compliance. In this case, if a failure occurs, the data flow is automatically rerouted using alternate network path to prevent data loss and to meet compliance requirements.

Cisco Monitor Manager Components

Cisco XNC and Cisco Monitor Manager application

Minimum system requirements:

64-bit Linux operating system (Fedora/Ubuntu/Redhat)
8 GB of RAM, 6-core CPU, and 40 GB of free space in the partition in which the controller will be installed
Java Release 1.7

(For complete system requirements please refer to Cisco XNC Deployment Guide)

Cisco Nexus 3016, 3048, and 3064 Switches

Port configuration options: 1, 10, and 40 Gbps

For More Information

Cisco XNC webpage: http://www.cisco.com/go/xnc

Cisco XNC Network Slicing datasheet: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/netmgtsw/ps13397/ps13400/data_sheet_c78-729458.html.

Cisco Monitor Manager data sheet: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/netmgtsw/ps13397/ps13400/data_sheet_c78-729452.html.

Ordering Information: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/netmgtsw/ps13397/ps13400/guide-c07-729755.html.

Pricing Details: Please contact your local account representative