Loop Guard helps prevent bridging loops that could occur because of a unidirectional link failure on a point-to-point link.
An STP loop occurs when a blocking port in a redundant topology erroneously transitions to the forwarding state. Transitions are usually caused by a port in a physically redundant topology (not necessarily the blocking port) that stops receiving BPDUs.
When you enable Loop Guard globally, it is useful only in switched networks where devices are connected by point-to-point links. On a point-to-point link, a designated bridge cannot disappear unless it sends an inferior BPDU or brings the link down. However, you can enable Loop Guard on shared links per interface,
You can use Loop Guard to determine if a root port or an alternate/backup root port receives BPDUs. If the port that was previously receiving BPDUs is no longer receiving BPDUs, Loop Guard puts the port into an inconsistent state (blocking) until the port starts to receive BPDUs again. If such a port receives BPDUs again, the port—and link—is deemed viable again. The protocol removes the loop-inconsistent condition from the port, and the STP determines the port state because the recovery is automatic.
Loop Guard isolates the failure and allows STP to converge to a stable topology without the failed link or bridge. Disabling Loop Guard moves all loop-inconsistent ports to the listening state.
You can enable Loop Guard on a per-port basis. When you enable Loop Guard on a port, it is automatically applied to all of the active instances or VLANs to which that port belongs. When you disable Loop Guard, it is disabled for the specified ports.
Enabling Loop Guard on a root device has no effect but provides protection when a root device becomes a nonroot device.