This chapter describes firmware management for TR-069 compliant devices in Cisco Broadband Access Center (Cisco BAC). This chapter includes the following sections:
•Firmware Management Mechanisms
•Managing Firmware Files
•Authoring Firmware Rules Templates
•Using Template Constructs with Firmware Rule Templates
Firmware management consists of maintaining and distributing sets of firmware image files to corresponding customer premise equipment (CPE) through the Cisco BAC system. A firmware rules template associates the firmware image files to groups of devices. Cisco BAC uses the rules in the associated firmware rules template to evaluate which firmware to download to the device.
The firmware management functionality allows the administrator to view firmware information on devices, to add firmware images to the database, and to apply the image files to specific devices.
Cisco BAC supports two mechanisms for CPE firmware management:
•Policy-based firmware management through firmware rules templates.
•Direct firmware management through device operations API.
See Firmware Rule Templates, and Direct Firmware Management, for detailed information.
In the process of firmware management, regardless of the management method used, the device is instructed to obtain a new firmware image file from a file server. Cisco BAC provides a file service in its DPE. However, you can also direct CPE to other file servers.
Firmware rules can apply firmware to devices based on a match of any preprovisioned or discovered device parameters, including device group membership, model, type, current state, type of connectivity, and so on. The DPE triggers the firmware download by issuing a Download RPC with the location of the file on a file server and authentication credentials, if any. Cisco BAC supports HTTP and HTTP over SSL, called SSL/TLS in this chapter, for file downloads on DPE servers.
This download can be initiated in various modes:
•Firmware-rule based, in which firmware rules may or may not allow the download of the file requested by a device, or may download a different file. Firmware rules are executed whenever a device connects to the DPE.
•The device may contact the DPE based on periodic contact after a reboot or a specific action, such as an user-initiated upgrade via a button click in the local user interface of the device. Regardless of how the device contacts the DPE, the firmware rules, which are executed, determine if the upgrade is needed and is allowed at the time of the particular interaction.
•Proxy, in which an external application invokes the API download operation for a specific device and specifies the firmware image file location. The DPE then executes the Download RPC on the device, causing the device to download the file from the specified location.
The download can occur in two ways:
–Immediate, in which the DPE connects to the device and instructs the device to download the firmware.
–On-connect, in which the DPE instructs the device to download the firmware on next contact with the device.
Firmware Management Mechanisms
This section describes CPE firmware-management mechanisms provided by Cisco BAC. These comprise:
•Policy-based firmware management through firmware rules templates. See Firmware Rule Templates, for detailed information.
•External firmware management through proxy operations. See Direct Firmware Management, for detailed information.
Firmware Rule Templates
You use rule templates to set policy-based firmware management. The firmware rules templates are XML documents written according to a published schema document. Each template must be stored in a file and uploaded into Cisco BAC.
Each firmware rules template contains one or more rules which trigger firmware updates based on specific conditions. Any number of such templates can be added to Cisco BAC, through the administrator user interface or API. The template is associated with a Class of Service object via the
COS_CWMP_FIRMWARE_RULES_FILE property. Each device, in turn, is assigned to a Class of Service. (For information on Cisco BAC object relationships, see Cisco BAC Device Object Model.)
In this model, you can make convenient updates to the definition of the rules, which apply to a large number of devices. When the rules template is updated, CPE that are indirectly associated with the template via the Class of Service are managed according to the new policy.
When the device establishes a connection with Cisco BAC, its firmware and configuration are automatically synchronized based on the configuration and firmware rules cached at the DPE. First, the firmware rules are executed, and, if appropriate, the device firmware is updated. Then, the device configuration is synchronized.
Cisco BAC provides a two-stage firmware rule processing. First, the templates are processed at the RDU where template constructs such as conditionals and substitutable parameters are interpreted (See Using Template Constructs with Firmware Rule Templates). This processing allows customization of rules for devices based on data available at the RDU (such as device properties and grouping). This data could be preprovisioned by using the API. Data previously discovered from the device and stored at the RDU can also be used in constructing the templates. Once the template has been processed, the resulting rules are sent to the DPEs in the device's provisioning group. The rules, in turn, can have dynamic matching criteria, which enable further granularity in firmware rules policy.
To determine if a firmware update is needed, the rules engine at the DPE evaluates the firmware rules. Firmware rules allow a firmware update to be triggered on match of:
•Inform event types
•Device RequestDownloadRPC arguments
•Inform parameter values
•Any other device parameter values
Note You can use the MaintenanceWindow option to schedule firmware downloads to a device. For details, see Device Contact During MaintenanceWindow.
Together, these rules provide a powerful mechanism to create policy for managing firmware. For example, an administrator can write a rule which forces all devices of a certain model with a certain current firmware version to upgrade to a different firmware during a specific service time window.
The DPE logs an entry for all cases of firmware selection by using rules. It also logs an entry if none of the rules match. This logging mechanism can be useful to track devices that have no firmware image file associated with them or if the device firmware is simply up to date.
Cisco BAC uses the XML schemas that are defined in various files to generate instructions for device configurations. Table 6-1 lists these files and their locations.
Table 6-1 Files Used in Firmware Rules Template Processing
Options Available in Cisco BAC
Firmware Rules Template Samples
Defines device configuration
Sample templates are located at:
Firmware Rule Template Schema
Validates firmware rules template syntax
Default template schemas
Default template schemas are located at:
•Firmware rules template schema
•Common template schema BPR_HOME/rdu/templates/cwmp/schema/CommonTemplateConstructs.xsd
Validates firmware rules template content
Default dictionaries are located at:
Parameter Dictionary Schema
Validates parameter dictionary syntax
Parameter dictionary schema is located at:
Schema for TR-069, TR-098, TR-104, and TR-106 dictionaries
Direct Firmware Management
The Cisco BAC device operations API allows the OSS to execute operations on individual devices. Among other operations, Cisco BAC provides standard CWMP RPC operations.
Managing firmware via device operations API gives the OSS precise control over operations performed on CPE. The OSS issues specific API calls which correspond to remote procedure calls (RPCs) necessary for CPE firmware update.
For example, a Download RPC can be invoked on the device using a corresponding API call. This command contains the URL of the firmware image file that the device should download and, if necessary, authentication credentials.
For detailed information on device operations, see CWMP Device Operations.
In the process of firmware management and regardless of which management method is used, the device is instructed to obtain a new firmware file from a file server. Cisco BAC provides a file service in its DPE servers. However, CPE can also be directed to other file servers if necessary. For the various configuration options that Cisco BAC supports, see CWMP Service Configuration, page 12-1.
Managing Firmware Files
Firmware file management comprises the management of firmware image files and firmware rule template files. This functionality allows the administrator or applications by using the API to add, delete, or replace firmware image files and firmware rule template files, and view and search firmware image files and file information. You manage firmware through the administrator user interface, or through the API. To manage firmware image file and firmware rule templates on the administrator user interface, choose Configuration > Files.
Firmware rule template files determine the firmware image for a device. These files are stored in the RDU database with the file type
Firmware Rules Template.
Firmware image files are stored in the RDU database with file type
Firmware File. Each firmware image file has a firmware version that is specified by using the
Firmware Version attribute. The DPE uses the firmware version information to evaluate firmware rules.
Note While firmware images are managed via the central server (RDU), they are automatically distributed or deleted from the appropriate DPEs.
Firmware file management allows the following operations for each file type:
Table 6-2 Firmware File Management Operations
Note You can add a firmware rule template file to the system only if it is valid; otherwise, Cisco BAC displays error messages explaining the type of error in the template.
Note You cannot delete an existing firmware image file if it is referenced in a firmware rules template. To successfully delete a firmware image file, remove the reference to the firmware file in the firmware rules template.
Note You cannot delete a firmware rules template if it is referenced by a Class of Service. To successfully delete a firmware rules template, remove the reference to the Class of Service.
Retrieve file attributes, such as size, name, and properties
Replace contents and/or modify file attributes/properties
Note You can replace an existing firmware image file even if the file is associated to a firmware file template via the API. The administrator user interface, however, notifies of existing associations before replacing a firmware image file.
When a firmware image file's contents are replaced, IGS regenerates firmware rules for each affected device and IGS distributes them to the DPEs in the device's provisioning group. Subsequently, when the device contacts the DPE, new rules are executed.
Replace file contents, modify file attributes and properties, or both
Search by name, suffix, or file type
View templates in tabular form from the administrator user interface
Note Templates appear in tabular form only if they do not include conditionals.
Authoring Firmware Rules Templates
Firmware rule templates in Cisco BAC are based on an XML schema file located at
Firmware rules execute after processing an Inform from the device. They are also triggered after the device issues a RequestDownload RPC.
A firmware rules template comprises:
FirmwareTemplate—The root element, which can contain a Prerequisites tag, and one or more named FirmwareRule elements.
Note Firmware rules are processed in order and, once a firmware rule matches, further rules are not processed.
•Prerequisites—Contains conditions which must be met before the rules listed in the firmware rule template are processed. Prerequisites may contain zero or one MaintenanceWindow, and zero or more Expressions.
Note You can enable Expressions and MaintenanceWindow for firmware templates just as it is done for configuration templates.
–MaintenanceWindow—Describes the time range within which the firmware rule template is valid for processing. For detailed information, refer to Prerequisites.
–Expression—Zero or more expression for evaluating this rule; has the same syntax and definition as the Expression defined for the FirmwareRule element. For detailed information, refer to Expression.
•FirmwareRule—Each FirmwareRule element provides:
–Expression—Zero or more expression for evaluating this rule. The rules triggers a firmware update if all expressions in a given rule match. For detailed information, refer to Expression.
–InternalFirmwareFile or ExternalFirmwareFile—One of the two must be specified.
–InternalFirmwareFile is used if the Cisco BAC file service is utilized, and the firmware image file has been added to the system via the API or via the administrator user interface.
–ExternalFirmwareFile provides information for firmware image files located on external file servers.
For detailed information, refer to Internal Firmware File vs. External Firmware File.
Expressions describe a test condition. Each expression must provide a ParameterName, InformParameterName or RpcArgumentName tag, one or more Value tags and an Operator tag. Cisco BAC processes these elements in sequence to match and assign a firmware image file.
Specifies the name of a TR-069 parameter. The ParameterName is validated by using the TR-069 parameter dictionary.
The DPE may have this parameter available from Inform or from prior GetParameterValues RPCs calls within the same session. If the parameter value is not available in the session when processing the rule, the DPE queries the device for the missing parameter values before proceeding with evaluation of the rules.
For additional information, see Parameters.
Specifies the name of an Inform parameter that is not described in the parameter dictionary. This entry is not validated.
For example, the expression in the following example evaluates to true if the device
Inform.EventCode includes either of the specified values:
Cisco BAC supports the following parameter names in the InformParameter tag:
For information on the values for Inform.EventCode, refer to the DSL Forum's Technical Report on TR-069.
Specifies data for the Parameter. One or more possible values might be listed for a given parameter. The data type for a value is validated by using a dictionary when possible.
In the expression, if you need to set a value that contains comma then specify each item of the value separated by a comma in separate value tag.
For example, the comma-separated value 12.4(22)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) can be set as in the following expression:
<Value>RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)</Value>
Specifies the name for a parameter that the device reports. The possible values are RequestDownload.FileType and RequestDownload.FileTypeArg\*
•RequestDownload.FileType indicates the type of file that the device is requesting to download.
•RequestDownload.FileTypeArg\* indicates any argument that the device might have provided in a download request message. The asterisk (*) denotes the actual argument name.
See Example 6-3.
Evaluates the Parameter and the Value. In evaluating the expression, the Operator may be one of the following:
•match—Specifies that the device parameter value must match at least one of the values in a case-sensitive comparison.
•matchIgnoreCase—Specifies that the device parameter value must match at least one of the values in a case-insensitive comparison.
•matchAll—Specifies that the device parameter value must match all of the values in a case-sensitive comparison.
•matchAllIgnoreCase—Specifies that the device parameter value must match all of the values in a case-insensitive comparison.
•noMatch—Specifies that the device parameter value must not match any of the values in a case-sensitive comparison.
•noMatchIgnoreCase—Specifies that the device parameter value must not match any of the values in a case-insensitive comparison.
Example 6-1 Expression - match InformParameterName
In the following sample expression, the match condition indicates that the subsequent rules are valid when the InformParameter
Inform.EventCode has exactly the value 1 BOOT. The device reports this value in the Inform message when it contacts the autoconfiguration server (ACS).
Example 6-2 Expression - match RpcArgumentName (RequestDownload.FileType)
In the following sample expression, the match condition indicates that the subsequent rules should be in effect when the RPCArgumentName
RequestDownload.FileType matches exactly the value 1 Firmware Upgrade Image.
<Value>1 Firmware Upgrade Image</Value>
Example 6-3 Expression - match RpcArgumentName (RequestDownload.FileTypeArg)
In the following sample expression, the match condition indicates that the subsequent rules should be in effect when the RPCArgumentName
RequestDownload.FileTypeArg.Version matches the value 1.1.
Note The CWMP specification defines
Version to be a FileTypeArg that you can use if File Type is Web Content.
<Value>2 Web Content</Value>
Example 6-4 Expression - noMatch ParameterName
In the following sample expression, the match condition indicates that the subsequent rules should be in effect when the Parameter
InternetGatewayDevice.DeviceInfo.SoftwareVersion does not match the software version 1.02.
Internal Firmware File vs. External Firmware File
The Internal and External firmware image file elements define whether the firmware image files are located within the Cisco BAC file server or at remote file server.
The InternalFirmwareFile element describes the filename of the firmware image that was added to the RDU and automatically distributed to DPEs and the delivery transport method employed to download the firmware image to a device. It comprises:
FileName—Specifies the name of the file in the RDU database.
DeliveryTransport—Specifies service HTTP 1 or service HTTP 2 transfer.
You should configure the corresponding file service (HTTP 1 or HTTP 2) on the DPE. For configuration details, see the Cisco Broadband Access Center DPE CLI Reference 3.6.
If you define multiple services on the DPE with the same transport, for example, two HTTP, the DPE chooses the first one to service the device.
<DeliveryTransport>service http 1</DeliveryTransport>
The ExternalFirmwareFile element describes the name of a firmware image file located at a remote server. It comprises:
•FileURL—Specifies the URL for a firmware image file located at remote location.
•FileSize—Specifies the size of the firmware image file to be downloaded.
•AuthenticationCredentials—Specifies the username and password to use if HTTP authentication is enforced by the file server. The username and password are transmitted via the Download RPC to the device.
Note Ensure that you use SSL/TLS for CWMP to avoid transferring passwords in clear text.
You can use substitutable parameters to make the template-processing engine derive a device-specific username and password from the device record when processing firmware rules at the RDU.
Sample Firmware Rules Template
The following is an example of a firmware template with rules:
<DeliveryTransport>service http 1</DeliveryTransport>
Using Template Constructs with Firmware Rule Templates
You can use the Cisco BAC template-processing mechanism to generate customized configurations for a large numbers of CPE by using a small number of templates. The use of template constructs enables this mechanism.
Template constructs are any of the tc:include, tc:if, and tc:choose conditional statements, which are used in conjunction with Cisco BAC properties. The template processor processes the constructs when generating instructions for a device. The instructions are then forwarded to the DPE and cached there.
FirmwareRules, on the other hand, are tags within a firmware rule template and describe the firmware image to send to the device. Firmware rules may include expressions that are evaluated when the device contacts Cisco BAC to retrieve configuration. If the expressions evaluate to true, the device is instructed to download a specific firmware image file.
Firmware rules can apply firmware to devices based on a match of any preprovisioned or discovered device parameters, including device group membership, model, type, current state, type of connectivity, and so on. This processing is done at the RDU, with the preprovisioned or discovered data available at the central server.
This release supports the following general classes of template constructs:
•Parameter substitutions—Rule content can be inserted based on parameter values stored on device records or other objects within the Cisco BAC data model.
See Using Parameter Substitution for more information.
•Includes—One template may include another.
See Using Includes for more information.
•Conditional expressions—Rule content can be inserted based on evaluation of conditional statements.
See Using Conditionals for more information.
You use XML tags with the prefix tc to specify these template constructs.
Note Elements prefixed by tc are generic constructs that are the same for firmware rule templates and configuration templates.
Cisco BAC firmware rules constructs are based on the XML schema defined in the file located at:
Note The XML namespace of the Cisco BAC Common Template constructs is defined as
Using Parameter Substitution
Values from the Cisco BAC property hierarchy are substituted into a template by using the
VAR() construct, in order to produce firmware rules specific to a given device. The
VAR() construct can appear in an XML element value or element attribute. It can also be used to substitute full or partial values.
The following list describes the constructs that Cisco BAC supports for parameter substitution:
•Cisco BAC property value into XML element content
•Cisco BAC property value into XML element attribute
•XML partial element content
•Values with special characters
For syntax and specific examples, see Using Parameter Substitution.
You use Include files to build a set of reusable template snippets. These files are useful for defining options that are common across many classes without having to duplicate the options in several templates.
You can include the content of a particular file to a template by using the tc:include construct. After inserting the content of included files into the host template, the Parameter Dictionary specified in the host template validates the content of the resulting template.
Note If included templates use objects and parameters that are not defined in the same dictionary as the host template, parameter validation fails during instruction generation.
The tc:Include element specifies the href attribute, where href identifies the name of the Cisco BAC template file that is included in the host template. Use double quotation marks (") when using an Include directive in a template.
Note When one template is included in another, the parameter dictionary and prerequisite tags from the included template are ignored. The schema of the firmware template enforces the location of an Include tag within a firmware template.
For syntax and specific examples, see Using Includes.
Cisco BAC supports powerful conditional expressions in template constructs to enable ultimate configuration customization. You can use these conditional expression constructs to include or exclude blocks of text within a template. These construct elements are tc:if, tc:choose, and tc:when. For detailed information and specific examples on conditionals, see Using Conditionals.
By using conditionals, you can also enable devices to bypass firmware upgrade. If a device does not match the required conditions specified in the firmware rules template, then the device bypasses an upgrade. See Example 6-5.
Example 6-5 Firmware Upgrade Bypass
The following is an example of a firmware rule template that describes a firmware upgrade bypass using the if construct.
checkVersion is set to true, the rules check the software version on the device; if the version does not match, firmware upgrade is bypassed. If
checkVersion is set to false, the rules do not check for the software version and the device gets instructions on firmware download.
<!-- Upgrade rule: if software version is 0.00.22, direct the device to download
<!-- devices that do not have software version 0.00.22 , will bypass firmware
<tc:if test="equals(VAR(name=/cpe/checkVersion,defaultValue=false), true)">
<DeliveryTransport>service http 1</DeliveryTransport>