User Guide for the CiscoWorks Wireless LAN Solution Engine, 2.5
Glossary
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Glossary

Table Of Contents


Glossary


A
 
AAA
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting. The WLSE monitors LEAP, PEAP, EAP-MD5 and RADIUS AAA services provided by AAA servers running CiscoSecure ACS Server software.
access point
Access points are wireless LAN transceivers that serve as the center point of a standalone wireless network or as the connection point between wireless and wired networks. In large installations, wireless users within radio range of an access point can roam throughout a facility while maintaining seamless, uninterrupted access to the network.
ANI
Asynchronous Network Interface. A mediation layer between the network devices and client applications. ANI provides discovery, inventory, and topological computations of networks and their devices


B
 
BDPU
Bridge Protocol Data Unit. See STP.
Black Hole Mitigation
Radio Manager feature that recommends the optimal beacon interval for an AP based on data collected from AP radio scan and client walkabout.
BOOTP
Bootstrap Protocol. The protocol used by a network node to determine the IP address of its Ethernet interfaces to affect network booting.
bridge
BSS
Basic Service Set—a set of 802.11 stations associated with a single AP.


C
 
CDP
Cisco Discovery Protocol. Media- and protocol-independent device-discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco-manufactured equipment, including routers, access servers, bridges, and switches. Using Cisco Discovery Protocol, a device can advertise its existence to other devices and receive information about other devices on the same LAN or on the remote side of a WAN. Runs on all media that support SNAP, including LANs, Frame Relay, and ATM media.
CDP distance
The CDP distance determines the depth of the discovery and applies to all seed devices. If CDP distance is 1, only the immediate neighbors of the seed device are discovered. If CDP distance is 2, devices A and B that are directly connected to the seed devices are discovered and the immediate neighbors of A and B are also discovered.
CLI
The command line interface for administering the WLSE. You use the CLI through a console attached to the WLSE's console port or by opening a Telnet connection to the WLSE. CLI commands are described in the User Guide for the CiscoWorks 1105 Wireless LAN Solution Engine—from the online help, click PDF.
community strings
Text strings that act as passwords to authenticate communication with devices that contain an SNMP agent.
CoS
Class or Service. An indication of how an upper-layer protocol requires a lower-layer protocol to treat its messages.
CSR
Certificate Signed Request. Request sent to a certificate authority for using HTTPS.
CSV
Comma-separated values. A file format used by CiscoWorks application, such as Resource Manager Essentials, to exchange information on managed devices.


D
 
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Provides a mechanism for allocating IP addresses dynamically so that addresses can be reused when hosts no longer need them.
DNS
Domain Name System. An Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. Domain names are a clear way of representing an Internet address. The Internet, however, is actually based on IP addresses. For example, the URL http //www.website.com might actually point to the IP address http //123.456.789.0. Because maintaining a central list of domain name/IP address correspondences would be impractical, the lists of domain names and IP addresses are distributed throughout servers on the Internet in the Domain Name System. If one DNS server cannot translate a particular domain name, it contacts another one, and so on, until the correct IP address is returned.
DTIM
Deliver Traffic Indication Message. Used by access points to tell power-save client devices that a packet is waiting for them.
DSCP
Differentiated Services Code Point is a model in which traffic is treated by intermediate systems with relative priorities based on the type of services.


E
 
EAP-MD5 server
Servers running extensible authentication protocol to provide dynamic, session-specific wireless encryption keys, central user administration. and authentication between clients and access points. EAP-MD5 uses MD5 hashing on client and challenge passwords. The WLSE monitors EAP-MD5 servers.
See also AAA.
exception
A group of related faults.


G
 
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time. Mean solar time at the meridian of Greenwich, England, formerly used as a basis for standard time throughout the world.
See also UTC .


H
 
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The protocol used by Web browsers and Web servers to transfer files, such as text and graphic files.
HTTPS
Secure HTTP with SSL (secure socket layer). See also SSL.


I
 
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol. Network layer Internet protocol that reports errors and provides other information relevant to IP packet processing.
IGMP
Internet Group Membership Protocol. Used by IP hosts to report their multicast group memberships to an adjacent multicast router.


L
 
LEAP server
Light EAP server, which combines centralized two-way authentication with dynamically generated wireless equivalent privacy keys or WEP keys.
See also AAA and WEP keys.


M
 
MHAE
Mobile home authentication extension. Mobile IP uses a strong authentication scheme to protect communications to and from visiting clients. All registration messages between a visiting client and the home agent must contain the MHAE. Proxy Mobile IP also implements this requirement in the registration messages sent by the access point on behalf of the visiting clients to the home agent.
See also proxy Mobile IP .
MIC
Media Interface Connector. FDDI de facto standard connector.
MOK
A type of modulation used before the IEEE finished high-speed 802.11 standard and may still be used in older wireless networks.


N
 
non-serving channel
One or more channels on which an AP is not transmitting. Non-serving channel monitoring means that the channels the AP is not transmitting on are monitored. By monitoring non-serving channels, Radio Manager can detect rogue APs that you might not have discovered had it monitored only the channel the AP is transmitting on (the serving channel).
nslookup

The NSLookup tool is used to look up device or host information via the name server. You must enter a device name, not an IP address, to use this function. You must have a DNS server in order to look up network servers.

NTP

Network Time Protocol. Protocol built on top of TCP that ensures accurate local timekeeping with reference to radio and atomic clocks located on the Internet. This protocol is capable of synchronizing distributed clocks within milliseconds over long time periods.



P
 
PEAP server
Protected EAP server, which combines centralized two-way authentication with dynamically generated wireless equivalent privacy keys or WEP keys.
See also AAA and WEP keys.
ping
A common method for troubleshooting the accessibility of devices.
A ping tests an ICMP echo message and its reply. Because ping is the simplest test for a device, it is the first to be used. If ping fails, try using traceroute.
Run ping to view the packets transmitted, packets received, percentage of packet loss, and round-trip time in milliseconds.
proxy Mobile IP
An access point feature that works in conjunction with the Mobile IP feature on Cisco devices on the wired network. When you enable proxyMobile IP on your access point and on your wired network, the access point helps client devices from other networks remain connected to their home networks. The visiting client devices do not need special software; the access point provides proxy Mobile IP services on their behalf.
PSPF
Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding. A feature that prevents client devices associated to a bridge or access point from inadvertently sharing files with other client devices on the wireless network.


Q
 
QoS
Quality of Service. Measure of performance for transmission systems that reflects their transmission quality and service availability.


R
 
RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. Database for authenticating connections and for tracking connection time. The WLSE monitors RADIUS servers. The WLSE also provides a RADIUS module for authenticating users.
See also AAA.
repository
The repository stores WLSE images and provides software update services. A repository can be a WLSE (local repository) or another system that functions as an FTP server (remote repository). From a local repository, you can update the WLSE that contains the repository and update other WLSEs.
RSA
Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman (RSA), the inventors of the technique. Public-key cryptographic system that can be used for encryption and authentication.


S
 
seed
A CDP-enabled device used as a starting point for discovery. For example, by adding a seed device (or set of seed devices), the neighbors of the seed device are discovered using CDP.
serving channel
The channel on which an AP is transmitting.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Internet protocol providing e-mail services.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. Network management protocol used almost exclusively in TCP/IP networks. SNMP provides a means to monitor and control network devices, and to manage configurations, statistics collection, performance, and security.
SSH
Secure Shell. Provides a secure Telnet connection, encrypting all traffic, including passwords
SSID
Service Set ID. It is a unique identifier that client devices use to associate with the access point. The SSID helps client devices distinguish between multiple wireless networks in the same vicinity. The SSID can be any alphanumeric entry up to 32 characters long.
SSL
Secure Socket Layer. Proves a secure connection between the WLSE and Web clients.
STA
Spanning tree algorithm. Algorithm used by the Spanning-Tree Protocol to create a spanning tree.
STP
Spanning-Tree Protocol. Bridge protocol that uses the spanning-tree algorithm, enabling a learning bridge to dynamically work around loops in a network topology by creating a spanning tree. Bridges exchange BPDU messages with other bridges to detect loops, and then remove the loops by shutting down selected bridge interfaces. Refers to both the IEEE 802.1 Spanning-Tree Protocol standard and the earlier Digital Equipment Corporation Spanning-Tree Protocol upon which it is based. The IEEE version supports bridge domains and allows the bridge to construct a loop-free topology across an extended LAN. The IEEE version generally is preferred over the Digital version.


T
 
TACACS+
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus. Proprietary Cisco enhancement to Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS). Provides additional support for authentication, authorization, and accounting.
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol. Connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission. TCP is part of the TCP/IP protocol stack.
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol. Simplified version of FTP that allows files to be transferred from one computer to another over a network, usually without the use of client authentication (for example, username and password).
threshold
A range within which you expect your network to perform. If a threshold is exceeded or goes below the expected bounds, you examine the areas for potential problems. You can create thresholds for a specific device.
TKIP
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, also known as key hashing, is used as part of server-based EAP authentication.
traceroute

This is a diagnostic tool that helps you understand why ping fails or why applications time out. Using it, can view each hop (or gateway) on the route to your device and how long each took.



U
 
UDP
User Datagram Protocol. Connectionless transport layer protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack. UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams without acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery, requiring that error processing and retransmission be handled by other protocols. UDP is defined in RFC 768.
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time. Time zone at zero degrees longitude. Formerly called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and Zulu time.


V
 
VLAN
Virtual LAN. Group of devices on one or more LANs that are configured (using management software) so that they can communicate as if they were attached to the same wire, when in fact they are located on a number of different LAN segments. Because VLANs are based on logical instead of physical connections, they are extremely flexible.
VLAN ID
Virtual Local Area Network identification used by the standard 802.1Q. Being on 12 bits, it allows the identification of 4096 VLANs.


W
 
WDS
Wireless Domain Services. An access point providing WDS on the wireless LAN maintains a cache of credentials for clients that are capable of using CCKM (Cisco Centralized Key Management). When a CCKM-capable client roams from one access point to another, the WDS access point forwards the client's credentials to the new access point with the multicast key. See also WLCCP.
WISPr
Wi-Fi Service Provider Roaming.
WEP keys
Wired equivalent privacy (WEP) keys are the IEEE 802.11b standard that offers a mechanism for securing wireless LAN data streams. The goals of WEP include access control to prevent unauthorized users who lack a correct WEP key from gaining access to the network, and privacy to protect wireless LAN data streams by encrypting them and allowing de-encryption only by users with the correct WEP keys.
wireless bridge
Designed to connect two or more networks (typically located in different buildings). Bridges connect hard-to-wire sites, noncontiguous floors, satellite offices, school or corporate campus settings, temporary networks, and warehouses. For functional flexibility, the wireless bridge may also be configured as an access point.
WGB
Workgroup bridges (WGB) connect Ethernet-enabled laptops or other portable computers to a wireless LAN (WLAN), providing the link from these devices to any Cisco access point or wireless bridge.
WLCCP
Wireless LAN Context Control Protocol. Protocol used by the WLSE to authenticate with an access point that provides WDS to the wireless LAN network. See also WDS.