Table Of Contents
Release Notes for Cisco MGX 8880 Software Version 5.0.20
These release notes are Part Number OL-6942-01 Rev. B0, January 11, 2005.
About Release 5.0.20
These release notes describe the system requirements, new features, and limitations that apply to Release 5.0.20 of the MGX 8880 Media Gateway. These notes also contain Cisco support information.
Type of Release
Release 5.0.20 is a software and hardware release for the MGX 8880 Media Gateway.
Locating Software Updates
This is the location for the MGX 8880 Media Gateway 5.0.20 software:
Features and Enhancements in Release 5.0.20
No new features or enhancements were introduced in this release.
Features and Enhancements in Previous Release 5.0.10
This section contains the following new features and enhancements in Release 5.0.10:
The RAS enhancements to the PXM45 platform for Release 5.0.10 include the addition of nine new device tests to the existing Online Diagnostics suite. These enhancements also include the introduction of a new Power On Self Test (POST) functionality to validate hardware upon card bootup. No new configuration needs to be performed to run these tests. POST tests run by default upon card bootup. The new Online Diagnostics tests are configured in the same way as existing tests.
The feature is supported on the MGX 8880.
Unique Device Identifier (UDI)
Cisco is adopting the Unique Device Identifier (UDI) product identification standard. UDI is an asset management feature that helps Cisco customers better track their Cisco products. Using UDIs, customers can further automate electronic inventory systems and better calculate uptime, thus reducing operating expenses.
The UDI is a combination of identifiers that create a unique value. The UDI includes the orderable Product Identifier (PID), the hardware version identifier (VID), and the product serial number (SN).
MGX releases 5.0.10 and higher support the Cisco-wide UDI initiative. To be compliant with this initiative, the following enhancements have been made for various physical entities, which include non-legacy service modules, switch chassis, and backplanes:
•Five MIB objects of the entityPhysicalTable (in Entity MIB) are populated to provide information about the physical entity in accordance with UDI specifications. Of these five fields, the following combination is called the UDI:
PID (18 Characters) + VID (3 Characters) + SN (11 Characters).
•Though the entityPhysical MIB table can be retrieved to view the above mentioned objects, a new CLI command, show inventory, is required by the UDI initiative. The new command's syntax and output fully conform to UDI standards.
For questions about UDI, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
For older service modules, the VID field is not available because VID was not programmed into older service modules' NVRAM. Thus, this object is likely to be missing from older service modules, making older modules non-compliant.
UDI is supported on platforms with MGX release 5.0.10 or higher. The feature is supported on:
Service Class Template (SCT) File Information
This section contains SCT file information for Release 5.0.20.
The following are the AXSM and AXSM/B files:
•SCT 2: Policing enabled, PNNI
•SCT 3: Policing disabled, PNNI
•SCT 4: Policing enabled, MPLS and PNNI
•SCT 5: Policing disabled, MPLS and PNNI
The checksums for the SCT files are as follows:
•AXSM_SCT.PORT.2.V1: Checksum is = 0x78ccfb22= 2026699554
•AXSM_SCT.PORT.3.V1: Checksum is = 0x987919a7= 2558073255
•AXSM_SCT.PORT.4.V1: Checksum is = 0x775bfaa2= 2002516642
•AXSM_SCT.PORT.5.V1: Checksum is = 0xe84c696a= 3897321834
•AXSM_SCT.CARD.2.V1: Checksum is = 0x78ccfb22= 2026699554
•AXSM_SCT.CARD.3.V1: Checksum is = 0x987919a7= 2558073255
•AXSM_SCT.CARD.4.V1: Checksum is = 0x775bfaa2= 2002516642
•AXSM_SCT.CARD.5.V1: Checksum is = 0xe84c696a= 3897321834
You can do dspsctchksum <filename> to confirm that the checksum of the Cisco-released SCT file and the file on the node match. For example:
These are the AXSM-E SCT files:
•CARD and PORT SCT 4: Policing enabled for PNNI, disabled for MPLS
•CARD and PORT SCT 5: Policing enabled for PNNI, disabled for MPLS
•PORT SCT 6: Policing disabled, used for PNNI ports.
•CARD and PORT SCT 52: Policing enabled on PNNI, disabled on MPLS
•PORT SCT 53: Policing disabled on PNNI and MPLS
•PORT SCT 54: Policing enabled on PNNI, disabled on MPLS
•PORT SCT 55: Policing disabled on PNNI and MPLS
The following are checksums for SCT files:
•AXSME_SCT.PORT.4.V1: Checksum is = 0x778eb096
•AXSME_SCT.CARD.4.V1: Checksum is = 0x778eb096
•AXSME_SCT.PORT.5.V1: Checksum is = 0x793c56d0= 2033997520
•AXSME_SCT.PORT.6.V1: Checksum is = 0xe92db9a5= 3912087973
•AXSME_SCT.PORT.52.V1: Checksum is = 0x51241b7a= 1361320826
•AXSME_SCT.PORT.53.V1: Checksum is = 0x34bdf8b9= 884865209
•AXSME_SCT.PORT.54.V1: Checksum is = 0xb5df2c5c= 3051301980
•AXSME_SCT.PORT.55.V1: Checksum is = 0xc5d355c8= 3318961608
•AXSME_SCT.CARD.5.V1: Checksum is = 0x793c56d0= 2033997520
•AXSME_SCT.CARD.52.V1: Checksum is = 0x972810ac= 2535985324
This section describes software compatible with this release, and lists the hardware supported in this release.
Software/Firmware Compatibility Matrix
Table 1 lists Cisco WAN or IOS products that are compatible with Release 5.0.20.
Table 1 MGX 5.0.20 Release Compatibility Matrix
Switch or Component Compatible Software Version
MGX 8880 (PXM45/C)
MGX 8880 (VXSM)
1 VISM Release 3.2.11 replaces VISM Release 3.2.10.
MGX and RPM Software Version Compatibility Matrix
Table 2 lists the software that is compatible for use in a switch running Release 5.0.20 software.
SNMP MIB Release
The SNMP MIB release for 5.0.20 is mgx8xxxrel5020mib.tar.
Note SNMP manuals are replaced by the online MIB tool at URL http://tools.cisco.com/ITDIT/MIBS/jsp/index.jsp
This section lists the MGX 8880 Product IDs, 800 part numbers, and revision levels.
Hardware in Release 5.0.20
No new hardware was introduced in Release 5.0.20.
MGX 8880 Product IDs and Card Types
Table 3 lists Product IDs, minimum 800 part numbers, and the minimum revision levels for the MGX 8880.
This section lists which commands are new, changed, or removed, by card, in MGX Release 5.0.20.
In this section:
•A means the command is available in the Active card state.
•S means the command is available in the Standby card state.
•I means the command is available in the Init card state.
Refer to the following documents for details about commands:
•The Cisco MGX 8850 (PXM45/PXM1E), Cisco MGX 8950, Cisco MGX 8830, and Cisco MGX 8880 Command Reference, Release 5, part OL-4547-01, available online at http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/wanbu/8850px45/rel5/cmdref/index.htm
•The Cisco ATM Services (AXSM) Configuration Guide and Command Reference for MGX Switches, Release 5, part OL-4548-01, available online at http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/wanbu/8850px45/rel5/axsm/index.htm
•Release Notes for the Cisco Voice Switch Service Module (VXSM), Release 5.x
Commands Changed in Release 5.0.10
This section contains the commands that are changed in Release 5.0.10.
This section lists commands that are new in, changed in, or removed from MGX Release 5.0.10 code for PXM45 cards. It also lists the privilege level and state in which the command can be used.
The following commands are new in MGX Release 5.0.10:
•dspdiagresults ANYUSER A|S
•dspdiagtests ANYUSER A|S
•dsppostresults ANYUSER A|S
•show ANYUSER A|S|I
This section lists commands that are changed in MGX Release 5.0.10 for PXM45 cards. Refer to the Cisco MGX 8850 (PXM45/PXM1E), Cisco MGX 8950, Cisco MGX 8830, and Cisco MGX 8880 Command Reference, Release 5 manual for details.
Commands with Access Level Changes
The following commands had changes to their access level in MGX Release 5.0.10:
•dspDevErr ANYUSER A|S state (from A to A|S)
•dspDevErrHist ANYUSER A|S state (from A to A|S)
•dspHwAlms ANYUSER A|S state (from A to A|S)
Removed PXM45 Commands
No commands were removed from MGX 5.0.10 code.
AXSM and AXSM-E Commands
There were no new or changed commands for AXSM and AXSM-E cards in MGX release 5.0.10.
Limitations, Restrictions, and Notes for 5.0.20
This section includes information about limitations, restrictions, and notes pertaining to MGX Release 5.0.20.
•Due to granularity limitations in the AXSME hardware, cell traffic does not reach the configured PCR rate when WFQ is enabled. You must configure connections that have WFQ enabled with a PCR of 101% of the actual required rate. ABR has the same Qbin priority as UBR in the SCT tables. In this case ABR and UBR share excess bandwidth if WFQ is enabled.
•The VXSM cards, when installed for the first time or after clearing the slot configuration, create default configuration. This creation of default configuration involves writing large amount of data to the hard disk in the node. When multiple VXSM cards are installed simultaneously or the configuration of multiple VXSM slots are cleared simultaneously, one or more VXSM cards could fail to be installed. This potential failure results in following recommendations (refer to CSCed12646):
–Install VXSM cards, using setrev command, one at a time. Install another VXSM after the earlier one is installed completely and is Active.
–Clear the VXSM slot configuration using clrsmcnf command (with no option where the slot primary software version is preserved) one at a time. Wait until the VXSM rebuilds after clearing its slot configuration (without clearing the slot primary software version) before clearing the slot configuration of another VXSM slot.
Upgrading the VISM-PR Image
If you are upgrading the VISM-PR image to Release 3.2.1x or later and the PXM1E or PXM45 image from Release 4.x or earlier to Release 5.x, first upgrade the VISM-PR cards. Then, upgrade the PXM1E or PXM45 cards in the same node.
Do not configure the new VISM features until you have fully upgraded the network. After you upgrade your network to PXM1E or PXM45 Release 5.x or later and VISM-PR to Release 3.2.1x or later, apply the standard upgrade process.
Higher Level Logical Link Limits
The numbers of logical links in the higher levels of the PNNI hierarchy is limited to 30 per level when the complex node configuration is turned on. The limit is essential to reduce the processing time involved in finding the bypasses between the logical links. Whenever a significant change occurs in bandwidth in one of the links within the peer group, the bypass calculation is triggered and the bypasses are usually found from one logical link to another.
If there are n logical links, the calculation involves the finding n*n bypasses. If the number of logical links n is large, a lot of processing time is used for calculating the bypasses. The number of logical links per level must be limited to 30. The number can be controlled by configuring the appropriate number of aggregation tokens for the outside links for that peer group.
The following notes apply:
•IMA version fall back is part of IMA group operation. If a group is configured with version 1.1 and it is connected to a far end group which is configured with version 1.0, this group falls back to version 1.0.
•The IMA link Loss of IMA Frame (LIF) and Link Out of Delay Synchronization (LODS) defect integration times are configurable.
•ATM layer configuration for line and IMA ports takes an additional parameter, AIS enable. It is enabled by default.
•In T1 mode, payload scrambling is disabled by default and in E1 mode it is enabled by default on all lines and IMA groups.
•Only 10 SVC calls per second is guaranteed.
•FDL support for Loopback code detection is not supported.
•Far End Line Performance counters are supported only for E1. They are not supported for the T1 interface.
•HMM support is not available for the IMA and the Framer devices. When a switchover occurs, it can take up to 3.5 seconds for the IMA groups to recover. Data is lost until the groups recover.
•IMA Auto-restart (persistent RX IMA ID) feature is supported.
•IMA group cannot have links from upper and lower bays together.
•ITC clocking mode on IMA is not supported.
•One way transmission delay of more than 500 msec on the T1/E1 IMA links is not supported.
•There is 5 ms fluctuation on IMA delay tolerance.
•While the IMA group accumulated delay is being removed with clrimadelay, the following applies:
–Any changes to this IMA group configuration are temporarily blocked.
–Any changes in the FE IMA links in this group can cause the NE IMA group to restart.
•The VC and COSB thresholds are updated when the links are added/deleted from the IMA groups.
•The thresholds for the connections added when there are N links in the group can differ from connections added when there are (N+1) links in the IMA group.
•BERT is only supported on the T1 interfaces. BERT is not supported on E1 interfaces.
•The port number in the pnport (shelf.slot:subslot.port:subport) could be a random number. Do not interpret this number as line or IMA group number. Refer to DDTS CSCdy08500.
•PNNI requires SCR = 453 cells per second and PCR = 969 cells per second for the control connection.
•SSCOP requires of SCR = 126 cells per second and PCR = 2000 cells per second.
The following notes apply to AXSM-E OAM cells:
•Any connection can receive E2E/OAM loopback cells up to the line rate (as long as the policing policy permits).
•If the connection is not in the loopback mode and is operating in the normal mode, then the AXSM-E card can receive up to 1,500 segment OAM loopback cells per second. Any excessive segment OAM loopback cells are dropped. This limitation applies for all the connections on a card.
For example, if only one connection exists, that connection can receive 1,500 segment OAM loopback cells per second. If 2,000 connections exist on an AXSM-E card, and one segment OAM loopback cell per second is being pumped through on each connection, then there can only be up to 1,500 connections to receive loopback cells at any given second. The additional 500 connections are not received for that second.
•The limitation is 1,500 segment OAM loopback cells per card and not per connection. The 1,500 cps assumes an even flow rate.
CLI Configurable Access
The following notes pertain to how command access levels can be configured:
•Not all CLI commands are allowed to be changed and a command cannot be changed to CISCO_GP group access level.
•Only the switch software is allowed to generate the binary file. This file has an authentication signature which has to be validated before the file can be used. Any manual changes to the file would make the file void.
•If the binary file becomes corrupted, then the command access levels revert back to the default values during the card bring-up. To recover, repeat the installation process or retain a copy of the binary file and do cnfcli accesslevel install on that service module.
•Currently, command names are verified, but an invalid command name might be parsed and be added to the binary file. However, this invalid name is ignored later.
•If replication to standby failed, the installation process failed.
•The cnfcli accesslevel default command restores all command access levels to default for the service module that this command is executed on. This command does not remove the binary file, and this change is not persistent. If the command is executed on the active card of a redundancy pair, the standby card is not affected. When the card is reset and the binary file exists, it will configure from the binary file when it is brought up.
Disk Space Maintenance
Because the firmware does not audit the disk space usage and remove unused files, the disk space in C: and E: drives must be manually monitored.
Manually delete any unused saved configuration files, core files and firmware files and the configuration files of the MGX-RPM-PR-512 and MGX-RPM-XF-512 cards to avoid a shortage of disk space required to store event logs: configuration upload files in the C: drive and the configuration of MGX-RPM-PR-512 and MGX-RPM-XF-512 cards in the E: drive.
The following steps are recommended to remove files on the system from the active controller card:
Step 1 Change to the directory that needs grooming.CLI cc <directory_name>
Step 2 List the directory to identify old files that can be removed and available disk space.CLI ll
Step 3 Remove any old files (you may also use wild cards in the filename).CLI rm <complete_filename>
Step 4 List the directory to see if the file has been removed and disk space is available.CLI ll
The system keeps only the two most recent copy of the saved system configuration under the C:/CNF directory. You can use ftp protocol to ftp all the saved configuration under C:/CNF to their local server for future reference. All files under C:/CNF are not replicated over to the standby controller card under any circumstances.
These notes pertain to the clrsmcnf command:
•Cisco does not recommend executing clrsmcnf on more than one card at a time
•For the clear service module configuration feature, if there is a controller card switchover before the clear service module configuration operation is complete, the clrsmcnf command needs to be re-issued to ensure that the configuration is completely cleared to avoid any incomplete cleanup.
•For the clear service module configuration feature, using the clrsmcnf command might result in discrepancy in the PNNI configuration. For example, some connections might be in the mis-match state.
•If the clrsmcnf command is given with the <all> option to clear the software version for the slot as well, then the card goes into the boot/empty state after the operation is complete.
•If the clrsmcnf command is given with the <all> option, for cell bus service module, the card goes into boot/empty state. For a broadband service module (for example, AXSM or MPSM-155-T3E3), the card goes into fail/active state.
•While using the clrsmcnf command, the card in the specified slot is not usable until the operation has successfully completed.
These notes pertain to the APS feature:
•For AXSM APS, the backcard of the active card must be present for APS to function.
•AXSM cards need the backcard of the active front card for the APS to work. This implies that AXSM cards do not support the cross backcard removal—the upper backcard of one AXSM and lower backcard of another AXSM.
•If you remove the upper backcard of the active front AXSM, it triggers switching active card. At this point the APS is OK. However, if the lower backcard of the current active AXSM is removed at this time, it will not trigger switching active card since the standby card is missing one of the backcard. At this point the lower backcard APS does not work since the backcard of the active front card is missing.
Port LED lights on AXSM-E front cards indicate the receive status of physical line connected to it only when the card is in active state. For a standby AXSM-E cards, the LEDs always remain green whether the lines are in LOS irrespective of which lines are Active (refer to anomaly CSCdv68576).
Path and Connection Trace
These notes pertain to the path and connection trace features:
•Path trace is not supported on the control port.
•Path trace does not have the accurate information when there is a crankback on the connect path.
•Path and connection trace support point to point connections.
•Path and connection trace support MPG (multi-peer group) and SPG (single-peer group).
These notes pertain to the priority routing feature:
Prioritized reroute of SPVCs is not guaranteed if the SPVCs originate on a signaling port. SPVCs might get routed out of order. In-order routing of SPVCs is guaranteed on non-signaling ports.
•RPM does not support configuration of routing priority. All RPM mastered SPVCs are assigned a routing priority of 8 by the PXM.
•Changing the routing priority for dax connections does not change the priority of the associated SVCs. The SPVCs are not derouted and rerouted if just the endpoint parameters are changed, and routing priority is an end-point parameter.
Also, since dax connections are never derouted even when the UNI port goes down and the rrtcon command is not supported for dax connections, the routing priority change never gets reflected. The only way for this to get reflected is to do a dncon and upcon. Since dax connections are never derouted, the effect of this limitation is voided.
•Priority routing operates in a best effort manner for the following reasons:
–Two in-order releases can still arrive out of order at the master node if they take two different paths.
–Under congestion scenarios releases can be expected to be transmitted out-of-order. This is because releases of other calls must not be held up if you are not able to send releases on one of the interfaces because it is congested. The calls that were not released could be higher priority calls.
–Lower priority SPVCs can be routed ahead of higher priority SPVCs. This can happen if you have attempted several times to route higher priority SPVCs, but failed. To prevent starvation of lower priority SPVCs, software will start to route lower priority SPVCs and software will get to the higher priority SPVCs at a later point in time.
These notes pertain to SPVC interoperability:
•NNI SPVC Addendum Version 1.0 is not supported.
•CC (Continuity Check) shall not be available at the slave end of a single-ended SPVC.
•Reporting AIS detection to CWM is not available at the slave end of a single-ended SPVC.
•The slave end of a single-ended SPVC is not visible to CWM.
•If single-ended SPVCs originated from MGX switches, they can only be configured via CLI and not from CWM in the current release.
•Single-end provisioning is not supported for DAX connections as no value addition is seen for interoperability.
•SPVC statistics are not available for the slave endpoint of a single-ended SPVC because this endpoint is non-persistent.
•When the persistent slave endpoint of an existing SPVC connection is deleted and the master endpoint is allowed to remain, the connection might get established as a single-ended SPVC connection. In this case, CWM shows the connection as "Incomplete."
•Override of SVC connections on a VPI due to an incoming SPVP request for that VPI is not supported The following override options alone are supported:
When resetcd is invoked, the primary and secondary (if configured) clock sources are recommitted. However, the clock to which the node is latched is not requalified. Only the backup clock is qualified if present. Recommitted means that the primary and secondary get requalified, and the node temporarily latches onto the internal oscillator. After the clock is requalified, the node locks onto the primary clock source once again.
When you enable priority bumping on the node, you cannot change the booking factor for AXSM signaling ports. You can change the booking factor for non-signaling ports.
Other Limitations and Restrictions
Other limitations and restrictions are as follows:
•When configuring virtual interfaces (for example, VUNI, VNNI, EVUNI, EVNNI), the physical interface must be of all one ATM header type, either UNI or NNI. The signaling that is applied to a virtual port is independent of the actual virtual port ATM header. The only limit will be that the VPI value must be within the UNI ATM header limitations.
•If command clrchancnt is executed while a dspchancnt command is currently active, the data displayed is incorrect. Restarting the dspchancnt after the previous one has completed displays correct data.
•The clrsmcnf command does not work for redundant service modules.
•The clrsmcnf does not work if an upgrade is in progress.
•If RPM-XF is configured as a Label Switch Controller (LSC), execution of clrsmcnf command on those LSC slots is rejected as designed.
•Configuration information is not synchronized between PXMs during upgrades. If any changes are made to the configuration during upgrades, the standby PXM must be rebooted. The standby PXM must be rebooted when it is in a stable state.
Clearing the Configuration on Redundant PXM45 Card
These notes apply to redundant cards.
•Due to checks to prevent an inserted card from affecting the system, an additional step might be required when inserting two non native PXM45 cards in a shelf. Insert the first PXM45, use the clrallcnf command, and allow this to become active before inserting the second PXM45.
•After a clrallcnf, explicitly clean up stale SCT files (see anomaly CSCdw80282).
This section provides information about anomalies.
Known MGX 8880 Media Gateway Anomalies
For information about anomalies with the VXSM card, refer to Release Notes for the Cisco Voice Switch Service Module (VXSM), Release 5.x.
For information about anomalies in MGX Release 5.x on other platforms, refer to the Release Notes for Cisco MGX 8850 (PXM1E/PXM45), Cisco MGX 8950, and Cisco MGX 8830 Switches, Release 5.x.
Known Route Processor Module or MPLS Anomalies
For information about anomalies with the MGX-RPM-XF-512 card, refer to Release Notes for Cisco MGX Route Processor Module (RPM-XF) IOS Release 12.3x for PXM45-based Switches, Release 5.x .
MGX-RPM-XF-512 and MGX-RPM-PR-512 Anomalies
For information about anomalies with the MGX-RPM-XF-512 card, refer to Release Notes for Cisco MGX Route Processor Module (RPM-XF) IOS Release 12.3x for PXM45-based Switches, Release 5.x .
For information about anomalies with the MGX-RPM-PR-512 card, refer to Release Notes for Cisco MGX Route Processor Module (RPM-PR) IOS Release 12.3x for MGX Releases 1.3.x and 5.x.
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For S1 or S2 service requests or if you do not have Internet access, contact the Cisco TAC by telephone. (S1 or S2 service requests are those in which your production network is down or severely degraded.) Cisco TAC engineers are assigned immediately to S1 and S2 service requests to help keep your business operations running smoothly.
To open a service request by telephone, use one of the following numbers:
Asia-Pacific: +61 2 8446 7411 (Australia: 1 800 805 227)
EMEA: +32 2 704 55 55
USA: 1 800 553-2447
For a complete list of Cisco TAC contacts, go to this URL:
Definitions of Service Request Severity
To ensure that all service requests are reported in a standard format, Cisco has established severity definitions.
Severity 1 (S1)—Your network is "down," or there is a critical impact to your business operations. You and Cisco will commit all necessary resources around the clock to resolve the situation.
Severity 2 (S2)—Operation of an existing network is severely degraded, or significant aspects of your business operation are negatively affected by inadequate performance of Cisco products. You and Cisco will commit full-time resources during normal business hours to resolve the situation.
Severity 3 (S3)—Operational performance of your network is impaired, but most business operations remain functional. You and Cisco will commit resources during normal business hours to restore service to satisfactory levels.
Severity 4 (S4)—You require information or assistance with Cisco product capabilities, installation, or configuration. There is little or no effect on your business operations.
Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
Information about Cisco products, technologies, and network solutions is available from various online and printed sources.
•Cisco Marketplace provides a variety of Cisco books, reference guides, and logo merchandise. Visit Cisco Marketplace, the company store, at this URL:
•Cisco Press publishes a wide range of general networking, training and certification titles. Both new and experienced users will benefit from these publications. For current Cisco Press titles and other information, go to Cisco Press at this URL:
•Packet magazine is the Cisco Systems technical user magazine for maximizing Internet and networking investments. Each quarter, Packet delivers coverage of the latest industry trends, technology breakthroughs, and Cisco products and solutions, as well as network deployment and troubleshooting tips, configuration examples, customer case studies, certification and training information, and links to scores of in-depth online resources. You can access Packet magazine at this URL:
•iQ Magazine is the quarterly publication from Cisco Systems designed to help growing companies learn how they can use technology to increase revenue, streamline their business, and expand services. The publication identifies the challenges facing these companies and the technologies to help solve them, using real-world case studies and business strategies to help readers make sound technology investment decisions. You can access iQ Magazine at this URL:
•Internet Protocol Journal is a quarterly journal published by Cisco Systems for engineering professionals involved in designing, developing, and operating public and private internets and intranets. You can access the Internet Protocol Journal at this URL:
•World-class networking training is available from Cisco. You can view current offerings at this URL:
Table 4 lists acronyms that have been referenced in these release notes.
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