Catalyst 3750 Switch Software Configuration Guide, 12.2(52)SE
Configuring VLANs
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Configuring VLANs

Table Of Contents

Configuring VLANs

Understanding VLANs

Supported VLANs

VLAN Port Membership Modes

Configuring Normal-Range VLANs

Token Ring VLANs

Normal-Range VLAN Configuration Guidelines

Configuring Normal-Range VLANs

Default Ethernet VLAN Configuration

Creating or Modifying an Ethernet VLAN

Deleting a VLAN

Assigning Static-Access Ports to a VLAN

Configuring Extended-Range VLANs

Default VLAN Configuration

Extended-Range VLAN Configuration Guidelines

Creating an Extended-Range VLAN

Creating an Extended-Range VLAN with an Internal VLAN ID

Displaying VLANs

Configuring VLAN Trunks

Trunking Overview

Encapsulation Types

IEEE 802.1Q Configuration Considerations

Default Layer 2 Ethernet Interface VLAN Configuration

Configuring an Ethernet Interface as a Trunk Port

Interaction with Other Features

Configuring a Trunk Port

Defining the Allowed VLANs on a Trunk

Changing the Pruning-Eligible List

Configuring the Native VLAN for Untagged Traffic

Configuring Trunk Ports for Load Sharing

Load Sharing Using STP Port Priorities

Load Sharing Using STP Path Cost

Configuring VMPS

Understanding VMPS

Dynamic-Access Port VLAN Membership

Default VMPS Client Configuration

VMPS Configuration Guidelines

Configuring the VMPS Client

Entering the IP Address of the VMPS

Configuring Dynamic-Access Ports on VMPS Clients

Reconfirming VLAN Memberships

Changing the Reconfirmation Interval

Changing the Retry Count

Monitoring the VMPS

Troubleshooting Dynamic-Access Port VLAN Membership

VMPS Configuration Example


Configuring VLANs


This chapter describes how to configure normal-range VLANs (VLAN IDs 1 to 1005) and extended-range VLANs (VLAN IDs 1006 to 4094) on the Catalyst 3750 switch. It includes information about VLAN membership modes, VLAN configuration modes, VLAN trunks, and dynamic VLAN assignment from a VLAN Membership Policy Server (VMPS). Unless otherwise noted, the term switch refers to a standalone switch and a switch stack.


Note For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, see the command reference for this release.


The chapter consists of these sections:

Understanding VLANs

Configuring Normal-Range VLANs

Configuring Extended-Range VLANs

Displaying VLANs

Configuring VLAN Trunks

Configuring VMPS

Understanding VLANs

A VLAN is a switched network that is logically segmented by function, project team, or application, without regard to the physical locations of the users. VLANs have the same attributes as physical LANs, but you can group end stations even if they are not physically located on the same LAN segment. Any switch port can belong to a VLAN, and unicast, broadcast, and multicast packets are forwarded and flooded only to end stations in the VLAN. Each VLAN is considered a logical network, and packets destined for stations that do not belong to the VLAN must be forwarded through a router or a switch supporting fallback bridging, as shown in Figure 14-1. VLANs can be formed with ports across the stack. Because a VLAN is considered a separate logical network, it contains its own bridge Management Information Base (MIB) information and can support its own implementation of spanning tree. See Chapter 19, "Configuring STP."


Note Before you create VLANs, you must decide whether to use VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) to maintain global VLAN configuration for your network. For more information on VTP, see Chapter 15, "Configuring VTP."


Figure 14-1 shows an example of VLANs segmented into logically defined networks.

Figure 14-1 VLANs as Logically Defined Networks

VLANs are often associated with IP subnetworks. For example, all the end stations in a particular IP subnet belong to the same VLAN. Interface VLAN membership on the switch is assigned manually on an interface-by-interface basis. When you assign switch interfaces to VLANs by using this method, it is known as interface-based, or static, VLAN membership.

Traffic between VLANs must be routed or fallback bridged. The switch can route traffic between VLANs by using switch virtual interfaces (SVIs). An SVI must be explicitly configured and assigned an IP address to route traffic between VLANs. For more information, see the "Switch Virtual Interfaces" section on page 12-5 and the "Configuring Layer 3 Interfaces" section on page 12-25.


Note If you plan to configure many VLANs on the switch and to not enable routing, you can use the sdm prefer vlan global configuration command to set the Switch Database Management (sdm) feature to the VLAN template, which configures system resources to support the maximum number of unicast MAC addresses. For more information on the SDM templates, see Chapter 8, "Configuring SDM Templates," or see the sdm prefer command in the command reference for this release.


Supported VLANs

The switch supports VLANs in VTP client, server, and transparent modes. VLANs are identified by a number from 1 to 4094. VLAN IDs 1002 through 1005 are reserved for Token Ring and FDDI VLANs.

VTP version 1 and version 2 support only normal-range VLANs (VLAN IDs 1 to 1005). In these versions, the switch must be in VTP transparent mode when you create VLAN IDs from 1006 to 4094. Cisco IOS Release 12.2(52)SE and later support VTP version 3. VTP version 3 supports the entire VLAN range (VLANs 1 to 4094). Extended range VLANs (VLANs 1006 to 4094) are supported only in VTP version 3. You cannot convert from VTP version 3 to VTP version 2 if extended VLANs are configured in the domain.

Although the switch stack supports a total of 1005 (normal range and extended range) VLANs, the number of routed ports, SVIs, and other configured features affects the use of the switch hardware.

The switch supports per-VLAN spanning-tree plus (PVST+) or rapid PVST+ with a maximum of 128 spanning-tree instances. One spanning-tree instance is allowed per VLAN. See the "Normal-Range VLAN Configuration Guidelines" section for more information about the number of spanning-tree instances and the number of VLANs. The switch supports both Inter-Switch Link (ISL) and IEEE 802.1Q trunking methods for sending VLAN traffic over Ethernet ports.

VLAN Port Membership Modes

You configure a port to belong to a VLAN by assigning a membership mode that specifies the kind of traffic the port carries and the number of VLANs to which it can belong. Table 14-1 lists the membership modes and membership and VTP characteristics.

Table 14-1 Port Membership Modes and Characteristics

Membership Mode
VLAN Membership Characteristics
VTP Characteristics

Static-access

A static-access port can belong to one VLAN and is manually assigned to that VLAN.

For more information, see the "Assigning Static-Access Ports to a VLAN" section.

VTP is not required. If you do not want VTP to globally propagate information, set the VTP mode to transparent. To participate in VTP, there must be at least one trunk port on the switch stack connected to a trunk port of a second switch or switch stack.

Trunk (ISL or
IEEE 802.1Q)

A trunk port is a member of all VLANs by default, including extended-range VLANs, but membership can be limited by configuring the allowed-VLAN list. You can also modify the pruning-eligible list to block flooded traffic to VLANs on trunk ports that are included in the list.

For information about configuring trunk ports, see the "Configuring an Ethernet Interface as a Trunk Port" section.

VTP is recommended but not required. VTP maintains VLAN configuration consistency by managing the addition, deletion, and renaming of VLANs on a network-wide basis. VTP exchanges VLAN configuration messages with other switches over trunk links.

Dynamic access

A dynamic-access port can belong to one VLAN (VLAN ID 1 to 4094) and is dynamically assigned by a VMPS. The VMPS can be a Catalyst 5000 or Catalyst 6500 series switch, for example, but never a Catalyst 3750 switch. The Catalyst 3750 switch is a VMPS client.

You can have dynamic-access ports and trunk ports on the same switch, but you must connect the dynamic-access port to an end station or hub and not to another switch.

For configuration information, see the "Configuring Dynamic-Access Ports on VMPS Clients" section.

VTP is required.

Configure the VMPS and the client with the same VTP domain name.

To participate in VTP, at least one trunk port on the switch stack must be connected to a trunk port of a second switch or switch stack.

Voice VLAN

A voice VLAN port is an access port attached to a Cisco IP Phone, configured to use one VLAN for voice traffic and another VLAN for data traffic from a device attached to the phone.

For more information about voice VLAN ports, see Chapter 16, "Configuring Voice VLAN."

VTP is not required; it has no effect on a voice VLAN.

Private VLAN

A private VLAN port is a host or promiscuous port that belongs to a private VLAN primary or secondary VLAN.

For information about private VLANs, see Chapter 17, "Configuring Private VLANs."

In VTP versions 1 and 2, the switch must be in VTP transparent mode when you configure private VLANs. When private VLANs are configured on the switch, do not change VTP mode from transparent to client or server mode. VTP version 3 supports private VLANs in any mode.

Tunnel
(dot1q-tunnel)

Tunnel ports are used for IEEE 802.1Q tunneling to maintain customer VLAN integrity across a service-provider network. You configure a tunnel port on an edge switch in the service-provider network and connect it to an IEEE 802.1Q trunk port on a customer interface, creating an asymetric link. A tunnel port belongs to a single VLAN that is dedicated to tunneling.

For more information about tunnel ports, see Chapter 18, "Configuring IEEE 802.1Q and Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling."

VTP is not required. You manually assign the tunnel port to a VLAN by using the switchport access vlan interface configuration command.


For more detailed definitions of access and trunk modes and their functions, see Table 14-4.

When a port belongs to a VLAN, the switch learns and manages the addresses associated with the port on a per-VLAN basis. For more information, see the "Managing the MAC Address Table" section on page 7-19.

Configuring Normal-Range VLANs

Normal-range VLANs are VLANs with VLAN IDs 1 to 1005. If the switch is in VTP server or VTP transparent mode, you can add, modify or remove configurations for VLANs 2 to 1001 in the VLAN database. (VLAN IDs 1 and 1002 to 1005 are automatically created and cannot be removed.)

In VTP versions 1 and 2, the switch must be in VTP transparent mode when you create extended-range VLANs (VLANs with IDs from 1006 to 4094), but these VLANs are not saved in the VLAN database. VTP version 3 supports extended-range VLANs in VTP server and transparent mode. See the "Configuring Extended-Range VLANs" section.

Configurations for VLAN IDs 1 to 1005 are written to the file vlan.dat (VLAN database), and you can display them by entering the show vlan privileged EXEC command. The vlan.dat file is stored in flash memory on the stack master. Stack members have a vlan.dat file that is consistent with the stack master.


Caution You can cause inconsistency in the VLAN database if you attempt to manually delete the vlan.dat file. If you want to modify the VLAN configuration, use the commands described in these sections and in the command reference for this release. To change the VTP configuration, see Chapter 15, "Configuring VTP."

You use the interface configuration mode to define the port membership mode and to add and remove ports from VLANs. The results of these commands are written to the running-configuration file, and you can display the file by entering the show running-config privileged EXEC command.

You can set these parameters when you create a new normal-range VLAN or modify an existing VLAN in the VLAN database:

VLAN ID

VLAN name

VLAN type (Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface [FDDI], FDDI network entity title [NET], TrBRF, or TrCRF, Token Ring, Token Ring-Net)

VLAN state (active or suspended)

Maximum transmission unit (MTU) for the VLAN

Security Association Identifier (SAID)

Bridge identification number for TrBRF VLANs

Ring number for FDDI and TrCRF VLANs

Parent VLAN number for TrCRF VLANs

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) type for TrCRF VLANs

VLAN number to use when translating from one VLAN type to another


Note This section does not provide configuration details for most of these parameters. For complete information on the commands and parameters that control VLAN configuration, see the command reference for this release.


These sections contain normal-range VLAN configuration information:

Token Ring VLANs

Normal-Range VLAN Configuration Guidelines

Configuring Normal-Range VLANs

Default Ethernet VLAN Configuration

Creating or Modifying an Ethernet VLAN

Deleting a VLAN

Assigning Static-Access Ports to a VLAN

Token Ring VLANs

Although the switch does not support Token Ring connections, a remote device such as a Catalyst 5000 series switch with Token Ring connections could be managed from one of the supported switches. Switches running VTP Version 2 advertise information about these Token Ring VLANs:

Token Ring TrBRF VLANs

Token Ring TrCRF VLANs

For more information on configuring Token Ring VLANs, see the Catalyst 5000 Series Software Configuration Guide.

Normal-Range VLAN Configuration Guidelines

Follow these guidelines when creating and modifying normal-range VLANs in your network:

The switch supports 1005 VLANs in VTP client, server, and transparent modes.

Normal-range VLANs are identified with a number between 1 and 1001. VLAN numbers 1002 through 1005 are reserved for Token Ring and FDDI VLANs.

VLAN configuration for VLANs 1 to 1005 are always saved in the VLAN database. If the VTP mode is transparent, VTP and VLAN configuration are also saved in the switch running configuration file.

With VTP versions 1 and 2, the switch supports VLAN IDs 1006 through 4094 only in VTP transparent mode (VTP disabled). These are extended-range VLANs and configuration options are limited. Extended-range VLANs created in VTP transparent mode are not saved in the VLAN database and are not propagated. VTP version 3 supports extended range VLAN (VLANs 1006 to 4094) database propagation. If extended VLANs are configured, you cannot convert from VTP version 3 to version 1 or 2. See the "Configuring Extended-Range VLANs" section.

Before you can create a VLAN, the switch must be in VTP server mode or VTP transparent mode. If the switch is a VTP server, you must define a VTP domain or VTP will not function.

The switch does not support Token Ring or FDDI media. The switch does not forward FDDI, FDDI-Net, TrCRF, or TrBRF traffic, but it does propagate the VLAN configuration through VTP.

The switch supports 128 spanning-tree instances. If a switch has more active VLANs than supported spanning-tree instances, spanning tree can be enabled on 128 VLANs and is disabled on the remaining VLANs. If you have already used all available spanning-tree instances on a switch, adding another VLAN anywhere in the VTP domain creates a VLAN on that switch that is not running spanning-tree. If you have the default allowed list on the trunk ports of that switch (which is to allow all VLANs), the new VLAN is carried on all trunk ports. Depending on the topology of the network, this could create a loop in the new VLAN that would not be broken, particularly if there are several adjacent switches that all have run out of spanning-tree instances. You can prevent this possibility by setting allowed lists on the trunk ports of switches that have used up their allocation of spanning-tree instances.

If the number of VLANs on the switch exceeds the number of supported spanning-tree instances, we recommend that you configure the IEEE 802.1s Multiple STP (MSTP) on your switch to map multiple VLANs to a single spanning-tree instance. For more information about MSTP, see Chapter 20, "Configuring MSTP."

When a switch in a stack learns a new VLAN or deletes or modifies an existing VLAN (either through VTP over network ports or through the CLI), the VLAN information is communicated to all stack members.

When a switch joins a stack or when stacks merge, VTP information (the vlan.dat file) on the new switches will be consistent with the stack master.

Configuring Normal-Range VLANs

You configure VLANs in vlan global configuration command by entering a VLAN ID. Enter a new VLAN ID to create a VLAN, or enter an existing VLAN ID to modify that VLAN. You can use the default VLAN configuration (Table 14-2) or enter multiple commands to configure the VLAN. For more information about commands available in this mode, see the vlan global configuration command description in the command reference for this release. When you have finished the configuration, you must exit VLAN configuration mode for the configuration to take effect. To display the VLAN configuration, enter the show vlan privileged EXEC command.

The configurations of VLAN IDs 1 to 1005 are always saved in the VLAN database (vlan.dat file). If the VTP mode is transparent, they are also saved in the switch running configuration file. You can enter the copy running-config startup-config privileged EXEC command to save the configuration in the startup configuration file. In a switch stack, the whole stack uses the same vlan.dat file and running configuration. To display the VLAN configuration, enter the show vlan privileged EXEC command.

When you save VLAN and VTP information (including extended-range VLAN configuration information) in the startup configuration file and reboot the switch, the switch configuration is selected as follows:

If the VTP mode is transparent in the startup configuration, and the VLAN database and the VTP domain name from the VLAN database matches that in the startup configuration file, the VLAN database is ignored (cleared), and the VTP and VLAN configurations in the startup configuration file are used. The VLAN database revision number remains unchanged in the VLAN database.

If the VTP mode or domain name in the startup configuration does not match the VLAN database, the domain name and VTP mode and configuration for the first 1005 VLANs use the VLAN database information.

In VTP versions 1 and 2, if VTP mode is server, the domain name and VLAN configuration for only the first 1005 VLANs use the VLAN database information. VTP version 3 also supports VLANs 1006 to 4094.

Default Ethernet VLAN Configuration

Table 14-2 shows the default configuration for Ethernet VLANs.


Note The switch supports Ethernet interfaces exclusively. Because FDDI and Token Ring VLANs are not locally supported, you only configure FDDI and Token Ring media-specific characteristics for VTP global advertisements to other switches.


Table 14-2 Ethernet VLAN Defaults and Ranges 

Parameter
Default
Range

VLAN ID

1

1 to 4094.

Note Extended-range VLANs (VLAN IDs 1006 to 4094) are only saved in the VLAN database in VTP version 3.

VLAN name

VLANxxxx, where xxxx represents four numeric digits (including leading zeros) equal to the VLAN ID number

No range

IEEE 802.10 SAID

100001 (100000 plus the VLAN ID)

1 to 4294967294

MTU size

1500

1500 to 18190

Translational bridge 1

0

0 to 1005

Translational bridge 2

0

0 to 1005

VLAN state

active

active, suspend

Remote SPAN

disabled

enabled, disabled

Private VLANs

none configured

2 to 1001, 1006 to 4094.


Creating or Modifying an Ethernet VLAN

Each Ethernet VLAN in the VLAN database has a unique, 4-digit ID that can be a number from 1 to 1001. VLAN IDs 1002 to 1005 are reserved for Token Ring and FDDI VLANs. To create a normal-range VLAN to be added to the VLAN database, assign a number and name to the VLAN.


Note With VTP version 1 and 2, if the switch is in VTP transparent mode, you can assign VLAN IDs greater than 1006, but they are not added to the VLAN database. See the "Configuring Extended-Range VLANs" section.


For the list of default parameters that are assigned when you add a VLAN, see the "Configuring Normal-Range VLANs" section.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create or modify an Ethernet VLAN:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

vlan vlan-id

Enter a VLAN ID, and enter VLAN configuration mode. Enter a new VLAN ID to create a VLAN, or enter an existing VLAN ID to modify that VLAN.

Note The available VLAN ID range for this command is 1 to 4094. For information about adding VLAN IDs greater than 1005 (extended-range VLANs), see the "Configuring Extended-Range VLANs" section.

Step 3 

name vlan-name

(Optional) Enter a name for the VLAN. If no name is entered for the VLAN, the default is to append the vlan-id with leading zeros to the word VLAN. For example, VLAN0004 is a default VLAN name for VLAN 4.

Step 4 

mtu mtu-size

(Optional) Change the MTU size (or other VLAN characteristic).

Step 5 

remote-span

Note (Optional) Configure the VLAN as the RSPAN VLAN for a remote SPAN session. For more information on remote SPAN, see Chapter 30, "Configuring SPAN and RSPAN."

Step 6 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 7 

show vlan {name vlan-name | id vlan-id}

Verify your entries.

Step 8 

copy running-config startup config

(Optional) If the switch is in VTP transparent mode, the VLAN configuration is saved in the running configuration file as well as in the VLAN database. This saves the configuration in the switch startup configuration file.

To return the VLAN name to the default settings, use the no name, no mtu, or no remote-span commands.

This example shows how to create Ethernet VLAN 20, name it test20, and add it to the VLAN database:

Switch# configure terminal
Switch(config)# vlan 20
Switch(config-vlan)# name test20
Switch(config-vlan)# end

Deleting a VLAN

When you delete a VLAN from a switch that is in VTP server mode, the VLAN is removed from the VLAN database for all switches in the VTP domain. When you delete a VLAN from a switch that is in VTP transparent mode, the VLAN is deleted only on that specific switch stack.

You cannot delete the default VLANs for the different media types: Ethernet VLAN 1 and FDDI or Token Ring VLANs 1002 to 1005.


Caution When you delete a VLAN, any ports assigned to that VLAN become inactive. They remain associated with the VLAN (and thus inactive) until you assign them to a new VLAN.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to delete a VLAN on the switch:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

no vlan vlan-id

Remove the VLAN by entering the VLAN ID.

Step 3 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 4 

show vlan brief

Verify the VLAN removal.

Step 5 

copy running-config startup config

(Optional) If the switch is in VTP transparent mode, the VLAN configuration is saved in the running configuration file as well as in the VLAN database. This saves the configuration in the switch startup configuration file.

Assigning Static-Access Ports to a VLAN

You can assign a static-access port to a VLAN without having VTP globally propagate VLAN configuration information by disabling VTP (VTP transparent mode).

If you are assigning a port on a cluster member switch to a VLAN, first use the rcommand privileged EXEC command to log in to the cluster member switch.


Note If you assign an interface to a VLAN that does not exist, the new VLAN is created. (See the "Creating or Modifying an Ethernet VLAN" section.)


Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to assign a port to a VLAN in the VLAN database:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Enter the interface to be added to the VLAN.

Step 3 

switchport mode access

Define the VLAN membership mode for the port (Layer 2 access port).

Step 4 

switchport access vlan vlan-id

Assign the port to a VLAN. Valid VLAN IDs are 1 to 4094.

Step 5 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 6 

show running-config interface interface-id

Verify the VLAN membership mode of the interface.

Step 7 

show interfaces interface-id switchport

Verify your entries in the Administrative Mode and the Access Mode VLAN fields of the display.

Step 8 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return an interface to its default configuration, use the default interface interface-id interface configuration command.

This example shows how to configure a port as an access port in VLAN 2:

Switch# configure terminal 
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Switch(config)# interface gigabitethernet2/0/1 
Switch(config-if)# switchport mode access 
Switch(config-if)# switchport access vlan 2
Switch(config-if)# end 

Configuring Extended-Range VLANs

With VTP version 1 and version 2, when the switch is in VTP transparent mode (VTP disabled), you can create extended-range VLANs (in the range 1006 to 4094). VTP version supports extended-range VLANs in server or transparent move. Extended-range VLANs enable service providers to extend their infrastructure to a greater number of customers. The extended-range VLAN IDs are allowed for any switchport commands that allow VLAN IDs.

With VTP version 1 or 2, extended-range VLAN configurations are not stored in the VLAN database, but because VTP mode is transparent, they are stored in the switch running configuration file, and you can save the configuration in the startup configuration file by using the copy running-config startup-config privileged EXEC command. Extended-range VLANs created in VTP version 3 are stored in the VLAN database.


Note Although the switch supports 4094 VLAN IDs, see the "Supported VLANs" section for the actual number of VLANs supported.


These sections contain extended-range VLAN configuration information:

Default VLAN Configuration

Extended-Range VLAN Configuration Guidelines

Creating an Extended-Range VLAN

Creating an Extended-Range VLAN with an Internal VLAN ID

Default VLAN Configuration

See Table 14-2 for the default configuration for Ethernet VLANs. You can change only the MTU size, private VLAN, and the remote SPAN configuration state on extended-range VLANs; all other characteristics must remain at the default state.

Extended-Range VLAN Configuration Guidelines

Follow these guidelines when creating extended-range VLANs:

VLAN IDs in the extended range are not saved in the VLAN database and are not recognized by VTP unless the switch is running VTP version 3.

You cannot include extended-range VLANs in the pruning eligible range.

In VTP version 1 and 2, a switch must be in VTP transparent mode when you create extended-range VLANs. If VTP mode is server or client, an error message is generated, and the extended-range VLAN is rejected. VTP version 3 supports extended VLANs in server and transparent modes.

For VTP version 1 or 2, you can set the VTP mode to transparent in global configuration mode. See the "Configuring VTP Mode" section on page 15-11. You should save this configuration to the startup configuration so that the switch boots up in VTP transparent mode. Otherwise, you lose the extended-range VLAN configuration if the switch resets. If you create extended-range VLANs in VTP version 3, you cannot convert to VTP version 1 or 2.

STP is enabled by default on extended-range VLANs, but you can disable it by using the no spanning-tree vlan vlan-id global configuration command. When the maximum number of spanning-tree instances are on the switch, spanning tree is disabled on any newly created VLANs. If the number of VLANs on the switch exceeds the maximum number of spanning-tree instances, we recommend that you configure the IEEE 802.1s Multiple STP (MSTP) on your switch to map multiple VLANs to a single spanning-tree instance. For more information about MSTP, see Chapter 20, "Configuring MSTP."

Each routed port on the switch creates an internal VLAN for its use. These internal VLANs use extended-range VLAN numbers, and the internal VLAN ID cannot be used for an extended-range VLAN. If you try to create an extended-range VLAN with a VLAN ID that is already allocated as an internal VLAN, an error message is generated, and the command is rejected.

Because internal VLAN IDs are in the lower part of the extended range, we recommend that you create extended-range VLANs beginning from the highest number (4094) and moving to the lowest (1006) to reduce the possibility of using an internal VLAN ID.

Before configuring extended-range VLANs, enter the show vlan internal usage privileged EXEC command to see which VLANs have been allocated as internal VLANs.

If necessary, you can shut down the routed port assigned to the internal VLAN, which frees up the internal VLAN, and then create the extended-range VLAN and re-enable the port, which then uses another VLAN as its internal VLAN. See the "Creating an Extended-Range VLAN with an Internal VLAN ID" section.

Although the switch stack supports a total of 1005 (normal-range and extended-range) VLANs, the number of routed ports, SVIs, and other configured features affects the use of the switch hardware. If you try to create an extended-range VLAN and there are not enough hardware resources available, an error message is generated, and the extended-range VLAN is rejected.

In a switch stack, the whole stack uses the same running configuration and saved configuration, and extended-range VLAN information is shared across the stack.

Creating an Extended-Range VLAN

You create an extended-range VLAN in global configuration mode by entering the vlan global configuration command with a VLAN ID from 1006 to 4094. The extended-range VLAN has the default Ethernet VLAN characteristics (see Table 14-2) and the MTU size, private VLAN, and RSPAN configuration are the only parameters you can change. See the description of the vlan global configuration command in the command reference for the default settings of all parameters. In VTP version 1 or 2, if you enter an extended-range VLAN ID when the switch is not in VTP transparent mode, an error message is generated when you exit VLAN configuration mode, and the extended-range VLAN is not created.

In VTP version 1 and 2, extended-range VLANs are not saved in the VLAN database; they are saved in the switch running configuration file. You can save the extended-range VLAN configuration in the switch startup configuration file by using the copy running-config startup-config privileged EXEC command. VTP version 3 saves extended-range VLANs in the VLAN database.


Note Before you create an extended-range VLAN, you can verify that the VLAN ID is not used internally by entering the show vlan internal usage privileged EXEC command. If the VLAN ID is used internally and you want to free it up, go to the"Creating an Extended-Range VLAN with an Internal VLAN ID" section before creating the extended-range VLAN.


Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create an extended-range VLAN:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

vtp mode transparent

Configure the switch for VTP transparent mode, disabling VTP.

Note This step is not required for VTP version 3.

Step 3 

vlan vlan-id

Enter an extended-range VLAN ID and enter VLAN configuration mode. The range is 1006 to 4094.

Step 4 

mtu mtu-size

(Optional) Modify the VLAN by changing the MTU size.

Note Although all VLAN commands appear in the CLI help, only the mtu mtu-size, private-vlan, and remote-span commands are supported for extended-range VLANs.

Step 5 

remote-span

(Optional) Configure the VLAN as the RSPAN VLAN. See the "Configuring a VLAN as an RSPAN VLAN" section on page 30-18.

Step 6 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 7 

show vlan id vlan-id

Verify that the VLAN has been created.

Step 8 

copy running-config startup config

Save your entries in the switch startup configuration file. To save extended-range VLAN configurations, you need to save the VTP transparent mode configuration and the extended-range VLAN configuration in the switch startup configuration file. Otherwise, if the switch resets, it will default to VTP server mode, and the extended-range VLAN IDs will not be saved.

Note With VTP version 3, the VLAN configuration is also saved in the VLAN database.

To delete an extended-range VLAN, use the no vlan vlan-id global configuration command.

The procedure for assigning static-access ports to an extended-range VLAN is the same as for normal-range VLANs. See the "Assigning Static-Access Ports to a VLAN" section.

This example shows how to create a new extended-range VLAN with all default characteristics, enter VLAN configuration mode, and save the new VLAN in the switch startup configuration file:

Switch(config)# vtp mode transparent
Switch(config)# vlan 2000
Switch(config-vlan)# end
Switch# copy running-config startup config

Creating an Extended-Range VLAN with an Internal VLAN ID

If you enter an extended-range VLAN ID that is already assigned to an internal VLAN, an error message is generated, and the extended-range VLAN is rejected. To manually free an internal VLAN ID, you must temporarily shut down the routed port that is using the internal VLAN ID.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to release a VLAN ID that is assigned to an internal VLAN and to create an extended-range VLAN with that ID:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

show vlan internal usage

Display the VLAN IDs being used internally by the switch. If the VLAN ID that you want to use is an internal VLAN, the display shows the routed port that is using the VLAN ID. Enter that port number in Step 3.

Step 2 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 3 

interface interface-id

Specify the interface ID for the routed port that is using the VLAN ID, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 4 

shutdown

Shut down the port to free the internal VLAN ID.

Step 5 

exit

Return to global configuration mode.

Step 6 

vtp mode transparent

Set the VTP mode to transparent for creating extended-range VLANs.

Note This step is not required for VTP version 3.

Step 7 

vlan vlan-id

Enter the new extended-range VLAN ID, and enter VLAN configuration mode.

Step 8 

exit

Exit from VLAN configuration mode, and return to global configuration mode.

Step 9 

interface interface-id

Specify the interface ID for the routed port that you shut down in Step 4, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 10 

no shutdown

Re-enable the routed port. It will be assigned a new internal VLAN ID.

Step 11 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 12 

copy running-config startup config

Save your entries in the switch startup configuration file. To save an extended-range VLAN configuration, you need to save the VTP transparent mode configuration and the extended-range VLAN configuration in the switch startup configuration file. Otherwise, if the switch resets, it will default to VTP server mode, and the extended-range VLAN IDs will not be saved.

Note This step is not required for VTP version 3 because VLANs are saved in the VLAN database.

Displaying VLANs

Use the show vlan privileged EXEC command to display a list of all VLANs on the switch, including extended-range VLANs. The display includes VLAN status, ports, and configuration information.

Table 14-3 lists the privileged EXEC commands for monitoring VLANs.

Table 14-3 VLAN Monitoring Commands 

Command
Purpose

show interfaces [vlan vlan-id]

Display characteristics for all interfaces or for the specified VLAN configured on the switch.

show vlan [id vlan-id]

Display parameters for all VLANs or the specified VLAN on the switch.


For more details about the show command options and explanations of output fields, see the command reference for this release.

Configuring VLAN Trunks

These sections contain this conceptual information:

Trunking Overview

Encapsulation Types

Default Layer 2 Ethernet Interface VLAN Configuration

Configuring an Ethernet Interface as a Trunk Port

Configuring Trunk Ports for Load Sharing

Trunking Overview

A trunk is a point-to-point link between one or more Ethernet switch interfaces and another networking device such as a router or a switch. Ethernet trunks carry the traffic of multiple VLANs over a single link, and you can extend the VLANs across an entire network.

Two trunking encapsulations are available on all Ethernet interfaces:

Inter-Switch Link (ISL)—Cisco-proprietary trunking encapsulation.

IEEE 802.1Q— industry-standard trunking encapsulation.

Figure 14-2 shows a network of switches that are connected by ISL trunks.

Figure 14-2 Switches in an ISL Trunking Environment

You can configure a trunk on a single Ethernet interface or on an EtherChannel bundle. For more information about EtherChannel, see Chapter 37, "Configuring EtherChannels and Link-State Tracking."

Ethernet trunk interfaces support different trunking modes (see Table 14-4). You can set an interface as trunking or nontrunking or to negotiate trunking with the neighboring interface. To autonegotiate trunking, the interfaces must be in the same VTP domain.

Trunk negotiation is managed by the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP), which is a Point-to-Point Protocol. However, some internetworking devices might forward DTP frames improperly, which could cause misconfigurations.

To avoid this, you should configure interfaces connected to devices that do not support DTP to not forward DTP frames, that is, to turn off DTP.

If you do not intend to trunk across those links, use the switchport mode access interface configuration command to disable trunking.

To enable trunking to a device that does not support DTP, use the switchport mode trunk and switchport nonegotiate interface configuration commands to cause the interface to become a trunk but to not generate DTP frames. Use the switchport trunk encapsulation isl or switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q interface to select the encapsulation type on the trunk port.

You can also specify on DTP interfaces whether the trunk uses ISL or IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation or if the encapsulation type is autonegotiated. The DTP supports autonegotiation of both ISL and IEEE 802.1Q trunks.


Note DTP is not supported on private-VLAN ports or tunnel ports.


Table 14-4 Layer 2 Interface Modes 

Mode
Function

switchport mode access

Puts the interface (access port) into permanent nontrunking mode and negotiates to convert the link into a nontrunk link. The interface becomes a nontrunk interface regardless of whether or not the neighboring interface is a trunk interface.

switchport mode dynamic auto

Makes the interface able to convert the link to a trunk link. The interface becomes a trunk interface if the neighboring interface is set to trunk or desirable mode. The default switchport mode for all Ethernet interfaces is dynamic auto.

switchport mode dynamic desirable

Makes the interface actively attempt to convert the link to a trunk link. The interface becomes a trunk interface if the neighboring interface is set to trunk, desirable, or auto mode.

switchport mode trunk

Puts the interface into permanent trunking mode and negotiates to convert the neighboring link into a trunk link. The interface becomes a trunk interface even if the neighboring interface is not a trunk interface.

switchport nonegotiate

Prevents the interface from generating DTP frames. You can use this command only when the interface switchport mode is access or trunk. You must manually configure the neighboring interface as a trunk interface to establish a trunk link.

switchport mode dot1q-tunnel

Configures the interface as a tunnel (nontrunking) port to be connected in an asymmetric link with an IEEE 802.1Q trunk port. The IEEE 802.1Q tunneling is used to maintain customer VLAN integrity across a service provider network. See Chapter 18, "Configuring IEEE 802.1Q and Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling," for more information on tunnel ports.


Encapsulation Types

Table 14-5 lists the Ethernet trunk encapsulation types and keywords.

Table 14-5 Ethernet Trunk Encapsulation Types 

Encapsulation
Function

switchport trunk encapsulation isl

Specifies ISL encapsulation on the trunk link.

switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

Specifies IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation on the trunk link.

switchport trunk encapsulation negotiate

Specifies that the interface negotiate with the neighboring interface to become an ISL (preferred) or IEEE 802.1Q trunk, depending on the configuration and capabilities of the neighboring interface. This is the default for the switch.



Note The switch does not support Layer 3 trunks. You cannot configure subinterfaces or use the encapsulation keyword on Layer 3 interfaces. The switch does support Layer 2 trunks and Layer 3 VLAN interfaces, which provide equivalent capabilities.


The trunking mode, the trunk encapsulation type, and the hardware capabilities of the two connected interfaces decide whether a link becomes an ISL or IEEE 802.1Q trunk.

IEEE 802.1Q Configuration Considerations

The IEEE 802.1Q trunks impose these limitations on the trunking strategy for a network:

In a network of Cisco switches connected through IEEE 802.1Q trunks, the switches maintain one spanning-tree instance for each VLAN allowed on the trunks. Non-Cisco devices might support one spanning-tree instance for all VLANs.

When you connect a Cisco switch to a non-Cisco device through an IEEE 802.1Q trunk, the Cisco switch combines the spanning-tree instance of the VLAN of the trunk with the spanning-tree instance of the non-Cisco IEEE 802.1Q switch. However, spanning-tree information for each VLAN is maintained by Cisco switches separated by a cloud of non-Cisco IEEE 802.1Q switches. The non-Cisco IEEE 802.1Q cloud separating the Cisco switches is treated as a single trunk link between the switches.

Make sure the native VLAN for an IEEE 802.1Q trunk is the same on both ends of the trunk link. If the native VLAN on one end of the trunk is different from the native VLAN on the other end, spanning-tree loops might result.

Disabling spanning tree on the native VLAN of an IEEE 802.1Q trunk without disabling spanning tree on every VLAN in the network can potentially cause spanning-tree loops. We recommend that you leave spanning tree enabled on the native VLAN of an IEEE 802.1Q trunk or disable spanning tree on every VLAN in the network. Make sure your network is loop-free before you disable spanning tree.

Default Layer 2 Ethernet Interface VLAN Configuration

Table 14-6 shows the default Layer 2 Ethernet interface VLAN configuration.

Table 14-6 Default Layer 2 Ethernet Interface VLAN Configuration

Feature
Default Setting

Interface mode

switchport mode dynamic auto

Trunk encapsulation

switchport trunk encapsulation negotiate

Allowed VLAN range

VLANs 1 to 4094

VLAN range eligible for pruning

VLANs 2 to 1001

Default VLAN (for access ports)

VLAN 1

Native VLAN (for IEEE 802.1Q trunks)

VLAN 1


Configuring an Ethernet Interface as a Trunk Port

Because trunk ports send and receive VTP advertisements, to use VTP you must ensure that at least one trunk port is configured on the switch and that this trunk port is connected to the trunk port of a second switch. Otherwise, the switch cannot receive any VTP advertisements.

These sections contain this configuration information:

Interaction with Other Features

Defining the Allowed VLANs on a Trunk

Changing the Pruning-Eligible List

Configuring the Native VLAN for Untagged Traffic


Note By default, an interface is in Layer 2 mode. The default mode for Layer 2 interfaces is switchport mode dynamic auto. If the neighboring interface supports trunking and is configured to allow trunking, the link is a Layer 2 trunk or, if the interface is in Layer 3 mode, it becomes a Layer 2 trunk when you enter the switchport interface configuration command. By default, trunks negotiate encapsulation. If the neighboring interface supports ISL and IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation and both interfaces are set to negotiate the encapsulation type, the trunk uses ISL encapsulation.


Interaction with Other Features

Trunking interacts with other features in these ways:

A trunk port cannot be a secure port.

A trunk port cannot be a tunnel port.

Trunk ports can be grouped into EtherChannel port groups, but all trunks in the group must have the same configuration. When a group is first created, all ports follow the parameters set for the first port to be added to the group. If you change the configuration of one of these parameters, the switch propagates the setting you entered to all ports in the group:

allowed-VLAN list.

STP port priority for each VLAN.

STP Port Fast setting.

trunk status: if one port in a port group ceases to be a trunk, all ports cease to be trunks.

We recommend that you configure no more than 24 trunk ports in PVST mode and no more than 40 trunk ports in MST mode.

If you try to enable IEEE 802.1x on a trunk port, an error message appears, and IEEE 802.1x is not enabled. If you try to change the mode of an IEEE 802.1x-enabled port to trunk, the port mode is not changed.

A port in dynamic mode can negotiate with its neighbor to become a trunk port. If you try to enable IEEE 802.1x on a dynamic port, an error message appears, and IEEE 802.1x is not enabled. If you try to change the mode of an IEEE 802.1x-enabled port to dynamic, the port mode is not changed.

Configuring a Trunk Port

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a port as a trunk port:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Specify the port to be configured for trunking, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switchport trunk encapsulation {isl | dot1q | negotiate}

Configure the port to support ISL or IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation or to negotiate (the default) with the neighboring interface for encapsulation type.

You must configure each end of the link with the same encapsulation type.

Step 4 

switchport mode {dynamic {auto | desirable} | trunk}

Configure the interface as a Layer 2 trunk (required only if the interface is a Layer 2 access port or tunnel port or to specify the trunking mode).

dynamic auto—Set the interface to a trunk link if the neighboring interface is set to trunk or desirable mode. This is the default.

dynamic desirable—Set the interface to a trunk link if the neighboring interface is set to trunk, desirable, or auto mode.

trunk—Set the interface in permanent trunking mode and negotiate to convert the link to a trunk link even if the neighboring interface is not a trunk interface.

Step 5 

switchport access vlan vlan-id

(Optional) Specify the default VLAN, which is used if the interface stops trunking.

Step 6 

switchport trunk native vlan vlan-id

Specify the native VLAN for IEEE 802.1Q trunks.

Step 7 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 8 

show interfaces interface-id switchport

Display the switchport configuration of the interface in the Administrative Mode and the Administrative Trunking Encapsulation fields of the display.

Step 9 

show interfaces interface-id trunk

Display the trunk configuration of the interface.

Step 10 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return an interface to its default configuration, use the default interface interface-id interface configuration command. To reset all trunking characteristics of a trunking interface to the defaults, use the no switchport trunk interface configuration command. To disable trunking, use the switchport mode access interface configuration command to configure the port as a static-access port.

This example shows how to configure a port as an IEEE 802.1Q trunk. The example assumes that the neighbor interface is configured to support IEEE 802.1Q trunking.

Switch# configure terminal 
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Switch(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/2 
Switch(config-if)# switchport mode dynamic desirable 
Switch(config-if)# switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q 
Switch(config-if)# end 

Defining the Allowed VLANs on a Trunk

By default, a trunk port sends traffic to and receives traffic from all VLANs. All VLAN IDs, 1 to 4094, are allowed on each trunk. However, you can remove VLANs from the allowed list, preventing traffic from those VLANs from passing over the trunk. To restrict the traffic a trunk carries, use the switchport trunk allowed vlan remove vlan-list interface configuration command to remove specific VLANs from the allowed list.


Note VLAN 1 is the default VLAN on all trunk ports in all Cisco switches, and it has previously been a requirement that VLAN 1 always be enabled on every trunk link. You can use the VLAN 1 minimization feature to disable VLAN 1 on any individual VLAN trunk link so that no user traffic (including spanning-tree advertisements) is sent or received on VLAN 1.


To reduce the risk of spanning-tree loops or storms, you can disable VLAN 1 on any individual VLAN trunk port by removing VLAN 1 from the allowed list. When you remove VLAN 1 from a trunk port, the interface continues to sent and receive management traffic, for example, Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP), Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), DTP, and VTP in VLAN 1.

If a trunk port with VLAN 1 disabled is converted to a nontrunk port, it is added to the access VLAN. If the access VLAN is set to 1, the port will be added to VLAN 1, regardless of the switchport trunk allowed setting. The same is true for any VLAN that has been disabled on the port.

A trunk port can become a member of a VLAN if the VLAN is enabled, if VTP knows of the VLAN, and if the VLAN is in the allowed list for the port. When VTP detects a newly enabled VLAN and the VLAN is in the allowed list for a trunk port, the trunk port automatically becomes a member of the enabled VLAN. When VTP detects a new VLAN and the VLAN is not in the allowed list for a trunk port, the trunk port does not become a member of the new VLAN.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to modify the allowed list of a trunk:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Specify the port to be configured, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switchport mode trunk

Configure the interface as a VLAN trunk port.

Step 4 

switchport trunk allowed vlan {add | all | except | remove} vlan-list

(Optional) Configure the list of VLANs allowed on the trunk.

For explanations about using the add, all, except, and remove keywords, see the command reference for this release.

The vlan-list parameter is either a single VLAN number from 1 to 4094 or a range of VLANs described by two VLAN numbers, the lower one first, separated by a hyphen. Do not enter any spaces between comma-separated VLAN parameters or in hyphen-specified ranges.

All VLANs are allowed by default.

Step 5 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 6 

show interfaces interface-id switchport

Verify your entries in the Trunking VLANs Enabled field of the display.

Step 7 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return to the default allowed VLAN list of all VLANs, use the no switchport trunk allowed vlan interface configuration command.

This example shows how to remove VLAN 2 from the allowed VLAN list on a port:

Switch(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/1
Switch(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan remove 2
Switch(config-if)# end

Changing the Pruning-Eligible List

The pruning-eligible list applies only to trunk ports. Each trunk port has its own eligibility list. VTP pruning must be enabled for this procedure to take effect. The "Enabling VTP Pruning" section on page 15-15 describes how to enable VTP pruning.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to remove VLANs from the pruning-eligible list on a trunk port:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Select the trunk port for which VLANs should be pruned, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switchport trunk pruning vlan {add | except | none | remove} vlan-list [,vlan[,vlan[,,,]]

Configure the list of VLANs allowed to be pruned from the trunk. (See the "VTP Pruning" section on page 15-6).

For explanations about using the add, except, none, and remove keywords, see the command reference for this release.

Separate nonconsecutive VLAN IDs with a comma and no spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Valid IDs are 2 to 1001. Extended-range VLANs (VLAN IDs 1006 to 4094) cannot be pruned.

VLANs that are pruning-ineligible receive flooded traffic.

The default list of VLANs allowed to be pruned contains VLANs 2 to 1001.

Step 4 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 5 

show interfaces interface-id switchport

Verify your entries in the Pruning VLANs Enabled field of the display.

Step 6 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return to the default pruning-eligible list of all VLANs, use the no switchport trunk pruning vlan interface configuration command.

Configuring the Native VLAN for Untagged Traffic

A trunk port configured with IEEE 802.1Q tagging can receive both tagged and untagged traffic. By default, the switch forwards untagged traffic in the native VLAN configured for the port. The native VLAN is VLAN 1 by default.


Note The native VLAN can be assigned any VLAN ID.


For information about IEEE 802.1Q configuration issues, see the "IEEE 802.1Q Configuration Considerations" section.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the native VLAN on an IEEE 802.1Q trunk:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Define the interface that is configured as the IEEE 802.1Q trunk, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switchport trunk native vlan vlan-id

Configure the VLAN that is sending and receiving untagged traffic on the trunk port.

For vlan-id, the range is 1 to 4094.

Step 4 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 5 

show interfaces interface-id switchport

Verify your entries in the Trunking Native Mode VLAN field.

Step 6 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return to the default native VLAN, VLAN 1, use the no switchport trunk native vlan interface configuration command.

If a packet has a VLAN ID that is the same as the outgoing port native VLAN ID, the packet is sent untagged; otherwise, the switch sends the packet with a tag.

Configuring Trunk Ports for Load Sharing

Load sharing divides the bandwidth supplied by parallel trunks connecting switches. To avoid loops, STP normally blocks all but one parallel link between switches. Using load sharing, you divide the traffic between the links according to which VLAN the traffic belongs.

You configure load sharing on trunk ports by using STP port priorities or STP path costs. For load sharing using STP port priorities, both load-sharing links must be connected to the same switch. For load sharing using STP path costs, each load-sharing link can be connected to the same switch or to two different switches. For more information about STP, see Chapter 19, "Configuring STP."

Load Sharing Using STP Port Priorities

When two ports on the same switch form a loop, the switch uses the STP port priority to decide which port is enabled and which port is in a blocking state. You can set the priorities on a parallel trunk port so that the port carries all the traffic for a given VLAN. The trunk port with the higher priority (lower values) for a VLAN is forwarding traffic for that VLAN. The trunk port with the lower priority (higher values) for the same VLAN remains in a blocking state for that VLAN. One trunk port sends or receives all traffic for the VLAN.

Figure 14-3 shows two trunks connecting supported switches. In this example, the switches are configured as follows:

VLANs 8 through 10 are assigned a port priority of 16 on Trunk 1.

VLANs 3 through 6 retain the default port priority of 128 on Trunk 1.

VLANs 3 through 6 are assigned a port priority of 16 on Trunk 2.

VLANs 8 through 10 retain the default port priority of 128 on Trunk 2.

In this way, Trunk 1 carries traffic for VLANs 8 through 10, and Trunk 2 carries traffic for VLANs 3 through 6. If the active trunk fails, the trunk with the lower priority takes over and carries the traffic for all of the VLANs. No duplication of traffic occurs over any trunk port.

Figure 14-3 Load Sharing by Using STP Port Priorities


Note If your switch is a member of a switch stack, you must use the spanning-tree [vlan vlan-id] cost cost interface configuration command instead of the spanning-tree [vlan vlan-id] port-priority priority interface configuration command to select an interface to put in the forwarding state. Assign lower cost values to interfaces that you want selected first and higher cost values that you want selected last. For more information, see the "Load Sharing Using STP Path Cost" section.


Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the network shown in Figure 14-3.

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode on Switch A.

Step 2 

vtp domain domain-name

Configure a VTP administrative domain.

The domain name can be 1 to 32 characters.

Step 3 

vtp mode server

Configure Switch A as the VTP server.

Step 4 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 5 

show vtp status

Verify the VTP configuration on both Switch A and Switch B.

In the display, check the VTP Operating Mode and the VTP Domain Name fields.

Step 6 

show vlan

Verify that the VLANs exist in the database on Switch A.

Step 7 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 8 

interface interface-id_1

Define the interface to be configured as a trunk, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 9 

switchport trunk encapsulation {isl | dot1q | negotiate}

Configure the port to support ISL or IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation or to negotiate with the neighboring interface. You must configure each end of the link with the same encapsulation type.

Step 10 

switchport mode trunk

Configure the port as a trunk port.

Step 11 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 12 

show interfaces interface-id_1 switchport

Verify the VLAN configuration.

Step 13 

 

Repeat Steps 7 through 11 on Switch A for a second port in the switch stack.

Step 14 

 

Repeat Steps 7 through 11 on Switch B to configure the trunk ports that connect to the trunk ports configured on Switch A.

Step 15 

show vlan

When the trunk links come up, VTP passes the VTP and VLAN information to Switch B. Verify that Switch B has learned the VLAN configuration.

Step 16 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode on Switch A.

Step 17 

interface interface-id_1

Define the interface to set the STP port priority, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 18 

spanning-tree vlan 8-10 port-priority 16

Assign the port priority of 16 for VLANs 8 through 10.

Step 19 

exit

Return to global configuration mode.

Step 20 

interface interface-id_2

Define the interface to set the STP port priority, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 21 

spanning-tree vlan 3-6 port-priority 16

Assign the port priority of 16 for VLANs 3 through 6.

Step 22 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 23 

show running-config

Verify your entries.

Step 24 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

Load Sharing Using STP Path Cost

You can configure parallel trunks to share VLAN traffic by setting different path costs on a trunk and associating the path costs with different sets of VLANs, blocking different ports for different VLANs. The VLANs keep the traffic separate and maintain redundancy in the event of a lost link.

In Figure 14-4, Trunk ports 1 and 2 are configured as 100BASE-T ports. These VLAN path costs are assigned:

VLANs 2 through 4 are assigned a path cost of 30 on Trunk port 1.

VLANs 8 through 10 retain the default 100BASE-T path cost on Trunk port 1 of 19.

VLANs 8 through 10 are assigned a path cost of 30 on Trunk port 2.

VLANs 2 through 4 retain the default 100BASE-T path cost on Trunk port 2 of 19.

Figure 14-4 Load-Sharing Trunks with Traffic Distributed by Path Cost

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the network shown in Figure 14-4:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode on Switch A.

Step 2 

interface interface-id_1

Define the interface to be configured as a trunk, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switchport trunk encapsulation
{isl | dot1q | negotiate}

Configure the port to support ISL or IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation. You must configure each end of the link with the same encapsulation type.

Step 4 

switchport mode trunk

Configure the port as a trunk port. The trunk defaults to ISL trunking.

Step 5 

exit

Return to global configuration mode.

Step 6 

 

Repeat Steps 2 through 5 on a second interface in the Switch A stack.

Step 7 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 8 

show running-config

Verify your entries. In the display, make sure that the interfaces are configured as trunk ports.

Step 9 

show vlan

When the trunk links come up, Switch A receives the VTP information from the other switches. Verify that Switch A has learned the VLAN configuration.

Step 10 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 11 

interface interface-id_1

Define the interface on which to set the STP cost, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 12 

spanning-tree vlan 2-4 cost 30

Set the spanning-tree path cost to 30 for VLANs 2 through 4.

Step 13 

end

Return to global configuration mode.

Step 14 

 

Repeat Steps 9 through 13 on the other configured trunk interface on Switch A, and set the spanning-tree path cost to 30 for VLANs 8, 9, and 10.

Step 15 

exit

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 16 

show running-config

Verify your entries. In the display, verify that the path costs are set correctly for both trunk interfaces.

Step 17 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

Configuring VMPS

The VLAN Query Protocol (VQP) is used to support dynamic-access ports, which are not permanently assigned to a VLAN, but give VLAN assignments based on the MAC source addresses seen on the port. Each time an unknown MAC address is seen, the switch sends a VQP query to a remote VMPS; the query includes the newly seen MAC address and the port on which it was seen. The VMPS responds with a VLAN assignment for the port. The switch cannot be a VMPS server but can act as a client to the VMPS and communicate with it through VQP.

These sections contain this information:

"Understanding VMPS" section

"Default VMPS Client Configuration" section

"VMPS Configuration Guidelines" section

"Configuring the VMPS Client" section

"Monitoring the VMPS" section

"Troubleshooting Dynamic-Access Port VLAN Membership" section

"VMPS Configuration Example" section

Understanding VMPS

Each time the client switch receives the MAC address of a new host, it sends a VQP query to the VMPS. When the VMPS receives this query, it searches its database for a MAC-address-to-VLAN mapping. The server response is based on this mapping and whether or not the server is in open or secure mode. In secure mode, the server shuts down the port when an illegal host is detected. In open mode, the server simply denies the host access to the port.

If the port is currently unassigned (that is, it does not yet have a VLAN assignment), the VMPS provides one of these responses:

If the host is allowed on the port, the VMPS sends the client a vlan-assignment response containing the assigned VLAN name and allowing access to the host.

If the host is not allowed on the port and the VMPS is in open mode, the VMPS sends an access-denied response.

If the VLAN is not allowed on the port and the VMPS is in secure mode, the VMPS sends a port-shutdown response.

If the port already has a VLAN assignment, the VMPS provides one of these responses:

If the VLAN in the database matches the current VLAN on the port, the VMPS sends an success response, allowing access to the host.

If the VLAN in the database does not match the current VLAN on the port and active hosts exist on the port, the VMPS sends an access-denied or a port-shutdown response, depending on the secure mode of the VMPS.

If the switch receives an access-denied response from the VMPS, it continues to block traffic to and from the host MAC address. The switch continues to monitor the packets directed to the port and sends a query to the VMPS when it identifies a new host address. If the switch receives a port-shutdown response from the VMPS, it disables the port. The port must be manually re-enabled by using Network Assistant, the CLI, or SNMP.

Dynamic-Access Port VLAN Membership

A dynamic-access port can belong to only one VLAN with an ID from 1 to 4094. When the link comes up, the switch does not forward traffic to or from this port until the VMPS provides the VLAN assignment. The VMPS receives the source MAC address from the first packet of a new host connected to the dynamic-access port and attempts to match the MAC address to a VLAN in the VMPS database.

If there is a match, the VMPS sends the VLAN number for that port. If the client switch was not previously configured, it uses the domain name from the first VTP packet it receives on its trunk port from the VMPS. If the client switch was previously configured, it includes its domain name in the query packet to the VMPS to obtain its VLAN number. The VMPS verifies that the domain name in the packet matches its own domain name before accepting the request and responds to the client with the assigned VLAN number for the client. If there is no match, the VMPS either denies the request or shuts down the port (depending on the VMPS secure mode setting).

Multiple hosts (MAC addresses) can be active on a dynamic-access port if they are all in the same VLAN; however, the VMPS shuts down a dynamic-access port if more than 20 hosts are active on the port.

If the link goes down on a dynamic-access port, the port returns to an isolated state and does not belong to a VLAN. Any hosts that come online through the port are checked again through the VQP with the VMPS before the port is assigned to a VLAN.

Dynamic-access ports can be used for direct host connections, or they can connect to a network. A maximum of 20 MAC addresses are allowed per port on the switch. A dynamic-access port can belong to only one VLAN at a time, but the VLAN can change over time, depending on the MAC addresses seen.

Default VMPS Client Configuration

Table 14-7 shows the default VMPS and dynamic-access port configuration on client switches.

Table 14-7 Default VMPS Client and Dynamic-Access Port Configuration

Feature
Default Setting

VMPS domain server

None

VMPS reconfirm interval

60 minutes

VMPS server retry count

3

Dynamic-access ports

None configured


VMPS Configuration Guidelines

These guidelines and restrictions apply to dynamic-access port VLAN membership:

You should configure the VMPS before you configure ports as dynamic-access ports.

When you configure a port as a dynamic-access port, the spanning-tree Port Fast feature is automatically enabled for that port. The Port Fast mode accelerates the process of bringing the port into the forwarding state.

IEEE 802.1x ports cannot be configured as dynamic-access ports. If you try to enable IEEE 802.1x on a dynamic-access (VQP) port, an error message appears, and IEEE 802.1x is not enabled. If you try to change an IEEE 802.1x-enabled port to dynamic VLAN assignment, an error message appears, and the VLAN configuration is not changed.

Trunk ports cannot be dynamic-access ports, but you can enter the switchport access vlan dynamic interface configuration command for a trunk port. In this case, the switch retains the setting and applies it if the port is later configured as an access port.

You must turn off trunking on the port before the dynamic-access setting takes effect.

Dynamic-access ports cannot be monitor ports.

Secure ports cannot be dynamic-access ports. You must disable port security on a port before it becomes dynamic.

Private VLAN ports cannot be dynamic-access ports.

Dynamic-access ports cannot be members of an EtherChannel group.

Port channels cannot be configured as dynamic-access ports.

A dynamic-access port can participate in fallback bridging.

The VTP management domain of the VMPS client and the VMPS server must be the same.

The VLAN configured on the VMPS server should not be a voice VLAN.

Configuring the VMPS Client

You configure dynamic VLANs by using the VMPS (server). The switch can be a VMPS client; it cannot be a VMPS server.

Entering the IP Address of the VMPS

You must first enter the IP address of the server to configure the switch as a client.


Note If the VMPS is being defined for a cluster of switches, enter the address on the command switch.


Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enter the IP address of the VMPS:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

vmps server ipaddress primary

Enter the IP address of the switch acting as the primary VMPS server.

Step 3 

vmps server ipaddress

(Optional) Enter the IP address of the switch acting as a secondary VMPS server.

You can enter up to three secondary server addresses.

Step 4 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 5 

show vmps

Verify your entries in the VMPS Domain Server field of the display.

Step 6 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.


Note You must have IP connectivity to the VMPS for dynamic-access ports to work. You can test for IP connectivity by pinging the IP address of the VMPS and verifying that you get a response.


Configuring Dynamic-Access Ports on VMPS Clients

If you are configuring a port on a cluster member switch as a dynamic-access port, first use the rcommand privileged EXEC command to log in to the cluster member switch.


Caution Dynamic-access port VLAN membership is for end stations or hubs connected to end stations. Connecting dynamic-access ports to other switches can cause a loss of connectivity.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a dynamic-access port on a VMPS client switch:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Specify the switch port that is connected to the end station, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

switchport mode access

Set the port to access mode.

Step 4 

switchport access vlan dynamic

Configure the port as eligible for dynamic VLAN membership.

The dynamic-access port must be connected to an end station.

Step 5 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 6 

show interfaces interface-id switchport

Verify your entries in the Operational Mode field of the display.

Step 7 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return an interface to its default configuration, use the default interface interface-id interface configuration command. To return an interface to its default switchport mode (dynamic auto), use the no switchport mode interface configuration command. To reset the access mode to the default VLAN for the switch, use the no switchport access vlan interface configuration command.

Reconfirming VLAN Memberships

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to confirm the dynamic-access port VLAN membership assignments that the switch has received from the VMPS:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

vmps reconfirm

Reconfirm dynamic-access port VLAN membership.

Step 2 

show vmps

Verify the dynamic VLAN reconfirmation status.

Changing the Reconfirmation Interval

VMPS clients periodically reconfirm the VLAN membership information received from the VMPS.You can set the number of minutes after which reconfirmation occurs.

If you are configuring a member switch in a cluster, this parameter must be equal to or greater than the reconfirmation setting on the command switch. You must also first use the rcommand privileged EXEC command to log in to the member switch.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to change the reconfirmation interval:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

vmps reconfirm minutes

Enter the number of minutes between reconfirmations of the dynamic VLAN membership. The range is 1 to 120. The default is 60 minutes.

Step 3 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 4 

show vmps

Verify the dynamic VLAN reconfirmation status in the Reconfirm Interval field of the display.

Step 5 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return the switch to its default setting, use the no vmps reconfirm global configuration command.

Changing the Retry Count

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to change the number of times that the switch attempts to contact the VMPS before querying the next server:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

vmps retry count

Change the retry count. The retry range is 1 to 10; the default is 3.

Step 3 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 4 

show vmps

Verify your entry in the Server Retry Count field of the display.

Step 5 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return the switch to its default setting, use the no vmps retry global configuration command.

Monitoring the VMPS

You can display information about the VMPS by using the show vmps privileged EXEC command. The switch displays this information about the VMPS:

VMPS VQP Version—the version of VQP used to communicate with the VMPS. The switch queries the VMPS that is using VQP Version 1.

Reconfirm Interval—the number of minutes the switch waits before reconfirming the VLAN-to-MAC-address assignments.

Server Retry Count—the number of times VQP resends a query to the VMPS. If no response is received after this many tries, the switch starts to query the secondary VMPS.

VMPS domain server—the IP address of the configured VLAN membership policy servers. The switch sends queries to the one marked current. The one marked primary is the primary server.

VMPS Action—the result of the most recent reconfirmation attempt. A reconfirmation attempt can occur automatically when the reconfirmation interval expires, or you can force it by entering the vmps reconfirm privileged EXEC command or its Network Assistant or SNMP equivalent.

This is an example of output for the show vmps privileged EXEC command:

Switch# show vmps
VQP Client Status:
--------------------
VMPS VQP Version:   1
Reconfirm Interval: 60 min
Server Retry Count: 3
VMPS domain server: 172.20.128.86 (primary, current)
                    172.20.128.87 
 
Reconfirmation status
---------------------
VMPS Action:         other

Troubleshooting Dynamic-Access Port VLAN Membership

The VMPS shuts down a dynamic-access port under these conditions:

The VMPS is in secure mode, and it does not allow the host to connect to the port. The VMPS shuts down the port to prevent the host from connecting to the network.

More than 20 active hosts reside on a dynamic-access port.

To re-enable a disabled dynamic-access port, enter the shutdown interface configuration command followed by the no shutdown interface configuration command.

VMPS Configuration Example

Figure 14-5 shows a network with a VMPS server switch and VMPS client switches with dynamic-access ports. In this example, these assumptions apply:

The VMPS server and the VMPS client are separate switches.

The Catalyst 6500 series Switch A is the primary VMPS server.

The Catalyst 6500 series Switch C and Switch J are secondary VMPS servers.

End stations are connected to the clients, Switch B and Switch I.

The database configuration file is stored on the TFTP server with the IP address 172.20.22.7.

Figure 14-5 Dynamic Port VLAN Membership Configuration