Catalyst 3560 Software Configuration Guide, Release 12.2(52)SE
Configuring EtherChannels and Link-State Tracking
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Configuring EtherChannels and Link-State Tracking

Table Of Contents

Configuring EtherChannels and Link-State Tracking

Understanding EtherChannels

EtherChannel Overview

Port-Channel Interfaces

Port Aggregation Protocol

PAgP Modes

PAgP Interaction with Virtual Switches and Dual-Active Detection

PAgP Interaction with Other Features

Link Aggregation Control Protocol

LACP Modes

LACP Interaction with Other Features

EtherChannel On Mode

Load Balancing and Forwarding Methods

Configuring EtherChannels

Default EtherChannel Configuration

EtherChannel Configuration Guidelines

Configuring Layer 2 EtherChannels

Configuring Layer 3 EtherChannels

Creating Port-Channel Logical Interfaces

Configuring the Physical Interfaces

Configuring EtherChannel Load Balancing

Configuring the PAgP Learn Method and Priority

Configuring LACP Hot-Standby Ports

Configuring the LACP System Priority

Configuring the LACP Port Priority

Displaying EtherChannel, PAgP, and LACP Status

Understanding Link-State Tracking

Configuring Link-State Tracking

Default Link-State Tracking Configuration

Link-State Tracking Configuration Guidelines

Configuring Link-State Tracking

Displaying Link-State Tracking Status


Configuring EtherChannels and Link-State Tracking


This chapter describes how to configure EtherChannels on the Catalyst 3560 switch. EtherChannel provides fault-tolerant high-speed links between switches, routers, and servers. You can use it to increase the bandwidth between the wiring closets and the data center, and you can deploy it anywhere in the network where bottlenecks are likely to occur. EtherChannel provides automatic recovery for the loss of a link by redistributing the load across the remaining links. If a link fails, EtherChannel redirects traffic from the failed link to the remaining links in the channel without intervention. This chapter also describes how to configure link-state tracking.


Note For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, see the command reference for this release.

Understanding EtherChannels

Configuring EtherChannels

Displaying EtherChannel, PAgP, and LACP Status

Understanding Link-State Tracking

Configuring Link-State Tracking

Understanding EtherChannels

EtherChannel Overview

Port-Channel Interfaces

Port Aggregation Protocol

Link Aggregation Control Protocol

EtherChannel On Mode

Load Balancing and Forwarding Methods

EtherChannel Overview

An EtherChannel consists of individual Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet links bundled into a single logical link as shown in Figure 36-1.

Figure 36-1 Typical EtherChannel Configuration

The EtherChannel provides full-duplex bandwidth up to 800 Mb/s (Fast EtherChannel) or 8 Gb/s (Gigabit EtherChannel) between your switch and another switch or host. Each EtherChannel can consist of up to eight compatibly configured Ethernet ports.

All ports in each EtherChannel must be configured as either Layer 2 or Layer 3 ports. The number of EtherChannels is limited to 48. The EtherChannel Layer 3 ports are made up of routed ports. Routed ports are physical ports configured to be in Layer 3 mode by using the no switchport interface configuration command. For more information, see the Chapter 11 "Configuring Interface Characteristics."

For more information, see the "EtherChannel Configuration Guidelines" section.

You can configure an EtherChannel in one of these modes: Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP), Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), or On. Configure both ends of the EtherChannel in the same mode:

When you configure one end of an EtherChannel in either PAgP or LACP mode, the system negotiates with the other end of the channel to determine which ports should become active. Incompatible ports are put into an independent state and continue to carry data traffic as would any other single link. The port configuration does not change, but the port does not participate in the EtherChannel.

When you configure an EtherChannel in the on mode, no negotiations take place. The switch forces all compatible ports to become active in the EtherChannel. The other end of the channel (on the other switch) must also be configured in the on mode; otherwise, packet loss can occur.

If a link within an EtherChannel fails, traffic previously carried over that failed link moves to the remaining links within the EtherChannel. If traps are enabled on the switch, a trap is sent for a failure that identifies the switch, the EtherChannel, and the failed link. Inbound broadcast and multicast packets on one link in an EtherChannel are blocked from returning on any other link of the EtherChannel.

Port-Channel Interfaces

When you create an EtherChannel, a port-channel logical interface is involved:

With Layer 2 ports, use the channel-group interface configuration command to dynamically create the port-channel logical interface.

You also can use the interface port-channel port-channel-number global configuration command to manually create the port-channel logical interface, but then you must use the channel-group channel-group-number command to bind the logical interface to a physical port. The channel-group-number can be the same as the port-channel-number, or you can use a new number. If you use a new number, the channel-group command dynamically creates a new port channel.

With Layer 3 ports, you should manually create the logical interface by using the interface port-channel global configuration command followed by the no switchport interface configuration command. Then you manually assign an interface to the EtherChannel by using the channel-group interface configuration command.

For both Layer 2 and Layer 3 ports, the channel-group command binds the physical port and the logical interface together as shown in Figure 36-2.

Each EtherChannel has a port-channel logical interface numbered from 1 to 48. This port-channel interface number corresponds to the one specified with the channel-group interface configuration command.

Figure 36-2 Relationship of Physical Ports, Logical Port Channels, and Channel Groups

After you configure an EtherChannel, configuration changes applied to the port-channel interface apply to all the physical ports assigned to the port-channel interface. Configuration changes applied to the physical port affect only the port where you apply the configuration. To change the parameters of all ports in an EtherChannel, apply configuration commands to the port-channel interface, for example, spanning-tree commands or commands to configure a Layer 2 EtherChannel as a trunk.

Port Aggregation Protocol

The Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP) is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that can be run only on Cisco switches and on those switches licensed by vendors to support PAgP. PAgP facilitates the automatic creation of EtherChannels by exchanging PAgP packets between Ethernet ports.

By using PAgP, the switch learns the identity of partners capable of supporting PAgP and the capabilities of each port. It then dynamically groups similarly configured ports into a single logical link (channel or aggregate port). Similarly configured ports are grouped based on hardware, administrative, and port parameter constraints. For example, PAgP groups the ports with the same speed, duplex mode, native VLAN, VLAN range, and trunking status and type. After grouping the links into an EtherChannel, PAgP adds the group to the spanning tree as a single switch port.

PAgP Modes

Table 36-1 shows the user-configurable EtherChannel PAgP modes for the channel-group interface configuration command.

Table 36-1 EtherChannel PAgP Modes 

Mode
Description

auto

Places a port into a passive negotiating state, in which the port responds to PAgP packets it receives but does not start PAgP packet negotiation. This setting minimizes the transmission of PAgP packets.

desirable

Places a port into an active negotiating state, in which the port starts negotiations with other ports by sending PAgP packets.


Switch ports exchange PAgP packets only with partner ports configured in the auto or desirable modes. Ports configured in the on mode do not exchange PAgP packets.

Both the auto and desirable modes enable ports to negotiate with partner ports to form an EtherChannel based on criteria such as port speed and, for Layer 2 EtherChannels, trunking state and VLAN numbers.

Ports can form an EtherChannel when they are in different PAgP modes as long as the modes are compatible. For example:

A port in the desirable mode can form an EtherChannel with another port that is in the desirable or auto mode.

A port in the auto mode can form an EtherChannel with another port in the desirable mode.

A port in the auto mode cannot form an EtherChannel with another port that is also in the auto mode because neither port starts PAgP negotiation.

If your switch is connected to a partner that is PAgP-capable, you can configure the switch port for nonsilent operation by using the non-silent keyword. If you do not specify non-silent with the auto or desirable mode, silent mode is assumed.

Use the silent mode when the switch is connected to a device that is not PAgP-capable and seldom, if ever, sends packets. An example of a silent partner is a file server or a packet analyzer that is not generating traffic. In this case, running PAgP on a physical port connected to a silent partner prevents that switch port from ever becoming operational. However, the silent setting allows PAgP to operate, to attach the port to a channel group, and to use the port for transmission.

PAgP Interaction with Virtual Switches and Dual-Active Detection

A virtual switch can be two or more Catalyst 6500 core switches connected by virtual switch links (VSLs) that carry control and data traffic between them. One of the switches is in active mode. The others are in standby mode. For redundancy, remote switches, such as Catalyst 3650 switches, are connected to the virtual switch by remote satellite links (RSLs).

If the VSL between two switches fails, one switch does not know the status of the other. Both switches could change to the active mode, causing a dual-active situation in the network with duplicate configurations (including duplicate IP addresses and bridge identifiers). The network might go down.

To prevent a dual-active situation, the core switches send PAgP protocol data units (PDUs) through the RSLs to the remote switches. The PAgP PDUs identify the active switch, and the remote switches forward the PDUs to core switches so that the core switches are in sync. If the active switch fails or resets, the standby switch takes over as the active switch. If the VSL goes down, one core switch knows the status of the other and does not change state.

PAgP Interaction with Other Features

The Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) and the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) send and receive packets over the physical ports in the EtherChannel. Trunk ports send and receive PAgP protocol data units (PDUs) on the lowest numbered VLAN.

In Layer 2 EtherChannels, the first port in the channel that comes up provides its MAC address to the EtherChannel. If this port is removed from the bundle, one of the remaining ports in the bundle provides its MAC address to the EtherChannel.

PAgP sends and receives PAgP PDUs only from ports that are up and have PAgP enabled for the auto or desirable mode.

Link Aggregation Control Protocol

The LACP is defined in IEEE 802.3ad and enables Cisco switches to manage Ethernet channels between switches that conform to the IEEE 802.3ad protocol. LACP facilitates the automatic creation of EtherChannels by exchanging LACP packets between Ethernet ports.

By using LACP, the switch learns the identity of partners capable of supporting LACP and the capabilities of each port. It then dynamically groups similarly configured ports into a single logical link (channel or aggregate port). Similarly configured ports are grouped based on hardware, administrative, and port parameter constraints. For example, LACP groups the ports with the same speed, duplex mode, native VLAN, VLAN range, and trunking status and type. After grouping the links into an EtherChannel, LACP adds the group to the spanning tree as a single switch port.

LACP Modes

Table 36-2 shows the user-configurable EtherChannel LACP modes for the channel-group interface configuration command.

Table 36-2 EtherChannel LACP Modes 

Mode
Description

active

Places a port into an active negotiating state in which the port starts negotiations with other ports by sending LACP packets.

passive

Places a port into a passive negotiating state in which the port responds to LACP packets that it receives, but does not start LACP packet negotiation. This setting minimizes the transmission of LACP packets.


Both the active and passive LACP modes enable ports to negotiate with partner ports to an EtherChannel based on criteria such as port speed and, for Layer 2 EtherChannels, trunking state and VLAN numbers.

Ports can form an EtherChannel when they are in different LACP modes as long as the modes are compatible. For example:

A port in the active mode can form an EtherChannel with another port that is in the active or passive mode.

A port in the passive mode cannot form an EtherChannel with another port that is also in the passive mode because neither port starts LACP negotiation.

LACP Interaction with Other Features

The DTP and the CDP send and receive packets over the physical ports in the EtherChannel. Trunk ports send and receive LACP PDUs on the lowest numbered VLAN.

In Layer 2 EtherChannels, the first port in the channel that comes up provides its MAC address to the EtherChannel. If this port is removed from the bundle, one of the remaining ports in the bundle provides its MAC address to the EtherChannel.

LACP sends and receives LACP PDUs only from ports that are up and have LACP enabled for the active or passive mode.

EtherChannel On Mode

EtherChannel on mode can be used to manually configure an EtherChannel. The on mode forces a port to join an EtherChannel without negotiations. The on mode can be useful if the remote device does not support PAgP or LACP. In the on mode, a usable EtherChannel exists only when the switches at both ends of the link are configured in the on mode.

Ports that are configured in the on mode in the same channel group must have compatible port characteristics, such as speed and duplex. Ports that are not compatible are suspended, even though they are configured in the on mode.


Caution You should use care when using the on mode. This is a manual configuration, and ports on both ends of the EtherChannel must have the same configuration. If the group is misconfigured, packet loss or spanning-tree loops can occur.

Load Balancing and Forwarding Methods

EtherChannel balances the traffic load across the links in a channel by reducing part of the binary pattern formed from the addresses in the frame to a numerical value that selects one of the links in the channel. EtherChannel load balancing can use MAC addresses or IP addresses, source or destination addresses, or both source and destination addresses. The selected mode applies to all EtherChannels configured on the switch. You configure the load balancing and forwarding method by using the port-channel load-balance global configuration command.

With source-MAC address forwarding, when packets are forwarded to an EtherChannel, they are distributed across the ports in the channel based on the source-MAC address of the incoming packet. Therefore, to provide load balancing, packets from different hosts use different ports in the channel, but packets from the same host use the same port in the channel.

With destination-MAC address forwarding, when packets are forwarded to an EtherChannel, they are distributed across the ports in the channel based on the destination host's MAC address of the incoming packet. Therefore, packets to the same destination are forwarded over the same port, and packets to a different destination are sent on a different port in the channel.

With source-and-destination MAC address forwarding, when packets are forwarded to an EtherChannel, they are distributed across the ports in the channel based on both the source and destination MAC addresses. This forwarding method, a combination source-MAC and destination-MAC address forwarding methods of load distribution, can be used if it is not clear whether source-MAC or destination-MAC address forwarding is better suited on a particular switch. With source-and-destination MAC-address forwarding, packets sent from host A to host B, host A to host C, and host C to host B could all use different ports in the channel.

With source-IP address-based forwarding, when packets are forwarded to an EtherChannel, they are distributed across the ports in the EtherChannel based on the source-IP address of the incoming packet. Therefore, to provide load-balancing, packets from different IP addresses use different ports in the channel, but packets from the same IP address use the same port in the channel.

With destination-IP address-based forwarding, when packets are forwarded to an EtherChannel, they are distributed across the ports in the EtherChannel based on the destination-IP address of the incoming packet. Therefore, to provide load-balancing, packets from the same IP source address sent to different IP destination addresses could be sent on different ports in the channel. But packets sent from different source IP addresses to the same destination IP address are always sent on the same port in the channel.

With source-and-destination IP address-based forwarding, packets are sent to an EtherChannel and distributed across the EtherChannel ports, based on both the source and destination IP addresses of the incoming packet. This forwarding method, a combination of source-IP and destination-IP address-based forwarding, can be used if it is not clear whether source-IP or destination-IP address-based forwarding is better suited on a particular switch. In this method, packets sent from the IP address A to IP address B, from IP address A to IP address C, and from IP address C to IP address B could all use different ports in the channel.

Different load-balancing methods have different advantages, and the choice of a particular load-balancing method should be based on the position of the switch in the network and the kind of traffic that needs to be load-distributed. In Figure 36-3, an EtherChannel from a switch that is aggregating data from four workstations communicates with a router. Because the router is a single-MAC-address device, source-based forwarding on the switch EtherChannel ensures that the switch uses all available bandwidth to the router. The router is configured for destination-based forwarding because the large number of workstations ensures that the traffic is evenly distributed from the router EtherChannel.

Use the option that provides the greatest variety in your configuration. For example, if the traffic on a channel is only going to a single MAC address, using the destination-MAC address always chooses the same link in the channel. Using source addresses or IP addresses might result in better load balancing.

Figure 36-3 Load Distribution and Forwarding Methods

Configuring EtherChannels

These sections contain this configuration information:

Default EtherChannel Configuration

EtherChannel Configuration Guidelines

Configuring Layer 2 EtherChannels (required)

Configuring Layer 3 EtherChannels (required)

Configuring EtherChannel Load Balancing (optional)

Configuring the PAgP Learn Method and Priority (optional)

Configuring LACP Hot-Standby Ports (optional)


Note Make sure that the ports are correctly configured. For more information, see the "EtherChannel Configuration Guidelines" section.

Note After you configure an EtherChannel, configuration changes applied to the port-channel interface apply to all the physical ports assigned to the port-channel interface, and configuration changes applied to the physical port affect only the port where you apply the configuration.

Default EtherChannel Configuration

Table 36-3 shows the default EtherChannel configuration.

Table 36-3 Default EtherChannel Configuration 

Feature
Default Setting

Channel groups

None assigned.

Port-channel logical interface

None defined.

PAgP mode

No default.

PAgP learn method

Aggregate-port learning on all ports.

PAgP priority

128 on all ports.

LACP mode

No default.

LACP learn method

Aggregate-port learning on all ports.

LACP port priority

32768 on all ports.

LACP system priority

32768.

LACP system ID

LACP system priority and the switch MAC address.

Load balancing

Load distribution on the switch is based on the source-MAC address of the incoming packet.


EtherChannel Configuration Guidelines

If improperly configured, some EtherChannel ports are automatically disabled to avoid network loops and other problems. Follow these guidelines to avoid configuration problems:

Do not try to configure more than 48 EtherChannels on the switch.

Configure a PAgP EtherChannel with up to eight Ethernet ports of the same type.

Configure a LACP EtherChannel with up to16 Ethernet ports of the same type. Up to eight ports can be active, and up to eight ports can be in standby mode.

Configure all ports in an EtherChannel to operate at the same speeds and duplex modes.

Enable all ports in an EtherChannel. A port in an EtherChannel that is disabled by using the shutdown interface configuration command is treated as a link failure, and its traffic is transferred to one of the remaining ports in the EtherChannel.

When a group is first created, all ports follow the parameters set for the first port to be added to the group. If you change the configuration of one of these parameters, you must also make the changes to all ports in the group:

Allowed-VLAN list

Spanning-tree path cost for each VLAN

Spanning-tree port priority for each VLAN

Spanning-tree Port Fast setting

Do not configure a port to be a member of more than one EtherChannel group.

Do not configure an EtherChannel in both the PAgP and LACP modes. EtherChannel groups running PAgP and LACP can coexist on the same switch. Individual EtherChannel groups can run either PAgP or LACP, but they cannot interoperate.

Do not configure a Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN) destination port as part of an EtherChannel.

Do not configure a secure port as part of an EtherChannel or the reverse.

Do not configure a private-VLAN port as part of an EtherChannel.

Do not configure a port that is an active or a not-yet-active member of an EtherChannel as an IEEE 802.1x port. If you try to enable IEEE 802.1x on an EtherChannel port, an error message appears, and IEEE 802.1x is not enabled.

If EtherChannels are configured on switch interfaces, remove the EtherChannel configuration from the interfaces before globally enabling IEEE 802.1x on a switch by using the dot1x system-auth-control global configuration command.

For Layer 2 EtherChannels:

Assign all ports in the EtherChannel to the same VLAN, or configure them as trunks. Ports with different native VLANs cannot form an EtherChannel.

If you configure an EtherChannel from trunk ports, verify that the trunking mode (ISL or IEEE 802.1Q) is the same on all the trunks. Inconsistent trunk modes on EtherChannel ports can have unexpected results.

An EtherChannel supports the same allowed range of VLANs on all the ports in a trunking Layer 2 EtherChannel. If the allowed range of VLANs is not the same, the ports do not form an EtherChannel even when PAgP is set to the auto or desirable mode.

Ports with different spanning-tree path costs can form an EtherChannel if they are otherwise compatibly configured. Setting different spanning-tree path costs does not, by itself, make ports incompatible for the formation of an EtherChannel.

For Layer 3 EtherChannels, assign the Layer 3 address to the port-channel logical interface, not to the physical ports in the channel.

Configuring Layer 2 EtherChannels

You configure Layer 2 EtherChannels by assigning ports to a channel group with the channel-group interface configuration command. This command automatically creates the port-channel logical interface.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to assign a Layer 2 Ethernet port to a Layer 2 EtherChannel. This procedure is required.

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Specify a physical port, and enter interface configuration mode.

Valid interfaces include physical ports.

For a PAgP EtherChannel, you can configure up to eight ports of the same type and speed for the same group.

For a LACP EtherChannel, you can configure up to 16 Ethernet ports of the same type. Up to eight ports can be active, and up to eight ports can be in standby mode.

Step 3 

switchport mode {access | trunk}

switchport access vlan vlan-id

Assign all ports as static-access ports in the same VLAN, or configure them as trunks.

If you configure the port as a static-access port, assign it to only one VLAN. The range is 1 to 4094.

Step 4 

channel-group channel-group-number mode {auto [non-silent] | desirable [non-silent] | on} | {active | passive}

Assign the port to a channel group, and specify the PAgP or the LACP mode.

For channel-group-number, the range is 1 to 48.

For mode, select one of these keywords:

autoEnables PAgP only if a PAgP device is detected. It places the port into a passive negotiating state, in which the port responds to PAgP packets it receives but does not start PAgP packet negotiation.

desirable—Unconditionally enables PAgP. It places the port into an active negotiating state, in which the port starts negotiations with other ports by sending PAgP packets.

onForces the port to channel without PAgP or LACP. In the on mode, an EtherChannel exists only when a port group in the on mode is connected to another port group in the on mode.

non-silent—(Optional) If your switch is connected to a partner that is PAgP-capable, configure the switch port for nonsilent operation when the port is in the auto or desirable mode. If you do not specify non-silent, silent is assumed. The silent setting is for connections to file servers or packet analyzers. This setting allows PAgP to operate, to attach the port to a channel group, and to use the port for transmission.

active—Enables LACP only if a LACP device is detected. It places the port into an active negotiating state in which the port starts negotiations with other ports by sending LACP packets.

passiveEnables LACP on the port and places it into a passive negotiating state in which the port responds to LACP packets that it receives, but does not start LACP packet negotiation.

For information on compatible modes for the switch and its partner, see the "PAgP Modes" section and the "LACP Modes" section.

Step 5 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 6 

show running-config

Verify your entries.

Step 7 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To remove a port from the EtherChannel group, use the no channel-group interface configuration command.

This example shows how to configure an EtherChannel on a switch. It assigns two ports as static-access ports in VLAN 10 to channel 5 with the PAgP mode desirable:

Switch# configure terminal 
Switch(config)# interface range gigabitethernet0/1 -2 
Switch(config-if-range)# switchport mode access
Switch(config-if-range)# switchport access vlan 10
Switch(config-if-range)# channel-group 5 mode desirable non-silent
Switch(config-if-range)# end 
 
   

This example shows how to configure an EtherChannel on a switch. It assigns two ports as static-access ports in VLAN 10 to channel 5 with the LACP mode active:

Switch# configure terminal 
Switch(config)# interface range gigabitethernet0/1 -2 
Switch(config-if-range)# switchport mode access
Switch(config-if-range)# switchport access vlan 10
Switch(config-if-range)# channel-group 5 mode active
Switch(config-if-range)# end 

Configuring Layer 3 EtherChannels

To configure Layer 3 EtherChannels, you create the port-channel logical interface and then put the Ethernet ports into the port-channel as described in the next two sections.

Creating Port-Channel Logical Interfaces

When configuring Layer 3 EtherChannels, you should first manually create the port-channel logical interface by using the interface port-channel global configuration command. Then you put the logical interface into the channel group by using the channel-group interface configuration command.


Note To move an IP address from a physical port to an EtherChannel, you must delete the IP address from the physical port before configuring it on the port-channel interface.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a port-channel interface for a Layer 3 EtherChannel. This procedure is required.

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface port-channel port-channel-number

Specify the port-channel logical interface, and enter interface configuration mode.

For port-channel-number, the range is 1 to 48.

Step 3 

no switchport

Put the interface into Layer 3 mode.

Step 4 

ip address ip-address mask

Assign an IP address and subnet mask to the EtherChannel.

Step 5 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 6 

show etherchannel channel-group-number detail

Verify your entries.

Step 7 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

Step 8 

 

Assign an Ethernet port to the Layer 3 EtherChannel. For more information, see the "Configuring the Physical Interfaces" section.

To remove the port-channel, use the no interface port-channel port-channel-number global configuration command.

This example shows how to create the logical port channel 5 and assign 172.10.20.10 as its IP address:

Switch# configure terminal 
Switch(config)# interface port-channel 5
Switch(config-if)# no switchport
Switch(config-if)# ip address 172.10.20.10 255.255.255.0
Switch(config-if)# end 

Configuring the Physical Interfaces

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to assign an Ethernet port to a Layer 3 EtherChannel. This procedure is required.

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Specify a physical port, and enter interface configuration mode.

Valid interfaces include physical ports.

For a PAgP EtherChannel, you can configure up to eight ports of the same type and speed for the same group.

For a LACP EtherChannel, you can configure up to 16 Ethernet ports of the same type. Up to eight ports can be active, and up to eight ports can be in standby mode.

Step 3 

no ip address

Ensure that there is no IP address assigned to the physical port.

Step 4 

no switchport

Put the port into Layer 3 mode.

Step 5 

channel-group channel-group-number mode {auto [non-silent] | desirable [non-silent] | on} | {active | passive}

Assign the port to a channel group, and specify the PAgP or the LACP mode.

For channel-group-number, the range is 1 to 48. This number must be the same as the port-channel-number (logical port) configured in the "Creating Port-Channel Logical Interfaces" section.

For mode, select one of these keywords:

auto—Enables PAgP only if a PAgP device is detected. It places the port into a passive negotiating state, in which the port responds to PAgP packets it receives but does not start PAgP packet negotiation.

desirable—Unconditionally enables PAgP. It places the port into an active negotiating state, in which the port starts negotiations with other ports by sending PAgP packets.

on—Forces the port to channel without PAgP or LACP. In the on mode, an EtherChannel exists only when a port group in the on mode is connected to another port group in the on mode.

non-silent—(Optional) If your switch is connected to a partner that is PAgP capable, configure the switch port for nonsilent operation when the port is in the auto or desirable mode. If you do not specify non-silent, silent is assumed. The silent setting is for connections to file servers or packet analyzers. This setting allows PAgP to operate, to attach the port to a channel group, and to use the port for transmission.

active—Enables LACP only if a LACP device is detected. It places the port into an active negotiating state in which the port starts negotiations with other ports by sending LACP packets.

passiveEnables LACP on the port and places it into a passive negotiating state in which the port responds to LACP packets that it receives, but does not start LACP packet negotiation.

For information on compatible modes for the switch and its partner, see the "PAgP Modes" section and the "LACP Modes" section.

Step 6 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 7 

show running-config

Verify your entries.

Step 8 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

This example shows how to configure an EtherChannel. It assigns two ports to channel 5 with the LACP mode active:

Switch# configure terminal 
Switch(config)# interface range gigabitethernet0/1 -2 
Switch(config-if-range)# no ip address 
Switch(config-if-range)# no switchport
Switch(config-if-range)# channel-group 5 mode active
Switch(config-if-range)# end

Configuring EtherChannel Load Balancing

This section describes how to configure EtherChannel load balancing by using source-based or destination-based forwarding methods. For more information, see the "Load Balancing and Forwarding Methods" section.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure EtherChannel load balancing. This procedure is optional.

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

port-channel load-balance {dst-ip | dst-mac | src-dst-ip | src-dst-mac | src-ip | src-mac}

Configure an EtherChannel load-balancing method.

The default is src-mac.

Select one of these load-distribution methods:

dst-ip—Load distribution is based on the destination-host IP address.

dst-mac—Load distribution is based on the destination-host MAC address of the incoming packet.

src-dst-ip—Load distribution is based on the source-and-destination host-IP address.

src-dst-mac—Load distribution is based on the source-and-destination host-MAC address.

src-ip—Load distribution is based on the source-host IP address.

src-mac—Load distribution is based on the source-MAC address of the incoming packet.

Step 3 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 4 

show etherchannel load-balance

Verify your entries.

Step 5 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return EtherChannel load balancing to the default configuration, use the no port-channel load-balance global configuration command.

Configuring the PAgP Learn Method and Priority

Network devices are classified as PAgP physical learners or aggregate-port learners. A device is a physical learner if it learns addresses by physical ports and directs transmissions based on that knowledge. A device is an aggregate-port learner if it learns addresses by aggregate (logical) ports. The learn method must be configured the same at both ends of the link.

When a device and its partner are both aggregate-port learners, they learn the address on the logical port-channel. The device sends packets to the source by using any of the ports in the EtherChannel. With aggregate-port learning, it is not important on which physical port the packet arrives.

PAgP cannot automatically detect when the partner device is a physical learner and when the local device is an aggregate-port learner. Therefore, you must manually set the learning method on the local device to learn addresses by physical ports. You also must set the load-distribution method to source-based distribution, so that any given source MAC address is always sent on the same physical port.

You also can configure a single port within the group for all transmissions and use other ports for hot standby. The unused ports in the group can be swapped into operation in just a few seconds if the selected single port loses hardware-signal detection. You can configure which port is always selected for packet transmission by changing its priority with the pagp port-priority interface configuration command. The higher the priority, the more likely that the port will be selected.


Note The switch supports address learning only on aggregate ports even though the physical-port keyword is provided in the CLI. The pagp learn-method command and the pagp port-priority command have no effect on the switch hardware, but they are required for PAgP interoperability with devices that only support address learning by physical ports.

When the link partner of the switch is a physical learner (such as a Catalyst 1900 series switch), we recommend that you configure the Catalyst 3560 switch as a physical-port learner by using the pagp learn-method physical-port interface configuration command. Set the load-distribution method based on the source MAC address by using the port-channel load-balance src-mac global configuration command. The switch then sends packets to the Catalyst 1900 switch using the same port in the EtherChannel from which it learned the source address. Only use the pagp learn-method command in this situation.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure your switch as a PAgP physical-port learner and to adjust the priority so that the same port in the bundle is selected for sending packets. This procedure is optional.

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Specify the port for transmission, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

pagp learn-method physical-port

Select the PAgP learning method.

By default, aggregation-port learning is selected, which means the switch sends packets to the source by using any of the ports in the EtherChannel. With aggregate-port learning, it is not important on which physical port the packet arrives.

Select physical-port to connect with another switch that is a physical learner. Make sure to configure the port-channel load-balance global configuration command to src-mac as described in the "Configuring EtherChannel Load Balancing" section.

The learning method must be configured the same at both ends of the link.

Step 4 

pagp port-priority priority

Assign a priority so that the selected port is chosen for packet transmission.

For priority, the range is 0 to 255. The default is 128. The higher the priority, the more likely that the port will be used for PAgP transmission.

Step 5 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 6 

show running-config

or

show pagp channel-group-number internal

Verify your entries.

Step 7 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return the priority to its default setting, use the no pagp port-priority interface configuration command. To return the learning method to its default setting, use the no pagp learn-method interface configuration command.

Configuring LACP Hot-Standby Ports

When enabled, LACP tries to configure the maximum number of LACP-compatible ports in a channel, up to a maximum of 16 ports. Only eight LACP links can be active at one time. The software places any additional links in a hot-standby mode. If one of the active links becomes inactive, a link that is in the hot-standby mode becomes active in its place.

If you configure more than eight links for an EtherChannel group, the software automatically decides which of the hot-standby ports to make active based on the LACP priority. To every link between systems that operate LACP, the software assigns a unique priority made up of these elements (in priority order):

LACP system priority

System ID (the switch MAC address)

LACP port priority

Port number

In priority comparisons, numerically lower values have higher priority. The priority decides which ports should be put in standby mode when there is a hardware limitation that prevents all compatible ports from aggregating.

Determining which ports are active and which are hot standby is a two-step procedure. First the system with a numerically lower system priority and system-id is placed in charge of the decision. Next, that system decides which ports are active and which are hot standby, based on its values for port priority and port number. The port-priority and port-number values for the other system are not used.

You can change the default values of the LACP system priority and the LACP port priority to affect how the software selects active and standby links. For more information, see the "Configuring the LACP System Priority" section and the "Configuring the LACP Port Priority" section.

Configuring the LACP System Priority

You can configure the system priority for all the EtherChannels that are enabled for LACP by using the lacp system-priority global configuration command. You cannot configure a system priority for each LACP-configured channel. By changing this value from the default, you can affect how the software selects active and standby links.

You can use the show etherchannel summary privileged EXEC command to see which ports are in the hot-standby mode (denoted with an H port-state flag).

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the LACP system priority. This procedure is optional.

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

lacp system-priority priority

Configure the LACP system priority.

For priority, the range is 1 to 65535. The default is 32768.

The lower the value, the higher the system priority.

Step 3 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 4 

show running-config

or

show lacp sys-id

Verify your entries.

Step 5 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return the LACP system priority to the default value, use the no lacp system-priority global configuration command.

Configuring the LACP Port Priority

By default, all ports use the same port priority. If the local system has a lower value for the system priority and the system ID than the remote system, you can affect which of the hot-standby links become active first by changing the port priority of LACP EtherChannel ports to a lower value than the default. The hot-standby ports that have lower port numbers become active in the channel first. You can use the show etherchannel summary privileged EXEC command to see which ports are in the hot-standby mode (denoted with an H port-state flag).


Note If LACP is not able to aggregate all the ports that are compatible (for example, the remote system might have more restrictive hardware limitations), all the ports that cannot be actively included in the EtherChannel are put in the hot-standby state and are used only if one of the channeled ports fails.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the LACP port priority. This procedure is optional.

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

interface interface-id

Specify the port to be configured, and enter interface configuration mode.

Step 3 

lacp port-priority priority

Configure the LACP port priority.

For priority, the range is 1 to 65535. The default is 32768. The lower the value, the more likely that the port will be used for LACP transmission.

Step 4 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 5 

show running-config

or

show lacp [channel-group-number] internal

Verify your entries.

Step 6 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To return the LACP port priority to the default value, use the no lacp port-priority interface configuration command.

Displaying EtherChannel, PAgP, and LACP Status

Table 36-4 Commands for Displaying EtherChannel, PAgP, and LACP Status 

Command
Description

show etherchannel [channel-group-number {detail | port | port-channel | protocol | summary}] {detail | load-balance | port | port-channel | protocol | summary}

Displays EtherChannel information in a brief, detailed, and one-line summary form. Also displays the load-balance or frame-distribution scheme, port, port-channel, and protocol information.

show pagp [channel-group-number] {counters | internal | neighbor}

Displays PAgP information such as traffic information, the internal PAgP configuration, and neighbor information.

show pagp [channel-group-number] dual-active

Displays the dual-active detection status.

show lacp [channel-group-number] {counters | internal | neighbor}

Displays LACP information such as traffic information, the internal LACP configuration, and neighbor information.


You can clear PAgP channel-group information and traffic counters by using the clear pagp {channel-group-number counters | counters} privileged EXEC command.

You can clear LACP channel-group information and traffic counters by using the clear lacp {channel-group-number counters | counters} privileged EXEC command.

For detailed information about the fields in the displays, see the command reference for this release.

Understanding Link-State Tracking

Link-state tracking, also known as trunk failover, is a feature that binds the link state of multiple interfaces. For example, link-state tracking provides redundancy in the network when used with server NIC adapter teaming. When the server network adapters are configured in a primary or secondary relationship known as teaming, if the link is lost on the primary interface, connectivity is transparently changed to the secondary interface.


Note ,An interface can be an aggregation of ports (an EtherChannel), a single physical port in access or trunk mode, or a routed port.

Figure 36-4 shows a network configured with link-state tracking. To enable link-state tracking, create a link-state group, and specify the interfaces that are assigned to the link-state group. In a link-state group, these interfaces are bundled together. The downstream interfaces are bound to the upstream interfaces. Interfaces connected to servers are referred to as downstream interfaces, and interfaces connected to distribution switches and network devices are referred to as upstream interfaces.

The configuration in Figure 36-4 ensures that the network traffic flow is balanced as follows:

For links to switches and other network devices

Server 1 and server 2 use switch A for primary links and switch B for secondary links.

Server 3 and server 4 use switch B for primary links and switch A for secondary links.

Link-state group 1 on switch A

Switch A provides primary links to server 1 and server 2 through link-state group 1. Port 1 is connected to server 1, and port 2 is connected to server 2. Port 1 and port 2 are the downstream interfaces in link-state group 1.

Port 5 and port 6 are connected to distribution switch 1 through link-state group 1. Port 5 and port 6 are the upstream interfaces in link-state group 1.

Link-state group 2 on switch A

Switch A provides secondary links to server 3 and server 4 through link-state group 2. Port 3 is connected to server 3, and port 4 is connected to server 4. Port 3 and port 4 are the downstream interfaces in link-state group 2.

Port 7 and port 8 are connected to distribution switch 2 through link-state group 2. Port 7 and port 8 are the upstream interfaces in link-state group 2.

Link-state group 2 on switch B

Switch B provides primary links to server 3 and server 4 through link-state group 2. Port 3 is connected to server 3, and port 4 is connected to server 4. Port 3 and port 4 are the downstream interfaces in link-state group 2.

Port 5 and port 6 are connected to distribution switch 2 through link-state group 2. Port 5 and port 6 are the upstream interfaces in link-state group 2.

Link-state group 1 on switch B

Switch B provides secondary links to server 1 and server 2 through link-state group 1. Port 1 is connected to server 1, and port 2 is connected to server 2. Port 1 and port 2 are the downstream interfaces in link-state group 1.

Port 7 and port 8 are connected to distribution switch 1 through link-state group 1. Port 7 and port 8 are the upstream interfaces in link-state group 1.

In a link-state group, the upstream ports can become unavailable or lose connectivity because the distribution switch or router fails, the cables are disconnected, or the link is lost. These are the interactions between the downstream and upstream interfaces when link-state tracking is enabled:

If any of the upstream interfaces are in the link-up state, the downstream interfaces can change to or remain in the link-up state.

If all of the upstream interfaces become unavailable, link-state tracking automatically puts the downstream interfaces in the error-disabled state. Connectivity to and from the servers is automatically changed from the primary server interface to the secondary server interface.

As an example of a connectivity change from link-state group 1 to link-state group 2 on switch A, see Figure 36-4. If the upstream link for port 6 is lost, the link states of downstream ports 1 and 2 do not change. However, if the link for upstream port 5 is also lost, the link state of the downstream ports changes to the link-down state. Connectivity to server 1 and server 2 is then changed from link-state group1 to link-state group 2. The downstream ports 3 and 4 do not change state because they are in link-group 2.

If the link-state group is configured, link-state tracking is disabled, and the upstream interfaces lose connectivity, the link states of the downstream interfaces remain unchanged. The server does not recognize that upstream connectivity has been lost and does not failover to the secondary interface.

You can recover a downstream interface link-down condition by removing the failed downstream port from the link-state group. To recover multiple downstream interfaces, disable the link-state group.

Figure 36-4 Typical Link-State Tracking Configuration

Configuring Link-State Tracking

Default Link-State Tracking Configuration

Link-State Tracking Configuration Guidelines

Configuring Link-State Tracking

Displaying Link-State Tracking Status

Default Link-State Tracking Configuration

There are no link-state groups defined, and link-state tracking is not enabled for any group.

Link-State Tracking Configuration Guidelines

Follow these guidelines to avoid configuration problems:

An interface that is defined as an upstream interface cannot also be defined as a downstream interface in the same or a different link-state group. The reverse is also true.

An interface cannot be a member of more than one link-state group.

You can configure only two link-state groups per switch.

Configuring Link-State Tracking

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a link-state group and to assign an interface to a group:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

link state track number

Create a link-state group, and enable link-state tracking. The group number can be 1 to 2; the default is 1.

Step 3 

interface interface-id

Specify a physical interface or range of interfaces to configure, and enter interface configuration mode.

Valid interfaces include switch ports in access or trunk mode (IEEE 802.1q), routed ports, or multiple ports bundled into an EtherChannel interface (static or LACP), also in trunk mode.

Step 4 

link state group [number] {upstream | downstream}

Specify a link-state group, and configure the interface as either an upstream or downstream interface in the group.The group number can be 1 to 2; the default is 1.

Step 5 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 6 

show running-config

Verify your entries.

Step 7 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

This example shows how to create a link-state group and configure the interfaces:

Switch# configure terminal 
Switch(config)# link state track 1
Switch(config)# interface range gigabitethernet0/21 -22 
Switch(config-if)# link state group 1 upstream
Switch(config-if)# interface gigabitethernet0/1 
Switch(config-if)# link state group 1 downstream
Switch(config-if)# interface gigabitethernet0/3 
Switch(config-if)# link state group 1 downstream
Switch(config-if)# interface gigabitethernet0/5 
Switch(config-if)# link state group 1 downstream
Switch(config-if)# end
 
   

To disable a link-state group, use the no link state track number global configuration command.

Displaying Link-State Tracking Status

Use the show link state group command to display the link-state group information. Enter this command without keywords to display information about all link-state groups. Enter the group number to display information specific to the group. Enter the detail keyword to display detailed information about the group.

This is an example of output from the show link state group 1 command:

Switch> show link state group 1
 
   
Link State Group: 1      Status: Enabled, Down
 
   

This is an example of output from the show link state group detail command:

Switch> show link state group detail
 
   
(Up):Interface up   (Dwn):Interface Down   (Dis):Interface disabled
 
   
Link State Group: 1 Status: Enabled, Down 
Upstream Interfaces : Gi0/15(Dwn) Gi0/16(Dwn) 
Downstream Interfaces : Gi0/11(Dis) Gi0/12(Dis) Gi0/13(Dis) Gi0/14(Dis)
 
   
Link State Group: 2 Status: Enabled, Down 
Upstream Interfaces : Gi1/0/15(Dwn) Gi1/0/16(Dwn) Gi1/0/17(Dwn) 
Downstream Interfaces : Gi1/0/11(Dis) Gi1/0/12(Dis) Gi1/0/13(Dis) Gi1/0/14(Dis)
 
   
(Up):Interface up (Dwn):Interface Down (Dis):Interface disabled
 
   

For detailed information about the fields in the display, see the command reference for this release.