Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Security Configuration Guide, Release 4.1
Configuring RADIUS
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Configuring RADIUS

Table Of Contents

Configuring RADIUS

Information About RADIUS

RADIUS Network Environments

RADIUS Operation

RADIUS Server Monitoring

RADIUS Configuration Distribution

Vendor-Specific Attributes

Virtualization Support

Licensing Requirements for RADIUS

Prerequisites for RADIUS

Guidelines and Limitations

Configuring RADIUS Servers

RADIUS Server Configuration Process

Enabling RADIUS Configuration Distribution

Configuring RADIUS Server Hosts

Configuring Global RADIUS Keys

Configuring a Key for a Specific RADIUS Server

Configuring RADIUS Server Groups

Configuring the Global Source Interface for RADIUS Server Groups

Allowing Users to Specify a RADIUS Server at Login

Configuring the Global RADIUS Transmission Retry Count and Timeout Interval

Configuring the RADIUS Transmission Retry Count and Timeout Interval for a Server

Configuring Accounting and Authentication Attributes for RADIUS Servers

Configuring Periodic RADIUS Server Monitoring

Configuring the Dead-Time Interval

Committing the RADIUS Distribution

Discarding the RADIUS Distribution Session

Clearing the RADIUS Distribution Session

Manually Monitoring RADIUS Servers or Groups

Verifying RADIUS Configuration

Displaying RADIUS Server Statistics

Example RADIUS Configuration

Where to Go Next

Default Settings

Additional References

Related Documents

Standards

MIBs

Feature History for RADIUS


Configuring RADIUS


This chapter describes how to configure the Remote Access Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol on NX-OS devices.

This chapter includes the following sections:

Information About RADIUS

Licensing Requirements for RADIUS

Prerequisites for RADIUS

Guidelines and Limitations

Configuring RADIUS Servers

Verifying RADIUS Configuration

Displaying RADIUS Server Statistics

Example RADIUS Configuration

Where to Go Next

Default Settings

Additional References

Feature History for RADIUS

Information About RADIUS

The RADIUS distributed client/server system allows you to secure networks against unauthorized access. In the Cisco implementation, RADIUS clients run on Cisco NX-OS devices and send authentication and accounting requests to a central RADIUS server that contains all user authentication and network service access information.

This section includes the following topics:

RADIUS Network Environments

RADIUS Operation

RADIUS Server Monitoring

RADIUS Configuration Distribution

Vendor-Specific Attributes

Virtualization Support

RADIUS Network Environments

RADIUS can be implemented in a variety of network environments that require high levels of security while maintaining network access for remote users.

You can use RADIUS in the following network environments that require access security:

Networks with multiple-vendor network devices, each supporting RADIUS. For example, network devices from several vendors can use a single RADIUS server-based security database.

Networks already using RADIUS. You can add a Cisco NX-OS device with RADIUS to the network. This action might be the first step when you make a transition to a AAA server.

Networks that require resource accounting. You can use RADIUS accounting independent of RADIUS authentication or authorization. The RADIUS accounting functions allow data to be sent at the start and end of services, indicating the amount of resources (such as time, packets, bytes, and so on) used during the session. An Internet service provider (ISP) might use a freeware-based version of the RADIUS access control and accounting software to meet special security and billing needs.

Networks that support authentication profiles. Using the RADIUS server in your network, you can configure AAA authentication and set up per-user profiles. Per-user profiles enable the Cisco NX-OS device to better manage ports using their existing RADIUS solutions and to efficiently manage shared resources to offer different service-level agreements.

RADIUS Operation

When a user attempts to log in and authenticate to a Cisco NX-OS device using RADIUS, the following process occurs:

1. The user is prompted for and enters a username and password.

2. The username and encrypted password are sent over the network to the RADIUS server.

3. The user receives one of the following responses from the RADIUS server:

ACCEPT—The user is authenticated.

REJECT—The user is not authenticated and is prompted to reenter the username and password, or access is denied.

CHALLENGE—A challenge is issued by the RADIUS server. The challenge collects additional data from the user.

CHANGE PASSWORD—A request is issued by the RADIUS server, asking the user to select a new password.

The ACCEPT or REJECT response is bundled with additional data that is used for EXEC or network authorization. You must first complete RADIUS authentication before using RADIUS authorization. The additional data included with the ACCEPT or REJECT packets consists of the following:

Services that the user can access, including Telnet, rlogin, or local-area transport (LAT) connections, and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), or EXEC services.

Connection parameters, including the host or client IPv4 or IPv6 address, access list, and user timeouts.

RADIUS Server Monitoring

An unresponsive RADIUS server can cause a delay in processing AAA requests. You can configure the Cisco NX-OS device to periodically monitor a RADIUS server to check whether it is responding (or alive) to save time in processing AAA requests. The Cisco NX-OS device marks unresponsive RADIUS servers as dead and does not send AAA requests to any dead RADIUS servers. The Cisco NX-OS device periodically monitors the dead RADIUS servers and brings them to the alive state once they respond. This monitoring process verifies that a RADIUS server is in a working state before real AAA requests are sent its way. Whenever a RADIUS server changes to the dead or alive state, a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) trap is generated and the Cisco NX-OS device displays an error message that a failure is taking place. See Figure 3-1.

Figure 3-1 RADIUS Server States


Note The monitoring interval for alive servers and dead servers are different and can be configured by the user. The RADIUS server monitoring is performed by sending a test authentication request to the RADIUS server.


RADIUS Configuration Distribution

Cisco Fabric Services (CFS) allows the Cisco NX-OS device distribute the RADIUS configuration to other NX-OS devices in the network. When you enable CFS distribution for a feature on your device, the device belongs to a CFS region containing other devices in the network that you have also enabled for CFS distribution for the feature. CFS distribution for RADIUS is disabled by default.


Note You must explicitly enable CFS for RADIUS on each device to which you want to distribute configuration changes.


After you enable CFS distribution for RADIUS on your NX-OS device, the first RADIUS configuration command that you enter causes the Cisco NX-OS software to take the following actions:

Creates a CFS session on your NX-OS device.

Locks the RADIUS configuration on all NX-OS devices in the CFS region with CFS enabled for RADIUS.

Saves the RADIUS configuration changes in a temporary buffer on the Cisco NX-OS device.

The changes stay in the temporary buffer on the Cisco NX-OS device until you explicitly commit them to be distributed to the devices in the CFS region. When you commit the changes, the Cisco NX-OS software takes the following actions:

Applies the changes to the running configuration on your NX-OS device.

Distributes the updated RADIUS configuration to the other NX-OS devices in the CFS region.

Unlocks the RADIUS configuration in the devices in the CFS region.

Terminates the CFS session.

CFS does not distribute the RADIUS server group configurations, periodic RADIUS server testing configurations, or server and global keys. The keys are unique to the Cisco NX-OS device and are not shared with other NX-OS devices.

For detailed information on CFS, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS System Management Configuration Guide, Release 4.1.

Vendor-Specific Attributes

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) draft standard specifies a method for communicating VSAs between the network access server and the RADIUS server. The IETF uses attribute 26. VSAs allow vendors to support their own extended attributes that are not suitable for general use. The Cisco RADIUS implementation supports one vendor-specific option using the format recommended in the specification. The Cisco vendor ID is 9, and the supported option is vendor type 1, which is named cisco-av-pair. The value is a string with the following format:

protocol : attribute separator value *

The protocol is a Cisco attribute for a particular type of authorization, the separator is = (equal sign) for mandatory attributes, and * (asterisk) indicates optional attributes.

When you use RADIUS servers for authentication on a Cisco NX-OS device, the RADIUS protocol directs the RADIUS server to return user attributes, such as authorization information, with authentication results. This authorization information is specified through VSAs.

The following VSA protocol options are supported by the Cisco NX-OS software:

Shell—Protocol used in access-accept packets to provide user profile information.

Accounting—Protocol used in accounting-request packets. If a value contains any white spaces, you should enclose the value within double quotation marks.

The Cisco NX-OS software supports the following attributes:

roles—Lists all the roles to which the user belongs. The value field is a string that lists the role names delimited by white space. For example, if the user belongs to roles network-operator and vdc-admin, the value field would be "network-operator vdc-admin." This subattribute, which the RADIUS server sends in the VSA portion of the Access-Accept frames, can only be used with the shell protocol value. The following examples show the roles attribute that supported by the Cisco Access Control Server (ACS):

shell:roles="network-operator vdc-admin"

shell:roles*"network-operator vdc-admin" 

The following examples show the roles attribute that is supported by FreeRADIUS:

Cisco-AVPair = "shell:roles=\"network-operator vdc-admin\""

Cisco-AVPair = "shell:roles*\"network-operator vdc-admin\""


Note When you specify a VSA as shell:roles*"network-operator vdc-admin" or "shell:roles*\"network-operator vdc-admin\"", this VSA is flagged as an optional attribute and other Cisco devices ignore this attribute.


accountinginfo—Stores accounting information in addition to the attributes covered by a standard RADIUS accounting protocol. This attribute is sent only in the VSA portion of the Account-Request frames from the RADIUS client on the switch. It can be used only with the accounting protocol data units (PDUs).

Virtualization Support

RADIUS configuration and operation are local to the virtual device context (VDC). For more information on VDCs, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide, Release 4.1.

The Cisco NX-OS device uses virtual routing and forwarding instances (VRFs) to access the RADIUS servers. For more information on VRFs, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.1.

Licensing Requirements for RADIUS

The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:

Product
License Requirement

NX-OS

RADIUS requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the Cisco NX-OS licensing scheme, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Licensing Guide, Release 4.1.


Prerequisites for RADIUS

RADIUS has the following prerequisites:

Obtain IPv4 or IPv6 addresses or hostnames for the RADIUS servers.

Obtain keys from the RADIUS servers.

Ensure that the Cisco NX-OS device is configured as a RADIUS client of the AAA servers.

Guidelines and Limitations

RADIUS has the following guidelines and limitations:

You can configure a maximum of 64 RADIUS servers on the Cisco NX-OS device.

If you have a user account configured on the local Cisco NX-OS device that has the same name as a remote user account on an AAA server, the Cisco NX-OS software applies the user roles for the local user account to the remote user, not the user roles configured on the AAA server.

Configuring RADIUS Servers

This section includes the following topics:

RADIUS Server Configuration Process

Enabling RADIUS Configuration Distribution

Configuring RADIUS Server Hosts

Configuring Global RADIUS Keys

Configuring a Key for a Specific RADIUS Server

Configuring RADIUS Server Groups

Configuring the Global Source Interface for RADIUS Server Groups

Allowing Users to Specify a RADIUS Server at Login

Configuring the Global RADIUS Transmission Retry Count and Timeout Interval

Configuring the RADIUS Transmission Retry Count and Timeout Interval for a Server

Configuring Accounting and Authentication Attributes for RADIUS Servers

Configuring Periodic RADIUS Server Monitoring

Configuring the Dead-Time Interval

Committing the RADIUS Distribution

Discarding the RADIUS Distribution Session

Clearing the RADIUS Distribution Session

Manually Monitoring RADIUS Servers or Groups


Note If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.


RADIUS Server Configuration Process

Follow these steps to configure RADIUS servers:


Step 1 If needed, enable CFS configuration distribution for RADIUS (see the "Enabling RADIUS Configuration Distribution" section).

Step 2 Establish the RADIUS server connections to the Cisco NX-OS device (see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Hosts" section).

Step 3 Configure the RADIUS secret keys for the RADIUS servers (see the "Configuring Global RADIUS Keys" section).

Step 4 If needed, configure RADIUS server groups with subsets of the RADIUS servers for AAA authentication methods (see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Groups" section and the "Configuring AAA" section on page 2-7).

Step 5 If needed, configure any of the following optional parameters:

Dead-time interval (see the "Configuring the Dead-Time Interval" section).

Allow specification of a RADIUS server at login (see the "Allowing Users to Specify a RADIUS Server at Login" section).

Transmission retry count and timeout interval (see the "Configuring the Global RADIUS Transmission Retry Count and Timeout Interval" section).

Accounting and authentication attributes (see the "Configuring Accounting and Authentication Attributes for RADIUS Servers" section).

Step 6 If needed, configure periodic RADIUS server monitoring (see the "Configuring Periodic RADIUS Server Monitoring" section).

Step 7 If RADIUS distribution is enabled, commit the RADIUS configuration to the fabric (see the "Committing the RADIUS Distribution" section).


Enabling RADIUS Configuration Distribution

Only NX-OS devices that have distribution enabled for RADIUS can participate in the distribution of the RADIUS configuration changes in the CFS region.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

Ensure that CFS distribution is enabled.

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. radius distribute

3. exit

4. show radius status

5. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# radius distribute


Example:

switch(config)# radius distribute

Enable RADIUS configuration distribution. The default is disabled.

Step 3 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 4 

show radius status


Example:

switch(config)# show radius status

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS CFS distribution configuration.

Step 5 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Configuring RADIUS Server Hosts

To access a remote RADIUS server, you must configure the IP address or hostname of a RADIUS server. You can configure up to 64 RADIUS servers.


Note By default, when you configure a RADIUS server IP address or hostname the Cisco NX-OS device, the RADIUS server is added to the default RADIUS server group. You can also add the RADIUS server to another RADIUS server group. For information about creating RADIUS server groups, see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Groups" section).


BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

Ensure that the server is already configured as a member of the server group.

Ensure that the server is configured to authenticate RADIUS traffic.

Ensure that the Cisco NX-OS device is configured as a RADIUS client of the AAA servers.

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name}

3. show radius-server

4. show radius {pending | pending-diff}

5. radius commit

6. exit

7. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name}


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server host 10.10.1.1

Specifies the IPv4 or IPv6 address or hostname for a RADIUS server to use for authentication.

Step 3 

show radius-server


Example:

switch(config)# show radius-server

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server configuration.

Step 4 

show radius {pending | pending-diff}


Example:

switch(config)# show radius distribution pending

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS configuration pending for distribution (see the "RADIUS Configuration Distribution" section).

Step 5 

radius commit


Example:

switch(config)# radius commit

(Optional) Applies the RADIUS configuration changes in the temporary database to the running configuration and distributes RADIUS configuration to other NX-OS devices if you have enabled CFS configuration distribution for the RADIUS feature.

Step 6 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 7 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Configuring Global RADIUS Keys

You can configure RADIUS keys for all servers used by the Cisco NX-OS device. A RADIUS key is a shared secret text string between the Cisco NX-OS device and the RADIUS server hosts. To configure a RADIUS key specific to a RADIUS server, see the "Configuring a Key for a Specific RADIUS Server" section.


Note CFS does not distribute RADIUS keys.


BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

Obtain the RADIUS key values for the remote RADIUS servers.

Configure the RADIUS key on the remote RADIUS servers.

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. radius-server key [0 | 7] key-value

3. exit

4. show radius-server

5. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

radius-server key [0 | 7] key-value


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server key 0 QsEfThUkO

Specifies a RADIUS key for all RADIUS servers. You can specify that the key-value is in clear text (0) format or is encrypted (7). The Cisco NX-OS software encrypts a clear text key before saving it to the running configuration. The default format is clear text. The maximum length is 63 characters.

By default, no RADIUS key is configured.

Step 3 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 4 

show radius-server


Example:

switch# show radius-server

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server configuration.

Note The RADIUS keys are saved in encrypted form in the running configuration. Use the show running-config command to display the encrypted RADIUS keys.

Step 5 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Configuring a Key for a Specific RADIUS Server

You can configure a key on the Cisco NX-OS device for a specific RADIUS server. A RADIUS key is a secret text string shared between the Cisco NX-OS device and a specific RADIUS server.


Note CFS does not distribute RADIUS keys.


BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

Configure one or more RADIUS server hosts (see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Hosts" section).

Obtain the key value for the remote RADIUS server.

Configure the key on the RADIUS server.

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} key [0 | 7] key-value

3. exit

4. show radius-server

5. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} key [0 | 7] key-value


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server host 10.10.1.1 key 0 PlIjUhYg

Specifies a RADIUS key for a specific RADIUS server. You can specify that the key-value is in clear text (0) format or is encrypted (7). The Cisco NX-OS software encrypts a clear text key before saving it to the running configuration. The default format is clear text. The maximum length is 63 characters.

This RADIUS key is used instead of the global RADIUS key.

Step 3 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 4 

show radius-server


Example:

switch# show radius-server

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server configuration.

Note The RADIUS keys are saved in encrypted form in the running configuration. Use the show running-config command to display the encrypted RADIUS keys.

Step 5 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Configuring RADIUS Server Groups

You can specify one or more remote AAA servers for authentication using server groups. All members of a group must belong to the RADIUS protocol. The servers are tried in the same order in which you configure them. You can configure up to 100 server groups in a VDC.

You can configure these server groups at any time but they only take effect when you apply them to an AAA service. For information on AAA services, see the "Remote AAA Services" section on page 2-3.


Note CFS does not distribute RADIUS server group configurations.


BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

Ensure that all servers in the group are RADIUS servers.

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. aaa group server radius group-name

3. server {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name}

4. deadtime minutes

5. source-interface interface

6. use-vrf vrf-name

7. exit

8. show radius-server groups [group-name]

9. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

aaa group server radius group-name


Example:

switch(config)# aaa group server radius RadServer

switch(config-radius)#

Creates a RADIUS server group and enters the RADIUS server group configuration submode for that group. The group-name argument is a case-sensitive alphanumeric string with a maximum length of 127 characters.

Step 3 

server {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name}


Example:

switch(config-radius)# server 10.10.1.1

Configures the RADIUS server as a member of the RADIUS server group.

Tip If the specified RADIUS server is not found, configure it using the radius-server host command and retry this command.

Step 4 

deadtime minutes


Example:

switch(config-radius)# deadtime 30

(Optional) Configures the monitoring dead time. The default is 0 minutes. The range is from 1 through 1440.

Note If the dead-time interval for a RADIUS server group is greater than zero (0), that value takes precedence over the global dead-time value (see the "Configuring the Dead-Time Interval" section).

Step 5 

source-interface interface


Example:

switch(config-radius)# source-interface mgmt 0

(Optional) Configures a source interface to access the RADIUS servers in the server group. You can use Ethernet interfaces, loopback interfaces, or the management interface (mgmt 0). The default is the global source interface.

Step 6 

use-vrf vrf-name


Example:

switch(config-radius)# use-vrf vrf1

(Optional) Specifies the VRF to use to contact the servers in the server group.

Step 7 

exit


Example:

switch(config-radius)# exit

switch(config)#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 8 

show radius-server groups [group-name]


Example:

switch(config)# show radius-server group

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server group configuration.

Step 9 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Configuring the Global Source Interface for RADIUS Server Groups

You can configure a global source interface for RADIUS server groups to use when accessing RADIUS servers. To configure a different source interface for a specific RADIUS server group, see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Groups" section. By default, the Cisco NX-OS software uses any available interface.


Note CFS does not distribute the global RADIUS source interface configuration.


BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. ip radius source-interface interface

3. exit

4. show radius-server directed-request

5. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# ip radius source-interface interface


Example:

switch(config)# ip radius source-interface mgmt 0

Configures the global source interface for all RADIUS server groups configured on the device.

Step 3 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 4 

show radius-server


Example:

switch# show radius-server

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server configuration information.

Step 5 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Allowing Users to Specify a RADIUS Server at Login

By default, the Cisco NX-OS device forwards an authentication request based on the default AAA authentication method. You can configure the Cisco NX-OS device to allow the user to specify a VRF and RADIUS server to send the authentication request by enabling the directed-request option. If you enable this option, the user can log in as username@vrfname:hostname, where vrfname is the VRF to use and hostname is the name of a configured RADIUS server.


Note If you enable the directed-request option, the Cisco NX-OS device uses only the RADIUS method for authentication and not the default local method.



Note User-specified logins are supported only for Telnet sessions.


BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. radius-server directed-request

3. show radius {pending | pending-diff}

4. radius commit

5. exit

6. show radius-server directed-request

7. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# radius-server directed-request


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server directed-request

Allows users to specify a RADIUS server to send the authentication request when logging in. The default is disabled.

Step 3 

show radius {pending | pending-diff}


Example:

switch(config)# show radius pending

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS configuration pending for distribution (see the "RADIUS Configuration Distribution" section).

Step 4 

radius commit


Example:

switch(config)# radius commit

(Optional) Applies the RADIUS configuration changes in the temporary database to the running configuration and distributes RADIUS configuration to other NX-OS devices if you have enabled CFS configuration distribution for the RADIUS feature.

Step 5 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 6 

show radius-server directed-request


Example:

switch# show radius-server directed-request

(Optional) Displays the directed request configuration.

Step 7 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Configuring the Global RADIUS Transmission Retry Count and Timeout Interval

You can configure a global retransmission retry count and timeout interval for all RADIUS servers. By default, a Cisco NX-OS device retries transmission to a RADIUS server only once before reverting to local authentication. You can increase this number up to a maximum of five retries per server. The timeout interval determines how long the Cisco NX-OS device waits for responses from RADIUS servers before declaring a timeout failure.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. config t

2. radius-server retransmission count

3. radius-server timeout seconds

4. show radius {pending | pending-diff}

5. radius commit

6. exit

7. show radius-server

8. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# radius-server retransmit count


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server retransmit 3

Specifies the retransmission count for all RADIUS servers. The default retransmission count is 1 and the range is from 0 to 5.

Step 3 

switch(config)# radius-server timeout seconds


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server timeout 10

Specifies the transmission timeout interval for RADIUS servers. The default timeout interval is 5 seconds and the range is from 1 to 60 seconds.

Step 4 

show radius {pending | pending-diff}


Example:

switch(config)# show radius pending

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS configuration pending for distribution (see the "RADIUS Configuration Distribution" section).

Step 5 

radius commit


Example:

switch(config)# radius commit

(Optional) Applies the RADIUS configuration changes in the temporary database to the running configuration and distributes RADIUS configuration to other NX-OS devices if you have enabled CFS configuration distribution for the RADIUS feature.

Step 6 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 7 

show radius-server


Example:

switch# show radius-server

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server configuration.

Step 8 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Configuring the RADIUS Transmission Retry Count and Timeout Interval for a Server

By default, a Cisco NX-OS device retries a transmission to a RADIUS server only once before reverting to local authentication. You can increase this number up to a maximum of five retries per server. You can also set a timeout interval that the Cisco NX-OS device waits for responses from RADIUS servers before declaring a timeout failure.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

Configure one or more RADIUS server hosts (see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Hosts" section).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} retransmit count

3. radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} timeout seconds

4. show radius {pending | pending-diff}

5. radius commit

6. exit

7. show radius-server

8. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# radius-server host {ipv4-address |ipv6-address | host-name} retransmit count


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server host server1 retransmit 3

Specifies the retransmission count for a specific server. The default is the global value.

Note The retransmission count value specified for a RADIUS server overrides the count specified for all RADIUS servers in Step 2.

Step 3 

switch(config)# radius-server host {ipv4-address |ipv6-address | host-name} timeout seconds


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server host server1 timeout 10

Specifies the transmission timeout interval for a specific server. The default is the global value.

Note The timeout interval value specified for a RADIUS server overrides the interval value specified for all RADIUS servers in Step 3.

Step 4 

show radius {pending | pending-diff}


Example:

switch(config)# show radius pending

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS configuration pending for distribution (see the "RADIUS Configuration Distribution" section).

Step 5 

radius commit


Example:

switch(config)# radius commit

(Optional) Applies the RADIUS configuration changes in the temporary database to the running configuration and distributes RADIUS configuration to other NX-OS devices if you have enabled CFS configuration distribution for the RADIUS feature.

Step 6 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 7 

show radius-server


Example:

switch# show radius-server

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server configuration.

Step 8 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Configuring Accounting and Authentication Attributes for RADIUS Servers

You can specify that a RADIUS server is to be used only for accounting purposes or only for authentication purposes. By default, RADIUS servers are used for both accounting and authentication. You can also specify the destination UDP port numbers where RADIUS accounting and authentication messages should be sent if there is a conflict with the default port.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

Configure one or more RADIUS server hosts (see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Hosts" section).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} acct-port udp-port

3. radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} accounting

4. radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} auth-port udp-port

5. radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} authentication

6. show radius {pending | pending-diff}

7. radius commit

8. exit

9. show radius-server

10. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} acct-port udp-port


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server host 10.10.1.1 acct-port 2004

(Optional) Specifies a UDP port to use for RADIUS accounting messages. The default UDP port is 1813. The range is from 0 to 65535.

Step 3 

radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} accounting


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server host 10.10.1.1 accounting

(Optional) Specifies to use RADIUS server only for accounting purposes. The default is both accounting and authentication.

Step 4 

radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} auth-port udp-port


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server host 10.10.2.2 auth-port 2005

(Optional) Specifies a UDP port to use for RADIUS authentication messages. The default UDP port is 1812. The range is from 0 to 65535.

Step 5 

radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} authentication


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server host 10.10.2.2 authentication

(Optional) Specifies to use the RADIUS server only for authentication purposes. The default is both accounting and authentication.

Step 6 

show radius {pending | pending-diff}


Example:

switch(config)# show radius pending

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS configuration pending for distribution (see the "RADIUS Configuration Distribution" section).

Step 7 

radius commit


Example:

switch(config)# radius commit

(Optional) Applies the RADIUS configuration changes in the temporary database to the running configuration and distributes RADIUS configuration to other NX-OS devices if you have enabled CFS configuration distribution for the RADIUS feature.

Step 8 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 9 

show radius-server


Example:

switch(config)# show radius-server

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server configuration.

Step 10 

copy running-config startup-config [fabric]


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration. Use the optional fabric keyword to copy the running configuration to the startup configuration on other NX-OS devices in the network that you have enabled CFS configuration distribution.

Configuring Periodic RADIUS Server Monitoring

You can monitor the availability of RADIUS servers. These parameters include the username and password to use for the server and an idle timer. The idle timer specifies the interval during which a RADIUS server receives no requests before the Cisco NX-OS device sends out a test packet. You can configure this option to test servers periodically.


Note For security reasons, we recommend that you do not configure a test username that is the same as an existing user in the RADIUS database.


The test idle timer specifies the interval during which a RADIUS server receives no requests before the Cisco NX-OS device sends out a test packet.


Note The default idle timer value is 0 minutes. When the idle time interval is 0 minutes, the Cisco NX-OS device does not perform periodic RADIUS server monitoring.



Note CFS does not distribute periodic RADIUS server monitoring configurations.


BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

Add one or more RADIUS server hosts (see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Hosts" section).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} test {idle-time minutes | password password [idle-time minutes] | username name [password password [idle-time minutes]]}

3. radius-server dead-time minutes

4. exit

5. show radius-server

6. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

radius-server host {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} test {idle-time minutes | password password [idle-time minutes] | username name [password password [idle-time minutes]]}


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server host 10.10.1.1 test username user1 password Ur2Gd2BH idle-time 3

Specifies parameters for server monitoring. The default username is test and the default password is test. The default value for the idle timer is 0 minutes. The valid range is from 0 to 1440 minutes.

Note For periodic RADIUS server monitoring, you must set the idle timer to a value greater than 0.

Step 3 

radius-server dead-time minutes


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server dead-time 5

Specifies the number of minutes before the Cisco NX-OS device checks a RADIUS server that was previously unresponsive. The default value is 0 minutes. The valid range is from 1 to 1440 minutes.

Step 4 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 5 

show radius-server


Example:

switch# show radius-server

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server configuration.

Step 6 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Configuring the Dead-Time Interval

You can configure the dead-time interval for all RADIUS servers. The dead-time interval specifies the time that the Cisco NX-OS device waits after declaring a RADIUS server is dead, before sending out a test packet to determine if the server is now alive. The default value is 0 minutes.


Note When the dead-time interval is 0 minutes, RADIUS servers are not marked as dead even if they are not responding. You can configure the dead-time interval for a RADIUS server group (see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Groups" section).


BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. radius-server deadtime minutes

3. show radius {pending | pending-diff}

4. radius commit

5. exit

6. show radius-server

7. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

switch(config)# radius-server deadtime minutes


Example:

switch(config)# radius-server deadtime 5

Configures the dead-time interval. The default value is 0 minutes. The range is from 1 to 1440 minutes.

Step 3 

show radius {pending | pending-diff}


Example:

switch(config)# show radius pending

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS configuration pending for distribution (see the "RADIUS Configuration Distribution" section).

Step 4 

radius commit


Example:

switch(config)# radius commit

(Optional) Applies the RADIUS configuration changes in the temporary database to the running configuration and distributes RADIUS configuration to other NX-OS devices if you have enabled CFS configuration distribution for the RADIUS feature.

Step 5 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 6 

show radius-server


Example:

switch# show radius-server

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS server configuration.

Step 7 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Committing the RADIUS Distribution

You can apply the RADIUS global and server-specific configuration stored in the temporary buffer to the running configuration across all switches in the fabric (including the originating switch).

BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. show radius {pending | pending-diff}

3. radius commit

4. exit

5. show radius session status

6. copy running-config startup-config

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

show radius {pending | pending-diff}


Example:

switch(config)# show radius pending

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS configuration pending for distribution.

Step 3 

radius commit


Example:

switch(config)# radius commit

Applies the RADIUS configuration changes in the temporary database to the running configuration and distributes RADIUS configuration to other NX-OS devices if you have enabled CFS configuration distribution for the RADIUS feature.

Step 4 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 5 

show role session status


Example:

switch# show role session status

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS CFS session status.

Step 6 

copy running-config startup-config


Example:

switch# copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Copies the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Discarding the RADIUS Distribution Session

You can discard the temporary database of RADIUS changes and end the CFS distribution session.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. configure terminal

2. show radius {pending | pending-diff}

3. radius abort

4. exit

5. show radius session status

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal


Example:

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)#

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 2 

show radius {pending | pending-diff}


Example:

switch(config)# show radius pending

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS configuration pending for distribution.

Step 3 

radius abort


Example:

switch(config)# radius abort

Discards the RADIUS configuration in the temporary storage and ends the session.

Step 4 

exit


Example:

switch(config)# exit

switch#

Exits configuration mode.

Step 5 

show radius session status


Example:

switch# show radius session status

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS CFS session status.

Clearing the RADIUS Distribution Session

You can clear the ongoing Cisco Fabric Services distribution session (if any) and unlock the fabric for the RADIUS feature.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. clear radius session

2. show radius session status

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# clear radius session


Example:

switch# clear radius session

Clears the session and unlocks the fabric.

Step 2 

show radius session status


Example:

switch# show radius session status

(Optional) Displays the RADIUS CFS session status.

Manually Monitoring RADIUS Servers or Groups

You can manually issue a test message to a RADIUS server or to a server group.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. test aaa server radius {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} [vrf vrf-name] username password

2. test aaa group group-name username password

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

test aaa server radius {ipv4-address | ipv6-address | host-name} [vrf vrf-name] username password


Example:

switch# test aaa server radius 10.10.1.1 user1 Ur2Gd2BH

Sends a test message to a RADIUS server to confirm availability.

Step 1 

test aaa group group-name username password


Example:

switch# test aaa group RadGroup user2 As3He3CI

Sends a test message to a RADIUS server group to confirm availability.

Verifying RADIUS Configuration

To display RADIUS configuration information, perform one of the following tasks:

Command
Purpose

show radius {status | pending | pending-diff}

Displays the RADIUS Cisco Fabric Services distribution status and other details.

show running-config radius [all]

Displays the RADIUS configuration in the running configuration.

show startup-config radius

Displays the RADIUS configuration in the startup configuration.

show radius-server [host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6-address] [directed-request | groups | sorted | statistics]

Displays all configured RADIUS server parameters.


For detailed information about the fields in the output from this command, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Security Command Reference, Release 4.1.

Displaying RADIUS Server Statistics

You can display the statistics that the Cisco NX-OS device maintains for RADIUS server activity.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN

Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).

Configure one or more RADIUS server hosts (see the "Configuring RADIUS Server Hosts" section).

SUMMARY STEPS

1. show radius-server statistics {hostname | ipv4-address | ipv6-address}

DETAILED STEPS

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

switch# show radius-server statistics {hostname | ipv4-address | ipv6-address}


Example:

switch# show radius-server statistics 10.10.1.1

Displays the RADIUS statistics.

For detailed information about the fields in the output from this command, see the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Security Command Reference, Release 4.1.

Example RADIUS Configuration

The following example shows how to configure RADIUS:

radius-server key 7 "ToIkLhPpG"
radius-server host 10.10.1.1 key 7 "ShMoMhTl" authentication accounting
aaa group server radius RadServer
    server 10.10.1.1

Where to Go Next

You can now configure AAA authentication methods to include the RADIUS server groups (see Chapter 2, "Configuring AAA").

Default Settings

Table 3-1 lists the default settings for RADIUS parameters.

Table 3-1 Default RADIUS Parameters 

Parameters
Default

Server roles

Authentication and accounting

Dead timer interval

0 minutes

Retransmission count

1

Retransmission timer interval

5 seconds

Authentication UDP port

1812

Accounting UDP port

1813

Idle timer interval

0 minutes

Periodic server monitoring username

test

Periodic server monitoring password

test


Additional References

For additional information related to implementing RADIUS, see the following sections:

Related Documents

Standards

MIBs

Related Documents

Related Topic
Document Title

NX-OS Licensing

Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Licensing Guide, Release 4.1

Command reference

Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Security Command Reference, Release 4.1

VRF configuration

Cisco Nexus 7000 Series NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.1


Standards

Standards
Title

No new or modified standards are supported by this feature, and support for existing standards has not been modified by this feature.


MIBs

MIBs
MIBs Link

CISCO-AAA-SERVER-MIB

CISCO-AAA-SERVER-EXT-MIB

To locate and download MIBs, go to the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml


Feature History for RADIUS

Table 3-2 lists the release history for this feature.

Table 3-2 Feature History for RADIUS 

Feature Name
Releases
Feature Information

CFS support

4.1(2)

Added CFS distribution for the RADIUS configuration on the Cisco NX-OS device.

RADIUS

4.0(1)

This feature was introduced.