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Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

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Release Notes for the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router for Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

Table Of Contents

Release Notes for the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router for Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

Contents

Cisco Security Advisory

System Requirements

Memory Requirements

Upgrading to a New Software Release

Upgrading from Earlier Cisco IOS Releases

Upgrading Software on Redundant PREs

New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

VTMS Link Utilization

QA Error Recovery

New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX

New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)S

Limitations and Restrictions

Open Caveats—Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

Resolved Caveats—Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

Obtaining Documentation

Cisco.com

Documentation CD-ROM

Ordering Documentation

Documentation Feedback

Obtaining Technical Assistance

Cisco.com

Technical Assistance Center

Cisco TAC Website

Cisco TAC Escalation Center

Obtaining Additional Publications and Information


Release Notes for the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router for Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1


September 23, 2003

These release notes provide information about Cisco IOS software Release 12.0(25)SX1 for the Cisco 10000 series Internet router. These release notes are updated as needed to describe new features, memory requirements, hardware support, software platform deferrals, and changes to the microcode and related documents.

Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1 is based on Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)S. The Cisco 10000 Internet router supports a subset of the new features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)S. For more information, see the "New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)S" section. This section lists the features supported on the Cisco 10000 Internet router.

To view the release notes for the Cisco IOS 12.0 SX Releases, go to the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/aggr/10000/10krn/index.htm

To view the release notes for the Cisco IOS 12.0 S Releases, go to the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios120/relnote/xprn120s/index.htm

Contents

These release notes contain the following sections:

Cisco Security Advisory

System Requirements

New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX

New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)S

Limitations and Restrictions

Open Caveats—Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

Resolved Caveats—Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

Obtaining Documentation

Obtaining Technical Assistance

Obtaining Additional Publications and Information

Cisco Security Advisory

Cisco routers and switches that are running Cisco IOS software and that are configured to process Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) packets are vulnerable to a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. A rare sequence of crafted IPv4 packets sent directly to the device might cause the input interface to stop processing traffic when the input queue is full. No authentication is required to process the inbound packet. Processing of IPv4 packets is enabled by default. Devices that are running only IP Version 6 (IPv6) are not affected. A workaround is available.

To correct the problem, Cisco has made software available free of charge. For more information, refer to the Cisco Security Advisory: Cisco IOS Interface Blocked by IPv4 Packet, located at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20030717-blocked.shtml

System Requirements

This release requires that you have the performance routing engine (PRE), part number ESR-PRE1 installed in the Cisco 10000 series Internet router chassis. To verify which PRE is installed in the router, use the show version command.

Memory Requirements

The following table lists memory requirements for the Cisco 10000 series router:

Feature Set by Router
Image Name
Flash Memory
DRAM Memory
Runs From

Internet Router

c10k-p10-mz

40 MB

512 MB

RAM

Service Provider/ Secured Shell 3DES

c10k-k4p10-mz

40 MB

512 MB

RAM


Upgrading to a New Software Release

For specific information about upgrading your Cisco 10000 series Internet router to a new software release, refer to the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router Software Configuration Guide located at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/aggr/10000/config/10ksw/index.htm

For general information about how to upgrade to a new software release, refer to the product bulletin Cisco IOS Upgrade Ordering Instructions located at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/iosw/prodlit/957_pp.htm

For information about how to order Cisco IOS software, refer to the Cisco IOS Software Releases located at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/iosw/iore/index.shtm

Upgrading from Earlier Cisco IOS Releases

Upgrading from Cisco IOS Release 12.(14)SL or from Earlier Releases Based on Cisco IOS Release 12.0(x)SL

If you are upgrading your software from Cisco IOS Release 12.0(14)SL or from earlier releases based on Cisco IOS Release 12.0(x)SL to Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1, save your current configuration file. If you decide to reinstall Cisco IOS Release 12.0(14)SL or an earlier release, you must also reinstall the configuration file associated with that release because some Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) configuration file entries in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1 are not compatible with Cisco IOS Release 12.0(14)SL or earlier releases.

Upgrading Software on Redundant PREs

When you upgrade software on redundant Cisco 10000 series router performance routing engines (PREs), be sure to download the software to both the active PRE and the standby PRE before you reload both PREs. For more information, refer to the "Upgrading Software on Redundant PREs" section at the following URL. This section is in the "System Startup and Basic Configuration Tasks" chapter of the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router Software Configuration Guide.

The procedure included in the "Upgrading Software on Redundant PREs" section instructs you to tell the Cisco 10000 series router the location in which the new boot image resides. Be sure to specify c10k-p10-mz instead of the c10k-p6-mz image name indicated in the documentation.

New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1 provides the following performance enhancements, but contains no new features.

Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1 includes all of the new features introduced in Release 12.0(25)SX. For more information, see the "New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX" section.

VTMS Link Utilization

This release improves the performance of the VTMS Link Utilization feature. The default queue size is based on link bandwidth instead of queue bandwidth as in previous releases.

QA Error Recovery

The QA Error Recovery feature enables the router to recover quickly from problems known as QAERRORs, which can be caused by hardware or software issues. When a QAERROR occurs, the router might stop responding while it tries to recover from the problem. QA error recovery reduces the router down time to as little as one second. Previously, a fully loaded router might be down for up to five minutes (300 seconds).

The QA error recovery feature is enabled by default. To disable the feature, issue the following command:

no hw-module main-cpu qaerror-recovery-enable 

When QA error recovery is successful, the router displays a console message indicating success. In addition, the show controllers cbus command indicates the number of QAERROR recoveries.

The following sample console messages show an occurrence of a QAERROR and the router's recovery from the error. The router might display additional messages during error recovery (which can help service technicians diagnose the cause of the problem).

%QA-3-DIAG:Trying to recover from QA ERROR. 
%QA-3-DIAG:Removing buffer header 0xE360 from all queues 
%QA-3-DIAG:Buffer 0xE360 is element 155 on queue 0x2E 
%QA-3-DIAG:Queue 0x2E (48000170) has 154 elements 
%QA-3-DIAG:Buffer 0xE360 is element 1 on queue 0x340 
%QA-3-DIAG:Queue 0x340 (48001A00) has 0 elements 
%QA-3-DIAG:At least one QA queue is broken
%QA-3-DIAG:Recovered from QA ERROR

The following example shows QA error recovery information in show controllers cbus command output:

Router# sh controllers cbus 
MEMD at E0000000, 8388608 bytes (unused 1565056, recarves 5, lost/qaerror recoveries 0/0)
.
.
.
Router# 

New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX

Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX introduces support on the Cisco 10000 series Internet router for the following features:

Policy-Map Scaling

The Policy-Map Scaling feature increases the system-wide number of quality of service (QoS) policy maps that you can configure. In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX, the Cisco 10000 Internet router supports up to 4,096 policy maps. Each policy-map command counts as one policy map. The policy-map command syntax is unchanged. The maximum number of classes that you can configure in a policy is 32 classes.

Percent-Based Policing

The Percent-Based Policing feature enables you to specify the police rate as a percentage of the bandwidth of the network interface on which policing is applied. To specify the police rate as a percentage, use the percent percent option of the police command:

police [cir] percent {percent} [normal-burst-in-ms ms [max-burst-in-ms ms [conform-action 
{action} [exceed-action {action} [violate-action {action}]]]]]

The percent argument is a value from 1 to 100 and is required when you use the percent keyword.

When you use a percent-based police command within a nested policy, the police percent is based on the policy's topmost, class-default, shape rate. Otherwise, the police percent is based on the bandwidth of the network interface on which the police command is applied.

For more information, refer to the "Defining QoS Policies" section of the "Creating Service Policies" chapter in the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router Quality of Service Configuration Guide.

Random Early Detection with Queue-Limit

The Random Early Detection (RED) with Queue-Limit feature expands your ability to customize the size of a RED queue. In Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX, you can simultaneously use the queue-limit and random-detect commands in the same class of a policy.

For more information, refer to the "Defining QoS Policies" section of the "Creating Service Policies" chapter in the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router Quality of Service Configuration Guide.

Enhanced RED Statistics

The Enhanced RED Statistics feature maintains RED drop statistics for each IP precedence or differentiated services code point (DSCP) value.


Note In releases earlier than Cisco 12.0(25)SX, RED drop counts were maintained only for each class.


For more information, refer to the "Displaying Enhanced RED Statistics" section of the "Monitoring and Maintaining Quality of Service" chapter in the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router Quality of Service Configuration Guide.

3-Level Policies

The 3-Level Policies feature increases the hierarchical levels of a nested QoS policy from two to three levels. A 3-level policy is typically used to define the transmission capacity of a virtual circuit in the top level, class-based queuing at the middle level, and marking or metering in the bottom level.

The service-policy command configured inside a policy map is used to define a hierarchical policy. The syntax of the command is unchanged. You can use the service-policy command in the top and middle levels of a 3-level policy.

For more information, refer to the "Defining QoS Policies" section of the "Creating Service Policies" chapter in the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router Quality of Service Configuration Guide.

Virtual Circuit Oversubscription

The Virtual Circuit (VC) Oversubscription feature enables service providers to improve network utilization of otherwise underutilized shared networks by leveraging statistical multiplexing on ATM, Frame Relay, and IEEE 802.1Q networks. Instead of supporting only unconditional reservation of network bandwidth to VCs, the Cisco 10000 series router offers VC oversubscription to statistically guarantee bandwidth to VCs.

To configure VC oversubscription for Frame Relay and IEEE 802.1Q, use the service-policy command. You can optionally use the service-policy class configuration command, creating a nested policy to manage traffic within a virtual circuit. For this reason, the term Nested Policy-Map Oversubscription is sometimes used to refer to VC Oversubscription.

To enable oversubscription of ATM VCs, you must configure the following interface configuration command in service-internal mode:

atm over-subscription-factor {1-10}

Note You do not need to use the service-policy command to specify the ATM VC oversubscription, because a variable bit rate (VBR) ATM VC uses sustained cell rate (SCR) to define the VC's average transmission rate.


For more information, refer to the "Defining QoS Policies" section of the "Creating Service Policies" chapter in the Cisco 10000 Series Internet Router Quality of Service Configuration Guide.

External Border Gateway Protocol Label Distribution

The External Border Gateway Protocol (EBGP) Label Distribution feature enables you to configure a carrier supporting carrier network that uses BGP to distribute routes and MPLS labels between the provider edge (PE) and customer edge (CE) routers of a backbone carrier and a customer carrier. The backbone carrier offers BGP and MPLS VPN services. The customer carrier can be one of the following:

An Internet service provider (ISP) with an IP core

An MPLS service provider with or without VPN services

For information on how to use BGP to distribute MPLS labels and routes for both types of customer carrier, refer to the MPLS VPN Carrier Supporting Carrier—IPv4 BGP Label Distribution, Release 12.0(21)ST feature module and the Inter-Autonomous Systems for MPLS VPNs, Release 12.1(5)T feature module.

New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)S

The following is a brief list of the new features in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)S on which Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX is based. Only new features that are supported by the Cisco 10000 series Internet router are listed here. New features for other platforms (such as the Cisco 12000 series Internet router) are not listed.

Link Fragmentation and Interleaving

Introduced on the Cisco 10000 series router in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(23)SX, the Link Fragmentation and Interleaving (LFI) feature reduces delay and jitter on slower-speed links by breaking up large datagrams and interleaving low-delay traffic packets (such as voice) with the smaller packets resulting from the fragmented datagram. The feature supports Frame Relay (FRF.12) end-to-end and Multilink PPP (MLPPP).

Single Rate 3-Color Marker for Traffic Policing

Introduced on the Cisco 10000 series router in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(23)SX, the single rate 3-Color Marker feature meters an IP packet stream and marks its packets different colors, based on the Committed Information Rate (CIR) and two associated burst sizes: Committed Burst Size (CBS) and Excess Burst Size (EBS). This feature is useful, for example, for ingress policing of a service, where service eligibility is determined only by the burst's length, and not its peak rate.

Multicast VPN

The Multicast for Multiprotocol Label-Switching (MPLS)/Virtual Private Network (VPN) feature enables service providers to offer multicast services over their MPLS core network. This feature was introduced on the Cisco 10000 series router in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(23)SX.

OSPF Support for a Redistribution Limit of Maximum-Prefixes Imported

This feature enables you to limit the number of routes that can be redistributed into the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol. The feature helps to eliminate the potential for flooding that might occur when a large number of routes are accidentally redistributed into OSPF.

ISIS Route Redistribution Limit

This feature enables you to limit the number of routes that can be redistributed into the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocol. This feature helps to eliminate the potential for flooding that might occur when a large number of routes are accidentally redistributed into IS-IS.

OSPF Support for Link State Advertisement Throttling

This feature enables you to slow down the rate at which the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol sends Link State Advertisement (LSA) updates during periods of network instability. This feature uses a back-off algorithm to perform the LSA throttling.

Limitations and Restrictions

3-Level Policies

The following limitations and restrictions apply to the Cisco 10000 series router 3-Level Policies feature:

A top-level policy must specify only the class named class-default with only the shape command specified before the service-policy command attaches an inner policy.

In an inner policy, to attach a service-policy command to a class's bottommost policy, do not configure the police and set commands for the class. Classes without a service-policy command configured are not restricted from using the police and set commands.

In a bottommost policy, configure only the police and set commands for a class.

Define each bottommost class map to match only those packets that also match its parent class map. For example, the union of the set of packets of a bottommost class and that of its parent class must be equal to the set of packets that match the parent class.

The nested-policy shape rate is reserved for nested-policy traffic only. Excess bandwidth is not used for other traffic.


Note The actual shape rate applied to nested-policy traffic might differ from that specified in the policy. For example, a specified shape rate of 10.5 Mbps might be mapped to 11 Mbps. Use the command show policy-map interface to determine the actual shape rate.


PRE Network Management Ethernet Port

Ensure that the Fast Ethernet NME port on the PRE is configured for auto-negotiation mode, which is the system default. Duplex mode can cause problems, such as flapping. If the port is experiencing such problems and has been configured for duplex mode, use the no half-duplex or no full-duplex command to disable duplex mode.

Controlling the Rate of Logging Messages

It is important that you limit the rate that system messages are logged by the Cisco 10000 series router. This helps to avoid a situation in which the router becomes unstable and the CPU is overloaded. To control the output of messages from the system, use the logging rate-limit command.

Cisco recommends that you configure the logging rate-limit command as follows. This limits the rate of all messages to the console to 10 per second, except for messages with critical priority (level 3) or greater.

Router(config)# logging rate-limit console all 10 except critical

For more information, refer to the logging rate-limit command in the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals and Network Management Command Reference, Release 12.3.

Frame Relay

The following limitations apply to the Cisco 10000 series router implementation of Frame Relay:

The ip rtp reserve command is not supported.

Only one priority queue per VC is allowed.

Testing Performance of High-Speed Interfaces

Cisco IOS software running on the Cisco 10000 series Internet router has multiple queues for all classes of traffic over high-speed interfaces. The software selects a queue based on the source and destination address for the packet. This ensures that a traffic flow always uses the same queue and the packets are transmitted in proper order.

When the Cisco 10000 series Internet router is installed in a real network, the high-speed interfaces work efficiently to spread traffic flow equally over the queues. However, using single traffic streams in a laboratory environment may result in less-than-expected performance.

Therefore, to ensure accurate test results, you should test the throughput of the gigabit Ethernet, Packet over SONET (POS), or ATM uplink with multiple source or destination addresses.


Tip To determine if traffic is being properly distributed, use the show hardware pxf cpu queue command.


Open Caveats—Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

Table 1 describes the caveats that are open in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1.

Table 1 Open Caveats in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1 

Caveat
Description

CSCea38453

(Duplicate of CSCea34851) If you delete an ATM PVC bundle, the router sometimes displays the following error and traceback message (the hex values in your message may differ):

GENERAL-3-EREVENT: HWCEF: Failed to add adjacency callback
Traceback= 600B6338 600B63A8 602B7DC0 602B8E30 602C7980 602CC4CC 
60224710 601E3A80
602228A4 60225710 6037B620 6018F0D8 6038D6DC 603E5884 603E5870

Workaround: None. The router continues to function normally after the message appears.

CSCea42432

(Duplicate of CSCea52307) If you delete a service policy from an ATM interface, a traceback message or error message may appear.

Workaround: None.

CSCea74742

Policing conformed packets might be less than expected when the normal burst size is set to less than two times the packet size.

Workaround: Change the normal burst size to a value larger than 2 times the police frame size.

CSCea93642

When a large number of policy maps are configured on the Cisco 10000 router, it could take more time than expected before all the policy maps activate. Before an interface's policy map activates, the traffic on the interface receives default treatment.

The router compiles a super access control list (ACL) for each policy map configured. On an average, the compilation of one super ACL takes approximately one-half second. When a large number of policy maps are configured, the router requires more time to compile all of the super ACLs.

Workaround: Wait approximately 0.65 seconds for each policy-map to become operational. For more than one policy map, wait (N * 0.65) seconds for all the policy maps to become operational (where N is the number of policy maps).

CSCeb02953

When traffic is sent through an ATM subinterface to which a QoS service policy is attached, the packet count of the output queue obtained by using the show policy-map interface command does not match the packet output count obtained by using the show interface atm-subinterface command.

Workaround: To obtain the correct packet output count, use the show policy-map interface command. Do not use the show interface atm-subinterface command to obtain packet output counts for ATM subinterfaces.

CSCeb27728

When microcode is reloading and traffic is running over the interface, the interface output packet and byte counters display incorrect values.

Workaround: Clear the counters.

CSCeb38728

Under extremely rare circumstances, when you remove a 3-level policy map attached to 4,000 VLAN interfaces, the Cisco 10000 series router stops responding.

Workaround: None.

CSCeb39589

(Duplicate of CSCea72960) The output rate is incorrect when the Cisco 10000 series router applies the policy-map on ATM and Frame Relay interfaces.

Workaround: None.

CSCeb62137

When weighted random early detection (WRED) is enabled and traffic on the interfaces is overloaded, a one-time parallel express forwarding (PXF) buffer leak occurs for a very small fraction of the total number of available buffers. This does not have a visible effect on the operation of the Cisco 10000 series router.

Workaround: None.


Resolved Caveats—Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1

This section describes caveats that were fixed in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(25)SX1.

For information about caveats fixed in other Cisco IOS releases, refer to the appropriate Release Note document at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/aggr/10000/10krn/index.htm

CSCea76276

When you attached a nested policy map with a shape rate configured to a VLAN interface and then you entered the show policy-map interface command, the shape rate displayed differed from the shape rate configured in the policy map. This has been fixed.

CSCeb18492

When you removed an interface with an ACL configured and then added a new interface with an ACL configured, the following message sometimes appeared on the console. If your configuration includes dual router processors (RPs), the message appeared on both consoles.

ACLs could not add IDB to list.

This has been fixed.

CSCeb30183

When you entered the shutdown interface configuration command followed by the no shutdown interface configuration command on an egress interface, the parallel express forwarding (PXF) network processor sometimes reloaded. This has been fixed.

CSCeb42565

When you entered the frame-relay fragment fragment_size map-class configuration command on a Cisco 10000 series router with dual performance routing engines (PREs), the following error message occasionally appeared:

Warning: Fragment size too low; will use min supported value of 128 bytes

This has been fixed.

CSCeb44496

If you removed a policy map or route map while the Cisco 10000 series router was sending that map to the parallel express forwarding (PXF) engine, the primary or secondary performance routing engine (PRE) sometimes stopped responding. This has been fixed.

CSCeb60361

When you entered the show redundancy command, the Cisco 10000 series router incorrectly displayed the Cisco IOS software version for the slave performance routing engine (PRE). This has been fixed.

CSCeb65469

When nested policies were not configured on the Cisco 10000 series router, traffic shaping did not work. This has been fixed.

CSCeb65647

Actual link utilization was sometimes significantly lower than the actual physical bandwidth. This occurred when large numbers of small packets (for example, less than 128 bytes) were sent, and when fragmentation was enabled and the packets were less than the fragment size. This has been fixed.

CSCeb73758

If you changed the encapsulation of a LAN subinterface to dot1q while the subinterface configuration included the shutdown command, the following types of messages sometimes appeared during the configuration of the Cisco 10000 series router. This has been fixed.

11:08:24: %GENERAL-3-EREVENT: c10k_dot1q_vlan_enable: No tt_info
-Traceback= 600EA13C 600EA368 60298F48 60298684 60298374 6026467C 60116660
6027166C 602BAA0C 602BA9F8
11:09:53: %GENERAL-3-EREVENT: No current_if_info
-Traceback= 600A0538 60090344 600905EC 60091098 601F2BC4 601F321C 603B42F8
603B5F7C 603B4D80 603B5218 60374800 602BAA0C 602BA9F8
11:09:59: %GENERAL-3-EREVENT: get_injection_vcci: no info for VLAN ID %d
-Traceback= 600A0808 60073760 60073A00 60293CA4 60375264 603B5194 603B522C
60374800 602BAA0C 602BA9F8

CSCdz76411

For the show router-map [policy-name] policy-based routing (PBR) command, the packet and byte counts for all of the route maps configured in each PBR policy displayed shifted down one route map. For example, the first route map of each PBR policy displayed as zero, and the route map N of a PBR policy displayed as route map N+1 of that policy. This has been fixed.

Obtaining Documentation

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Cisco.com

You can access the most current Cisco documentation on the World Wide Web at this URL:

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We appreciate your comments.

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Priority level 1 (P1)—Your production network is down, and a critical impact to business operations will occur if service is not restored quickly. No workaround is available.

Cisco TAC Website

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If you have Internet access, we recommend that you open P3 and P4 cases through the Cisco TAC website so that you can describe the situation in your own words and attach any necessary files.

Cisco TAC Escalation Center

The Cisco TAC Escalation Center addresses priority level 1 or priority level 2 issues. These classifications are assigned when severe network degradation significantly impacts business operations. When you contact the TAC Escalation Center with a P1 or P2 problem, a Cisco TAC engineer automatically opens a case.

To obtain a directory of toll-free Cisco TAC telephone numbers for your country, go to this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml

Before you call, check with your network operations center to determine the level of Cisco support services to which your company is entitled: for example, SMARTnet, SMARTnet Onsite, or Network Supported Accounts (NSA). When you call the center, have your service agreement number and your product serial number available.

Obtaining Additional Publications and Information

Information about Cisco products, technologies, and network solutions is available from various online and printed sources.

The Cisco Product Catalog describes the networking products offered by Cisco Systems, as well as ordering and customer support services. Access the Cisco Product Catalog at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/products_catalog_links_launch.html

Cisco Press publishes a wide range of networking publications. Cisco suggests these titles for new and experienced users: Internetworking Terms and Acronyms Dictionary, Internetworking Technology Handbook, Internetworking Troubleshooting Guide, and the Internetworking Design Guide. For current Cisco Press titles and other information, go to Cisco Press online at this URL:

http://www.ciscopress.com

Packet magazine is the Cisco quarterly publication that provides the latest networking trends, technology breakthroughs, and Cisco products and solutions to help industry professionals get the most from their networking investment. Included are networking deployment and troubleshooting tips, configuration examples, customer case studies, tutorials and training, certification information, and links to numerous in-depth online resources. You can access Packet magazine at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/go/packet

iQ Magazine is the Cisco bimonthly publication that delivers the latest information about Internet business strategies for executives. You can access iQ Magazine at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/go/iqmagazine

Internet Protocol Journal is a quarterly journal published by Cisco Systems for engineering professionals involved in designing, developing, and operating public and private internets and intranets. You can access the Internet Protocol Journal at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/about/ac123/ac147/about_cisco_the_internet_protocol_journal.html

Training—Cisco offers world-class networking training. Current offerings in network training are listed at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/learning/le31/learning_recommended_training_list.html