Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15M&T
Configuring Authentication
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Contents

Configuring Authentication

Authentication provides a method to identify users, which includes the login and password dialog, challenge and response, messaging support, and encryption, depending on the selected security protocol. Authentication is the way a user is identified prior to being allowed access to the network and network services.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Prerequisites for Configuring Authentication

The Cisco software implementation of authentication is divided into Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) authentication and nonauthentication methods. Cisco recommends that, whenever possible, AAA security services be used to implement authentication.

Restrictions for Configuring Authentication

  • The number of AAA method lists that can be configured is 250.
  • If you configure one RADIUS server with the nonstandard option and another RADIUS server without the nonstandard option, the RADIUS-server host with the nonstandard option does not accept a predefined host. If you configure the same RADIUS server host IP address for a different UDP destination port for accounting requests by using the acct-port keyword and a UDP destination port for authentication requests by using the auth-port keyword with and without the nonstandard option, the RADIUS server does not accept the nonstandard option.

Information About Configuring Authentication

The following sections describe how AAA authentication is configured by defining a named list of authentication methods and then applying that list to various interfaces. This section also describes how AAA authentication is handled by using RADIUS Change in Authorization (CoA):

Named Method Lists for Authentication

A named list of authentication methods is first defined before AAA authentication can be configured, and the named list is then applied to various interfaces. The method list defines the types of authentication and the sequence in which they are performed; it must be applied to a specific interface before any of the defined authentication methods are performed. The only exception is the default method list (which is named “default”). The default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces, except those that have a named method list explicitly defined. A defined method list overrides the default method list.

A method list is a sequential list describing the authentication methods to be queried to authenticate a user. Method lists enable you to designate one or more security protocols to be used for authentication, thus ensuring a backup system for authentication in case the initial method fails. Cisco software uses the first listed method to authenticate users. If that method fails to respond, the Cisco software selects the next authentication method listed in the method list. This process continues until there is successful communication with a listed authentication method, or all methods defined in the method list are exhausted.

Note that the Cisco software attempts authentication with the next listed authentication method only when there is no response from the previous method. If authentication fails at any point in this cycle, that is, the security server or local username database responds by denying the user access, then the authentication process stops and no other authentication methods are attempted.

Method Lists and Server Groups

A server group is a way to group existing Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), RADIUS, or TACACS+ server hosts for use in method lists. The figure below shows a typical AAA network configuration that includes four security servers: R1 and R2 are RADIUS servers and T1 and T2 are TACACS+ servers. R1 and R2 make up the group of RADIUS servers. T1 and T2 make up the group of TACACS+ servers.

Figure 1. Typical AAA Network Configuration



Using server groups, you can specify a subset of the configured server hosts and use them for a particular service. For example, server groups allow you to define R1 and R2 as one server group and T1 and T2 as a separate server group. For example, you can specify R1 and T1 in the method list for authentication login, while specifying R2 and T2 in the method list for PPP authentication.

Server groups can also include multiple host entries for the same server, as long as each entry has a unique identifier. The combination of an IP address and a UDP port number creates a unique identifier, allowing different ports to be individually defined as RADIUS hosts providing a specific AAA service. In other words, this unique identifier enables RADIUS requests to be sent to different UDP ports on a server at the same IP address. If two different host entries on the same RADIUS server are configured for the same service—for example, authentication—the second host entry acts as failover backup to the first one. Using this example, if the first host entry fails to provide accounting services, the network access server will try the second host entry configured on the same device for accounting services. (The RADIUS host entries will be tried in the order in which they are configured.)

See the “Configuring LDAP,” “Configuring RADIUS,” or “Configuring TACACS+” feature modules for more information about configuring server groups and configuring server groups based on Dialed Number Identification Service (DNIS) numbers.

Method List Examples

Suppose the system administrator has decided on a security solution, where all interfaces will use the same authentication methods to authenticate PPP connections. In the RADIUS group, R1 is contacted first for authentication information; if there is no response, R2 is contacted. If R2 does not respond, T1 in the TACACS+ group is contacted; if T1 does not respond, T2 is contacted. If all designated servers fail to respond, authentication falls to the local username database on the access server. To implement this solution, the system administrator can create a default method list by entering the following command:

aaa authentication ppp default group radius group tacacs+ local 

In the above example, “default” is the name of the method list. The protocols included in this method list are listed after the name in the order in which they are queried. The default list is automatically applied to all interfaces.

When a remote user attempts to dial in to the network, the network access server first queries R1 for authentication information. If R1 authenticates the user, it issues a PASS response to the network access server and the user is allowed to access the network. If R1 returns a FAIL response, the user is denied access and the session is terminated. If R1 does not respond, then the network access server processes that as an ERROR and queries R2 for authentication information. This pattern continues through the remaining designated methods until the user is either authenticated or rejected or until the session is terminated.

Note that a FAIL response is significantly different from an ERROR. A FAIL means that the user has not met the criteria contained in the applicable authentication database to be successfully authenticated. Authentication ends with a FAIL response. An ERROR means that the security server has not responded to an authentication query. Because of this, no authentication has been attempted. Only when an ERROR is detected will AAA select the next authentication method defined in the authentication method list.

If the system administrator wants to apply a method list only to a particular interface or set of interfaces, the system administrator creates a named method list and then applies this named list to the applicable interfaces. The following example shows how the system administrator can implement an authentication method that will be applied only to interface 3:

aaa authentication ppp default group radius group tacacs+ local
aaa authentication ppp apple group radius group tacacs+ local none
 interface async 3
 ppp authentication chap list1

In the above example, “list1” is the name of the method list, and the protocols included in this method list are listed after the name in the order in which they are to be performed. After the method list has been created, it is applied to the appropriate interface. Note that the method list name (list1) in both the aaa authentication and the ppp authentication commands must match.

In the following example, the system administrator uses server groups to specify that only R2 and T2 are valid servers for PPP authentication. To do this, the administrator must define specific server groups with R2 (192.0.2.3) and T2 (192.0.2.17) as members. In the below example, the RADIUS server group “rad2only” is defined as follows using the aaa group server command:

aaa group server radius rad2only
 server 192.0.2.3

The TACACS+ server group “tac2only” is defined as follows by using the aaa group server command:

aaa group server tacacs+ tac2only
 server 192.0.2.17

The administrator then applies PPP authentication using the server groups. In the below example, the default methods list for PPP authentication follows the order: group rad2only, group tac2only, and local:

aaa authentication ppp default group rad2only group tac2only local

AAA Authentication General Configuration Procedure

To configure AAA authentication, perform the following tasks:

  1. Enable AAA by using the aaa new-model command in global configuration mode.
  2. Configure security protocol parameters, such as RADIUS, TACACS+, or Kerberos if you are using a security server. See “Configuring RADIUS,” “Configuring TACACS+,” and “Configuring Kerberos,” respectively for more information.
  3. Define the method lists for authentication by using an AAA authentication command.
  4. Apply the method lists to a particular interface or line, if required.

About RADIUS Change of Authorization

A standard RADIUS interface is typically used in a pulled model, in which the request originates from a device attached to a network and the response is sent from the queried servers. The Cisco software supports the RADIUS CoA request defined in RFC 5176 that is used in a pushed model, in which the request originates from the external server to the device attached to the network, and enables the dynamic reconfiguring of sessions from external authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) or policy servers.

Use the following per-session CoA requests:

  • Session reauthentication
  • Session termination
  • Session termination with port shutdown
  • Session termination with port bounce
  • Security and Password
  • Accounting

CoA Requests

CoA requests, as described in RFC 5176, are used in a pushed model to allow for session identification, host reauthentication, and session termination. The model comprises one request (CoA-Request) and two possible response codes:

  • CoA acknowledgment (ACK) [CoA-ACK]
  • CoA non-acknowledgment (NAK) [CoA-NAK]

The request is initiated from a CoA client (typically a RADIUS or policy server) and directed to the device that acts as a listener.

RFC 5176 Compliance

The Disconnect Request message, which is also referred to as Packet of Disconnect (POD), is supported by the device for a session termination.

The following table shows the IETF attributes that are supported for the RADIUS Change of Authorization (CoA) feature.

Table 1 Supported IETF Attributes

Attribute Number

Attribute Name

24

State

31

Calling-Station-ID

44

Acct-Session-ID

80

Message-Authenticator

101

Error-Cause

The following table shows the possible values for the Error-Cause attribute.

Table 2 Error-Cause Values

Value

Explanation

201

Residual Session Context Removed

202

Invalid EAP Packet (Ignored)

401

Unsupported Attribute

402

Missing Attribute

403

NAS Identification Mismatch

404

Invalid Request

405

Unsupported Service

406

Unsupported Extension

407

Invalid Attribute Value

501

Administratively Prohibited

502

Request Not Routable (Proxy)

503

Session Context Not Found

504

Session Context Not Removable

505

Other Proxy Processing Error

506

Resources Unavailable

507

Request Initiated

508

Multiple Session Selection Unsupported

CoA Request Response Code

The CoA Request Response code can be used to issue a command to the device. The supported commands are listed in the “CoA Request Commands” section.

The packet format for a CoA Request Response code as defined in RFC 5176 consists of the following fields: Code, Identifier, Length, Authenticator, and Attributes in the Type:Length:Value (TLV) format.

The Attributes field is used to carry Cisco VSAs.

Session Identification

For disconnect and CoA requests targeted at a particular session, the device locates the session based on one or more of the following attributes:

  • Acct-Session-Id (IETF attribute #44)
  • Audit-Session-Id (Cisco vendor-specific attribute (VSA))
  • Calling-Station-Id (IETF attribute #31, which contains the host MAC address)

Unless all session identification attributes included in the CoA message match the session, the device returns a Disconnect-NAK or CoA-NAK with the “Invalid Attribute Value” error-code attribute.


Note


A CoA NAK message is not sent for all CoA requests with a key mismatch. The message is sent only for the first three requests for a client. After that, all the packets from that client are dropped. When there is a key mismatch, the response authenticator sent with the CoA NAK message is calculated from a dummy key value.


CoA ACK Response Code

If an authorization state is changed successfully, a positive acknowledgment (ACK) is sent. The attributes returned within a CoA ACK can vary based on the CoA Request.

CoA NAK Response Code

A negative acknowledgment (NAK) indicates a failure to change the authorization state and can include attributes that indicate the reason for the failure.

CoA Request Commands

The commands supported on the device are shown in the table below. All CoA commands must include the session identifier between the device and the CoA client.

Table 3 CoA Request Commands Supported on the Device

Command

Cisco VSA

Bounce host port

Cisco:Avpair=“subscriber:command=bounce-host-port”

Disable host port

Cisco:Avpair=“subscriber:command=disable-host-port”

Reauthenticate host

Cisco:Avpair=“subscriber:command=reauthenticate”

Terminate session

This is a standard disconnect request that does not require a VSA

Session Reauthentication

To initiate session reauthentication, the authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) server sends a standard CoA-Request message that contains a Cisco VSA and one or more session identification attributes. The Cisco VSA is in the form of Cisco:Avpair=“subscriber:command=reauthenticate”.

The current session state determines the device’s response to the message in the following scenarios:

  • If the session is currently authenticated by IEEE 802.1x, the device responds by sending an Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPoL)-RequestId message to the server.
  • If the session is currently authenticated by MAC authentication bypass (MAB), the device sends an access request to the server, passing the same identity attributes used for the initial successful authentication.
  • If session authentication is in progress when the device receives the command, the device terminates the process and restarts the authentication sequence, starting with the method configured to be attempted first.
Session Termination

A CoA Disconnect-Request terminates the session without disabling the host port. CoA Disconnect-Request termination causes reinitialization of the authenticator state machine for the specified host, but does not restrict the host’s access to the network. If the session cannot be located, the device returns a Disconnect-NAK message with the “Session Context Not Found” error-code attribute. If the session is located, the device terminates the session. After the session has been completely removed, the device returns a Disconnect-ACK message.

To restrict a host’s access to the network, use a CoA Request with the Cisco:Avpair=“subscriber:command=disable-host-port” VSA. This command is useful when a host is known to cause problems on the network and network access needs to be immediately blocked for the host. If you want to restore network access on the port, reenable it using a non-RADIUS mechanism.

CoA Request Disable Host Port

The RADIUS server CoA disable port command administratively shuts down the authentication port that is hosting a session, resulting in session termination. This command is useful when a host is known to cause problems on the network and network access needs to be immediately blocked for the host. If you want to restore network access on the port, reenable it using a non-RADIUS mechanism. This command is carried in a standard CoA-Request message that has the following VSA:

Cisco:Avpair=“subscriber:command=disable-host-port”

Because this command is session-oriented, it must be accompanied by one or more of the session identification attributes described in the “Session Identification” section. If the device cannot locate the session, it returns a CoA-NAK message with the “Session Context Not Found” error-code attribute. If the device locates the session, it disables the hosting port and returns a CoA-ACK message.

If the device fails before returning a CoA-ACK to the client, the process is repeated on the new active device when the request is re-sent from the client. If the device fails after returning a CoA-ACK message to the client but before the operation is complete, the operation is restarted on the new active device.

To ignore the RADIUS server CoA disable port command, see the “Configuring the Device to Ignore Bounce and Disable RADIUS CoA Requests” section.

CoA Request Bounce Port

A RADIUS server CoA bounce port sent from a RADIUS server can cause a link flap on an authentication port, which triggers DHCP renegotiation from one or more hosts connected to this port. This incident can occur when there is a VLAN change and the endpoint is a device (such as a printer) that does not have a mechanism to detect a change on this authentication port. The CoA bounce port is carried in a standard CoA-Request message that contains the following VSA:

Cisco:Avpair=“subscriber:command=bounce-host-port”

Because this command is session-oriented, it must be accompanied by one or more of the session identification attributes described in the Session Identification. If the session cannot be located, the device returns a CoA-NAK message with the “Session Context Not Found” error-code attribute. If the session is located, the device disables the hosting port for a period of 10 seconds, reenables it (port-bounce), and returns a CoA-ACK.

To ignore the RADIUS server CoA bounce port, see the “Configuring the Device to Ignore Bounce and Disable RADIUS CoA Requests” section.

Domain Stripping

You can remove the domain name from the username received at the global level by using the radius-server domain-stripping command. When the radius-server domain-stripping command is configured, all the AAA requests with “user@example.com” go to the remote RADIUS server with the reformatted username “user.” The domain name is removed from the request.

Note


Domain stripping will not be done in a TACACS configuration.


The AAA Broadcast Accounting feature allows accounting information to be sent to multiple AAA servers at the same time, that is, accounting information can be broadcast to one or more AAA servers simultaneously. This functionality allows you to send accounting information to private and public AAA servers. It also provides redundant billing information for voice applications.

The Domain Stripping feature allows domain stripping to be configured at the server group level.

Per-server group configuration overrides the global configuration. If domain stripping is not enabled globally, but it is enabled in a server group, then it is enabled only for that server group. Also, if virtual routing and forwarding (VRF)-specific domain stripping is configured globally and in a server group for a different VRF, domain stripping is enabled in both the VRFs. VRF configurations are taken from server-group configuration mode. If server-group configurations are disabled in global configuration mode but are available in server-group configuration mode, all configurations in server-group configuration mode are applicable.

After the domain stripping and broadcast accounting are configured, you can create separate accounting records as per the configurations.

How to Configure AAA Authentication Methods


Note


AAA features are not available for use until you enable AAA globally using the aaa new-model command.


Configuring Login Authentication Using AAA

AAA security services facilitate a variety of login authentication methods. Use the aaa authentication login command to enable AAA authentication regardless of the supported login authentication methods you decide to use. With the aaa authentication login command, you create one or more lists of authentication methods that are tried at login. These lists are applied using the login authentication line command.

To configure login authentication by using AAA, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:

SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    Device(config)# aaa new-model

    2.    Device(config)# aaa authentication login {default | list-name} method1 [method2...]

    3.    Device(config)# line [aux | console | tty | vty] line-number [ending-line-number]

    4.    Device(config-line)# login authentication

    5.    Device(config-line)# end


DETAILED STEPS
      Command or Action Purpose
    Step 1 Device(config)# aaa new-model  

    Enables AAA globally.

     
    Step 2 Device(config)# aaa authentication login {default | list-name} method1 [method2...]  

    Creates a local authentication list.

     
    Step 3 Device(config)# line [aux | console | tty | vty] line-number [ending-line-number]  

    Enters line configuration mode for the lines to which you want to apply the authentication list.

     
    Step 4 Device(config-line)# login authentication

    Example:

     

    Applies the authentication list to a line or set of lines.

     
    Step 5 Device(config-line)# end

    Example:

     

    Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

     
    What to Do Next

    The list-name is a character string used to name the list you are creating. The method argument refers to the actual method the authentication algorithm tries. Additional methods of authentication are used only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails. To specify that the authentication should succeed even if all methods return an error, enter none as the final method in the command line.

    For example, to specify that authentication should succeed even if (in this example) the LDAP server returns an error, enter the following command:

    aaa authentication login default group ldap none
    

    For example, to specify that authentication should succeed even if (in this example) the TACACS+ server returns an error, enter the following command:

    aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ none

    Note


    Because the none keyword enables any user logging in to be successfully authenticated, use it only as a backup method of authentication.


    To create a default list that is used when a named list is not specified in the login authentication command, use the default keyword followed by the methods that are to be used in default situations. The default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces.

    For example, to specify RADIUS as the default method for user authentication during login, enter the following command:

    aaa authentication login default group radius
    

    The table below lists the supported login authentication methods.

    Table 4 AAA Authentication Login Methods

    Keyword

    Description

    enable
    

    Uses the enable password for authentication.

    krb5
    

    Uses Kerberos 5 for authentication.

    krb5-telnet
    

    Uses Kerberos 5 Telnet authentication protocol when using Telnet to connect to the device. If selected, this keyword must be listed as the first method in the method list.

    line
    

    Uses the line password for authentication.

    local
    

    Uses the local username database for authentication.

    local-case
    

    Uses case-sensitive local username authentication.

    none
    

    Uses no authentication.

    group ldap
    

    Uses the list of all LDAP servers for authentication.

    group radius
    

    Uses the list of all RADIUS servers for authentication.

    group tacacs
    

    Uses the list of all TACACS+ servers for authentication.

    group group-name
    

    Uses a subset of RADIUS or TACACS+ servers for authentication as defined by the aaa group server radius or aaa group server tacacs+ command.


    Note


    The login command changes only the username and the privilege level but does not execute a shell; therefore, autocommands will not be executed. To execute autocommands, you must establish a Telnet session back into the device (loop-back). Ensure that the device has been configured for secure Telnet sessions if you choose to implement autocommands in this method.


    Preventing an Access-Request with an Expired Username from Being Sent to the RADIUS Server

    The following task is used to prevent an access-request with an expired username from being sent to the RADIUS server. The Easy VPN client is notified by the RADIUS server that its password has expired. The password-expiry feature also provides a generic way for the user to change the password.


    Note


    The radius-server vsa send authentication command must be configured to make the password-expiry feature work.


    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    enable

      2.    configure terminal

      3.    aaa new-model

      4.    aaa authentication login {default | list-name} passwd-expiry method1 [method2...]

      5.    radius-server vsa send authentication

      6.    end


    DETAILED STEPS
        Command or Action Purpose
      Step 1 enable


      Example:
      Device> enable
       

      Enables privileged EXEC mode.

      • Enter your password if prompted.
       
      Step 2 configure terminal


      Example:
      Device# configure terminal
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 3 aaa new-model


      Example:
      Device(config)# aaa new-model
       

      Enables AAA.

       
      Step 4 aaa authentication login {default | list-name} passwd-expiry method1 [method2...]


      Example:
      Device(config)# aaa authentication login userauthen passwd-expiry group radius
       

      Sets AAA authentication at login. The default keyword uses the listed authentication methods that follow this keyword as the default list of methods when a user logs in.

      • The list-name argument is a character string used to name the list of authentication methods activated when a user logs in.
      • The password-expiry keyword enables password aging on a local authentication list.
      • The method argument identifies the list of methods that the authentication algorithm tries in the given sequence. You must enter at least one method; you may enter up to four methods.
      • The example configures password aging by using AAA with a crypto client.
       
      Step 5 radius-server vsa send authentication


      Example:
      Device(config)# radius-server vsa send authentication
       

      Sends vendor-specific attributes in access requests.

       
      Step 6 end


      Example:
      Device(config)# end
       

      Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

       

      Login Authentication Using Enable Password

      Use the aaa authentication login command with the enable keyword to specify the enable password as the login authentication method. For example, to specify the enable password as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

      aaa authentication login default enable
      

      Before you can use the enable password as the login authentication method, you need to define the enable password. For more information about defining enable passwords, refer to the chapter “Configuring Passwords and Privileges.”

      Login Authentication Using Kerberos

      Authentication using Kerberos is different from most other authentication methods: the user’s password is never sent to the remote access server. Remote users logging in to the network are prompted for a username. If the key distribution center (KDC) has an entry for that user, it creates an encrypted ticket granting ticket (TGT) with the password for that user and sends it back to the device. The user is then prompted for a password, and the device attempts to decrypt the TGT with that password. If it succeeds, the user is authenticated and the TGT is stored in the user’s credential cache on the device.

      Although krb5 uses the KINIT program, a user need not run the KINIT program to get a TGT to authenticate to the device. This is because KINIT has been integrated into the login procedure in the Cisco implementation of Kerberos.

      Use the aaa authentication login command with the krb5 keyword to specify Kerberos as the login authentication method. For example, to specify Kerberos as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

      aaa authentication login default krb5
      

      Before you can use Kerberos as the login authentication method, you must enable communication with the Kerberos security server. See the chapter “Configuring Kerberos” for more information about establishing communication with a Kerberos server.

      Login Authentication Using Line Password

      Use the aaa authentication login command with the line keyword to specify the line password as the login authentication method. For example, to specify the line password as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

      aaa authentication login default line
      

      Before you can use a line password as the login authentication method, you must define a line password. For more information about defining line passwords, see the section “Configuring Line Password Protection.”

      Login Authentication Using the Local Password

      Use the aaa authentication login command with the local keyword to specify that the Cisco device or access server will use the local username database for authentication. For example, to specify the local username database as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

      aaa authentication login default local
      

      For information about adding users into the local username database, see the chapter “Establishing Username Authentication.”

      Login Authentication Using Group LDAP

      Use the aaa authentication login command with the group ldap method to specify ldap as the login authentication method. For example, to specify ldap as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

      aaa authentication login default group ldap

      Login Authentication Using Group RADIUS

      Use the aaa authentication login command with the group radius method to specify RADIUS as the login authentication method. For example, to specify RADIUS as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

      aaa authentication login default group radius
      

      Before you can use RADIUS as the login authentication method, you must enable communication with the RADIUS security server. See the chapter “Configuring RADIUS” for more information about establishing communication with a RADIUS server.

      Configuring RADIUS Attribute 8 in Access Requests

      After you have used the aaa authentication login command to specify RADIUS and your login host has been configured to request its IP address from the NAS, you can send attribute 8 (Framed-IP-Address) in access-request packets by using the radius-server attribute 8 include-in-access-req command in global configuration mode. This command makes it possible for NAS to provide the RADIUS server a hint of the user IP address in advance for user authentication. For more information about attribute 8, refer to the appendix “RADIUS Attributes” at the end of the book.

      Login Authentication Using Group TACACS

      Use the aaa authentication login command with the group tacacs+ method to specify TACACS+ as the login authentication method. For example, to specify TACACS+ as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

      aaa authentication login default group tacacs+
      

      Before you can use TACACS+ as the login authentication method, you must enable communication with the TACACS+ security server. See the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about establishing communication with a TACACS+ server.

      Login Authentication Using the group group-name method

      Use the aaa authentication login command with the group group-name method to specify a subset of LDAP, RADIUS, or TACACS+ servers to be used as the login authentication method. To specify and define the group name and the members of the group, use the aaa group server command. For example, use the aaa group server command to first define the members of group loginrad:

      aaa group server radius loginrad
       server 192.0.2.3
       server 192.0.2 17
       server 192.0.2.32
      

      This command specifies RADIUS servers 192.0.2.3, 192.0.2.17, and 192.0.2.32 as members of the group loginrad.

      To specify group loginrad as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

      aaa authentication login default group loginrad
      

      Before you can use a group name as the login authentication method, you must enable communication with the RADIUS or TACACS+ security server. See the chapter “Configuring RADIUS” for more information about establishing communication with a RADIUS server. See the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about establishing communication with a TACACS+ server.

      Configuring PPP Authentication Using AAA

      Many users access network access servers through dialup that uses async or ISDN. Dialup that uses async or ISDN bypasses the CLI completely; instead, a network protocol (such as PPP or AppleTalk Remote Access (ARA)) starts as soon as the connection is established.

      The AAA security services facilitate a variety of authentication methods for use on serial interfaces running PPP. Use the aaa authentication ppp command to enable AAA authentication regardless of which of the supported PPP authentication methods you decide to use.

      To configure AAA authentication methods for serial lines using PPP, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

      SUMMARY STEPS

        1.    Device(config)# aaa new-model

        2.    Device(config)# aaa authentication ppp {default | list-name} method1 [method2...]

        3.    Device(config)# interface interface-type interface-number

        4.    Device(config-if)# ppp authentication {protocol1 [protocol2...]} [if-needed] {default | list-name} [callin] [one-time] [optional]


      DETAILED STEPS
          Command or Action Purpose
        Step 1 Device(config)# aaa new-model  

        Enables AAA globally.

         
        Step 2 Device(config)# aaa authentication ppp {default | list-name} method1 [method2...]  

        Creates a local authentication list.

         
        Step 3 Device(config)# interface interface-type interface-number  

        Enters interface configuration mode for the interface to which you want to apply the authentication list.

         
        Step 4 Device(config-if)# ppp authentication {protocol1 [protocol2...]} [if-needed] {default | list-name} [callin] [one-time] [optional]  

        Applies the authentication list to a line or set of lines. In this command, protocol1 and protocol2 represent the following protocols: Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), Microsoft-CHAP (MS-CHAP), and Password Authentication Protocol (PAP). PPP authentication is attempted first using the first authentication method, specified by protocol1. If protocol1 is unable to establish authentication, the next configured protocol is used to negotiate authentication.

         
        What to Do Next

        With the aaa authentication ppp command, you can create one or more lists of authentication methods that are tried when a user tries to authenticate by using PPP. These lists are applied by using the ppp authentication line configuration command.

        To create a default list that is used when a named list is not specified in the ppp authentication command, use the default keyword followed by the methods you want used in default situations.

        For example, to specify the local username database as the default method for user authentication, use the following command:

        aaa authentication ppp default local
        

        The list-name is any character string used to name the list you are creating. The method argument refers to the actual method the authentication algorithm tries. The additional methods of authentication are used only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails. To specify that the authentication should succeed even if all methods return an error, specify none as the final method in the command line.

        For example, to specify that authentication should succeed even if (in this example) the TACACS+ server returns an error, use the following command:

        aaa authentication ppp default group tacacs+ none

        Note


        Because none allows all users logging in to authenticate successfully, it should be used as a backup method of authentication.


        The table below lists the supported login authentication methods.

        Table 5 AAA Authentication PPP Methods

        Keyword

        Description

        if-needed

        Does not authenticate if the user has already been authenticated on a TTY line.

        krb5

        Uses Kerberos 5 for authentication (can be used only for PAP authentication).

        local

        Uses the local username database for authentication.

        local-case

        Uses case-sensitive local username authentication.

        none

        Uses no authentication.

        group radius

        Uses the list of all RADIUS servers for authentication.

        group tacacs+

        Uses the list of all TACACS+ servers for authentication.

        group group-name

        Uses a subset of RADIUS or TACACS+ servers for authentication as defined by the aaa group server radius or aaa group server tacacs+ command.

        PPP Authentication Using Kerberos

        Use the aaa authentication ppp command with the krb5 method keyword to specify Kerberos as the authentication method for use on interfaces running PPP. For example, to specify Kerberos as the method of user authentication when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

        aaa authentication ppp default krb5
        

        Before you can use Kerberos as the PPP authentication method, you must enable communication with the Kerberos security server. See the chapter “Configuring Kerberos” for more information about establishing communication with a Kerberos server.


        Note


        Kerberos login authentication works only with PPP PAP authentication.


        PPP Authentication Using the Local Password

        Use the aaa authentication ppp command with the method keyword local to specify that the Cisco device or access server will use the local username database for authentication. For example, to specify the local username database as the method of authentication for use on lines running PPP when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

        aaa authentication ppp default local
        

        For information about adding users into the local username database, see the section “Establishing Username Authentication.”

        PPP Authentication Using Group RADIUS

        Use the aaa authentication ppp command with the group radius method to specify RADIUS as the login authentication method. For example, to specify RADIUS as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

        aaa authentication ppp default group radius
        

        Before you can use RADIUS as the PPP authentication method, you must enable communication with the RADIUS security server. See the chapter “Configuring RADIUS” for more information about establishing communication with a RADIUS server.

        Configuring RADIUS Attribute 44 in Access Requests

        After you have used the aaa authentication ppp command with the group radius method to specify RADIUS as the login authentication method, you can configure your device to send attribute 44 (Acct-Session-ID) in access-request packets by using the radius-server attribute 44 include-in-access-req command in global configuration mode. This command allows the RADIUS daemon to track a call from the beginning to the end.

        PPP Authentication Using Group TACACS

        Use the aaa authentication ppp command with the group tacacs+ method to specify TACACS+ as the login authentication method. For example, to specify TACACS+ as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

        aaa authentication ppp default group tacacs+
        

        Before you can use TACACS+ as the PPP authentication method, you must enable communication with the TACACS+ security server. See the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about establishing communication with a TACACS+ server.

        PPP Authentication Using group group-name

        Use the aaa authentication ppp command with the group group-name method to specify a subset of RADIUS or TACACS+ servers to be used as the login authentication method. To specify and define the group name and the members of the group, use the aaa group server command. For example, use the aaa group server command to first define the members of group ppprad:

        aaa group server radius ppprad
         server 192.0.2.3
         server 192.0.2 17
         server 192.0.2.32
        

        This command specifies RADIUS servers 192.0.2.3, 192.0.2.17, and 192.0.2.32 as members of the group ppprad.

        To specify group ppprad as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

        aaa authentication ppp default group ppprad
        

        Before you can use a group name as the PPP authentication method, you must enable communication with the RADIUS or TACACS+ security server. See the chapter “Configuring RADIUS” for more information about establishing communication with a RADIUS server, and the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about establishing communication with a TACACS+ server.

        Configuring AAA Scalability for PPP Requests

        You can configure and monitor the number of background processes allocated by the PPP manager in the NAS to deal with AAA authentication and authorization requests. Depending on the Cisco release, only one background process was allocated to handle all AAA requests for PPP. This meant that parallelism in AAA servers could not be fully exploited. The AAA Scalability feature enables you to configure the number of processes used to handle AAA requests for PPP, thus increasing the number of users that can be simultaneously authenticated or authorized.

        To allocate a specific number of background processes to handle AAA requests for PPP, use the following command in global configuration mode:

        Command or Action

        Purpose

        Device(config)# aaa processes  number

        Allocates a specific number of background processes to handle AAA authentication and authorization requests for PPP.

        The number argument defines the number of background processes earmarked to process AAA authentication and authorization requests for PPP and can be configured for any value from 1 to 2147483647. Because of the way the PPP manager handles requests for PPP, this argument also defines the number of new users that can be simultaneously authenticated. This argument can be increased or decreased at any time.


        Note


        Allocating additional background processes can be expensive. You should configure the minimum number of background processes capable of handling the AAA requests for PPP.


        Configuring ARAP Authentication Using AAA

        Using the aaa authentication arap command, you can create one or more lists of authentication methods that are tried when AppleTalk Remote Access Protocol (ARAP) users attempt to log in to the device. These lists are used with the arap authentication line configuration command.

        Use the following commands starting in global configuration mode:

        SUMMARY STEPS

          1.    Device(config)# aaa new-model

          2.    Device(config)# aaa authentication arap

          3.    Device(config)# line number

          4.    Device(config-line)# autoselect arap

          5.    Device(config-line)# autoselect during-login

          6.    Device(config-line)# arap authentication list-name

          7.    Device(config-line)# end


        DETAILED STEPS
            Command or Action Purpose
          Step 1 Device(config)# aaa new-model  

          Enables AAA globally.

           
          Step 2 Device(config)# aaa authentication arap

          Example:

          Enables authentication for ARAP users.

           
           
          Step 3 Device(config)# line number  

          (Optional) Changes to line configuration mode.

           
          Step 4 Device(config-line)# autoselect arap  

          (Optional) Enables autoselection of ARAP.

           
          Step 5 Device(config-line)# autoselect during-login  

          (Optional) Starts the ARAP session automatically at user login.

           
          Step 6 Device(config-line)# arap authentication list-name  

          (Optional—not needed if default is used in the aaa authentication arap command) Enables TACACS+ authentication for ARAP on a line.

           
          Step 7 Device(config-line)# end  

          Returns to the privileged EXEC mode.

           
          What to Do Next

          The list-name is any character string used to name the list you are creating. The method argument refers to the actual list of methods the authentication algorithm tries, in the sequence entered.

          To create a default list that is used when a named list is not specified in the arap authentication command, use the default keyword followed by the methods you want to use in default situations.

          The additional methods of authentication are used only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails. To specify that the authentication should succeed even if all methods return an error, specify none as the final method in the command line.


          Note


          Because none allows all users logging in to be authenticated, it should be used as a backup method of authentication.


          The following table lists the supported login authentication methods.

          Table 6 AAA Authentication ARAP Methods

          Keyword

          Description

          auth-guest

          Allows guest logins only if the user has already logged in to EXEC mode.

          guest

          Allows guest logins.

          line

          Uses the line password for authentication.

          local

          Uses the local username database for authentication.

          local-case

          Uses case-sensitive local username authentication.

          group radius

          Uses the list of all RADIUS servers for authentication.

          group tacacs+

          Uses the list of all TACACS+ servers for authentication.

          group group-name

          Uses a subset of RADIUS or TACACS+ servers for authentication as defined by the aaa group server radius or aaa group server tacacs+ command.

          For example, to create a default AAA authentication method list used with ARAP, use the following command:

          aaa authentication arap default if-needed none
          

          To create the same authentication method list for ARAP and name the list MIS-access, use the following command:

          aaa authentication arap MIS-access if-needed none
          

          This section includes the following sections:

          ARAP Authentication Allowing Authorized Guest Logins

          Use the aaa authentication arap command with the auth-guest keyword to allow guest logins only if the user has already successfully logged in to the EXEC mode. This method must be the first listed in the ARAP authentication method list, but it can be followed by other methods. For example, to allow all authorized guest logins—logins by users who have already successfully logged in to the EXEC mode—as the default method of authentication, using RADIUS only if that method fails, use the following command:

          aaa authentication arap default auth-guest group radius
          

          Note


          By default, guest logins through ARAP are disabled when you initialize AAA. To allow guest logins, you must use the aaa authentication arap command with either the guest or the auth-guest keyword.


          ARAP Authentication Allowing Guest Logins

          Use the aaa authentication arap command with the guest keyword to allow guest logins. This method must be the first listed in the ARAP authentication method list, but it can be followed by other methods if it does not succeed. For example, to allow all guest logins as the default method of authentication, using RADIUS only if that method fails, use the following command:

          aaa authentication arap default guest group radius
          

          ARAP Authentication Using the Line Password

          Use the aaa authentication arap command with the keyword line to specify the line password as the authentication method. For example, to specify the line password as the method of ARAP user authentication when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

          aaa authentication arap default line
          

          Before you can use a line password as the ARAP authentication method, you must define a line password. For more information about defining line passwords, refer to the section “Configuring Line Password Protection.”

          ARAP Authentication Using the Local Password

          Use the aaa authentication arap command with the keyword local to specify that the Cisco device or access server will use the local username database for authentication. For example, to specify the local username database as the method of ARAP user authentication when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

          aaa authentication arap default local
          

          For information about adding users to the local username database, refer to the section “Establishing Username Authentication.”

          ARAP Authentication Using Group RADIUS

          Use the aaa authentication arap command with the group radius method to specify RADIUS as the ARAP authentication method. For example, to specify RADIUS as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

          aaa authentication arap default group radius
          

          Before you can use RADIUS as the ARAP authentication method, you must enable communication with the RADIUS security server.

          ARAP Authentication Using Group TACACS

          Use the aaa authentication arap command with the group tacacs+ method to specify TACACS+ as the ARAP authentication method. For example, to specify TACACS+ as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

          aaa authentication arap default group tacacs+
          

          Before you can use TACACS+ as the ARAP authentication method, you must enable communication with the TACACS+ security server. See the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about establishing communication with a TACACS+ server.

          ARAP Authentication Using Group group-name

          Use the aaa authentication arap command with the group group-name method to specify a subset of RADIUS or TACACS+ servers to use as the ARAP authentication method. To specify and define the group name and the members of the group, use the aaa group server command. For example, use the aaa group server command to first define the members of group araprad:

          aaa group server radius araprad
           server 192.0.2.3
           server 192.0.2.17
           server 192.0.2.32
          

          This command specifies RADIUS servers 192.0.2.3, 192.0.2.17, and 192.0.2.32 as members of the group araprad.

          To specify group araprad as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

          aaa authentication arap default group araprad
          

          Before you can use a group name as the ARAP authentication method, you must enable communication with the RADIUS or TACACS+ security server. See the chapter “Configuring RADIUS” for more information about establishing communication with a RADIUS server, and the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about establishing communication with a TACACS+ server.

          Configuring NASI Authentication Using AAA

          Using the aaa authentication nasi command, you can create one or more lists of authentication methods that are tried when NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface (NASI) users attempt to log in to the device. These lists are used with the nasi authentication line configuration command.

          To configure NASI authentication using AAA, use the following commands starting in global configuration mode:

          SUMMARY STEPS

            1.    Device(config)# aaa new-model

            2.    Device(config)# aaa authentication nasi

            3.    Device(config)# line number

            4.    Device(config-line)# nasi authentication list-name

            5.    Device(config-line)# end


          DETAILED STEPS
              Command or Action Purpose
            Step 1 Device(config)# aaa new-model  

            Enables AAA globally.

             
            Step 2 Device(config)# aaa authentication nasi

            Example:

             

            Enables authentication for NASI users.

             
            Step 3 Device(config)# line number  

            (Optional--not needed if default is used in the aaa authentication nasi command) Enters line configuration mode.

             
            Step 4 Device(config-line)# nasi authentication list-name  

            (Optional--not needed if default is used in the aaa authentication nasi command) Enables authentication for NASI on a line.

             
            Step 5 Device(config-line)# end  

            Returns to the privileged EXEC mode.

             
            What to Do Next

            The list-name is any character string used to name the list you are creating. The method argument refers to the actual list of methods that the authentication algorithm tries, in the sequence entered.

            To create a default list that is used when a named list is not specified in the aaa authentication nasi command, use the default keyword followed by the methods you want to use in default situations.

            The additional methods of authentication are used only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails. To specify that the authentication should succeed even if all methods return an error, specify none as the final method in the command line.


            Note


            Because none allows all users logging in to be authenticated, it should be used as a backup method of authentication.


            The table below lists the supported NASI authentication methods.

            Table 7 AAA Authentication NASI Methods

            Keyword

            Description

            enable

            Uses the enable password for authentication.

            line

            Uses the line password for authentication.

            local

            Uses the local username database for authentication.

            local-case

            Uses case-sensitive local username authentication.

            none

            Uses no authentication.

            group radius

            Uses the list of all RADIUS servers for authentication.

            group tacacs+

            Uses the list of all TACACS+ servers for authentication.

            group group-name

            Uses a subset of RADIUS or TACACS+ servers for authentication as defined by the aaa group server radius or aaa group server tacacs+ command.

            NASI Authentication Using Enable Password

            Use the aaa authentication nasi command with the keyword enable to specify the enable password as the authentication method. For example, to specify the enable password as the method of NASI user authentication when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

            aaa authentication nasi default enable
            

            Before you can use the enable password as the authentication method, you need to define the enable password. For more information about defining enable passwords, refer to the chapter “Configuring Passwords and Privileges.”

            NASI Authentication Using the Line Password

            Use the aaa authentication nasi command with the keyword line to specify the line password as the authentication method. For example, to specify the line password as the method of NASI user authentication when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

            aaa authentication nasi default line
            

            Before you can use a line password as the NASI authentication method, you must define a line password. For more information about defining line passwords, refer to the section “Configuring Line Password Protection.”

            NASI Authentication Using the Local Password

            Use the aaa authentication nasi command with the keyword local to specify that the Cisco device or access server will use the local username database for authentication information. For example, to specify the local username database as the method of NASI user authentication when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

            aaa authentication nasi default local
            

            For information about adding users to the local username database, refer to the chapter “Establishing Username Authentication.”

            NASI Authentication Using Group RADIUS

            Use the aaa authentication nasi command with the group radius method to specify RADIUS as the NASI authentication method. For example, to specify RADIUS as the method of NASI user authentication when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

            aaa authentication nasi default group radius
            

            Before you can use RADIUS as the NASI authentication method, you must enable communication with the RADIUS security server. See the chapter “Configuring RADIUS” for more information about establishing communication with a RADIUS server.

            NASI Authentication Using Group TACACS

            Use the aaa authentication nasi command with the group tacacs+ keyword to specify TACACS+ as the NASI authentication method. For example, to specify TACACS+ as the method of NASI user authentication when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

            aaa authentication nasi default group tacacs+
            

            Before you can use TACACS+ as the authentication method, you must enable communication with the TACACS+ security server. See the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about establishing communication with a TACACS+ server.

            NASI Authentication Using group group-name

            Use the aaa authentication nasi command with the group group-name method to specify a subset of RADIUS or TACACS+ servers to be used as the NASI authentication method. To specify and define the group name and the members of the group, use the aaa group server command. For example, use the aaa group server command to first define the members of group nasirad:

            aaa group server radius nasirad
             server 192.0.2.3
             server 192.0.2 17
             server 192.0.2.32
            

            This command specifies RADIUS servers 192.0.2.3, 192.0.2.17, and 192.0.2.32 as members of the group nasirad.

            To specify group nasirad as the method of user authentication at login when no other method list has been defined, use the following command:

            aaa authentication nasi default group nasirad
            

            Before you can use a group name as the NASI authentication method, you must enable communication with the RADIUS or TACACS+ security server. See the chapter “Configuring RADIUS” for more information about establishing communication with a RADIUS server and the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about establishing communication with a TACACS+ server.

            Specifying the Amount of Time for Login Input

            The timeout login response command allows you to specify how long the system will wait for login input (such as username and password) before timing out. The default login value is 30 seconds; with the timeout login response command, you can specify a timeout value from 1 to 300 seconds. To change the login timeout value from the default of 30 seconds, use the following command in line configuration mode:

            Command or Action

            Purpose

            Device(config-line)# timeout login response seconds

            Specifies how long the system will wait for login information before timing out.

            Enabling Password Protection at the Privileged Level

            Use the aaa authentication enable default command to create a series of authentication methods that are used to determine whether a user can access the privileged EXEC command level. You can specify up to four authentication methods. The additional methods of authentication are used only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails. To specify that the authentication should succeed even if all methods return an error, specify none as the final method in the command line.

            Use the following command in global configuration mode:

            Command or Action

            Purpose

            Device(config)# aaa authentication enable default method1 [method2...]

            Enables user ID and password checking for users requesting privileged EXEC level.

            Note   

            All aaa authentication enable default requests sent by the device to a RADIUS server include the username “$enab15$.” Requests sent to a TACACS+ server will include the username that is entered for login authentication.

            The method argument refers to the actual list of methods the authentication algorithm tries, in the sequence entered. The table below lists the supported enable authentication methods.

            Table 8 AAA Authentication Enable Default Methods

            Keyword

            Description

            enable

            Uses the enable password for authentication.

            line

            Uses the line password for authentication.

            none

            Uses no authentication.

            group radius

            Uses the list of all RADIUS hosts for authentication.

            Note   

            The RADIUS method does not work on a per-username basis.

            group tacacs+

            Uses the list of all TACACS+ hosts for authentication.

            group group-name

            Uses a subset of RADIUS or TACACS+ servers for authentication as defined by the aaa group server radius or aaa group server tacacs+ command.

            Changing the Text Displayed at the Password Prompt

            Use the aaa authentication password-prompt command to change the default text that the Cisco software displays when prompting a user to enter a password. This command changes the password prompt for the enable password as well as for login passwords that are not supplied by remote security servers. The no form of this command returns the password prompt to the following default value:

            Password:
            

            The aaa authentication password-prompt command does not change any dialog that is supplied by a remote TACACS+ or RADIUS server.

            The aaa authentication password-prompt command works when RADIUS is used as the login method. You will see the password prompt defined in the command shown even when the RADIUS server is unreachable. The aaa authentication password-prompt command does not work with TACACS+. TACACS+ supplies the NAS with the password prompt to be displayed to the users. If the TACACS+ server is reachable, the NAS gets the password prompt from the server and uses that prompt instead of the one defined in the aaa authentication password-prompt command. If the TACACS+ server is not reachable, the password prompt defined in the aaa authentication password-prompt command may be used.

            Use the following command in global configuration mode:

            Command or Action

            Purpose

            Device(config)# aaa authentication password-prompt text-string

            Changes the default text displayed when a user is prompted to enter a password.

            Preventing an Access Request with a Blank Username from Being Sent to the RADIUS Server

            The following configuration steps provide the ability to prevent an Access Request with a blank username from being sent to the RADIUS server. This functionality ensures that unnecessary RADIUS server interaction is avoided, and RADIUS logs are kept short.


            Note


            The aaa authentication suppress null-username command is available only in Cisco IOS XE Release 2.4 and Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRD.


            SUMMARY STEPS

              1.    enable

              2.    configure terminal

              3.    aaa new-model

              4.    aaa authentication suppress null-username

              5.    end


            DETAILED STEPS
                Command or Action Purpose
              Step 1 enable


              Example:
              Device> enable
               

              Enables privileged EXEC mode.

              • Enter your password if prompted.
               
              Step 2 configure terminal


              Example:
              Device# configure terminal
               

              Enters global configuration mode.

               
              Step 3 aaa new-model


              Example:
              Device(config)# aaa new-model
               

              Enables AAA globally.

               
              Step 4 aaa authentication suppress null-username


              Example:
              Device(config)# aaa authentication suppress null-username
               

              Prevents an access request with a blank username from being sent to the RADIUS server.

               
              Step 5 end


              Example:
              Device(config)# end
               

              Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

               

              Configuring Message Banners for AAA Authentication

              AAA supports the use of configurable, personalized login and failed-login banners. You can configure message banners that will be displayed when a user logs in to the system to be authenticated using AAA and when, for whatever reason, authentication fails.

              Configuring a Login Banner

              To configure a banner that is displayed when a user logs in (replacing the default message for login), perform the following task:

              Before You Begin

              To create a login banner, you must configure a delimiting character that notifies the system that the following text string must be displayed as the banner, and then the text string itself. The delimiting character is repeated at the end of the text string to signify the end of the banner. The delimiting character can be any single character in the extended ASCII character set, but once defined as the delimiter, that character cannot be used in the text string for the banner.

              SUMMARY STEPS

                1.    aaa new-model Device(config)# aaa new-model

                2.    Device(config)# aaa authentication banner delimiter string delimiter

                3.    Device(config)# end


              DETAILED STEPS
                  Command or Action Purpose
                Step 1 aaa new-model Device(config)# aaa new-model  

                Enables AAA.

                 
                Step 2 Device(config)# aaa authentication banner delimiter string delimiter  

                Creates a personalized login banner.

                 
                Step 3 Device(config)# end  

                Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                 
                What to Do Next

                After you have configured a login banner, you must complete basic authentication configuration using AAA if you have not already done so. For information about the different types of AAA authentication available, please refer to “Configuring Authentication” in the Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting Configuration Guide.

                Configuring a Failed-Login Banner

                To configure a message that is displayed when a user login fails (replacing the default message for failed login), perform the following task:

                Before You Begin

                To create a failed-login banner, you must configure a delimiting character, which notifies the system that the following text string must be displayed as the banner, and then configure the text string itself. The delimiting character is repeated at the end of the text string to signify the end of the failed-login banner. The delimiting character can be any single character in the extended ASCII character set, but once defined as the delimiter, that character cannot be used in the text string making up the banner.

                SUMMARY STEPS

                  1.    Device(config)# aaa new-model

                  2.    Device(config)# aaa authentication fail-message delimiter string delimiter

                  3.    Device(config)# end


                DETAILED STEPS
                    Command or Action Purpose
                  Step 1 Device(config)# aaa new-model  

                  Enables AAA.

                   
                  Step 2 Device(config)# aaa authentication fail-message delimiter string delimiter  

                  Creates a message to be displayed when a user login fails.

                   
                  Step 3 Device(config)# end  

                  Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                   
                  What to Do Next

                  After you have configured a failed-login banner, you must complete basic authentication configuration using AAA if you have not already done so. For information about the different types of AAA authentication available, please refer to “Configuring Authentication” in the Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting Configuration Guide.

                  Configuring AAA Packet of Disconnect

                  Packet of disconnect (POD) terminates connections on the network access server (NAS) when particular session attributes are identified. By using the session information obtained from AAA, the POD client residing on a UNIX workstation sends disconnect packets to the POD server running on the network access server. The NAS terminates any inbound user session with one or more matching key attributes. It rejects requests when required fields are missing or when an exact match is not found.

                  To configure POD, perform the following tasks in global configuration mode:

                  SUMMARY STEPS

                    1.    Device(config)# aaa accounting network default

                    2.    Device(config)# aaa accounting delay-start

                    3.    Device(config)# aaa pod server server-key string

                    4.    Device(config)# radius-server host IP address non-standard

                    5.    Device(config)# end


                  DETAILED STEPS
                      Command or Action Purpose
                    Step 1 Device(config)# aaa accounting network default

                    Example:

                    Enables AAA accounting records.

                     
                     
                    Step 2 Device(config)# aaa accounting delay-start  

                    (Optional) Delays generation of the start accounting record until the Framed-IP-Address is assigned, allowing the use of the start accounting record in the POD packet.

                     
                    Step 3 Device(config)# aaa pod server server-key string  

                    Enables POD reception.

                     
                    Step 4 Device(config)# radius-server host IP address non-standard  

                    Declares a RADIUS host that uses a vendor-proprietary version of RADIUS.

                     
                    Step 5 Device(config)# end  

                    Returns to the privileged EXEC mode.

                     

                    Enabling Double Authentication

                    Depending on the Cisco release, PPP sessions could be authenticated only by using a single authentication method: either PAP or CHAP. Double authentication requires remote users to pass a second stage of authentication (after CHAP or PAP authentication) before gaining network access.

                    This second (“double”) authentication requires a password that is known to the user but not stored on the user’s remote host. Therefore, the second authentication is specific to a user, not to a host. This provides an additional level of security that will be effective even if information from the remote host is stolen. In addition, this also provides greater flexibility by allowing customized network privileges for each user.

                    The second stage authentication can use one-time passwords such as token card passwords, which are not supported by CHAP. If one-time passwords are used, a stolen user password is of no use to the perpetrator.

                    How Double Authentication Works

                    With double authentication, there are two authentication/authorization stages. These two stages occur after a remote user dials in and a PPP session is initiated.

                    In the first stage, the user logs in using the remote host name; CHAP (or PAP) authenticates the remote host, and then PPP negotiates with AAA to authorize the remote host. In this process, the network access privileges associated with the remote host are assigned to the user.


                    Note


                    Cisco suggests that the network administrator restrict authorization at this first stage to allow only Telnet connections to the local host.


                    In the second stage, the remote user must Telnet to the network access server to be authenticated. When the remote user logs in, the user must be authenticated with AAA login authentication. The user must then enter the access-profile command to be reauthorized using AAA. When this authorization is complete, the user has been double authenticated, and can access the network according to per-user network privileges.

                    The system administrator determines the network privileges that the remote users will have after each stage of authentication by configuring appropriate parameters on a security server. To use double authentication, the user must activate it by using the access-profile command.


                    Caution


                    Double authentication can cause certain undesirable events if multiple hosts share a PPP connection to a network access server, as shown in the figure below. First, if a user, Bob, initiates a PPP session and activates double authentication at the network access server (per the figure below), any other user will automatically have the same network privileges as Bob until Bob’s PPP session expires. This happens because Bob’s authorization profile is applied to the network access server’s interface during the PPP session and any PPP traffic from other users will use the PPP session Bob established. Second, if Bob initiates a PPP session and activates double authentication, and then—before Bob’s PPP session has expired—another user, Jane, executes the access-profile command (or, if Jane telnets to the network access server and theautocommand access-profile command is executed), a reauthorization will occur and Jane’s authorization profile will be applied to the interface, replacing Bob’s profile. This can disrupt or halt Bob’s PPP traffic or grant Bob additional authorization privileges, which Bob should not have.


                    Figure 2. Possibly Risky Topology: Multiple Hosts Share a PPP Connection to a Network Access Server

                    Configuring Double Authentication

                    To configure double authentication, you must complete the following steps:

                    1. Enable AAA by using the aaa-new model global configuration command. For more information about enabling AAA, refer to the chapter “AAA Overview.”
                    2. Use the aaa authentication command to configure your network access server to use login and PPP authentication method lists, and then apply those method lists to the appropriate lines or interfaces.
                    3. Use the aaa authorization command to configure AAA network authorization at login. For more information about configuring network authorization, refer to the “Configuring Authorization” chapter.
                    4. Configure security protocol parameters (for example, RADIUS or TACACS+). See the chapter “Configuring RADIUS” for more information about RADIUS and the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about TACACS+.
                    5. Use access control list AV pairs on the security server that the user can connect to the local host only by establishing a Telnet connection.
                    6. (Optional) Configure the access-profile command as an autocommand. If you configure the autocommand, remote users will not have to manually enter the access-profile command to access the authorized rights associated with their personal user profile. To learn about configuring autocommands, refer to the autocommand command in the Dial Technologies Command Reference: Network Services.

                    Note


                    If the access-profile command is configured as an autocommand, users will still have to telnet to the local host and log in to complete double authentication.


                    Follow these rules when creating user-specific authorization statements (These rules relate to the default behavior of the access-profile command):

                    • Use valid AV pairs when configuring access control list AV pairs on the security server. For a list of valid AV pairs, refer to the chapter “Authentication Commands” in the CiscoISecurity Command Reference.
                    • If you want remote users to use the interface’s existing authorization (which existed prior to the second stage authentication/authorization), but you want them to have different access control lists (ACLs), you should specify only ACL AV pairs in the user-specific authorization definition. This might be desirable if you set up a default authorization profile to apply to the remote host, but want to apply specific ACLs to specific users.
                    • When these user-specific authorization statements are later applied to the interface, they can either be added to the existing interface configuration or replace the existing interface configuration, depending on which form of the access-profile command is used to authorize the user. You should understand how the access-profile command works before configuring the authorization statements.
                    • If you are using ISDN or Multilink PPP, you must also configure virtual templates at the local host.

                    To troubleshoot double authentication, use the debug aaa per-user debug command. For more information about this command, refer to the CiscoDebug Command Reference.

                    Accessing the User Profile After Double Authentication

                    In double authentication, when a remote user establishes a PPP link to the local host using the local host name, the remote host is CHAP (or PAP) authenticated. After CHAP (or PAP) authentication, PPP negotiates with AAA to assign network access privileges associated with the remote host to the user. (Cisco suggests that privileges at this stage be restricted to allow the user to connect to the local host only by establishing a Telnet connection.)

                    When the user needs to initiate the second phase of double authentication, establishing a Telnet connection to the local host, the user enters a personal username and password (different from the CHAP or PAP username and password). This action causes AAA reauthentication to occur according to the personal username/password. The initial rights associated with the local host, though, are still in place. By using the access-profile command, the rights associated with the local host are replaced by or merged with those defined for the user in the user’s profile.

                    To access the user profile after double authentication, use the following command in EXEC configuration mode:

                    Command or Action

                    Purpose

                     Device> access-profile [merge | replace] [ignore-sanity-checks]

                    Accesses the rights associated for the user after double authentication.

                    If you configured the access-profile command to be executed as an autocommand, it will be executed automatically after the remote user logs in.

                    Enabling Automated Double Authentication

                    You can make the double authentication process easier for users by implementing automated double authentication. Automated double authentication provides all of the security benefits of double authentication, but offers a simpler, more user-friendly interface for remote users. With double authentication, a second level of user authentication is achieved when the user telnets to the network access server or device and enters a username and password. With automated double authentication, the user does not have to Telnet to the network access server; instead, the user responds to a dialog box that requests a username and password or personal identification number (PIN). To use the automated double authentication feature, the remote user hosts must be running a companion client application. As of Cisco IOS Release 12.0, the only client application software available is the Glacier Bay application server software for PCs.


                    Note


                    Automated double authentication, like the existing double authentication feature, is for Multilink PPP ISDN connections only. Automated double authentication cannot be used with other protocols such as X.25 or SLIP.


                    Automated double authentication is an enhancement to the existing double authentication feature. To configure automated double authentication, you must first configure double authentication by completing the following steps:

                    1. Enable AAA by using the aaa-new model global configuration command. For more information about enabling AAA, refer to the chapter “AAA Overview.”
                    2. Use the aaa authentication command to configure your network access server to use login and PPP authentication method lists, and then apply those method lists to the appropriate lines or interfaces.
                    3. Use the aaa authorization command to configure AAA network authorization at login. For more information about configuring network authorization, refer to the chapter “Configuring Authorization.”
                    4. Configure security protocol parameters (for example, RADIUS or TACACS+). See the chapter “Configuring RADIUS” for more information about RADIUS and the chapter “Configuring TACACS+” for more information about TACACS+.
                    5. Use access control list AV pairs on the security server that the user can connect to the local host only by establishing a Telnet connection.
                    6. Configure the access-profile command as an autocommand. If you configure the autocommand, remote users will not have to manually enter the access-profile command to access authorized rights associated with their personal user profile. To learn about configuring autocommands, refer to the autocommand command in the CiscoIOS Dial Technologies Command Reference.

                    Note


                    If the access-profile command is configured as an autocommand, users will still have to telnet to the local host and log in to complete double authentication.


                    Follow these rules when creating user-specific authorization statements. (These rules relate to the default behavior of the access-profile command):

                    • Use valid AV pairs when configuring access control list AV pairs on the security server. For a list of valid AV pairs, refer to the AAA part of the Security Command Reference.
                    • If you want remote users to use the interface’s existing authorization (that which existed prior to the second stage authentication/authorization), but you want them to have different access control lists (ACLs), you should specify only ACL AV pairs in the user-specific authorization definition. This might be desirable if you set up a default authorization profile to apply to the remote host, but want to apply specific ACLs to specific users.
                    • When these user-specific authorization statements are later applied to the interface, they can either be added to the existing interface configuration, or replace the existing interface configuration, depending on which form of the access-profile command is used to authorize the user. You should understand how the access-profile command works before configuring the authorization statements.
                    • If you are using ISDN or Multilink PPP, you must also configure virtual templates at the local host.

                    To troubleshoot double authentication, use the debug aaa per-user debug command. For more information about this command, refer to the Debug Command Reference.

                    After you have configured double authentication, you are ready to configure the automation enhancement.

                    Configuring Automated Double Authentication

                    To configure automated double authentication, use the following commands, starting in global configuration mode:

                    SUMMARY STEPS

                      1.    Device(config)# ip trigger-authentication

                      2.    Enter one of the following:

                      • Device(config)# interface bri number
                      • Device(config)# interface serial number :23

                      3.    Device(config-if)# ip trigger-authentication

                      4.    Device(config-if)# end


                    DETAILED STEPS
                        Command or Action Purpose
                      Step 1 Device(config)# ip trigger-authentication

                      Example:

                       

                      Enables automation of double authentication.

                       
                      Step 2 Enter one of the following:
                      • Device(config)# interface bri number
                      • Device(config)# interface serial number :23
                       

                      Selects an ISDN BRI or ISDN PRI interface and enters interface configuration mode.

                       
                      Step 3 Device(config-if)# ip trigger-authentication  

                      Applies automated double authentication to the interface.

                       
                      Step 4 Device(config-if)# end  

                      Returns to the privileged EXEC mode.

                       

                      Troubleshooting Automated Double Authentication

                      To troubleshoot automated double authentication, use the following commands in privileged EXEC mode:

                      SUMMARY STEPS

                        1.    Device# show ip trigger-authentication

                        2.    Device# clear ip trigger-authentication

                        3.    Device# debug ip trigger-authentication


                      DETAILED STEPS
                          Command or Action Purpose
                        Step 1 Device# show ip trigger-authentication  

                        Displays the list of remote hosts for which automated double authentication has been attempted (successfully or unsuccessfully).

                         
                        Step 2 Device# clear ip trigger-authentication  

                        Clears the list of remote hosts for which automated double authentication has been attempted. This clears the table displayed by the show ip trigger-authentication command.

                         
                        Step 3 Device# debug ip trigger-authentication  

                        Displays debug output related to automated double authentication.

                         

                        Configuring the Dynamic Authorization Service for RADIUS CoA

                        Perform the following steps to enable the device as an authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) server for the dynamic authorization service. This service supports the Change of Authorization (CoA) functionality that pushes the policy map in an input and output direction.

                        SUMMARY STEPS

                          1.    enable

                          2.    configure terminal

                          3.    aaa new-model

                          4.    aaa server radius dynamic-author

                          5.    client {ip-addr | hostname} [server-key [0 | 7] string]

                          6.    domain {delimiter character | stripping | [right-to-left]}

                          7.    port port-num

                          8.    end


                        DETAILED STEPS
                            Command or Action Purpose
                          Step 1 enable


                          Example:
                          Device> enable
                           

                          Enables privileged EXEC mode.

                          • Enter your password if prompted.
                           
                          Step 2 configure terminal


                          Example:
                          Device# configure terminal
                           

                          Enters global configuration mode.

                           
                          Step 3 aaa new-model


                          Example:
                          Device(config)# aaa new-model
                           

                          Enables AAA globally.

                           
                          Step 4 aaa server radius dynamic-author


                          Example:
                          Device(config)# aaa server radius dynamic-author
                           

                          Sets up the local AAA server for the dynamic authorization service, which must be enabled to support the CoA functionality to push the policy map in an input and output direction, and enters dynamic authorization local server configuration mode.

                          • In this mode, the RADIUS application commands are configured.
                           
                          Step 5 client {ip-addr | hostname} [server-key [0 | 7] string]


                          Example:
                          Device(config-locsvr-da-radius)# client 192.168.0.5 server-key cisco1
                           

                          Configures the IP address or hostname of the AAA server client.

                          • Use the optional server-key keyword and string argument to configure the server key at the client level.
                          Note   

                          Configuring the server key at the client level overrides the server key configured at the global level.

                           
                          Step 6 domain {delimiter character | stripping | [right-to-left]}


                          Example:
                          Device(config-locsvr-da-radius)# domain stripping right-to-left
                           

                          (Optional) Configures username domain options for the RADIUS application.

                          • The delimiter keyword specifies the domain delimiter. One of the following options can be specified for the character argument: @, /, $, %, \, #, or -.
                          • The stripping keyword compares the incoming username with the names oriented to the left of the @ domain delimiter.
                          • The right-to-left keyword terminates the string at the first delimiter going from right to left.
                           
                          Step 7 port port-num


                          Example:
                          Device(config-locsvr-da-radius)# port 3799
                           

                          Configures the UDP port for CoA requests.

                           
                          Step 8 end


                          Example:
                          Device(config-locsvr-da-radius)# end
                           

                          Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                           

                          Configuring a Device to Ignore Bounce and Disable RADIUS CoA Requests

                          When an authentication port is authenticated with multiple hosts and there is a Change of Authorization (CoA) request for one host to flap on this port or one host session to be terminated on this port, the other hosts on this port are also affected. Thus, an authenticated port with multiple hosts can trigger a DHCP renegotiation from one or more hosts in the case of a flap, or it can administratively shut down the authentication port that is hosting the session for one or more hosts.

                          Perform the following steps to configure the device to ignore RADIUS server Change of Authorization (CoA) requests in the form of a bounce port command or disable port command.

                          SUMMARY STEPS

                            1.    enable

                            2.    configure terminal

                            3.    aaa new-model

                            4.    authentication command bounce-port ignore

                            5.    authentication command disable-port ignore

                            6.    end


                          DETAILED STEPS
                              Command or Action Purpose
                            Step 1 enable


                            Example:
                            Device> enable
                             

                            Enables privileged EXEC mode.

                            • Enter your password if prompted.
                             
                            Step 2 configure terminal


                            Example:
                            Device# configure terminal
                             

                            Enters global configuration mode.

                             
                            Step 3 aaa new-model


                            Example:
                            Device(config)# aaa new-model
                             

                            Enables authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) globally.

                             
                            Step 4 authentication command bounce-port ignore


                            Example:
                            Device(config)# authentication command bounce-port ignore
                             

                            (Optional) Configures the device to ignore a RADIUS server bounce port command that causes a host to link flap on an authentication port, which causes DHCP renegotiation from one or more hosts connected to this port.

                             
                            Step 5 authentication command disable-port ignore


                            Example:
                            Device(config)# authentication command disable-port ignore
                             
                            (Optional) Configures the device to ignore a RADIUS server CoA disable port command that administratively shuts down the authentication port that hosts one or more host sessions.
                            • The shutting down of the port causes session termination.
                             
                            Step 6 end


                            Example:
                            Device(config)# end
                             

                            Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                             

                            Configuring Domain Stripping at the Server Group Level

                            SUMMARY STEPS

                              1.    enable

                              2.    configure terminal

                              3.    aaa group server radius server-name

                              4.    domain-stripping [strip-suffix word] [right-to-left ] [prefix-delimiter word] [delimiter word]

                              5.    end


                            DETAILED STEPS
                                Command or Action Purpose
                              Step 1 enable


                              Example:
                              Device> enable
                               
                              Enables privileged EXEC mode.
                              • Enter your password if prompted.
                               
                              Step 2 configure terminal


                              Example:
                              Device# configure terminal
                               

                              Enters global configuration mode.

                               
                              Step 3 aaa group server radius server-name


                              Example:
                              Device(config)# aaa group server radius rad1
                               
                              Adds the RADIUS server and enters server group RADIUS configuration mode.
                              • The server-name argument specifies the RADIUS server group name.
                               
                              Step 4 domain-stripping [strip-suffix word] [right-to-left ] [prefix-delimiter word] [delimiter word]


                              Example:
                              Device(config-sg-radius)# domain-stripping delimiter username@example.com
                               

                              Configures domain stripping at the server group level.

                               
                              Step 5 end


                              Example:
                              Device(config-sg-radius)# end
                               

                              Exits server group RADIUS configuration mode and returns to the privileged EXEC mode.

                               

                              Non-AAA Authentication Methods

                              Configuring Line Password Protection

                              This task is used to provide access control on a terminal line by entering the password and establishing password checking.


                              Note


                              If you configure line password protection and then configure TACACS or extended TACACS, the TACACS username and password take precedence over line passwords. If you have not yet implemented a security policy, we recommend that you use AAA.


                              SUMMARY STEPS

                                1.    enable

                                2.    configure terminal

                                3.    line [aux | console | tty | vty] line-number [ending-line-number]

                                4.    password password

                                5.    login

                                6.    end


                              DETAILED STEPS
                                  Command or Action Purpose
                                Step 1 enable


                                Example:
                                Device> enable
                                 

                                Enables privileged EXEC mode.

                                • Enter your password if prompted.
                                 
                                Step 2 configure terminal


                                Example:
                                Device# configure terminal
                                 

                                Enters global configuration mode.

                                 
                                Step 3 line [aux | console | tty | vty] line-number [ending-line-number]


                                Example:
                                Device(config)# line console 0
                                 

                                Enters line configuration mode.

                                 
                                Step 4 password password


                                Example:
                                Device(config-line)# secret word
                                 

                                Assigns a password to a terminal or other device on a line. The password is case sensitive and can include spaces. For example, the password “Secret” is different than the password “secret,” and “two words” is an acceptable password.

                                 
                                Step 5 login


                                Example:
                                Device(config-line)# login
                                 

                                Enables password checking at login.

                                Line password verification can be disabled by using the no version of this command.

                                Note   

                                The login command only changes the username and privilege level. It does not execute a shell; therefore autocommands are not executed. To execute autocommands under this circumstance, a Telnet session needs to be established to the device. Ensure the device is configured for secure Telnet sessions if autocommands are implemented this way.

                                 
                                Step 6 end


                                Example:
                                Device(config-line)# end
                                 

                                Returns to the privileged EXEC mode.

                                 

                                Establishing Username Authentication

                                You can create a username-based authentication system, which is useful in the following situations:

                                • To provide a TACACS-like username and encrypted password-authentication system for networks that cannot support TACACS
                                • To provide special-case logins: for example, access list verification, no password verification, autocommand execution at login, and “no escape” situations

                                To establish username authentication, use the following commands in global configuration mode as needed for your system configuration:

                                SUMMARY STEPS

                                  1.    Enter one of the following:

                                  • Device(config)# username name [nopassword | password password | password encryption-type encrypted password]
                                  • Device(config)# username name [access-class number]

                                  2.    Device(config)# username name [privilege level]

                                  3.    Device(config)# username name [autocommand command]

                                  4.    Device(config)# username name [noescape] [nohangup]


                                DETAILED STEPS
                                    Command or Action Purpose
                                  Step 1 Enter one of the following:
                                  • Device(config)# username name [nopassword | password password | password encryption-type encrypted password]
                                  • Device(config)# username name [access-class number]
                                   

                                  (Optional) Establishes username authentication with encrypted passwords.

                                  or

                                  (Optional) Establishes username authentication by access list.

                                   
                                  Step 2 Device(config)# username name [privilege level]
                                   

                                  (Optional) Sets the privilege level for the user.

                                   
                                  Step 3 Device(config)# username name [autocommand command]
                                   

                                  (Optional) Specifies a command to be executed automatically.

                                   
                                  Step 4 Device(config)# username name [noescape] [nohangup]
                                   

                                  (Optional) Sets a “no escape” login environment.

                                   
                                  What to Do Next

                                  The noescape keyword prevents users from using escape characters on the hosts to which they are connected. The nohangup feature does not disconnect after using the autocommand.


                                  Caution


                                  Passwords will be displayed in clear text in your configuration unless you enable the service password-encryption command. For more information about the service password-encryption command, refer to the chapter “Passwords and Privileges Commands” in the Security Command Reference .


                                  Enabling CHAP or PAP Authentication

                                  One of the most common transport protocols used in ISPs’ dial solutions is the Point-to-Point Protocol PPP. Traditionally, remote users dial in to an access server to initiate a PPP session. After PPP has been negotiated, remote users are connected to the ISP network and to the Internet.

                                  Because ISPs want only customers to connect to their access servers, remote users are required to authenticate to the access server before they can start up a PPP session. Normally, a remote user authenticates by typing in a username and password when prompted by the access server. Although this is a workable solution, it is difficult to administer and awkward for the remote user.

                                  A better solution is to use the authentication protocols built into PPP. In this case, the remote user dials in to the access server and starts up a minimal subset of PPP with the access server. This does not give the remote user access to the ISP’s network—it merely allows the access server to talk to the remote device.

                                  PPP currently supports two authentication protocols: Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP). Both are specified in RFC 1334 and are supported on synchronous and asynchronous interfaces. Authentication using PAP or CHAP is equivalent to typing in a username and password when prompted by the server. CHAP is considered to be more secure because the remote user’s password is never sent across the connection.

                                  PPP (with or without PAP or CHAP authentication) is also supported in dialout solutions. An access server utilizes a dialout feature when it initiates a call to a remote device and attempts to start up a transport protocol such as PPP.

                                  See “Configuring Interfaces” in the Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide for more information about CHAP and PAP.


                                  Note


                                  To use CHAP or PAP, you must be running PPP encapsulation.


                                  When CHAP is enabled on an interface and a remote device attempts to connect to it, the access server sends a CHAP packet to the remote device. The CHAP packet requests or “challenges” the remote device to respond. The challenge packet consists of an ID, a random number, and the host name of the local device.

                                  When the remote device receives the challenge packet, it concatenates the ID, the remote device’s password, and the random number, and then encrypts all of it using the remote device’s password. The remote device sends the results back to the access server, along with the name associated with the password used in the encryption process.

                                  When the access server receives the response, it uses the name it received to retrieve a password stored in its user database. The retrieved password should be the same password the remote device used in its encryption process. The access server then encrypts the concatenated information with the newly retrieved password—if the result matches the result sent in the response packet, authentication succeeds.

                                  The benefit of using CHAP authentication is that the remote device’s password is never transmitted in clear text. This prevents other devices from stealing it and gaining illegal access to the ISP’s network.

                                  CHAP transactions occur only at the time a link is established. The access server does not request a password during the rest of the call. (The local device can, however, respond to such requests from other devices during a call.)

                                  When PAP is enabled, the remote device attempting to connect to the access server is required to send an authentication request. If the username and password specified in the authentication request are accepted, the Cisco software sends an authentication acknowledgment.

                                  After you have enabled CHAP or PAP, the access server will require authentication from remote devices dialing in to the access server. If the remote device does not support the enabled protocol, the call will be dropped.

                                  To use CHAP or PAP, you must perform the following tasks:

                                  1. Enable PPP encapsulation.
                                  2. Enable CHAP or PAP on the interface.
                                  3. For CHAP, configure host name authentication and the secret or password for each remote system with which authentication is required.

                                  Enabling PPP Encapsulation

                                  To enable PPP encapsulation, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

                                  Command or Action

                                  Purpose

                                  Device(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

                                  Enables PPP on an interface.

                                  Enabling PAP or CHAP

                                  To enable CHAP or PAP authentication on an interface configured for PPP encapsulation, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

                                  Command or Action

                                  Purpose

                                    Device(config-if)# ppp authentication {protocol1 [protocol2...]} [if-needed] {default | list-name} [callin] [one-time]

                                  Defines the authentication protocols supported and the order in which they are used. In this command, protocol1, protocol2 represent the following protocols: CHAP, MS-CHAP, and PAP. PPP authentication is attempted first using the first authentication method, which is protocol1 . If protocol1 is unable to establish authentication, the next configured protocol is used to negotiate authentication.

                                  If you configure ppp authentication chap on an interface, all incoming calls on that interface that initiate a PPP connection will have to be authenticated using CHAP; likewise, if you configure ppp authentication pap, all incoming calls that start a PPP connection will have to be authenticated using PAP. If you configure ppp authentication chap pap, the access server will attempt to authenticate all incoming calls that start a PPP session with CHAP. If the remote device does not support CHAP, the access server will try to authenticate the call using PAP. If the remote device does not support either CHAP or PAP, authentication will fail and the call will be dropped. If you configure ppp authentication pap chap, the access server will attempt to authenticate all incoming calls that start a PPP session with PAP. If the remote device does not support PAP, the access server will try to authenticate the call using CHAP. If the remote device does not support either protocol, authentication will fail and the call will be dropped. If you configure the ppp authentication command with the callin keyword, the access server will only authenticate the remote device if the remote device initiated the call.

                                  Authentication method lists and the one-time keyword are only available if you have enabled AAA--they will not be available if you are using TACACS or extended TACACS. If you specify the name of an authentication method list with the ppp authentication command, PPP will attempt to authenticate the connection using the methods defined in the specified method list. If AAA is enabled and no method list is defined by name, PPP will attempt to authenticate the connection using the methods defined as the default. The ppp authentication command with the one-time keyword enables support for one-time passwords during authentication.

                                  The if-needed keyword is only available if you are using TACACS or extended TACACS. The ppp authenticationcommand with the if-needed keyword means that PPP will only authenticate the remote device using PAP or CHAP if they have not yet authenticated during the life of the current call. If the remote device authenticated via a standard login procedure and initiated PPP from the EXEC prompt, PPP will not authenticate via CHAP if ppp authentication chap if-needed is configured on the interface.


                                  Caution


                                  If you use a list-name that has not been configured with the aaa authentication pppcommand, you disable PPP on the line.


                                  For information about adding a username entry for each remote system from which the local device or access server requires authentication, see Establishing Username Authentication.

                                  Inbound and Outbound Authentication

                                  PPP supports two-way authentication. Normally, when a remote device dials in to an access server, the access server requests that the remote device prove that it is allowed access. This is known as inbound authentication. At the same time, the remote device can also request that the access server prove that it is who it says it is. This is known as outbound authentication. An access server also does outbound authentication when it initiates a call to a remote device.

                                  Enabling Outbound PAP Authentication

                                  To enable outbound PAP authentication, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

                                  Command or Action

                                  Purpose

                                   Device(config-if)# ppp pap sent-username username password password

                                  Enables outbound PAP authentication.

                                  The access server uses the username and password specified by the ppp pap sent-username command to authenticate itself whenever it initiates a call to a remote device or when it has to respond to a remote device’s request for outbound authentication.

                                  Refusing PAP Authentication Requests

                                  To refuse PAP authentication from peers requesting it, meaning that PAP authentication is disabled for all calls, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

                                  Command or Action

                                  Purpose

                                    Device(config-if)#  pap refuse

                                  Refuses PAP authentication from peers requesting PAP authentication.

                                  If the refuse keyword is not used, the device will not refuse any PAP authentication challenges received from the peer.

                                  Creating a Common CHAP Password

                                  For remote CHAP authentication only, you can configure your device to create a common CHAP secret password to use in response to challenges from an unknown peer; for example, if your device calls a rotary of devices (either from another vendor, or running an older version of the Cisco software) to which a new (that is, unknown) device has been added. The ppp chap password command allows you to replace several username and password configuration commands with a single copy of this command on any dialer interface or asynchronous group interface.

                                  To enable a device calling a collection of devices to configure a common CHAP secret password, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

                                  Command or Action

                                  Purpose

                                    Device(config-if)# ppp chap password  secret

                                  Enables a device calling a collection of devices to configure a common CHAP secret password.

                                  Refusing CHAP Authentication Requests

                                  To refuse CHAP authentication from peers requesting it, meaning that CHAP authentication is disabled for all calls, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

                                  Command or Action

                                  Purpose

                                    Device(config-if)# ppp chap refuse [callin]

                                  Refuses CHAP authentication from peers requesting CHAP authentication.

                                  If the callin keyword is used, the device will refuse to answer CHAP authentication challenges received from the peer, but will still require the peer to answer any CHAP challenges the device sends.

                                  If outbound PAP has been enabled (using the ppp pap sent-username command), PAP will be suggested as the authentication method in the refusal packet.

                                  Delaying CHAP Authentication Until Peer Authenticates

                                  To specify that the device will not authenticate to a peer requesting CHAP authentication until after the peer has authenticated itself to the device, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

                                  Command or Action

                                  Purpose

                                   Device(config-if)# ppp chap wait  secret

                                  Configures the device to delay CHAP authentication until after the peer has authenticated itself to the device.

                                  This command (which is the default) specifies that the device will not authenticate to a peer requesting CHAP authentication until the peer has authenticated itself to the device. The no ppp chap wait command specifies that the device will respond immediately to an authentication challenge.

                                  Using MS-CHAP

                                  Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP) is the Microsoft version of CHAP and is an extension of RFC 1994. Like the standard version of CHAP, MS-CHAP is used for PPP authentication; in this case, authentication occurs between a PC using Microsoft Windows NT or Microsoft Windows 95 and a Cisco device or access server acting as a network access server.

                                  MS-CHAP differs from the standard CHAP as follows:

                                  • MS-CHAP is enabled by negotiating CHAP Algorithm 0x80 in LCP option 3, Authentication Protocol.
                                  • The MS-CHAP Response packet is in a format designed to be compatible with Microsoft Windows NT 3.5 and 3.51, Microsoft Windows 95, and Microsoft LAN Manager 2.x. This format does not require the authenticator to store a clear or reversibly encrypted password.
                                  • MS-CHAP provides an authenticator-controlled authentication retry mechanism.
                                  • MS-CHAP provides an authenticator-controlled change password mechanism.
                                  • MS-CHAP defines a set of “reason-for failure” codes returned in the Failure packet message field.

                                  Depending on the security protocols you have implemented, PPP authentication using MS-CHAP can be used with or without AAA security services. If you have enabled AAA, PPP authentication using MS-CHAP can be used in conjunction with both TACACS+ and RADIUS. The table below lists the vendor-specific RADIUS attributes (IETF Attribute 26) that enable RADIUS to support MS-CHAP.

                                  Table 9 Vendor-Specific RADIUS Attributes for MS-CHAP

                                  Vendor-ID

                                  Number

                                  Vendor-Type

                                  Number

                                  Vendor-Proprietary Attribute

                                  Description

                                  311

                                  11

                                  MSCHAP-Challenge

                                  Contains the challenge sent by a network access server to an MS-CHAP user. It can be used in both Access-Request and Access-Challenge packets.

                                  211

                                  11

                                  MSCHAP-Response

                                  Contains the response value provided by a PPP MS-CHAP user in response to the challenge. It is only used in Access-Request packets. This attribute is identical to the PPP CHAP Identifier.

                                  Defining PPP Authentication using MS-CHAP

                                  To define PPP authentication using MS-CHAP, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:

                                  SUMMARY STEPS

                                    1.    Device(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

                                    2.    Device(config-if)# ppp authentication ms-chap [if-needed] [list-name | default] [callin] [one-time]


                                  DETAILED STEPS
                                      Command or Action Purpose
                                    Step 1 Device(config-if)# encapsulation ppp
                                     

                                    Enables PPP encapsulation.

                                     
                                    Step 2 Device(config-if)# ppp authentication ms-chap [if-needed] [list-name | default] [callin] [one-time]
                                     

                                    Defines PPP authentication using MS-CHAP.

                                     
                                    What to Do Next

                                    If you configure ppp authentication ms-chap on an interface, all incoming calls on that interface that initiate a PPP connection will have to be authenticated using MS-CHAP. If you configure the ppp authentication command with the callin keyword, the access server will only authenticate the remote device if the remote device initiated the call.

                                    Authentication method lists and the one-time keyword are only available if you have enabled AAA—they will not be available if you are using TACACS or extended TACACS. If you specify the name of an authentication method list with the ppp authentication command, PPP will attempt to authenticate the connection using the methods defined in the specified method list. If AAA is enabled and no method list is defined by name, PPP will attempt to authenticate the connection using the methods defined as the default. The ppp authentication command with the one-time keyword enables support for one-time passwords during authentication.

                                    The if-needed keyword is only available if you are using TACACS or extended TACACS. The ppp authentication command with the if-needed keyword means that PPP will only authenticate the remote device via MS-CHAP if that device has not yet authenticated during the life of the current call. If the remote device authenticated through a standard login procedure and initiated PPP from the EXEC prompt, PPP will not authenticate through MS-CHAP if ppp authentication chap if-needed is configured.


                                    Note


                                    If PPP authentication using MS-CHAP is used with username authentication, you must include the MS-CHAP secret in the local username/password database. For more information about username authentication, refer to the “Establish Username Authentication” section.


                                    Authentication Examples

                                    RADIUS Authentication Examples

                                    This section provides two sample configurations using RADIUS.

                                    The following example shows how to configure the device to authenticate and authorize using RADIUS:

                                    aaa authentication login radius-login group radius local
                                    aaa authentication ppp radius-ppp if-needed group radius
                                    aaa authorization exec default group radius if-authenticated
                                    aaa authorization network default group radius
                                    line 3
                                    login authentication radius-login
                                    interface serial 0
                                    ppp authentication radius-ppp
                                    

                                    The lines in this sample RADIUS authentication and authorization configuration are defined as follows:

                                    • The aaa authentication login radius-login group radius local command configures the device to use RADIUS for authentication at the login prompt. If RADIUS returns an error, the user is authenticated using the local database.
                                    • The aaa authentication ppp radius-ppp if-needed group radius command configures the Cisco software to use PPP authentication using CHAP or PAP if the user has not already logged in. If the EXEC facility has authenticated the user, PPP authentication is not performed.
                                    • The aaa authorization exec default group radius if-authenticated command queries the RADIUS database for information that is used during EXEC authorization, such as autocommands and privilege levels, but only provides authorization if the user has successfully authenticated.
                                    • The aaa authorization network default group radius command queries RADIUS for network authorization, address assignment, and other access lists.
                                    • The login authentication radius-login command enables the radius-login method list for line 3.
                                    • The ppp authentication radius-ppp command enables the radius-ppp method list for serial interface 0.

                                    The following example shows how to configure the device to prompt for and verify a username and password, authorize the user’s EXEC level, and specify it as the method of authorization for privilege level 2. In this example, if a local username is entered at the username prompt, that username is used for authentication.

                                    If the user is authenticated using the local database, EXEC authorization using RADIUS will fail because no data is saved from the RADIUS authentication. The method list also uses the local database to find an autocommand. If there is no autocommand, the user becomes the EXEC user. If the user then attempts to use commands that are set at privilege level 2, TACACS+ is used to attempt to authorize the command.

                                    aaa authentication login default group radius local
                                    aaa authorization exec default group radius local
                                    aaa authorization command 2 default group tacacs+ if-authenticated 
                                    radius-server host 192.0.2.3 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646
                                    radius-server attribute 44 include-in-access-req
                                    radius-server attribute 8 include-in-access-req
                                    

                                    The lines in this sample RADIUS authentication and authorization configuration are defined as follows:

                                    • The aaa authentication login default group radius local command specifies that the username and password are verified by RADIUS or, if RADIUS is not responding, by the device’s local user database.
                                    • The aaa authorization exec default group radius localcommand specifies that RADIUS authentication information be used to set the user’s EXEC level if the user authenticates with RADIUS. If no RADIUS information is used, this command specifies that the local user database be used for EXEC authorization.
                                    • The aaa authorization command 2 default group tacacs+ if-authenticated command specifies TACACS+ authorization for commands set at privilege level 2, if the user has already successfully authenticated.
                                    • The radius-server host 172.16.71.146 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 command specifies the IP address of the RADIUS server host, the UDP destination port for authentication requests, and the UDP destination port for accounting requests.
                                    • The radius-server attribute 44 include-in-access-req command sends RADIUS attribute 44 (Acct-Session-ID) in access-request packets.
                                    • The radius-server attribute 8 include-in-access-req command sends RADIUS attribute 8 (Framed-IP-Address) in access-request packets.

                                    TACACS Authentication Examples

                                    The following example shows how to configure TACACS+ as the security protocol to be used for PPP authentication:

                                    aaa new-model
                                    aaa authentication ppp test group tacacs+ local
                                    interface serial 0
                                    ppp authentication chap pap test
                                    tacacs-server host 192.0.2.3
                                    tacacs-server key goaway
                                    

                                    The lines in this sample TACACS+ authentication configuration are defined as follows:

                                    • The aaa new-model command enables the AAA security services.
                                    • The aaa authentication command defines a method list, “test,” to be used on serial interfaces running PPP. The keywords group tacacs+ means that authentication will be done through TACACS+. If TACACS+ returns an ERROR of some sort during authentication, the keyword local indicates that authentication will be attempted using the local database on the network access server.
                                    • The interface command selects the line.
                                    • The ppp authentication command applies the test method list to this line.
                                    • The tacacs-server host command identifies the TACACS+ daemon as having an IP address of 192.0.2.3.
                                    • The tacacs-server key command defines the shared encryption key to be “goaway.”

                                    The following example shows how to configure AAA authentication for PPP:

                                    aaa authentication ppp default if-needed group tacacs+ local
                                    

                                    In this example, the keyword default means that PPP authentication is applied by default to all interfaces. The if-needed keyword means that if the user has already authenticated by going through the ASCII login procedure, then PPP is not necessary and can be skipped. If authentication is needed, the keywords group tacacs+ means that authentication will be done through TACACS+. If TACACS+ returns an ERROR of some sort during authentication, the keyword local indicates that authentication will be attempted using the local database on the network access server.

                                    The following example shows how to create the same authentication algorithm for PAP, but it calls the method list “MIS-access” instead of “default”:

                                    aaa authentication ppp MIS-access if-needed group tacacs+ local
                                    interface serial 0
                                    ppp authentication pap MIS-access
                                    

                                    In this example, because the list does not apply to any interfaces (unlike the default list, which applies automatically to all interfaces), the administrator must select interfaces to which this authentication scheme should apply by using the interface command. The administrator must then apply this method list to those interfaces by using the ppp authentication command.

                                    Kerberos Authentication Examples

                                    To specify Kerberos as the login authentication method, use the following command:

                                    aaa authentication login default krb5
                                    

                                    To specify Kerberos authentication for PPP, use the following command:

                                    aaa authentication ppp default krb5

                                    AAA Scalability Example

                                    The following example shows a general security configuration using AAA with RADIUS as the security protocol. In this example, the network access server is configured to allocate 16 background processes to handle AAA requests for PPP.

                                    aaa new-model
                                    radius-server host alcatraz
                                    radius-server key myRaDiUSpassWoRd
                                    radius-server configure-nas
                                    username root password ALongPassword
                                    aaa authentication ppp dialins group radius local
                                    aaa authentication login admins local
                                    aaa authorization network default group radius local
                                    aaa accounting network default start-stop group radius
                                    aaa processes 16
                                    line 1 16
                                     autoselect ppp
                                     autoselect during-login
                                     login authentication admins
                                     modem dialin
                                    interface group-async 1
                                     group-range 1 16
                                     encapsulation ppp
                                     ppp authentication pap dialins
                                    

                                    The lines in this sample RADIUS AAA configuration are defined as follows:

                                    • The aaa new-model command enables AAA network security services.
                                    • The radius-server host command defines the name of the RADIUS server host.
                                    • The radius-server key command defines the shared secret text string between the network access server and the RADIUS server host.
                                    • The radius-server configure-nas command defines that the Cisco device or access server will query the RADIUS server for static routes and IP pool definitions when the device first starts up.
                                    • The username command defines the username and password to be used for the PPP Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) caller identification.
                                    • The aaa authentication ppp dialins group radius local command defines the authentication method list “dialins,” which specifies that RADIUS authentication, then (if the RADIUS server does not respond) local authentication will be used on serial lines using PPP.
                                    • The aaa authentication login admins local command defines another method list, “admins,” for login authentication.
                                    • The aaa authorization network default group radius local command is used to assign an address and other network parameters to the RADIUS user.
                                    • The aaa accounting network default start-stop group radius command tracks PPP usage.
                                    • The aaa processes command allocates 16 background processes to handle AAA requests for PPP.
                                    • The line command switches the configuration mode from global configuration to line configuration and identifies the specific lines being configured.
                                    • The autoselect ppp command configures the Cisco IOS software to allow a PPP session to start up automatically on these selected lines.
                                    • The autoselect during-login command is used to display the username and password prompt without pressing the Return key. After the user logs in, the autoselect function (in this case, PPP) begins.
                                    • The login authentication admins command applies the “admins” method list for login authentication.
                                    • The modem dialin command configures modems attached to the selected lines to only accept incoming calls.
                                    • The interface group-async command selects and defines an asynchronous interface group.
                                    • The group-range command defines the member asynchronous interfaces in the interface group.
                                    • The encapsulation ppp command sets PPP as the encapsulation method used on the specified interfaces.
                                    • The ppp authentication pap dialinscommand applies the “dialins” method list to the specified interfaces.

                                    Example: Configuring Login and Failed-Login Banners for AAA Authentication

                                    The following example shows how to configure a login banner that is displayed when a user logs in to the system, (in this case, the phrase “Unauthorized Access Prohibited”). The asterisk (*) is used as the delimiting character. RADIUS is specified as the default login authentication method.

                                    Device> enable
                                    Device# configure terminal
                                    Device(config)# aaa new-model
                                    Device(config)# aaa authentication banner *Unauthorized Access Prohibited*
                                    Device(config)# aaa authentication login default group radius
                                    

                                    This configuration displays the following login banner:

                                    Unauthorized Access Prohibited
                                    Username:
                                    

                                    The following example shows how to configure a failed-login banner that is displayed when a user tries to log in to the system and fails, (in this case, the phrase “Failed login. Try again”). The asterisk (*) is used as the delimiting character. RADIUS is specified as the default login authentication method.

                                    Device> enable
                                    Device# configure terminal
                                    Device(config)# aaa new-model
                                    Device(config)# aaa authentication banner *Unauthorized Access Prohibited*
                                    Device(config)# aaa authentication fail-message *Failed login. Try again.*
                                    Device(config)# aaa authentication login default group radius
                                    

                                    This configuration displays the following login and failed-login banner:

                                    Unauthorized Access Prohibited
                                    Username: 
                                    Password: 
                                    Failed login. Try again.

                                    AAA Packet of Disconnect Server Key Example

                                    The following example shows how to configure POD (packet of disconnect), which terminates connections on the network access server (NAS) when particular session attributes are identified.

                                    aaa new-model
                                    aaa authentication ppp default radius
                                    aaa accounting network default start-stop radius
                                    aaa accounting delay-start
                                    aaa pod server server-key xyz123
                                    radius-server host 192.0.2.3 non-standard
                                    radius-server key rad123

                                    Double Authentication Examples

                                    The examples in this section illustrate possible configurations to be used with double authentication. Your configurations could differ significantly, depending on your network and security requirements.


                                    Note


                                    These configuration examples include specific IP addresses and other specific information. This information is for illustration purposes only: your configuration will use different IP addresses, different usernames and passwords, and different authorization statements.


                                    Configuration of the Local Host for AAA with Double Authentication Examples

                                    These two examples show how to configure a local host to use AAA for PPP and login authentication, and for network and EXEC authorization. An example each is shown for RADIUS and for TACACS+.

                                    In both the examples, the first three lines configure AAA with a specific server as the AAA server. The next two lines configure AAA for PPP and login authentication, and the last two lines configure network and EXEC authorization. The last line is necessary only if the access-profile command will be executed as an autocommand.

                                    The following example shows device configuration with a RADIUS AAA server:

                                    aaa new-model
                                    radius-server host secureserver
                                    radius-server key myradiuskey
                                    aaa authentication ppp default group radius
                                    aaa authentication login default group radius
                                    aaa authorization network default group radius
                                    aaa authorization exec default group radius
                                    

                                    The following example shows device configuration with a TACACS+ server:

                                    aaa new-model
                                    tacacs-server host security
                                    tacacs-server key mytacacskey
                                    aaa authentication ppp default group tacacs+
                                    aaa authentication login default group tacacs+
                                    aaa authorization network default group tacacs+
                                    aaa authorization exec default group tacacs+

                                    Configuration of the AAA Server for First-Stage PPP Authentication and Authorization Example

                                    This example shows a configuration on the AAA server. A partial sample AAA configuration is shown for RADIUS.

                                    TACACS+ servers can be configured similarly. See Complete Configuration with TACACS Example for more information.

                                    This example defines authentication/authorization for a remote host named “hostx” that will be authenticated by CHAP in the first stage of double authentication. Note that the ACL AV pair limits the remote host to Telnet connections to the local host. The local host has the IP address 10.0.0.2.

                                    The following example shows a partial AAA server configuration for RADIUS:

                                    hostx   Password = “welcome”
                                            User-Service-Type = Framed-User,
                                            Framed-Protocol = PPP,
                                            cisco-avpair = “lcp:interface-config=ip unnumbered ethernet 0”,
                                            cisco-avpair = “ip:inacl#3=permit tcp any 172.21.114.0 0.0.0.255 eq telnet”,
                                            cisco-avpair = “ip:inacl#4=deny icmp any any”,
                                            cisco-avpair = “ip:route#5=10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0”,
                                            cisco-avpair = “ip:route#6=10.10.0.0 255.0.0.0”,
                                            cisco-avpair = “ipx:inacl#3=deny any”

                                    Configuration of the AAA Server for Second-Stage Per-User Authentication and Authorization Examples

                                    This section contains partial sample AAA configurations on a RADIUS server. These configurations define authentication and authorization for a user (Pat) with the username “patuser,” who will be user-authenticated in the second stage of double authentication.

                                    TACACS+ servers can be configured similarly. See Complete Configuration with TACACS Example for more information.

                                    Three examples show sample RADIUS AAA configurations that could be used with each of the three forms of the access-profile command.

                                    The first example shows a partial sample AAA configuration that works with the default form (no keywords) of the access-profile command. Note that only ACL AV pairs are defined. This example also sets up the access-profile command as an autocommand.

                                    patuser   Password = “welcome”
                                              User-Service-Type = Shell-User,
                                              cisco-avpair = “shell:autocmd=access-profile”
                                              User-Service-Type = Framed-User,
                                              Framed-Protocol = PPP,
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:inacl#3=permit tcp any host 10.0.0.2 eq telnet”,
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:inacl#4=deny icmp any any”
                                    

                                    The second example shows a partial sample AAA configuration that works with the access-profile merge form of the access-profile command. This example also sets up the access-profile merge command as an autocommand.

                                    patuser   Password = “welcome”
                                              User-Service-Type = Shell-User,
                                              cisco-avpair = “shell:autocmd=access-profile merge”
                                              User-Service-Type = Framed-User,
                                              Framed-Protocol = PPP,
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:inacl#3=permit tcp any any”
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:route=10.0.0.0 255.255.0.0",
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:route=10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0",
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:route=10.2.0.0 255.255.0.0"
                                    

                                    The third example shows a partial sample AAA configuration that works with the access-profile replace form of the access-profile command. This example also sets up the access-profile replace command as an autocommand.

                                    patuser   Password = “welcome”
                                              User-Service-Type = Shell-User,
                                              cisco-avpair = “shell:autocmd=access-profile replace”
                                              User-Service-Type = Framed-User,
                                              Framed-Protocol = PPP,
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:inacl#3=permit tcp any any”,
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:inacl#4=permit icmp any any”,
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:route=10.10.0.0 255.255.0.0",
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:route=10.11.0.0 255.255.0.0",
                                              cisco-avpair = “ip:route=10.12.0.0 255.255.0.0"

                                    Complete Configuration with TACACS Example

                                    This example shows TACACS+ authorization profile configurations both for the remote host (used in the first stage of double authentication) and for specific users (used in the second stage of double authentication). This TACACS+ example contains approximately the same configuration information as shown in the previous RADIUS examples.

                                    This sample configuration shows authentication/authorization profiles on the TACACS+ server for the remote host “hostx” and for three users, with the usernames “pat_default,” “pat_merge,” and “pat_replace.” The configurations for these three usernames illustrate different configurations that correspond to the three different forms of the access-profile command. The three user configurations also illustrate setting up the autocommand for each form of the access-profile command.

                                    The figure below shows the topology. The example that follows the figure shows a TACACS+ configuration file.

                                    Figure 3. Example Topology for Double Authentication

                                    This sample configuration shows authentication/authorization profiles on the TACACS+ server for the remote host “hostx” and for three users, with the usernames “pat_default,” “pat_merge,” and “pat_replace.”

                                    key = “mytacacskey”
                                    default authorization = permit
                                    #-----------------------------Remote Host (BRI)-------------------------
                                    #
                                    # This allows the remote host to be authenticated by the local host
                                    # during fist-stage authentication, and provides the remote host
                                    # authorization profile.
                                    #
                                    #-----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    user = hostx
                                    {
                                        login = cleartext “welcome”
                                        chap = cleartext “welcome”
                                        service = ppp protocol = lcp {
                                                    interface-config=”ip unnumbered ethernet 0"
                                        }
                                        service = ppp protocol = ip {
                                                # It is important to have the hash sign and some string after
                                                # it. This indicates to the NAS that you have a per-user
                                                # config.
                                                inacl#3=”permit tcp any 172.21.114.0 0.0.0.255 eq telnet”
                                                inacl#4=”deny icmp any any”
                                                route#5=”10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0"
                                                route#6=”10.10.0.0 255.0.0.0"
                                        }
                                        service = ppp protocol = ipx {
                                                # see previous comment about the hash sign and string, in protocol = ip
                                                inacl#3=”deny any”
                                        }
                                    }
                                    #------------------- “access-profile” default user “only acls” ------------------
                                    #
                                    # Without arguments, access-profile removes any access-lists it can find
                                    # in the old configuration (both per-user and per-interface), and makes sure
                                    # that the new profile contains ONLY access-list definitions.
                                    #
                                    #--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    user = pat_default
                                    {
                                            login = cleartext “welcome”
                                            chap = cleartext “welcome”
                                            service = exec
                                            {
                                                    # This is the autocommand that executes when pat_default logs in.
                                                    autocmd = “access-profile” 
                                            }
                                            service = ppp protocol = ip {
                                                    # Put whatever access-lists, static routes, whatever
                                                    # here.
                                                    # If you leave this blank, the user will have NO IP
                                                    # access-lists (not even the ones installed prior to
                                                    # this)!
                                                    inacl#3=”permit tcp any host 10.0.0.2 eq telnet”
                                                    inacl#4=”deny icmp any any”
                                            }
                                            service = ppp protocol = ipx {
                                                    # Put whatever access-lists, static routes, whatever
                                                    # here.
                                                    # If you leave this blank, the user will have NO IPX
                                                    # access-lists (not even the ones installed prior to
                                                    # this)!
                                            }
                                    }
                                    #--------------------- “access-profile merge” user ---------------------------
                                    #
                                    # With the 'merge' option, first all old access-lists are removed (as before),
                                    # but then (almost) all AV pairs are uploaded and installed. This will allow
                                    # for uploading any custom static routes, sap-filters, and so on, that the user
                                    # may need in his or her profile. This needs to be used with care, as it leaves
                                    # open the possibility of conflicting configurations.
                                    #
                                    #-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    user = pat_merge
                                    {
                                            login = cleartext “welcome”
                                            chap = cleartext “welcome”
                                            service = exec
                                            {
                                                    # This is the autocommand that executes when pat_merge logs in.
                                                    autocmd = “access-profile merge”
                                            }
                                            service = ppp protocol = ip
                                            {
                                                    # Put whatever access-lists, static routes, whatever
                                                    # here.
                                                    # If you leave this blank, the user will have NO IP
                                                    # access-lists (not even the ones installed prior to
                                                    # this)!
                                                    inacl#3=”permit tcp any any”
                                                    route#2=”10.0.0.0 255.255.0.0"
                                                    route#3=”10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0"
                                                    route#4=”10.2.0.0 255.255.0.0"
                                            }
                                            service = ppp protocol = ipx
                                            {
                                                    # Put whatever access-lists, static routes, whatever
                                                    # here.
                                                    # If you leave this blank, the user will have NO IPX
                                                    # access-lists (not even the ones installed prior to
                                                    # this)!
                                            }
                                    }
                                    #--------------------- “access-profile replace” user ----------------------------
                                    #
                                    # With the 'replace' option, ALL old configuration is removed and ALL new 
                                    # configuration is installed.
                                    #
                                    # One caveat: access-profile checks the new configuration for address-pool and
                                    # address AV pairs. As addresses cannot be renegotiated at this point, the
                                    # command will fail (and complain) when it encounters such an AV pair.
                                    # Such AV pairs are considered to be “invalid” for this context.
                                    #-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    user = pat_replace
                                    {
                                            login = cleartex
                                    t 
                                    “
                                    welcome
                                    ”
                                            chap = cleartext “welcome”
                                            service = exec
                                            {
                                                    # This is the autocommand that executes when pat_replace logs in.
                                                    autocmd = “access-profile replace”
                                            }
                                            service = ppp protocol = ip
                                            {
                                                    # Put whatever access-lists, static routes, whatever
                                                    # here.
                                                    # If you leave this blank, the user will have NO IP
                                                    # access-lists (not even the ones installed prior to
                                                    # this)!
                                                    inacl#3=”permit tcp any any”
                                                    inacl#4=”permit icmp any any”
                                                    route#2=”10.10.0.0 255.255.0.0"
                                                    route#3=”10.11.0.0 255.255.0.0"
                                                    route#4=”10.12.0.0 255.255.0.0"
                                            }
                                            service = ppp protocol = ipx
                                            {
                                                    # put whatever access-lists, static routes, whatever
                                                    # here.
                                                    # If you leave this blank, the user will have NO IPX
                                                    # access-lists (not even the ones installed prior to
                                                    # this)!
                                            }
                                    }

                                    Automated Double Authentication Example

                                    This example shows a complete configuration file for a Cisco 2509 router with automated double authentication configured. The configuration commands that apply to automated double authentication are preceded by descriptions with a double asterisk (**).

                                    Current configuration:
                                    !
                                    version 11.3
                                    no service password-encryption
                                    !
                                    hostname myrouter
                                    !
                                    !
                                    ! **The following AAA commands are used to configure double authentication:
                                    !
                                    ! **The following command enables AAA:
                                    aaa new-model
                                    ! **The following command enables user authentication via the TACACS+ AAA server:
                                    aaa authentication login default group tacacs+
                                    aaa authentication login console none
                                    ! **The following command enables device authentication via the TACACS+ AAA server:
                                    aaa authentication ppp default group tacacs+
                                    ! **The following command causes the remote user’s authorization profile to be
                                    ! downloaded from the AAA server to the Cisco 2509 router when required:
                                    aaa authorization exec default group tacacs+
                                    ! **The following command causes the remote device’s authorization profile to be
                                    ! downloaded from the AAA server to the Cisco 2509 router when required:
                                    aaa authorization network default group tacacs+
                                    enable password mypassword
                                    !
                                    ip host blue 172.21.127.226
                                    ip host green 172.21.127.218
                                    ip host red 172.21.127.114
                                    ip domain-name example.com
                                    ip name-server 172.16.2.75
                                    ! **The following command globally enables automated double authentication:
                                    ip trigger-authentication timeout 60 port 7500
                                    isdn switch-type basic-5ess
                                    !         
                                    !         
                                    interface Ethernet0
                                     ip address 172.21.127.186 255.255.255.248
                                     no ip route-cache
                                     no ip mroute-cache
                                     no keepalive
                                     ntp disable
                                     no cdp enable
                                    !         
                                    interface Virtual-Template1
                                     ip unnumbered Ethernet0
                                     no ip route-cache
                                     no ip mroute-cache
                                    !         
                                    interface Serial0
                                     ip address 172.21.127.105 255.255.255.248
                                     encapsulation ppp
                                     no ip mroute-cache
                                     no keepalive
                                     shutdown 
                                     clockrate 2000000
                                     no cdp enable
                                    !         
                                    interface Serial1
                                     no ip address
                                     no ip route-cache
                                     no ip mroute-cache
                                     shutdown 
                                     no cdp enable
                                    !
                                    ! **Automated double authentication occurs via the ISDN BRI interface BRI0:
                                    interface BRI0
                                     ip unnumbered Ethernet0
                                    ! **The following command turns on automated double authentication at this interface:
                                     ip trigger-authentication
                                    ! **PPP encapsulation is required:
                                     encapsulation ppp
                                     no ip route-cache
                                     no ip mroute-cache
                                     dialer idle-timeout 500
                                     dialer map ip 172.21.127.113 name myrouter 60074
                                     dialer-group 1
                                     no cdp enable
                                    ! **The following command specifies that device authentication occurs via PPP CHAP:
                                     ppp authentication chap
                                    !         
                                    router eigrp 109
                                     network 172.21.0.0
                                     no auto-summary
                                    !         
                                    ip default-gateway 172.21.127.185
                                    no ip classless
                                    ip route 172.21.127.114 255.255.255.255 172.21.127.113
                                    ! **Virtual profiles are required for double authentication to work:
                                    virtual-profile virtual-template 1
                                    dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
                                    no cdp run
                                    ! **The following command defines where the TACACS+ AAA server is:
                                    tacacs-server host 171.69.57.35 port 1049
                                    tacacs-server timeout 90
                                    ! **The following command defines the key to use with TACACS+ traffic (required):
                                    tacacs-server key mytacacskey
                                    snmp-server community public RO
                                    !         
                                    line con 0
                                     exec-timeout 0 0
                                     login authentication console
                                    line aux 0
                                     transport input all
                                    line vty 0 4
                                     exec-timeout 0 0
                                     password lab
                                    !         
                                    end 
                                    

                                    MS-CHAP Example

                                    The following example shows how to configure a Cisco AS5200 Universal Access Server (enabled for AAA and communication with a RADIUS security server) for PPP authentication using MS-CHAP:

                                    aaa new-model
                                    aaa authentication login admins local
                                    aaa authentication ppp dialins group radius local
                                    aaa authorization network default group radius local
                                    aaa accounting network default start-stop group radius
                                    username root password ALongPassword
                                    radius-server host alcatraz
                                    radius-server key myRaDiUSpassWoRd
                                    interface group-async 1
                                     group-range 1 16
                                     encapsulation ppp
                                     ppp authentication ms-chap dialins
                                    line 1 16
                                     autoselect ppp
                                     autoselect during-login
                                     login authentication admins
                                     modem dialin
                                    

                                    The lines in this sample RADIUS AAA configuration are defined as follows:

                                    • The aaa new-model command enables AAA network security services.
                                    • The aaa authentication login admins local command defines another method list, “admins”, for login authentication.
                                    • The aaa authentication ppp dialins group radius local command defines the authentication method list “dialins,” which specifies that RADIUS authentication then (if the RADIUS server does not respond) local authentication will be used on serial lines using PPP.
                                    • The aaa authorization network default group radius local command is used to assign an address and other network parameters to the RADIUS user.
                                    • The aaa accounting network default start-stop group radius command tracks PPP usage.
                                    • The username command defines the username and password to be used for the PPP Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) caller identification.
                                    • The radius-server host command defines the name of the RADIUS server host.
                                    • The radius-server key command defines the shared secret text string between the network access server and the RADIUS server host.
                                    • The interface group-async command selects and defines an asynchronous interface group.
                                    • The group-range command defines the member asynchronous interfaces in the interface group.
                                    • The encapsulation ppp command sets PPP as the encapsulation method used on the specified interfaces.
                                    • The ppp authentication ms-chap dialins command selects MS-CHAP as the method of PPP authentication and applies the “dialins” method list to the specified interfaces.
                                    • The line command switches the configuration mode from global configuration to line configuration and identifies the specific lines being configured.
                                    • The autoselect ppp command configures the Cisco software to allow a PPP session to start up automatically on these selected lines.
                                    • The autoselect during-login command is used to display the username and password prompt without pressing the Return key. After the user logs in, the autoselect function (in this case, PPP) begins.
                                    • The login authentication admins command applies the “admins” method list for login authentication.
                                    • The modem dialin command configures modems attached to the selected lines to only accept incoming calls.

                                    Additional References

                                    Related Documents

                                    Related Topic

                                    Document Title

                                    Authorization

                                    Configuring Authorization module.

                                    Accounting

                                    Configuring Accounting module.

                                    RADIUS server

                                    Configuring RADIUS module.

                                    TACACS+ server

                                    Configuring TACACS+ module.

                                    Kerberos

                                    Configuring Kerberos module.

                                    Standards and RFCs

                                    Standard/RFC

                                    Title

                                    RFC 2903

                                    Generic AAA Architecture

                                    RFC 2904

                                    AAA Authorization Framework

                                    RFC 2906

                                    AAA Authorization Requirements

                                    RFC 2989

                                    Criteria for Evaluating AAA Protocols for Network Access

                                    RFC 5176

                                    Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

                                    MIBs

                                    MIB

                                    MIBs Link

                                    No new or modified MIBs are supported by this feature, and support for existing MIBs has not been modified by this feature.

                                    To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco IOS releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

                                    http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​go/​mibs

                                    Technical Assistance

                                    Description

                                    Link

                                    The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

                                    http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​cisco/​web/​support/​index.html

                                    Feature Information for Configuring Authentication

                                    The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

                                    Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

                                    Table 10 Feature Information for Configuring Authentication

                                    Feature Name

                                    Releases

                                    Feature Information

                                    AAA Per-User Scalability

                                    12.2(27)SB, 12.2(33)SR, 15.0(1)M

                                    This feature was introduced in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(27)SB.

                                    This feature was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SR.

                                    This feature was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)M.

                                    Change of Authorization (CoA)

                                    12.2(33)SXI4, 15.2(2)T

                                    Depending on your release, the Cisco software supports the RADIUS Change of Authorization (CoA) extensions defined in RFC 5176. COA extensions are typically used in a pushed model and allow for the dynamic reconfiguring of sessions from external authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) or policy servers.

                                    The following commands were introduced: aaa server radius dynamic author, authentication command bounce-port ignore, authentication command disable-port ignore.

                                    Domain Stripping at the Server Group Level

                                    15.2(3)T

                                    The Domain Stripping feature allows domain stripping to be configured at the server group level. Per-server group configuration overrides the global configuration.

                                    The following sections provide information about this feature:

                                    The following command was introduced: domain-stripping.

                                    LDAP integration with Active Directory

                                    15.1(1)T

                                    This feature provides the authentication and authorization support for AAA. LDAP is a standard-based protocol used to access directories. It is based on a client server model similar to RADIUS. LDAP is deployed on Cisco devices to send authentication requests to a central LDAP server that contains all user authentication and network service access information.

                                    The following command was introduced: aaa authentication login default group ldap.