A token bucket is a formal definition of a rate of transfer. It has three components: a burst size, a mean rate, and a time interval (Tc). Although the mean rate is generally represented as bits per second, any two values may be derived from the third by the relation shown as follows:
mean rate = burst size / time interval
Here are some definitions of these terms:
- Mean rate--Also called the committed information rate (CIR), it specifies how much data can be sent or forwarded per unit time on average.
- Burst size--Also called the Committed Burst (Bc) size, it specifies in bits (or bytes) per burst, how much traffic can be sent within a given unit of time to not create scheduling concerns. (For a shaper, such as GTS, it specifies bits per burst; for a policer, such as CAR, it specifies bytes per burst, per second.)
- Time interval--Also called the measurement interval, it specifies the time quantum in seconds per burst.
By definition, over any integral multiple of the interval, the bit rate of the interface will not exceed the mean rate. The bit rate, however, may be arbitrarily fast within the interval.
A token bucket is used to manage a device that regulates the data in a flow. For example, the regulator might be a traffic policer, such as CAR, or a traffic shaper, such as FRTS or GTS. A token bucket itself has no discard or priority policy. Rather, a token bucket discards tokens and leaves to the flow the problem of managing its transmission queue if the flow overdrives the regulator. (Neither CAR nor FRTS and GTS implement either a true token bucket or true leaky bucket.)
In the token bucket metaphor, tokens are put into the bucket at a certain rate. The bucket itself has a specified capacity. If the bucket fills to capacity, newly arriving tokens are discarded. Each token is permission for the source to send a certain number of bits into the network. To send a packet, the regulator must remove from the bucket a number of tokens equal in representation to the packet size.
If not enough tokens are in the bucket to send a packet, the packet either waits until the bucket has enough tokens (in the case of GTS) or the packet is discarded or marked down (in the case of CAR). If the bucket is already full of tokens, incoming tokens overflow and are not available to future packets. Thus, at any time, the largest burst a source can send into the network is roughly proportional to the size of the bucket.
Note that the token bucket mechanism used for traffic shaping has both a token bucket and a data buffer, or queue; if it did not have a data buffer, it would be a policer. For traffic shaping, packets that arrive that cannot be sent immediately are delayed in the data buffer.
For traffic shaping, a token bucket permits burstiness but bounds it. It guarantees that the burstiness is bounded so that the flow will never send faster than the token bucket’s capacity, divided by the time interval, plus the established rate at which tokens are placed in the token bucket. See the following formula:
(token bucket capacity in bits / time interval in seconds) + established rate in bps = maximum flow speed in bps
This method of bounding burstiness also guarantees that the long-term transmission rate will not exceed the established rate at which tokens are placed in the bucket.