Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference
Q through R
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Q through R

Q through R

qos police order parent-first

To change the Quality of Service (QoS) policing action from child first, then parent (the default) to parent first, then child, use the qospoliceorderparent-first command in global configuration mode. To disable the parent-first order and restore the default behavior, use the no form of this command.

qos police order parent-first
no qos police order parent-first

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

If the qospoliceorderparent-firstcommand is not entered, the child policing action is done first, followed by the parent policing action.

Command Modes


Global configuration (#)

Command History

Release

Modification

15.1(1)S

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

Prior to Cisco IOS Release 15.1(1)S, in a hierarchical policing policy map (a parent policy with policing configured under a class that has a child policy also with policing configured), the parent policing action was done first, followed by the child policing action.

Beginning in Cisco IOS Release 15.1(1)S, the order is reversed. By default, the child policing action is done first, followed by the parent policing action. This change applies only to software dataplane policer implementations (Cisco 7200, Cisco 7301, and Cisco 7600 FlexWAN and SIP200 line cards).

This new behavior improves the results for transmit-and-drop actions because the child policing action occurs first. However, if the parent and child policers are performing conflicting mark-and-transmit actions, the parent mark takes effect rather than the child because the parent action happens last.

Use of the qospoliceorderparent-first command is necessary only if you need to revert to the police order that was in effect prior to Release 15.1(1)S.

Examples

The following example shows how to change the police order from child first (default) to parent first, then child:

Router# qos police order parent-first

qos pre-classify

To enable quality of service (QoS) preclassification, use the qospre-classify command in interface configuration mode. To disable the QoS preclassification feature, use the no form of this command.

qos pre-classify
no qos pre-classify

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

QoS preclassification is disabled.

Command Modes


Interface configuration (config-if)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)XE3

This command was introduced.

12.1(5)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1(5)T.

12.2(2)T

This command was implemented on the Cisco 2600 and Cisco 3600 series routers.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This command was implemented on Cisco ASR 1000 series routers.

Usage Guidelines

This command is restricted to tunnel interfaces, virtual templates, and crypto maps. The qospre-classify command is unavailable on all other interface types.

You can enable the qospre-classify command for IP packets only.


Note


QoS preclassification is not supported for all fragmented packets. If a packet is fragmented, each fragment might receive different preclassifications.

Examples

The following example enables the QoS for Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) feature on tunnel interfaces and virtual templates:

Router(config-if)# qos pre-classify

Related Commands

Command

Description

show interfaces

Displays statistics for the interfaces configured on a router or access server.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

qos shape-timer

To specify the Hierarchical Queuing Framework (HQF) shaper-timer interval, use the qos shape-timer command in global configuration mode. To remove the shaper-timer interval setting, and restore the default value, use the no form of this command.

qos shape-timer { 1ms | 4ms }
no qos shape-timer { 1ms | 4ms }

Syntax Description

1ms

Sets the HQF shaper timer to 1 millisecond (ms).

4ms

Sets the HQF shaper timer to the default value of 4 ms.

Command Default

The shaper-timer interval is 4-milliseconds.

Command Modes


        Global configuration (config)
      

Command History

Release Modification
15.1(4)M5

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

By default, the shaper timer uses an interval of 4 ms; however, on high-speed interfaces this setting can lead to a burst at the line rate every 4 ms until the token bucket is exhausted. If there is a low-end device immediately downstream, then packets can be dropped during every burst. To eliminate the unwanted burst behavior, you can reduce the token bucket replenish time from 4 ms to 1 ms using the qos shape-timer command.

To configure the shape-timer interval, first you use qos shape-timer command to set the shaper-timer interval, then you create a QoS service policy that specifies the average shape rate, and finally you apply that policy to an interface. Once the policy has been applied to an interface, the interval that the shaper uses to replenish the token bucket is decided by the parameter you specified using the qos shape-timer command.


Note


The qos shape-timer command is available on all Integrated Services Routers (ISRs) that do not have a hardware assisted timer.

Examples

The following example shows how to create and attach a service policy to an interface and set the shaper-timer interval to 1 ms:

 
Router(config)# policy-map myservicepolicy
Router(config-pmap)# class class-default
Router(config-pmap-c)# shape average 256000
Router(config-pmap-c)# exit
Router(config-pmap)# exit
Router(config)# interface gigabitEthernet 0/0 
Router(config-if)# service-policy output myservicepolicy  
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# qos shape-timer 1ms   
      

Related Commands

Command Description

class

Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change, or specifies the default class.

policy-map

Specifies the name of the service policy to configure.

service-policy

Specifies the name of the service policy to be attached to the interface.

shape

Specifies average or peak rate traffic shaping.

queue-depth

To configure the number of incoming packets that the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) process can keep in its queue, use the queue-depth command in router configuration mode. To set the queue depth to its default value, use the no form of the command.

queue-depth { hello | update } { queue-size | unlimited }
no queue-depth { hello | update }

Syntax Description

hello

Specifies the queue depth of the OSPF hello process.

update

Specifies the queue depth of the OSPF router process queue.

queue-size

Maximum number of packets in the queue. The range is 1 to 2147483647.

unlimited

Specifies an infinite queue depth.

Command Default

If you do not set a queue size, the OSPF hello process queue depth is unlimited and the OSPF router process (update) queue depth is 200 packets.

Command Modes


Router configuration (config-router)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(25)S

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

All incoming OSPF packets are initially enqueued in the hello queue. OSPF hello packets are processed directly from this queue, while all other OSPF packet types are subsequently enqueued in the update queue.

If you configure a router with many neighbors and a large database, use the queue-depth command to adjust the size of the hello and router queues. Otherwise, packets might be dropped because of queue limits, and OSPF adjacencies may be lost.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure the OSPF update queue to 1500 packets:

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)# router ospf 1
Router(config-router)# queue-depth update 1500

Related Commands

Command

Description

queue-limit

Specifies or modifies the queue limit (size) for a class in bytes, milliseconds (ms), or packets.

queue-list queue limit

Designates the queue length limit for a queue.

queue-limit

To specify or modify the queue limit (size) for a class in bytes, milliseconds (ms), microseconds (us) or packets, use the queue-limit command in QoS policy-map class configuration mode. To remove the queue limit from a class, use the no form of this command.

queue-limit queue-limit-size [ bytes | ms | us | packets ]
no queue-limit

Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router

queue-limit queue-limit-size [ bytes | packets ]
no queue-limit

Cisco 7600 Series Routers

queue-limit queue-limit-size [ packets]
no queue-limit

Syntax Description

queue-limit-size

The maximum size of the queue. The maximum varies according to the optional unit of measure keyword specified (bytes, ms, us, or packets).

Note    If an optional unit of measure is not specified, the default unit of measure depends on the platform.
Note    For Cisco ASR 1000 Aggregation Services Routers, bytes is the preferred mode.

bytes

(Optional) Indicates that the unit of measure is bytes. Valid range for bytes is a number from 1 to 8192000.

Note    The bytes keyword is not supported on Cisco 7600 series routers.
Note    For Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers, the valid range for bytes is a number from 1 to 64000000.

ms

(Optional) Indicates that the unit of measure is milliseconds. Valid range for milliseconds is a number from 1 to 3400.

Note    The ms keyword is not supported on Cisco 7600 and ASR 1000 series routers.

us

(Optional) Indicates that the unit of measure is microseconds. Valid range for microseconds is a number from 1 to 512000.

packets

(Optional) Indicates that the unit of measure is packets. Valid range for packets is a number from 1 to 32768 but can also vary by platform and release as follows:

  • For ESR-PRE1--The queue size limit for packets is a number from 32 to 16384; the number must be a power of 2. If the number that you specify is not a power of 2, the router converts the number to the nearest power of 2.
  • For Cisco IOS Release 12.2(15)BX, 12.2(16)BX, and later releases--The queue size limit for packets is a number from 32 to 16384. The number does not need to be a power of 2.
  • For Cisco IOS Release 12.3(7)XI and later releases--If the interface has less than 500 MB of memory, the queue size limit for packets is a number from 8 to 4096; the number must be a power of 2. If the interface has more than 500 MB of memory, the queue-limit-size for packets is a number from 128 to 64000 and must be a power of 2; if it is not, the router converts the number to the nearest power of 2.
  • For Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB2 and later releases--The queue size limit for packets is a number from 16 to 32767.
  • For Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1 and later releases--The queue size limit for packets is a number from 1 to 8192000.

Command Default

The default behavior of the queue-limit command for class queues with and without Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) is as follows:

  • Class queues with WRED--The router uses the default queue limit of two times the largest WRED maximum threshold value, rounded to the nearest power of 2.

    Note


    For Cisco IOS Release 12.2(16)BX, the router does not round the value to the nearest power of 2.
  • Priority queues and class queues without WRED--The router has buffers for up to 50 ms of 256-byte packets at line rate, but not fewer than 32 packets.

Command Modes


QoS policy-map class configuration (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(5)T

This command was introduced.

12.0(5)XE

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(5)XE. Support for VIP-enabled Cisco 7500 series routers was added.

12.0(17)SL

This command was implemented on the Cisco 10000 series router.

12.1(5)T

This command was implemented on the VIP-enabled Cisco 7500 series routers.

12.2(16)BX

This command was implemented on the ESR-PRE2.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.3(7)XI

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.3(7)XI.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

12.4(20)T

The following argument and keyword combinations were added:

  • queue-limit-size bytes
  • queue-limit-size ms
  • queue-limit-size packets
Note    The bytes keyword is not supported on Cisco 7600 series routers, and the ms keyword is not supported on Cisco 7600 and ASR 1000 Series Routers.

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This command was implemented on Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers.

15.0(1)S1

This command was modified to improve qlimit and min/max threshold calculation.

15.0(1)M5

This command was modified. Hierarchical Queueing Framework (HQF) capability was improved.

15.2(2)T

This command was modified. The us keyword was added. The default unit of measure changed from packets to a platform-dependent unit.

Usage Guidelines

Weighted Fair Queueing

Weighted fair queueing (WFQ) creates a queue for every class for which a class map is defined. Packets that satisfy the match criterion for a class accumulate in the queue reserved for the class until they are sent, which occurs when the queue is serviced by the fair queueing process. When the maximum packet threshold that you defined for the class is reached, enqueueing of any further packets to the class queue causes tail drop or, if WRED is configured for the class policy, packet drop to take effect.

Changes in Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S1

Prior to Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S1, if no queue limit was configured, the queue limit for the current class was based on the parent values for available buffers and current class allocated bandwidth. In the implicit WRED min/max scenario, thresholds were calculated from the available buffers.

Thresholds were calculated from the available aggregate queue limit for each class. The WRED min/max threshold values would not be adjusted if there was a user-defined queue-limit configuration. The min/max threshold would still be derived from the "visible_bw" value seen by this traffic class. The WRED functionality could fail because of this inconsistent qlimit and min/max threshold calculation.

Beginning in Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S1, the queue limit is always calculated from the parent queue limit and allocated bandwidth in the current class. When you use the queue-limit command to explicitly configure the values, these values are used as the definition of the queue limit.

To ensure optimum functionality, use the queue-limit command to configure the proper min/max threshold for each WRED class based on the queue-limit configuration.

Changes in Cisco IOS Release 15.2(2)T

Prior to Cisco IOS Release 15.2(2)T, if the optional unit of measure was not specified, the unit of measure used was packets. Beginning in Cisco IOS Release 15.2(2)T, if the optional unit of measure is not specified, the unit used depends on the platform.

Overriding Queue Limits Set by the bandwidth Command

Use the bandwidth command with the modular quality of service (QoS) CLI) (MQC) to specify the bandwidth for a particular class. When used with MQC, the bandwidth command has a default queue limit for the class. This queue limit can be modified using the queue-limit command, thereby overriding the default set by the bandwidth command.


Note


Using the queue-limit command to modify the default queue limit is especially important for higher-speed interfaces, in order to meet the minimum bandwidth guarantees required by the interface.

Prior to the deployment of the Hierarchical Queueing Framework (HQF), the default maximum queue limit on a subinterface was 512 if no hold queue was configured on the main interface.

As part of HQF, this restriction was removed beginning in Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)M5. Now the maximum queue limit can be set as high as the hold-queue size on the main interface.

If no hold queue is configured on the main interface, the aggregate queue limit can go up to 1000. If the hold-queue is explicitly configured on the main interface, then the aggregate queue limit can go up to the hold-queue value. There is no limit per subinterface.

The maximum configurable hold-queue value of 4096 was increased to 240,000 for users who want to configure higher aggregate queue-limit values. However, configuring high queue-limit and hold-queue values is not recommended.

Examples

The following example configures a policy map called policy11. The policy11 policy map contains a class called acl203. The policy map for this class is configured so that the queue reserved for the class has a maximum queue size of 40 packets.

Router(config)# policy-map policy11
Router(config-pmap)# class acl203
Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 2000
Router(config-pmap-c)# queue-limit 40 packets

Related Commands

Command

Description

bandwidth

Specifies the maximum aggregate bandwidth for H.323 traffic and verifies the available bandwidth of the destination gatekeeper.

class (policy-map)

Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change, and the default class (commonly known as the class-default class) before you configure its policy.

class class-default

Specifies the default traffic class whose bandwidth is to be configured or modified.

policy-map

Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more interfaces to specify a service policy.

queue-limit atm clp

To specify the maximum size (in cells, microseconds, or milliseconds) of a queue for a specific traffic class, use the queue-limitatmclp command in policy-map class configuration mode. To remove the queue limit atm cell loss priority (clp) value from a class, use the no form of this command.

queue-limit atm clp queue-size { cells | ms | us }
no queue-limit atm clp

Syntax Description

queue-size

Threshold value. The range is 1-262144.

cells | ms | us

Unit of measure for the queue size; ms = milliseconds; us = microseconds.

Command Default

No default behavior or values

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(30)S

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

You can use the queue-limitatmclpcommand only with other queuing features, such as weighted fair queuing (WFQ). WFQ creates a queue for every class for which you define a class map. You can apply the policy map that you created with the atm clp based queue-limit command only to ATM interfaces on Cisco 12000 Series Routers.

Use the queue-limitatmclp command only after you have issued the queue-limitcommand using the same traffic class.

Use the noqueue-limit command to remove both the global queue-limit queue-size value and the queue-limit atm clp queue-size value if you configured it.

Packets satisfying the match criteria for a class accumulate in the queue reserved for the class until they are sent, which occurs when the queue is serviced by the weighted fair queuing process. When the defined maximum packet threshold for the class is reached, enqueuing of additional packets to the class queue causes tail drop.

You can specify the CLP queue-limit threshold in cells, milliseconds (ms), or microseconds (us). However, the unit of measure cannot be mixed. For example, if you specify the CLP queue-limit threshold in milliseconds, then you must also specify the global queue-limit threshold in milliseconds.


Note


When you specify the queue-limit threshold as cells, milliseconds, or microseconds, it is internally converted to cells by using the visible bandwidth that is available to the class or the ATM virtual circuit (VC).

Examples

In the following example, a policy map called "POLICY-ATM" has been configured. The "POLICY-ATM" policy map contains a class called "CLASS-ATM". The bandwidth for this class is specified as a percentage (20), and the queue-limit command sets the global queue-limit threshold to 1000 cells. The queue-limitatmclp command sets the queue-limit threshold for ATM CLP data to 100 cells:

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# policy-map POLICY_ATM
Router(config-pmap)# class CLASS-ATM
Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth percent 20
Router(config-pmap-c)# queue-limit 1000 cells
Router(config-pmap-c)# queue-limit atm clp 100 cells
Router(config-pmap-c)# exit

Related Commands

Command

Description

bandwidth (policy-map class)

Specifies or modifies the bandwidth allocated for a class belonging to a policy map.

class class-default

Specifies the default traffic class whose bandwidth is to be configured or modified.

class (policy-map)

Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change, and the default class (commonly known as the class-default class) before you configure its policy.

policy-map

Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more interfaces to specify a service policy.

queue-limit

Specifies or modifies the maximum number of packets the queue can hold for a class configured in a policy map.

queue-list default

To assign a priority queue for those packets that do not match any other rule in the queue list, use the queue-listdefault command in global configuration mode. To restore the default value, use the noform of this command.

queue-list list-number default queue-number
no queue-list list-number default queue-number

Syntax Description

list-number

Number of the queue list. Any number from 1 to 16 that identifies the queue list.

queue-number

Number of the queue. Any number from 1 to 16.

Command Default

Disabled

The default number of the queue list is queue number 1.

Command Modes


Global configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

When you use multiple rules, remember that the system reads the queue-list commands in order of appearance. When classifying a packet, the system searches the list of rules specified by queue-list commands for a matching protocol or interface type. When a match is found, the system assigns the packet to the appropriate queue. The system searches the list in the order specified, and the first matching rule terminates the search.

Queue number 0 is a system queue. It is emptied before any of the other queues are processed. The system enqueues high-priority packets, such as keepalives, to this queue.

Use theshowinterfaces command to display the current status of the output queues.

Examples

In the following example, the default queue for list 10 is set to queue number 2:

queue-list 10 default 2

Related Commands

Command

Description

custom-queue-list

Assigns a custom queue list to an interface.

queue-list interface

Establishes queueing priorities on packets entering on an interface.

queue-list protocol

Establishes queueing priority based on the protocol type.

queue-list queue byte-count

Specifies how many bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during a particular cycle.

queue-list queue limit

Designates the queue length limit for a queue.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

queue-list interface

To establish queueing priorities on packets entering on an interface, use thequeue-listinterface command in global configuration mode. To remove an entry from the list, use the no form of this command.

queue-list list-number interface interface-type interface-number queue-number
no queue-list list-number interface interface-type interface-number queue-number

Syntax Description

list-number

Number of the queue list. Any number from 1 to 16 that identifies the queue list.

interface-type

Type of the interface.

interface-number

Number of the interface.

queue-number

Number of the queue. Any number from 1 to 16.

Command Default

No queueing priorities are established.

Command Modes


Global configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

When you use multiple rules, remember that the system reads the queue-list commands in order of appearance. When classifying a packet, the system searches the list of rules specified by queue-list commands for a matching protocol or interface type. When a match is found, the system assigns the packet to the appropriate queue. The list is searched in the order specified, and the first matching rule terminates the search.

Examples

In the following example, queue list 4 establishes queueing priorities for packets entering on interface tunnel 3. The queue number assigned is 10.

queue-list 4 interface tunnel 3 10

Related Commands

Command

Description

custom-queue-list

Assigns a custom queue list to an interface.

queue-list default

Assigns a priority queue for those packets that do not match any other rule in the queue list.

queue-list protocol

Establishes queueing priority based on the protocol type.

queue-list queue byte-count

Specifies how many bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during a particular cycle.

queue-list queue limit

Designates the queue length limit for a queue.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

queue-list lowest-custom

To set the lowest number for a queue to be treated as a custom queue, use the queue-listlowest-customcommand in global configuration mode. To restore the default value, use the noform of this command.

queue-list list-number lowest-custom queue-number
no queue-list list-number lowest-custom queue-number

Syntax Description

list-number

Number of the queue list. Any number from 1 to 16 that identifies the queue list.

queue-number

Number of the queue. Any number from 1 to 16.

Command Default

The default number of the lowest custom queue is 1.

Command Modes


Global configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

11.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

All queues from queue 0 to the queue prior to the one specified in the queue-listlowest-custom command use the priority queue. (Queue 0 has the highest priority.)

All queues from the one specified in the queue-listlowest-custom command to queue 16 use a round-robin scheduler.

Use theshowqueueingcustomcommand to display the current custom queue configuration.

Examples

In the following example, the lowest custom value is set to 2 for queue list 4:

queue-list 4 lowest-custom 2

Related Commands

Command

Description

custom-queue-list

Assigns a custom queue list to an interface.

queue-list interface

Establishes queueing priorities on packets entering on an interface.

queue-list protocol

Establishes queueing priority based on the protocol type.

queue-list queue byte-count

Specifies how many bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during a particular cycle.

queue-list queue limit

Designates the queue length limit for a queue.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

queue-list protocol

To establish queueing priority based upon the protocol type, use the queue-listprotocol command in global configuration mode. To remove an entry from the list, use the noform of this command.

queue-list list-number protocol protocol-name queue-number queue-keyword keyword-value
no queue-list list-number protocol protocol-name queue-number queue-keyword keyword-value

Syntax Description

list-number

Number of the queue list. Any number from 1 to 16.

protocol-name

Protocol type: aarp, appletalk, arp, bridge (transparent), clns, clns_es, clns_is, cmns, compressedtcp, decnet, decnet_node, decnet_routerl1, decnet_routerl2, dlsw, ip, ipx, pad, rsrb, stun and x25.

queue-number

Number of the queue. Any number from 1 to 16.

queue-keyword keyword-value

Possible keywords are fragments,gt,list,lt,tcp, and udp. See the priority-listprotocol command for more information about this keyword.

Command Default

No queueing priorities are established.

Command Modes


Global configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(13)T

This command was modified to remove apollo, vines, and xns from the list of protocol types. These protocols were removed because Apollo Domain, Banyan VINES, and Xerox Network Systems (XNS) were removed in Release 12.2(13)T.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

When you use multiple rules for a single protocol, remember that the system reads the queue-list commands in order of appearance. When classifying a packet, the system searches the list of rules specified by queue-list commands for a matching protocol. When a match is found, the system assigns the packet to the appropriate queue. The system searches the list in the order specified, and the first matching rule terminates the search.

The decnet_router-l1 keyword refers to the multicast address for all level 1 routers, which are intra-area routers, and the decnet_router-l2 keyword refers to all level 2 routers, which are interarea routers.

The dlsw,rsrb, and stunkeywords refer only to direct encapsulation.

Use the tables listed in the priority-listprotocol command documention to configure the queueing priorities for your system.

Examples

The following example assigns 1 as the custom queue list, specifies DECnet as the protocol type, and assigns 3 as a queue number to the packets sent on this interface:

queue-list 1 protocol decnet 3

The following example assigns DECnet packets with a size greater than 200 bytes to queue number 2:

queue-list 2 protocol decnet 2 gt 200

The following example assigns DECnet packets with a size less than 200 bytes to queue number 2:

queue-list 4 protocol decnet 2 lt 200

The following example assigns traffic that matches IP access list 10 to queue number 1:

queue-list 1 protocol ip 1 list 10

The following example assigns Telnet packets to queue number 2:

queue-list 4 protocol ip 2 tcp 23

The following example assigns User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Domain Name Service packets to queue number 2:

queue-list 4 protocol ip 2 udp 53

The following example assigns traffic that matches Ethernet type code access list 201 to queue number 1:

queue-list 1 protocol bridge 1 list 201

Related Commands

Command

Description

custom-queue-list

Assigns a custom queue list to an interface.

queue-list default

Assigns a priority queue for those packets that do not match any other rule in the queue list.

queue-list queue byte-count

Specifies how many bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during a particular cycle.

queue-list queue limit

Designates the queue length limit for a queue.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

queue-list queue byte-count

To specify how many bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during a particular cycle , use the queue-listqueuebyte-count command in global configuration mode. To return the byte count to the default value, use the no form of this command.

queue-list list-number queue queue-number byte-count byte-count-number
no queue-list list-number queue queue-number byte-count byte-count-number

Syntax Description

list-number

Number of the queue list. Any number from 1 to 16.

queue-number

Number of the queue. Any number from 1 to 16.

byte-count-number

The average number of bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during a particular cycle.

Command Default

This command is disabled by default. The default byte count is 1500 bytes.

Command Modes


Global configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Examples

In the following example, queue list 9 establishes the byte count as 1400 for queue number 10:

queue-list 9 queue 10 byte-count 1400

Related Commands

Command

Description

custom-queue-list

Assigns a custom queue list to an interface.

queue-list default

Assigns a priority queue for those packets that do not match any other rule in the queue list.

queue-list interface

Establishes queueing priorities on packets entering on an interface.

queue-list protocol

Establishes queueing priority based on the protocol type.

queue-list queue byte-count

Specifies how many bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during a particular cycle.

queue-list queue limit

Designates the queue length limit for a queue.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

queue-list queue limit

To designate the queue length limit for a queue, use the queue-listqueuelimit command in global configuration mode. To return the queue length to the default value, use the no form of this command.

queue-list list-number queue queue-number limit limit-number
no queue-list list-number queue queue-number limit limit-number

Syntax Description

list-number

Number of the queue list. Any number from 1 to 16.

queue-number

Number of the queue. Any number from 1 to 16.

limit-number

Maximum number of packets that can be enqueued at any time. The range is from 0 to 32767 queue entries. A value of 0 means that the queue can be of unlimited size.

Command Default

The default queue length limit is 20 entries.

Command Modes


Global configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Examples

In the following example, the queue length of queue 10 is increased to 40:

queue-list 5 queue 10 limit 40

Related Commands

Command

Description

custom-queue-list

Assigns a custom queue list to an interface.

queue-list default

Assigns a priority queue for those packets that do not match any other rule in the queue list.

queue-list interface

Establishes queueing priorities on packets entering on an interface.

queue-list protocol

Establishes queueing priority based on the protocol type.

queue-list queue byte-count

Specifies how many bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during a particular cycle.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

random-detect


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S and Cisco IOS Release 15.1(3)T, the random-detect command is hidden in interface configuration mode. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you enter a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed from interface configuration mode in a future release, which means that you will need to use the appropriate replacement command (or sequence of commands). For more information (including a list of replacement commands), see the "Legacy QoS Command Deprecation" feature document in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

To enable Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) or distributed WRED (dWRED) on an interface, use the random-detect command in interface configuration mode. To configure WRED for a class in a policy map, use the random-detect command in QoS policy-map class configuration mode. To disable WRED or dWRED, use the no form of this command.

random-detect [ dscp-based | prec-based ]
no random-detect

Syntax Description

dscp-based

(Optional) Specifies that WRED is to use the differentiated services code point (DSCP) value when it calculates the drop probability for a packet.

prec-based

(Optional) Specifies that WRED is to use the IP Precedence value when it calculates the drop probability for a packet.

Command Default

WRED and dWRED are disabled by default.

Command Modes


Interface configuration (config-if)
QoS policy-map class configuration (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

11.1CC

This command was introduced.

12.1(5)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1(5)T. Arguments were added to support Differentiated Services (DiffServ) and Assured Forwarding (AF) Per Hop Behavior (PHB).

12.1(5a)E

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1(5a)E in policy map class configuration mode only. This command was implemented on Versatile Interface Processor (VIP)-enabled Cisco 7500 series routers and Catalyst 6000 family switches with a FlexWAN module.

12.0(15)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(15)S in QoS policy-map class configuration mode only.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.

12.0(28)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(28)S in QoS policy map class configuration mode.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB in QoS policy map class configuration mode.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

12.4(20)T

Support was added for hierarchical queueing framework (HQF) using the modular quality of service (QoS) CLI (MQC).

15.0(1)S

This command was modified. This command was hidden in interface configuration mode.

15.1(3)T

This command was modified. This command was hidden in interface configuration mode.

Cisco IOS XE 3.6S

This command was modified. Support was added for the Cisco ASR 903 router.

Usage Guidelines

Keywords

If you choose not to use either the dscp-based or the prec-based keyword, WRED uses the IP Precedence value (the default method) to calculate the drop probability for the packet.

Availability

The random-detect command is not available at the interface level for Cisco IOS Releases 12.1E or 12.0S. The random-detect command is available in policy-map class configuration mode only for Cisco IOS Releases 12.1E, 12.0S, and later releases.

WRED Functionality

WRED is a congestion avoidance mechanism that slows traffic by randomly dropping packets when congestion exists. dWRED is similar to WRED but uses the Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) instead of the Route Switch Processor (RSP). WRED and dWRED are most useful with protocols such as Transport Control Protocol (TCP) that respond to dropped packets by decreasing the transmission rate.

The router automatically determines parameters to use in the WRED calculations. To change these parameters, use the random-detect precedence command.

Platform Support for dWRED

The dWRED feature is supported only on Cisco 7000 series routers with an RSP7000 card and Cisco 7500 series routers with a VIP2-40 or higher interface processor. A VIP2-50 interface processor is strongly recommended when the aggregate line rate of the port adapters on the VIP is greater than DS3. A VIP2-50 interface processor is required for OC-3 rates.

To use dWRED, distributed Cisco Express Forwarding switching must first be enabled on the interface. For more information on distributed Cisco Express Forwarding, refer to the Cisco IOS Switching Services Configuration Guide and the Cisco IOS Switching Services Command Reference .

WRED in a Policy Map

You can configure WRED as part of the policy map for a standard class or the default class. The WRED random-detect command and the weighted fair queueing (WFQ) queue-limit command are mutually exclusive. If you configure WRED, its packet drop capability is used to manage the queue when packets exceeding the configured maximum count are enqueued. If you configure the WFQ queue-limit command, tail drop is used.

To configure a policy map and create class policies, use the policy-map and class (policy-map) commands. When creating a class within a policy map, you can use the random-detect command with either of the following commands:

  • bandwidth (policy-map class)
  • fair-queue (class-default)--for the default class only

Note


If you use WRED packet drop instead of tail drop for one or more classes in a policy map, you must ensure that WRED is not configured on the interface to which you attach that policy map.

Note


dWRED is not supported for classes in a policy map.

Two Methods for Calculating the Drop Probability of a Packet

This command includes two optional keywords, dscp-based and prec-based, that determine the method WRED uses to calculate the drop probability of a packet.

Note the following points when deciding which method to instruct WRED to use:

  • With the dscp-based keyword, WRED uses the DSCP value (that is, the first six bits of the IP type of service (ToS) byte) to calculate the drop probability.
  • With the prec-based keyword, WRED will use the IP Precedence value to calculate the drop probability.
  • The dscp-based and prec-based keywords are mutually exclusive.
  • If neither argument is specified, WRED uses the IP Precedence value to calculate the drop probability (the default method).

Examples

The following example configures WRED on the High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) 0/0/0 interface:

interface Hssi0/0/0
 random-detect

The following example configures the policy map called policy1 to contain policy specification for the class called class1. During times of congestion, WRED packet drop is used instead of tail drop.

! The following commands create the class map called class1:
class-map class1
 match input-interface fastethernet0/1
! The following commands define policy1 to contain policy specification for class1:
policy-map policy1
 class class1
  bandwidth 1000
  random-detect

The following example enables WRED to use the DSCP value 8. The minimum threshold for the DSCP value 8 is 24 and the maximum threshold is 40. This configuration was performed at the interface level.

Router(config)# interface serial0/0
Router(config-if)# random-detect dscp-based
Router(config-if)# random-detect dscp 8 24 40

The following example enables WRED to use the DSCP value 8 for class c1. The minimum threshold for DSCP value 8 is 24 and the maximum threshold is 40. The last line attaches the service policy to the output interface or virtual circuit (VC) p1.

Router(config-if)# class-map c1
Router(config-cmap)# match access-group 101
Router(config-if)# policy-map p1
Router(config-pmap)# class c1
Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 48
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 8 24 40
Router(config-pmap-c)# exit
Router(config-pmap)# exit
Router(config)# interface serial0/0
Router(config-if)# service-policy output p1

Related Commands

Command

Description

bandwidth

Specifies or modifies the bandwidth allocated for a class belonging to a policy map or enables ATM overhead accounting.

class

Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change or specifies the default class (commonly known as the class-default class) before configuring its policy.

fair-queue

Specifies the number of dynamic queues to be reserved for use by the class-default class as part of the default class policy.

policy-map

Creates a policy map that defines a Control Plane Policing and Protection (CoPP) per-user policy.

queue-limit

Specifies or modifies the queue limit (size) for a class in bytes, milliseconds (ms), microseconds (us) or packets.

random-detect dscp

Changes the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the DSCP value.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the WRED and dWRED exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation.

random-detect flow

Enables flow-based WRED.

random-detect precedence

Configures WRED and dWRED parameters for a particular IP Precedence.

show interfaces

Displays statistics for all interfaces configured on the router or access server.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

show tech-support rsvp

Generates a report of all RSVP-related information.

random-detect (per VC)


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.1(3)T, the random-detect(per VC) command is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release. For more information, see the "Legacy QoS Command Deprecation" feature document in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

To enable per-virtual circuit (VC) Weighted Random Early Detection ( WRED) or per-VC VIP-distributed WRED ( DWRED), use the random-detectcommand in VC submode mode. To disable per-VC WRED and per-VC DWRED, use the no form of this command.

random-detect [ attach group-name ]
no random-detect [ attach group-name ]

Syntax Description

attach group-name

(Optional) Name of the WRED or DWRED group.

Command Default

WRED and DWRED are disabled by default.

Command Modes


VC submode

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(3)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.1(3)T

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

WRED is a congestion avoidance mechanism that slows traffic by randomly dropping packets when congestion exists. DWRED is similar to WRED but uses the Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) instead of the Route Switch Processor (RSP). WRED and DWRED are most useful with protocols like TCP that respond to dropped packets by decreasing the transmission rate.

WRED and DWRED are configurable at the interface and per-VC levels. The VC-level WRED or DWRED configuration will override the interface-level configuration if WRED or DWRED is also configured at the interface level.

Use this command to configure a single ATM VC or a VC that is a member of a bundle.

Note the following points when using the random-detect(per VC) command:

  • If you use this command without the optional attach keyword, default WRED or DWRED parameters (such as minimum and maximum thresholds) are used.
  • If you use this command with the optional attach keyword, the parameters defined by the specified WRED or DWRED parameter group are used. (WRED or DWRED parameter groups are defined through the random-detect-group command.) If the specified WRED or DWRED group does not exist, the VC is configured with default WRED or DWRED parameters.

When this command is used to configure an interface-level WRED or DWRED group to include per-VC WRED or DWRED as a drop policy, the configured WRED or DWRED group parameters are inherited under the following conditions:

  • All existing VCs--including Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) switched virtual circuits (SVCs) that are not specifically configured with a VC-level WRED or DWRED group--will inherit the interface-level WRED or DWRED group parameters.
  • Except for the VC used for signalling and the Interim Local Management Interface (ILMI) VC, any VCs created after the configuration of an interface-level DWRED group will inherit the parameters.

When an interface-level WRED or DWRED group configuration is removed, per-VC WRED or DWRED parameters are removed from any VC that inherited them from the configured interface-level WRED or DWRED group.

When an interface-level WRED or DWRED group configuration is modified, per-VC WRED or DWRED parameters are modified accordingly if the WRED or DWRED parameters were inherited from the configured interface-level WRED or DWRED group configuration.

This command is only supported on interfaces that are capable of VC-level queueing. The only currently supported interface is the Enhanced ATM port adapter (PA-A3).

The DWRED feature is only supported on Cisco 7000 series routers with an RSP7000 card and Cisco 7500 series routers with a VIP2-40 or greater interface processor. A VIP2-50 interface processor is strongly recommended when the aggregate line rate of the port adapters on the VIP is greater than DS3. A VIP2-50 interface processor is required for OC-3 rates.

To use DWRED, distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (dCEF) switching must first be enabled on the interface. For more information on dCEF, refer to the Cisco IOS Switching Services Configuration Guide and the Cisco IOS Switching Services Command Reference.

Examples

The following example configures per-VC WRED for the permanent virtual circuit (PVC) called cisco. Because the attach keyword was not used, WRED uses default parameters.

pvc cisco 46 
 random-detect 

The following example creates a DWRED group called Rome and then applies the parameter group to an ATM PVC:

! The following commands create the DWRED parameter group Rome:
random-detect-group Rome
 precedence rsvp 46 50 10
 precedence 1 32 50 10
 precedence 2 34 50 10
 precedence 3 36 50 10
 precedence 4 38 50 10
 precedence 5 40 50 10
 precedence 6 42 50 10
 precedence 7 44 50 10
 exit
exit
! The following commands create a PVC on an ATM interface and then apply the 
! DWRED group Rome to that PVC: 
interface ATM2/0.23 point-to-point
 ip address 10.9.23.10 255.255.255.0
 no ip mroute-cache
 pvc vc1 201/201 
  random-detect attach Rome
  vbr-nrt 2000 1000 200
  encapsulation aal5snap

The following showqueueing command displays the current settings for each of the IP Precedences following configuration of per-VC DWRED:

Router# show queueing random-detect interface atm2/0.23 vc 201/201
random-detect group Rome:
exponential weight 9
class    min-threshold    max-threshold    mark-probability
----------------------------------------------------------
0        30               50               1/10
1        32               50               1/10
2        34               50               1/10
3        36               50               1/10
4        38               50               1/10
5        40               50               1/10
6        42               50               1/10
7        44               50               1/10
rsvp     46               50               1/10

Related Commands

Command

Description

class (policy-map)

Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change, and the default class (commonly known as the class-default class) before you configure its policy.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the WRED and DWRED exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation.

random-detect-group

Defines the WRED or DWRED parameter group.

random-detect precedence

Configures WRED and DWRED parameters for a particular IP Precedence.

show interfaces

Displays the statistical information specific to a serial interface.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

random-detect aggregate

To enable aggregate Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED), use the random-detectaggregatecommand in policy-map class configuration mode. To disable aggregate WRED, use the no form of this command.

random-detect [ precedence-based | dscp-based ] aggregate [ minimum-thresh min-thresh maximum-thresh max-thresh mark-probability mark-prob ]
no random-detect [ precedence-based | dscp-based ] aggregate

Syntax Description

precedence-based

(Optional) Enables aggregate WRED based on IP precedence values. This is the default.

dscp-based

(Optional) Enables aggregate WRED based on differentiated services code point (DSCP) values.

minimum-thresh min-thresh

(Optional) Default minimum threshold (in number of packets) to be used for all subclasses (IP precedence or DSCP values) that have not been specifically configured. Valid values are from 1 to 12288.

maximum-thresh max-thresh

(Optional) Default maximum threshold (in number of packets) to be used for all subclasses (IP precedence or DSCP values) that have not been specifically configured. Valid values are from the minimum threshold argument to 12288.

mark-probability mark-prob

(Optional) Default denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. This value is used for all subclasses (IP precedence or DSCP values) that have not been specifically configured. Valid values are from 1 to 255.

Command Default

If no precedence-based or dscp-basedkeyword is specified in the command, the default is precedence-based.

If optional parameters for a default aggregate class are not defined, all subclass values that are not explicitly configured will use plain (non-weighted) RED drop behavior. This is different from standard random-detect configuration where the default is to always use WRED behavior.

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(18)SXE

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(31)SB2

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB2 on the Cisco 10000 series router for the PRE3.

Usage Guidelines

For ATM interfaces, the Aggregate WRED feature requires that the ATM SPA cards are installed in a Cisco 7600 SIP-200 carrier card or a Cisco 7600 SIP-400 carrier card.

To configure WRED on an ATM interface, you must use the random-detect aggregate commands; the standard random-detect commands are no longer supported on ATM interfaces.

The precedence-based and dscp-based keywords are mutually exclusive. If you do not specify either keyword, precedence-based is the default.

Defining WRED profile parameter values for the default aggregate class is optional. If defined, WRED profile parameters applied to the default aggregate class will be used for all subclasses that have not been explicitly configured. If all possible IP precedence or DSCP values are defined as subclasses, a default specification is unnecessary. If the optional parameters for a default aggregate class are not defined and packets with an unconfigured IP precedence or DSCP value arrive at the interface, plain (non-weighted) RED drop behavior will be used.

Use this command with a random-detectprecedence(aggregate) or random-detectdscp(aggregate) command within a policy map configuration to configure aggregate Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) parameters for specific IP precedence or DSCP value(s).

After the policy map is defined, the policy map must be attached at the VC level.

Use the showpolicy-mapinterface command to display the statistics for aggregated subclasses.

Examples

The following example shows a precedence-based aggregate WRED configuration for an ATM interface. Note that first a policy map named prec-aggr-wred is defined for the default class, then precedence-based Aggregate WRED is enabled with the random-detectaggregate command, then subclasses and WRED parameter values are assigned in a series of random-detectprecedence(aggregate)commands, and, finally, the policy map is attached at the ATM VC level using the interfaceand service-policy commands.

Router (config)# policy-map prec-aggr-wred
Router (config-pmap)# class class-default
Router (config-pmap-c)# random-detect aggregate
Router (config-pmap-c)# random-detect precedence values 0 1 2 3 minimum thresh 10 maximum-thresh 100 mark-prob 10
Router (config-pmap-c)# random-detect precedence values 4 5 minimum-thresh 40 maximum-thresh 400 mark-prob 10
Router (config-pmap-c)# random-detect precedence values 6 minimum-thresh 60 maximum-thresh 600 mark-prob 10
Router (config-pmap-c)# random-detect precedence values 7 minimum-thresh 70 maximum-thresh 700 mark-prob 10
Router (config-pmap-c)# interface ATM4/1/0.10 point-to-point
Router (config-subif)# ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
Router (config-subif)# pvc 10/110
Router (config-subif)# service-policy output prec-aggr-wred

The following example shows a DSCP-based aggregate WRED configuration for an ATM interface. Note that first a policy map named dscp-aggr-wred is defined for the default class, then dscp-based Aggregate WRED is enabled with the random-detectdscp-basedaggregate command, then subclasses and WRED parameter values are assigned in a series of random-detectdscp (aggregate) commands, and, finally, the policy map is attached at the ATM VC level using the interfaceand service-policy commands.

Router (config)# policy-map dscp-aggr-wred
Router (config-pmap)# class class-default
Router (config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based aggregate minimum-thresh 1 maximum-thresh 10 mark-prob 10
Router (config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp values 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 minimum-thresh 10 maximum-thresh 20 mark-prob 10
Router (config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp values 8 9 10 11 minimum-thresh 10 maximum-thresh 40 mark-prob 10
Router (config)# interface ATM4/1/0.11 point-to-point
Router (config-subif)# ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
Router (config-subif)# pvc 11/101
Router (config-subif)# service-policy output dscp-aggr-wred

Related Commands

Command

Description

class (policy-map)

Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change, and the default class (commonly known as the class-default class) before you configure its policy.

interface

Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration mode.

policy-map

Creates a policy map that can be attached to one or more interfaces to specify a service policy.

random-detect precedence (aggregate)

Configures aggregate WRED parameters for specific IP precedence values.

random-detect dscp (aggregate)

Configures aggregate WRED parameters for specific DSCP values.

service-policy

Attaches a policy map to an input interface or VC, or an output interface or VC, to be used as the service policy for that interface or VC.

show policy-map interface

Displays the configuration of all classes configured for all service policies on the specified interface or displays the classes for the service policy for a specific PVC on the interface.

random-detect atm-clp-based

To enable weighted random early detection (WRED) on the basis of the ATM cell loss priority (CLP) of a packet, use the random-detectatm-clp-based command in policy-map class configuration mode. To disable WRED, use the no form of this command.

random-detect atm-clp-based clp-value
no random-detect atm-clp-based

Cisco 10000 Series Router

random-detect atm-clp-based min-thresh-value max-thresh-value mark-probability-denominator-value
no random-detect atm-clp-based

Syntax Description

clp-value

CLP value. Valid values are 0 or 1.

min-thresh-value

Minimum threshold in number of packets. Valid values are 1 to 4096.

max-thresh-value

Maximum threshold in number of packets. Valid values are 1 to 4096.

max-probability-denominator-value

Denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. Valid values are 1 to 65535.

Command Default

When WRED is configured, the default minimum and maximum thresholdsare determined on the basis of output buffering capacity and the transmission speed for the interface.

The default maximum probability denominator is 10.

On the Cisco 10000 series router, the default is disabled.

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(28)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SB

This command was introduced on the PRE3 and PRE4 for the Cisco 10000 series router.

12.4(20)T

Support was added for hierarchical queueing framework (HQF) using the Modular Quality of Service (QoS) Command-Line Interface (CLI) (MQC).

Usage Guidelines

You cannot use the random-detectatm-clp-based command with the random-detectcos-based command in the same HQF configuration. You must use the norandom-detectcos-based command to disable it before you configure the random-detectatm-clp-based command.

Examples

In the following example, WRED is configured on the basis of the ATM CLP. In this configuration, the random-detectatm-clp-basedcommand has been configured and an ATM CLP of 1 has been specified.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# policy-map policymap1
Router(config-pmap)# class class1
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect atm-clp-based 1
Router(config-pmap-c)#
 
end

Related Commands

Command

Description

random-detect clp

Specifies the ATM CLP value of a packet, the minimum and maximum thresholds, and the maximum probability denominator used for enabling WRED.

random-detect cos

Specifies the CoS value of a packet, the minimum and maximum thresholds, and the maximum probability denominator used for enabling WRED.

random-detect cos-based

Enables WRED on the basis of the CoS value of a packet.

show policy-map

Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy map or all classes for all existing policy maps.

show policy-map interface

Displays the packet statistics of all classes that are configured for all service policies either on the specified interface or subinterface or on a specific PVC on the interface.

random-detect clp

To specify the ATM cell loss priority (CLP) value of a packet, the minimum and maximum thresholds, and the maximum probability denominator used for enabling weighted random early detection (WRED), use the random-detect clp command in policy-map class configuration mode. To reset the thresholds and maximum probability denominator to the default values for the specified ATM CLP, use the no form of this command.

random-detect clp clp-value min-threshold max-threshold max-probability-denominator
no random-detect clp clp-value min-threshold max-threshold max-probability-denominator

Syntax Description

clp-value

CLP value. Valid values are 0 or 1.

min-threshold

Minimum threshold in number of packets. Valid values are in the range 1 to 512000000.

max-threshold

Maximum threshold in number of packets. Valid values are in the range 1 to 512000000.

max-probability-denominator

Denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. Valid values are 1 to 65535.

Command Default

The default values for the min-threshold and max-threshold arguments are based on the output buffering capacity and the transmission speed for the interface.

The default for the max-probability-denominator argument is 10; that is, 1 out of every 10 packets is dropped at the maximum threshold.

Command Modes

Policy-map class configuration (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(28)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

15.2(2)T

This command was modified. The maximum and minimum threshold ranges were changed.

Usage Guidelines

Note the following points when using the random-detect clp command:

  • When the average queue length reaches the minimum threshold, WRED randomly drops some packets with the specified IP precedence.
  • When the average queue length exceeds the maximum threshold, WRED drops all packets with the specified IP precedence.
  • While the range of values for the min-threshold and max-threshold arguments is from 1 to 512000000, the actual values that you can specify depend on the type of random detect you are configuring. For example, the maximum threshold value cannot exceed the queue limit.
  • The max-probability-denominator argument is the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, 1 out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold.

Examples

In the following example, WRED has been enabled using the random-detect clp command. With the random-detect clp command, the ATM CLP has been specified, along with the minimum and maximum thresholds, and the maximum probability denominator.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# policy-map policymap1
Router(config-pmap)# class class1
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect clp 1 12 25 1/10
Router(config-pmap-c)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

random-detect atm-clp-based

Enables WRED on the basis of the ATM CLP of a packet.

random-detect cos

Specifies the CoS value of a packet, the minimum and maximum thresholds, and the maximum probability denominator used for enabling WRED.

random-detect cos-based

Enables WRED on the basis of the CoS value of a packet.

show policy-map

Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy map or all classes for all existing policy maps.

show policy-map interface

Displays the packet statistics of all classes that are configured for all service policies either on the specified interface or subinterface or on a specific PVC on the interface.

random-detect cos-based

To enable weighted random early detection (WRED) on the basis of the class of service (CoS) value of a packet, use the random-detectcos-based command in policy-map class configuration mode. To disable WRED, use the no form of this command.

random-detect cos-based cos-value
no random-detect cos-based

Syntax Description

cos-value

Specific IEEE 802.1Q CoS values from 0 to 7.

Command Default

When WRED is configured, the default minimum and maximum thresholds are determined on the basis of output buffering capacity and the transmission speed for the interface.

The default maximum probability denominator is 10.

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(28)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.4(20)T

Support was added for hierarchical queueing framework (HQF) using the Modular Quality of Service (QoS) Command-Line Interface (CLI) (MQC).

Usage Guidelines

You cannot use the random-detectcos-based command with the random-detectatm-clp-based command in the same HQF configuration. You must use the norandom-detectatm-clp-based command to disable it before you configure the random-detectcos-based command.

Examples

In the following example, WRED is configured on the basis of the CoS value. In this configuration, the random-detectcos-basedcommand has been configured and a CoS value of 2 has been specified.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# policy-map policymap1
Router(config-pmap)# class class1
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect cos-based 2
Router(config-pmap-c)#
 
end

Related Commands

Command

Description

random-detect atm-clp-based

Enables WRED on the basis of the ATM CLP of a packet.

random-detect clp

Specifies the ATM CLP value of a packet, the minimum and maximum thresholds, and the maximum probability denominator used for enabling WRED.

random-detect cos

Specifies the CoS value of a packet, the minimum and maximum thresholds, and the maximum probability denominator used for enabling WRED.

show policy-map

Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy map or all classes for all existing policy maps.

show policy-map interface

Displays the packet statistics of all classes that are configured for all service policies either on the specified interface or subinterface or on a specific PVC on the interface.

random-detect discard-class

To configure the weighted random early detection (WRED) parameters for a discard-class value for a class policy in a policy map, use the random-detectdiscard-class command in policy-map class configuration mode. To disable the discard-class values, use the no form of this command.

random-detect discard-class value min-threshold max-threshold max-probability-denominator
no random-detect discard-class value min-threshold max-threshold max-probability-denominator

Syntax Description

value

Discard class. This is a number that identifies the drop eligibility of a packet. Valid values are 0 to 7.

min-threshold

Specifies the minimum number of packets allowed in the queue. When the average queue length reaches the minimum threshold, WRED randomly drops some packets with the specified DSCP, IP precedence, or discard-class value. Valid minimum threshold values are 1 to 512000000.

max-threshold

Specifies the maximum number of packets allowed in the queue. When the average queue length exceeds the maximum threshold, WRED drops all packets with the specified DSCP, IP precedence, or discard-class value. Valid maximum threshold values are 1 to 512000000.

max-probability-denominator

Denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, 1 out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold. Valid values are 1 to 65535.

Command Default

For all precedence levels, the max-probability-denominator default is 10 packets; that is, 1 out of every 10 packets is dropped at the maximum threshold.

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration   (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(3)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(13)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(13)T.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(31)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB and implemented on the Cisco 10000 series router.

15.2(2)T

This command was modified. The maximum and minimum threshold ranges were changed.

Usage Guidelines

When you configure the random-detect discard-class command on an interface, packets are given preferential treatment based on the discard class of the packet. Use the random-detect discard-class command to adjust the discard class for different discard-class values.


Note


While the range of values for the min-threshold and max-threshold arguments is from 1 to 512000000, the actual values that you can specify depend on the type of random detect you are configuring. For example, the maximum threshold value cannot exceed the queue limit.

Cisco 10000 Series Router

You must first enable the drop mode using the random-detect discard-class-based command. You can then set the drop probability profile using the random-detect discard-class command.

The table below lists the default drop thresholds for WRED based on differentiated services code point (DSCP), IP precedence, and discard class. The drop probability indicates that the router drops one packet for every 10 packets.

Table 1 WRED Default Drop Thresholds

DSCP, Precedence, and Discard-Class Values

Minimum Threshold (Times the Queue Size)

Maximum Threshold (Times the Queue Size)

Drop Probability

All DSCPs

1/4

1/2

1/10

0

1/4

1/2

1/10

1

9/32

1/2

1/10

2

5/16

1/2

1/10

3

11/32

1/2

1/10

4

3/8

1/2

1/10

5

13/32

1/2

1/10

6

7/16

1/2

1/10

7

15/32

1/2

1/10

Examples

The following example shows how to configure discard class 2 to randomly drop packets when the average queue reaches the minimum threshold of 100 packets and 1 in 10 packets are dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold of 200 packets:

policy-map set-MPLS-PHB
 class IP-AF11 
  bandwidth percent 40
  random-detect discard-class-based
  random-detect-discard-class 2 100 200 10

Cisco 10000 Series Router

The following example shows how to enable discard-class-based WRED. In this example, the configuration of the class map named Silver indicates to classify traffic based on discard class 3 and 5. Traffic that matches discard class 3 or 5 is assigned to the class named Silver in the policy map named Premium. The Silver configuration includes WRED packet dropping based on discard class 5 with a minimum threshold of 500, maximum threshold of 1500, and a mark-probability-denominator of 200. The QoS policy is applied to PVC 1/81 on point-to-point ATM subinterface 2/0/0.2 in the outbound direction.

Router(config)# class-map Silver
Router(config-cmap)# match discard-class 3 5 
Router(config-cmap)# exit
Router(config)# policy-map Premium
Router(config-pmap)# class Silver
Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth percent 30
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect discard-class-based
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect discard-class 5 500 1500 200
Router(config-pmap-c)# exit 
Router(config-pmap)# exit
Router(config)# interface atm 2/0/0
Router(config-if)# atm pxf queuing
Router(config-if)# interface atm 2/0/0.2 point-to-point
Router(config-subif)# pvc 1/81
Router(config-subif-atm-vc)# ubr 10000
Router(config-subif-atm-vc)# service-policy output Premium 

Related Commands

Command

Description

bandwidth (policy-map class)

Specifies or modifies the bandwidth allocated for a class belonging to a policy map.

match discard-class

Matches packets of a certain discard-class.

random-detect discard-class-based

Bases WRED on the discard class value of a packet.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the WRED and DWRED exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation.

random-detect precedence

Configures WRED and DWRED parameters for a particular IP precedence.

show policy-map interface

Displays the configuration of all classes configured for all service policies on the specified interface or displays the classes for the service policy for a specific PVC on the interface.

random-detect discard-class-based

To base weighted random early detection (WRED) on the discard class value of a packet, use the random-detectdiscard-class-based command in policy-map class configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

random-detect discard-class-based
no random-detect discard-class-based

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

The defaults are router-dependent.

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(13)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

Usage Guidelines

Enter this command so that WRED is based on the discard class instead of on the IP precedence field.

Examples

The following example shows that random detect is based on the discard class value of a packet:

policy-map name 
 class-name 
  bandwidth percent 40
  random-detect discard-class-based

Related Commands

Command

Description

match discard-class

Matches packets of a certain discard class.

random-detect dscp


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.1(3)T, the random-detect dscp command is hidden in interface configuration mode. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you enter a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed from interface configuration mode in a future release, which means that you will need to use the appropriate replacement command (or sequence of commands). For more information (including a list of replacement commands), see the "Legacy QoS Command Deprecation" feature document in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

To change the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the differentiated services code point (DSCP) value, use the random-detect dscp command in interface or QoS policy-map class configuration mode. To return the minimum and maximum packet thresholds to the default for the DSCP value, use the no form of this command.

random-detect dscp dscp-value min-threshold max-threshold [ mark-probability-denominator]
no random-detect dscp dscp-value min-threshold max-threshold [ mark-probability-denominator]

Syntax Description

dscp-value

The DSCP value. The DSCP value can be a number from 0 to 63, or it can be one of the following keywords: af11, af12, af13, af21, af22, af23, af31, af32, af33, af41, af42, af43, cs1, cs2, cs3, cs4, cs5, cs7, ef, or rsvp.

min-threshold

Minimum threshold in number of packets. The value range of this argument is from 1 to 512000000. When the average queue length reaches the minimum threshold, Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) or distributed WRED (dWRED) randomly drop some packets with the specified DSCP value.

max-threshold

Maximum threshold in number of packets. The value range of this argument is from the value of the min-threshold argument to 512000000. When the average queue length exceeds the maximum threshold, WRED or dWRED drop all packets with the specified DSCP value.

mark-probability-denominator

(Optional) Denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, 1 out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold. The value range is from 1 to 65536. The default is 10; that is, 1 out of every 10 packets is dropped at the maximum threshold.

Command Default

The default values for the random-detect dscp command are different on Versatile Interface Processor (VIP)-enabled Cisco 7500 series routers and Catalyst 6000 family switches with a FlexWAN module (dWRED). All other platforms running WRED have another set of default values. For more information about random-detect dscp defaults, see the "Usage Guidelines" section.

Command Modes


Interface configuration  (config-if)
QoS policy-map class configuration  (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.1(5)T

This command was introduced.

12.1(5a)E

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1(5a)E in policy-map class configuration mode only. This command was implemented on VIP-enabled Cisco 7500 series routers and Catalyst 6000 family switches with a FlexWAN module.

12.0(15)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(15)S in QoS policy-map class configuration mode.

12.2(14)S

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.1(3)T

This command was modified. This command was hidden in interface configuration mode.

15.2(2)T

This command was modified. The maximum and minimum threshold ranges were changed.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.6S

This command was modified. Support was added for the Cisco ASR 903 router.

Usage Guidelines

Use the random-detect dscp command in conjunction with the random-detect command in interface configuration mode.

The random-detect dscp command is available only if you specified the dscp-based argument when using the random-detect command in interface configuration mode.


Note


The random-detect dscp command is not available at the interface level for Cisco IOS Release 12.1E or Release 12.0S. The random-detect dscp command is available only in QoS policy-map class configuration mode in Cisco IOS Release 12.1E.

Defaults for VIP-Enabled Cisco 7500 Series Routers and Catalyst 6000 Family Switches with a FlexWAN Module

For all IP precedence values, the default mark-probability-denominator is 10, and the max-threshold value is based on the output buffering capacity and the transmission speed of the interface.

The default min-threshold value depends on the IP precedence value. The min-threshold value for IP precedence 0 corresponds to half of the max-threshold value. The values for the remaining IP precedence values fall between half the max-threshold value and the max-threshold value at even intervals.


Note


Although the range of values for the min-threshold and max-threshold arguments is from 1 to 512000000, the actual values that you can specify depend on the type of random detect you are configuring. For example, the maximum threshold value cannot exceed the queue limit.

Unless the maximum and minimum threshold values for the DSCP values are configured by the user, all DSCP values have the same minimum threshold and maximum threshold values as the value specified for precedence 0.

Specifying the DSCP Value

The random-detect dscp command allows you to specify the DSCP value per traffic class. The DSCP value can be a number from 0 to 63, or it can be one of the following keywords: af11, af12, af13, af21, af22, af23, af31, af32, af33, af41, af42, af43, cs1, cs2, cs3, cs4, cs5, cs7, ef, or rsvp.

On a particular traffic class, eight DSCP values can be configured per traffic class. Overall, 29 values can be configured on a traffic class: 8 precedence values, 12 Assured Forwarding (AF) code points, 1 Expedited Forwarding code point, and 8 user-defined DSCP values.

Assured Forwarding Code Points

The AF code points provide a means for a domain to offer four different levels (four different AF classes) of forwarding assurances for IP packets received from other (such as customer) domains. Each one of the four AF classes is allocated a certain amount of forwarding services (buffer space and bandwidth).

Within each AF class, IP packets are marked with one of three possible drop precedence values (binary 2{010}, 4{100}, or 6{110}), which exist as the three lowest bits in the DSCP header. In congested network environments, the drop precedence value of the packet determines the importance of the packet within the AF class. Packets with higher drop precedence values are discarded before packets with lower drop precedence values.

The upper three bits of the DSCP value determine the AF class; the lower three values determine the drop probability.

Expedited Forwarding Code Points

The EF code point is usually used to mark high-priority, time-sensitive data. The EF code point marking is equal to the highest precedence value; therefore, the EF code point is always equal to precedence value 7.

Class Selector Values

The Class Selector (CS) values are equal to IP precedence values (for instance, cs1 is the same as IP precedence 1).

Default Values

The table below lists the default WRED minimum threshold value for each IP precedence value on the distributed platforms.

Table 2 Default WRED Minimum Threshold Values for the Distributed Platforms

IP

(Precedence)

Class Selector (CS) Value

Minimum Threshold Value (Fraction of Maximum Threshold Value)

Notes About the Value

0

cs0

8/16

All DSCP values that are not configured by the user will have the same threshold values as IP precedence 0.

1

cs1

9/16

--

2

cs2

10/16

--

3

cs3

11/16

--

4

cs4

12/16

--

5

cs5

13/16

--

6

cs6

14/16

--

7

cs7

15/16

The EF code point will always be equal to IP precedence 7.

Defaults for Non-VIP-Enabled Cisco 7500 Series Routers and Catalyst 6000 Family Switches with a FlexWAN Module

All platforms except the VIP-enabled Cisco 7500 series router and the Catalyst 6000 have the default values shown in the table below.

If WRED is using the DSCP value to calculate the drop probability of a packet, all 64 entries of the DSCP table are initialized with the default settings shown in the table below.

Table 3 random-detect dscp Default Settings

DSCP

(Precedence)

Minimum Threshold

Maximum Threshold

Mark Probability

0 (0)

20

40

1/10

1

22

40

1/10

2

24

40

1/10

3

26

40

1/10

4

28

40

1/10

5

30

40

1/10

6

32

40

1/10

7

34

40

1/10

8 (1)

22

40

1/10

9

22

40

1/10

10

24

40

1/10

11

26

40

1/10

12

28

40

1/10

13

30

40

1/10

14

32

40

1/10

15

34

40

1/10

16 (2)

24

40

1/10

17

22

40

1/10

18

24

40

1/10

19

26

40

1/10

20

28

40

1/10

21

30

40

1/10

22

32

40

1/10

23

34

40

1/10

24 (3)

26

40

1/10

25

22

40

1/10

26

24

40

1/10

27

26

40

1/10

28

28

40

1/10

29

30

40

1/10

30

32

40

1/10

31

34

40

1/10

32 (4)

28

40

1/10

33

22

40

1/10

34

24

40

1/10

35

26

40

1/10

36

28

40

1/10

37

30

40

1/10

38

32

40

1/10

39

34

40

1/10

40 (5)

30

40

1/10

41

22

40

1/10

42

24

40

1/10

43

26

40

1/10

44

28

40

1/10

45

30

40

1/10

46

36

40

1/10

47

34

40

1/10

48 (6)

32

40

1/10

49

22

40

1/10

50

24

40

1/10

51

26

40

1/10

52

28

40

1/10

53

30

40

1/10

54

32

40

1/10

55

34

40

1/10

56 (7)

34

40

1/10

57

22

40

1/10

58

24

40

1/10

59

26

40

1/10

60

28

40

1/10

61

30

40

1/10

62

32

40

1/10

63

34

40

1/10

rsvp

36

40

1/10

Examples

The following example enables WRED to use the DSCP value 8. The minimum threshold for the DSCP value 8 is 20, the maximum threshold is 40, and the mark probability is 1/10.

random-detect dscp 8 20 40 10

Related Commands

Command

Description

random-detect

Enables WRED or dWRED.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

show queueing interface

Displays the queueing statistics of an interface or VC.

random-detect dscp (aggregate)

To configure aggregate Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) parameters for specific differentiated services code point (DSCP) value, use the random-detectdscpvalues(aggregate)command in QoS policy-map class configuration mode. To disable configuration of aggregate WRED DSCP values, use the no form of this command.

random-detect dscp sub-class-val1 sub-class-val2 sub-class-val3 sub-class-val4 min-thresh max-thresh mark-prob
no random-detect dscp sub-class-val1 sub-class-val2 sub-class-val3 sub-class-val4 min-thresh max-thresh mark-prob

Cisco 10000 Series Router (PRE3)

random-detect dscp values sub-class-val1 [ . . . [ sub-class-val8] ] minimum-thresh min-thresh-value maximum-thresh max-thresh-value mark-prob mark-prob-value
no random-detect dscp values sub-class-val1 [ . . . [ sub-class-val8] ] minimum-thresh min-thresh-value maximum-thresh max-thresh-value mark-prob mark-prob

Syntax Description

sub-class-val1

sub-class-val2

sub-class-val3

sub-class-val4

DSCP value(s) to which the following WRED profile parameter specifications are to apply. A maximum of eight subclasses (DSCP values) can be specified per command-line interface (CLI) entry. See the "Usage Guidelines" for a list of valid DSCP values.

min-thresh

The minimum number of packets allowed in the queue. When the average queue length reaches the minimum threshold, WRED randomly drops some packets with the specified DSCP value. Valid minimum threshold values are 1 to 16384.

max-thresh

The maximum number of packets allowed in the queue. When the average queue length exceeds the maximum threshold, WRED drops all packets with the specified DSCP value. Valid maximum threshold values are 1 to 16384.

mark-prob

The denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, 1 out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold. Valid values are 1 to 65535.

Cisco 10000 Series Router

values sub-class-val1 [...[subclass-val8]]

DSCP value(s) to which the following WRED profile parameter specifications are to apply. A maximum of 8 subclasses (DSCP values) can be specified per CLI entry. The DSCP value can be a number from 0 to 63, or it can be one of the following keywords: ef, af11, af12, af13, af21, af22, af23, af31, af32, af33, af41, af42, af43, cs1, cs2, cs3, cs4, cs5, or cs7.

minimum-thresh min-thresh

Specifies the minimum number of packets allowed in the queue. When the average queue length reaches the minimum threshold, WRED randomly drops some packets with the specified DSCP value. Valid minimum threshold values are 1 to 16384.

maximum-thresh max-thresh

Specifies the maximum number of packets allowed in the queue. When the average queue length exceeds the maximum threshold, WRED drops all packets with the specified DSCP value. Valid maximum threshold values are 1 to 16384.

mark-probability mark-prob

Specifies the denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, 1 out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold. Valid values are 1 to 65535.

Command Default

For all precedence levels, the mark-prob default value is 10 packets.

Command Modes


QoS policy-map class configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(18)SXE

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(31)SB2

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB2 and implemented on the Cisco 10000 series router.

Usage Guidelines

For ATM interfaces, the Aggregate WRED feature requires that the ATM SPA cards are installed in a Cisco 7600 SIP-200 carrier card or a Cisco 7600 SIP-400 carrier card.

To configure WRED on an ATM interface, you must use therandom-detectaggregatecommands; the standard random-detect commands are no longer supported on ATM interfaces.

Use this command with a random-detectaggregate command within a policy map configuration.

Repeat this command for each set of DSCP values that share WRED parameters.

After the policy map is defined, the policy map must be attached at the virtual circuit (VC) level.

The set of subclass (DSCP precedence) values defined on a random-detectdscp(aggregate)CLI will be aggregated into a single hardware WRED resource. The statistics for these subclasses will also be aggregated.

Use the showpolicy-mapinterface command to display the statistics for aggregated subclasses.

Cisco 10000 Series Router

For the PRE2, the random-detect command specifies the default profile for the queue. For the PRE3, the aggregate random-detect command is used instead to configure aggregate parameters for WRED. The PRE3 accepts the PRE2 random-detect command as a hidden command.

On the PRE2, accounting for the default profile is per precedence. On the PRE3, accounting and configuration for the default profile is per class map.

On the PRE2, the default threshold is per precedence for a DSCP or precedence value without an explicit threshold configuration. On the PRE3, the default threshold is to have no WRED configured.

On the PRE2, the drop counter for each precedence belonging to the default profile only has a drop count that matches the specific precedence value. Because the PRE2 has a default threshold for the default profile, the CBQOSMIB displays default threshold values. On the PRE3, the drop counter for each precedence belonging to the default profile has the aggregate counter of the default profile and not the individual counter for a specific precedence. The default profile on the PRE3 does not display any default threshold values in the CBQOSMIB if you do not configure any threshold values for the default profile.

DSCP Values

You must enter one or more differentiated service code point (DSCP) values. The command may include any combination of the following:

  • numbers (0 to 63) representing differentiated services code point values
  • af numbers (for example, af11) identifying specific AF DSCPs
  • cs numbers (for example, cs1) identifying specific CS DSCPs
  • default --Matches packets with the default DSCP.
  • ef --Matches packets with EF DSCP.

For example, if you wanted the DCSP values of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 (note that only one of the IP DSCP values must be a successful match criterion, not all of the specified DSCP values), enter the matchdscp01234567 command.

Examples

The following example shows how to create a class map named map1 and associate it with the policy map named map2. The configuration enables WRED to drop map1 packets based on DSCP 8 with a minimum threshold of 24 and a maximum threshold of 40. The map2 policy map is attached to the outbound ATM interface 1/0/0.

Router(config-if)# class-map map1
Router(config-cmap)# match access-group 10
Router(config-cmap)# exit
Router(config)# policy-map map2
Router(config-pmap)# class map1
Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 48
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 8 24 40
Router(config-pmap-c)# exit
Router(config-pmap)# exit
Router(config)# interface atm 1/0/0
Router(config-if)# service-policy output map2

The following example shows a DSCP-based aggregate WRED configuration for an ATM interface. Note that first a policy map named dscp-aggr-wred is defined for the default class, then dscp-based aggregate WRED is enabled with the random-detectdscp-basedaggregate command, then subclasses and WRED parameter values are assigned in a series of random-detectdscp(aggregate)commands, and, finally, the policy map is attached at the ATM VC level using the interfaceand service-policy commands.

Router(config)# policy-map dscp-aggr-wred
Router(config-pmap)# class class-default
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based aggregate minimum-thresh 1 maximum-thresh 10 mark-prob 10
!
! Define an aggregate subclass for packets with DSCP values of 0-7 and assign the WRED
! profile parameter values for this subclass
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 minimum-thresh 10 maximum-thresh 20 mark-prob 10
Router(config-pmap-c) random-detect dscp 8 9 10 11 minimum-thresh 10 maximum-thresh 40 mark-prob 10
Router(config)# interface ATM4/1/0.11 point-to-point
Router(config-subif)# ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
Router(config-subif) pvc 11/101
Router(config-subif)# service-policy output dscp-aggr-wred

Cisco 10000 Series Router

The following example shows how to create a class map named Gold and associate it with the policy map named Business. The configuration enables WRED to drop Gold packets based on DSCP 8 with a minimum threshold of 24 and a maximum threshold of 40. The Business policy map is attached to the outbound ATM interface 1/0/0.

Router(config-if)# class-map Gold
Router(config-cmap)# match access-group 10
Router(config-cmap)# exit
Router(config)# policy-map Business
Router(config-pmap)# class Gold
Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 48
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp-based
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect dscp values 8 minimum-thresh 24 maximum-thresh 40
Router(config-pmap-c)# exit
Router(config-pmap)# exit
Router(config)# interface atm 1/0/0
Router(config-if)# service-policy output Business 

Related Commands

Command

Description

class (policy-map)

Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change, and the default class (commonly known as the class-default class) before you configure its policy.

interface

Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration mode.

policy-map

Creates a policy map that can be attached to one or more interfaces to specify a service policy.

random-detect aggregate

Enables aggregate WRED and optionally specifies default WRED parameter values for a default aggregate class. This default class will be used for all subclasses that have not been explicitly configured.

service-policy

Attaches a policy map to an input interface or VC, or an output interface or VC, to be used as the service policy for that interface or VC.

show policy-map interface

Displays the configuration of all classes configured for all service policies on the specified interface or displays the classes for the service policy for a specific PVC on the interface.

random-detect ecn

To enable explicit congestion notification (ECN), use the random-detectecncommand in policy-map class configuration mode. To disable ECN, use the no form of this command.

random-detect ecn
no random-detect ecn

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

By default, ECN is disabled.

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(8)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

If ECN is enabled, ECN can be used whether Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) is based on the IP precedence value or the differentiated services code point (DSCP) value.

Examples

The following example enables ECN in a policy map called "pol1":

Router(config)# policy-map pol1
Router(config-pmap)# class class-default
Router(config-pmap)# bandwidth per 70
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect ecn

Related Commands

Command

Description

show policy-map

Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy map or all classes for all existing policy maps.

show policy-map interface

Displays the packet statistics of all classes that are configured for all service policies either on the specified interface or subinterface or on a specific PVC on the interface.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S and Cisco IOS Release 15.1(3)T, the random-detectexponential-weighting-constantcommand is hidden in interface configuration mode. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed from interface configuration mode in a future release, which means that you will need to use the appropriate replacement command (or sequence of commands). For more information (including a list of replacement commands), see the "Legacy QoS Command Deprecation" feature document in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

To configure the Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) and distributed WRED (DWRED) exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation for the queue, use the random-detectexponential-weighting-constantcommand in interface configuration mode. To configure the exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation for the queue reserved for a class, use the random-detectexponential-weighting-constantcommand in policy-map class configuration mode. To return the value to the default, use the no form of this command.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant exponent
no random-detect exponential-weighting-constant

Syntax Description

exponent

Exponent from 1 to 16 used in the average queue size calculation.

Command Default

The default exponential weight factor is 9.

Command Modes


Interface configuration when used on an interface
Policy-map class configuration when used to specify class policy in a policy map or when used in the Modular Quality of Service (QoS) Command-Line Interface (CLI) (MQC)

Command History

Release

Modification

11.1CC

This command was introduced.

12.0(5)T

This command was made available as a QoS policy-map class configuration command.

12.0(5)XE

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(5)XE and implemented on Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) enabled Cisco 7500 series routers.

12.1(5)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1(5)T and implemented on VIP-enabled Cisco 7500 series routers.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(31)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB and implemented on the Cisco 10000 series router.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.0(1)S

This command was modified. This command was hidden in interface configuration mode.

15.1(3)T

This command was modified. This command was hidden in interface configuration mode.

Usage Guidelines

WRED is a congestion avoidance mechanism that slows traffic by randomly dropping packets when congestion exists. DWRED is similar to WRED but uses the VIP instead of the Route Switch Processor (RSP). WRED and DWRED are most useful with protocols like TCP that respond to dropped packets by decreasing the transmission rate.

Use this command to change the exponent used in the average queue size calculation for the WRED and DWRED services. You can also use this command to configure the exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation for the queue reserved for a class.


Note


The default WRED or DWRED parameter values are based on the best available data. We recommend that you do not change the parameters from their default values unless you have determined that your applications would benefit from the changed values.

The DWRED feature is not supported for class policy.

The DWRED feature is supported only on Cisco 7000 series routers with an RSP7000 card and Cisco 7500 series routers with a VIP2-40 or greater interface processor. A VIP2-50 interface processor is strongly recommended when the aggregate line rate of the port adapters on the VIP is greater than DS3. A VIP2-50 interface processor is required for OC-3 rates.

To use DWRED, distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (dCEF) switching must first be enabled on the interface. For more information on dCEF, refer to the Cisco IOS IP Switching Configuration Guide and the Cisco IOS IP Switching Command Reference.

Examples

The following example configures WRED on an interface with a weight factor of 10:

interface Hssi0/0/0
 description 45Mbps to R1
 ip address 10.200.14.250 255.255.255.252
 random-detect
 random-detect exponential-weighting-constant 10

The following example configures the policy map called policy1 to contain policy specification for the class called class1. During times of congestion, WRED packet drop is used instead of tail drop. The weight factor used for the average queue size calculation for the queue for class1 is 12.

! The following commands create the class map called class1:
class-map class1
 match input-interface FE0/1
! The following commands define policy1 to contain policy specification for class1:
policy-map policy1
 class class1
 bandwidth 1000
 random-detect
 random-detect exponential-weighting-constant 12

The following example configures policy for a traffic class named int10 to configure the exponential weight factor as 12. This is the weight factor used for the average queue size calculation for the queue for traffic class int10. WRED packet drop is used for congestion avoidance for traffic class int10, not tail drop.

policy-map policy12 
 class int10
 bandwidth 2000
 random-detect exponential-weighting-constant 12

Related Commands

Command

Description

bandwidth (policy-map class)

Specifies or modifies the bandwidth allocated for a class belonging to a policy map.

exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation for a WRED parameter group.

fair-queue (class-default)

Specifies the number of dynamic queues to be reserved for use by the class-default class as part of the default class policy.

precedence

Configures precedence levels for a VC or PVC class that can be assigned to a VC or PVC bundle and thus applied to all of the members of that bundle.

precedence (WRED group)

Configures a WRED group for a particular IP Precedence.

random-detect dscp

Changes the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the DSCP value.

random-detect (per VC)

Enables per-VC WRED or per-VC DWRED.

random-detect precedence

Configures WRED and DWRED parameters for a particular IP Precedence.

show policy-map

Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy map or all classes for all existing policy maps.

show policy-map interface

Displays the configuration of all classes configured for all service policies on the specified interface or displays the classes for the service policy for a specific PVC on the interface.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

random-detect flow


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.1(3)T, the random-detectflowcommand is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release. For more information, see the "Legacy QoS Command Deprecation" feature document in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

To enable flow-based Weighted Random Early Detection ( WRED), use the random-detectflowcommand in interface configuration mode. To disable flow-based WRED, use the no form of this command.

random-detect flow
no random-detect flow

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

Flow-based WRED is disabled by default.

Command Modes


Interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(3)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.1(3)T

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

You must use this command to enable flow-based WRED before you can use the random-detectflowaverage-depth-factor and random-detectflowcount commands to further configure the parameters of flow-based WRED.

Before you can enable flow-based WRED, you must enable and configure WRED. For complete information, refer to the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide .

Examples

The following example enables flow-based WRED on serial interface 1:

interface Serial1
 random-detect
 random-detect flow

Related Commands

Command

Description

random-detect dscp

Changes the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the DSCP value.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the WRED and DWRED exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation.

random-detect flow average-depth-factor

Sets the multiplier to be used in determining the average depth factor for a flow when flow-based WRED is enabled.

random-detect flow count

Sets the flow count for flow-based WRED.

random-detect precedence

Configures WRED and DWRED parameters for a particular IP Precedence.

show interfaces

Displays the statistical information specific to a serial interface.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

random-detect flow average-depth-factor


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.1(3)T, the random-detectflowaverage-depth-factorcommand is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release. For more information, see the "Legacy QoS Command Deprecation" feature document in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

To set the multiplier to be used in determining the average depth factor for a flow when flow-based Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) is enabled, use the random-detectflowaverage-depth-factorcommand in interface configuration mode. To remove the current flow average depth factor value, use the no form of this command.

random-detect flow average-depth-factor scaling-factor
no random-detect flow average-depth-factor scaling-factor

Syntax Description

scaling-factor

The scaling factor can be a number from 1 to 16.

Command Default

The default average depth factor is 4.

Command Modes


Interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(3)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.1(3)T

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

Use this command to specify the scaling factor that flow-based WRED should use in scaling the number of buffers available per flow and in determining the number of packets allowed in the output queue for each active flow. This scaling factor is common to all flows. The outcome of the scaled number of buffers becomes the per-flow limit.

If this command is not used and flow-based WRED is enabled, the average depth scaling factor defaults to 4.

A flow is considered nonadaptive--that is, it takes up too much of the resources--when the average flow depth times the specified multiplier (scaling factor) is less than the depth for the flow, for example:

average-flow-depth * (scaling factor) < flow-depth

Before you use this command, you must use the random-detectflow command to enable flow-based WRED for the interface. To configure flow-based WRED, you may also use the random-detectflowcount command.

Examples

The following example enables flow-based WRED on serial interface 1 and sets the scaling factor for the average flow depth to 8:

interface Serial1
 random-detect
 random-detect flow
 random-detect flow average-depth-factor 8

Related Commands

Command

Description

random-detect dscp

Changes the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the DSCP value.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the WRED and DWRED exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation.

random-detect flow

Enables flow-based WRED.

random-detect flow count

Sets the flow count for flow-based WRED.

random-detect precedence

Configures WRED and DWRED parameters for a particular IP Precedence.

show interfaces

Displays the statistical information specific to a serial interface.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

random-detect flow count


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.1(3)T, the random-detectflowcountcommand is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release. For more information, see the "Legacy QoS Command Deprecation" feature document in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

To set the flow count for flow-based Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED), use the random-detectflowcountcommand in interface configuration mode. To remove the current flow count value, use the no form of this command.

random-detect flow count number
no random-detect flow count number

Syntax Description

number

Specifies a value from 16 to 215 (32768).

Command Default

256

Command Modes


Interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(3)T

This command was introduced.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.1(3)T

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

Before you use this command, you must use the random-detectflow command to enable flow-based WRED for the interface.

Examples

The following example enables flow-based WRED on serial interface 1 and sets the flow threshold constant to 16:

interface Serial1
 random-detect
 random-detect flow
 random-detect flow count 16

Related Commands

Command

Description

random-detect dscp

Changes the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the DSCP value.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the WRED and DWRED exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation.

random-detect flow

Enables flow-based WRED.

random-detect precedence

Configures WRED and DWRED parameters for a particular IP Precedence.

show interfaces

Displays the statistical information specific to a serial interface.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

random-detect prec-based


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T, the random-detectprec-basedcommandisreplacedbytherandom-detectprecedence-basedcommand.Seetherandom-detectprecedence-basedcommand formoreinformation.

To base weighted random early detection (WRED) on the precedence value of a packet, use the random-detectprec-based command in policy-map class configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

random-detect prec-based
no random-detect prec-based

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

WRED is disabled by default.

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(28)S

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.4(20)T

This command was replaced by the random-detectprecedence-based command within a policy map.

Usage Guidelines

With the random-detectprec-based command, WRED is based on the IP precedence value of the packet.

Use the random-detectprec-based command before configuring the random-detectprecedence command.

Beginning with Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T, use the random-detectprecedence command when you configure a policy map.

Examples

The following example shows that random detect is based on the precedence value of a packet:

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)#
 
policy-map policy1
Router(config-pmap)# class class1
Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth percent 80
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect precedence-based 
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect precedence 2 500 ms 1000 ms
Router(config-pmap-c)# exit
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

random-detect

Enables WRED or DWRED.

random-detect precedence

Configures the WRED and DWRED parameters for a particular IP precedence; configures WRED parameters for a particular IP precedence for a class policy in a policy map.

random-detect precedence


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S and Cisco IOS Release 15.1(3)T, the random-detect precedence command is hidden in interface configuration mode. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you enter a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed from interface configuration mode in a future release, which means that you will need to use the appropriate replacement command (or sequence of commands). For more information (including a list of replacement commands), see the "Legacy QoS Command Deprecation" feature document in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

To configure Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) and distributed WRED (dWRED) parameters for a particular IP precedence, use the random-detect precedence command in interface configuration mode. To configure WRED parameters for a particular IP precedence for a class policy in a policy map, use the random-detect precedence command in QoS policy-map class configuration mode. To return the values to the default for the precedence, use the no form of this command.

random-detect precedence { precedence | rsvp } min-threshold max-threshold mark-probability-denominator
no random-detect precedence

Syntax Description

precedence

IP precedence number. The value range is from 0 to 7. For Cisco 7000 series routers with an RSP7000 interface processor and Cisco 7500 series routers with a VIP2-40 interface processor (the VIP2-50 interface processor is strongly recommended), the precedence value range is from 0 to 7; see Table 1 in the "Usage Guidelines" section.

rsvp

Indicates Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) traffic.

min-threshold

Minimum threshold in number of packets. The value range of this argument is from 1 to 512000000. When the average queue length reaches the minimum threshold, WRED or dWRED randomly drop some packets with the specified IP precedence.

max-threshold

Maximum threshold in number of packets. The value range of this argument is from the value of the min-threshold argument to 512000000. When the average queue length exceeds the maximum threshold, WRED or dWRED drop all packets with the specified IP precedence.

mark-probability-denominator

Denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, 1 out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold. The value range is from 1 to 65536. The default is 10; that is 1 out of every 10 packets is dropped at the maximum threshold.

Command Default

For all precedences, the mark-probability-denominator default value is 10, and the max-threshold value is based on the output buffering capacity and the transmission speed for the interface.

The default min-threshold value depends on the precedence. The min-threshold value for IP precedence 0 corresponds to half of the max-threshold value. The values for the remaining precedences fall between half the max-threshold value and the max-threshold value at evenly spaced intervals. See the table in the "Usage Guidelines" section of this command for a list of the default minimum threshold values for each IP precedence.

Command Modes

Interface configuration (config-if)

QoS policy-map class configuration (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

11.1CC

This command was introduced.

12.2(28)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

12.4(20)T

Support was added for hierarchical queueing framework (HQF) using the modular quality of service (QoS) CLI (MQC).

Note    This command replaces the random-detect prec-based command in QoS policy-map configuration mode.

15.0(1)S

This command was modified. This command was hidden in interface configuration mode.

15.1(3)T

This command was modified. This command was hidden in interface configuration mode.

15.2(2)T

This command was modified. The maximum and minimum threshold ranges were changed.

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.6S

This command was modified. Support was added for the Cisco ASR 903 router.

Usage Guidelines

WRED is a congestion avoidance mechanism that slows traffic by randomly dropping packets when congestion exists. dWRED is similar to WRED but uses the Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) instead of the Route Switch Processor (RSP).

When you configure the random-detect command on an interface, packets are given preferential treatment based on the IP precedence of the packet. Use the random-detect precedence command to adjust the treatment for different precedences.

If you want WRED or dWRED to ignore the precedence when determining which packets to drop, enter this command with the same parameters for each precedence. Remember to use appropriate values for the minimum and maximum thresholds.

Note that if you use the random-detect precedence command to adjust the treatment for different precedences within class policy, you must ensure that WRED is not configured for the interface to which you attach that service policy.


Note


Although the range of values for the min-threshold and max-threshold arguments is from 1 to 512000000, the actual values that you can specify depend on the type of random detect you are configuring. For example, the maximum threshold value cannot exceed the queue limit.

The table below lists the default minimum threshold value for each IP precedence.

Table 4 Default WRED and dWRED Minimum Threshold Values

Minimum Threshold Value (Fraction of Maximum Threshold Value)

IP Precedence

WRED

dWRED

0

9/18

8/16

1

10/18

9/16

2

11/18

10/16

3

12/18

11/16

4

13/18

12/16

5

14/18

13/16

6

15/18

14/16

7

16/18

15/16

rsvp

17/18

--


Note


The default WRED or dWRED parameter values are based on the best available data. We recommend that you do not change the parameters from their default values unless you have determined that your applications would benefit from the changed values.

The dWRED feature is supported only on Cisco 7000 series routers with an RSP7000 card and Cisco 7500 series routers with a VIP2-40 or higher interface processor. A VIP2-50 interface processor is strongly recommended when the aggregate line rate of the port adapters on the VIP is greater than DS3. A VIP2-50 interface processor is required for OC-3 rates.

To use dWRED, distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (dCEF) switching must first be enabled on the interface. For more information on dCEF, refer to the Cisco IOS IP Switching Configuration Guide and the Cisco IOS IP Switching Command Reference.


Note


The dWRED feature is not supported in a class policy.

Examples

The following example shows the configuration to enable WRED on the interface and to specify parameters for the different IP precedences:

interface Hssi0/0/0
 description 45Mbps to R1
 ip address 10.200.14.250 255.255.255.252
 random-detect
 random-detect precedence 0 32 256 100
 random-detect precedence 1 64 256 100
 random-detect precedence 2 96 256 100
 random-detect precedence 3 120 256 100
 random-detect precedence 4 140 256 100
 random-detect precedence 5 170 256 100
 random-detect precedence 6 290 256 100
 random-detect precedence 7 210 256 100
 random-detect precedence rsvp 230 256 100

The following example shows the configuration for the policy for a class called acl10 included in a policy map called policy10. Class acl101 has these characteristics: a minimum of 2000 kb/s of bandwidth are expected to be delivered to this class in the event of congestion and a weight factor of 10 is used to calculate the average queue size. For congestion avoidance, WRED packet drop is used, not tail drop. IP precedence is reset for levels 0 through 4.

policy-map policy10
class acl10
 bandwidth 2000
 random-detect
 random-detect exponential-weighting-constant 10
 random-detect precedence 0 32 256 100
 random-detect precedence 1 64 256 100
 random-detect precedence 2 96 256 100
 random-detect precedence 3 120 256 100
 random-detect precedence 4 140 256 100

Related Commands

Command

Description

bandwidth (policy-map class)

Specifies or modifies the bandwidth allocated for a class belonging to a policy map.

fair-queue (class-default)

Specifies the number of dynamic queues to be reserved for use by the class-default class as part of the default class policy.

random-detect (per VC)

Enables per-VC WRED or per-VC dWRED.

random-detect dscp

Changes the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the DSCP value.

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the WRED and dWRED exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation.

random-detect flow count

Sets the flow count for flow-based WRED.

show policy-map interface

Displays the configuration of all classes configured for all service policies on the specified interface or displays the classes for the service policy for a specific PVC on the interface.

show queue

Displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular interface or VC.

show queuing

Lists all or selected configured queuing strategies.

random-detect precedence (aggregate)

To configure aggregate Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) parameters for specific IP precedence value(s), use the random-detectprecedence(aggregate)command in policy-map class configuration mode. To disable configuration of aggregate WRED precedence values, use the no form of this command.

random-detect precedence sub-class-val1 [ sub-class-val2 sub-class-val3 sub-class-val4 ] min-thresh max-thresh mark-prob
no random-detect precedence sub-class-val1 [ sub-class-val2 sub-class-val3 sub-class-val4 ]

Syntax Description

s ub-class-val 1 sub-class-val 2 s ub-class-val 3 s ub-class-val 4

IP precedence value to which the following WRED profile parameter specifications are to apply. Up to four subclasses (IP precedence values) can be specified per command line interface (CLI) entry. The value range is from 0 to 7.

min-thresh

Minimum threshold (in number of packets) for the subclass(es). Valid values are from 1 to 12288.

max-thresh

Specifies the maximum threshold (in number of packets) for the subclass(es). Valid values are from the minimum threshold argument to 12288.

mark-prob

Specifies the denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold for the subclass(es). Valid values are from 1 to 255.

Cisco 10000 Series Router

s ub-class-val 1 [...[subclass-val8]]

IP precedence value(s) to which the following WRED profile parameter specifications are to apply. A maximum of 8 subclasses (IP precedence values) can be specified per CLI entry. The value range is from 0 to 7.

minimum-thresh min-thresh

Specifies the minimum number of packets allowed in the queue. When the average queue length reaches the minimum threshold, WRED randomly drops some packets with the specified IP precedence value. Valid minimum threshold values are 1 to 16384.

maximum-thresh max-thresh

Specifies the maximum number of packets allowed in the queue. When the average queue length exceeds the maximum threshold, WRED drops all packets with the specified IP precedence value. Valid maximum threshold values are 1 to 16384.

mark-probability mark-prob

Specifies the denominator for the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, 1 out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold. Valid values are 1 to 65535.

Cisco 10000 Series Router

For all precedence levels, the mark-prob default is 10 packets.

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.0(17)SL

This command was introduced on the Cisco 10000 series router.

12.2(18)SXE

This command was introduced.

12.2(31)SB

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB and implemented on the Cisco 10000 series router for the PRE3.

Usage Guidelines

For ATM interfaces, the Aggregate WRED feature requires that the ATM SPA cards are installed in a Cisco 7600 SIP-200 carrier card or a Cisco 7600 SIP-400 carrier card.

To configure WRED on an ATM interface, you must use the random-detect aggregate commands; the standard random-detect commands are no longer supported on ATM interfaces

Use this command with a random-detectaggregate command within a policy map configuration.

Repeat this command for each set of IP precedence values that share WRED parameters.

After the policy map is defined, the policy map must be attached at the VC level.

The set of subclass (IP precedence) values defined on a random-detectprecedence(aggregate)CLI will be aggregated into a single hardware WRED resource. The statistics for these subclasses will also be aggregated.

Use the showpolicy-mapinterface command to display the statistics for aggregated subclasses.

Cisco 10000 Series Router

The table below lists the default drop thresholds for WRED based on DSCP, IP precedence, and discard-class. The drop probability indicates that the router drops one packet for every 10 packets.

Table 5 WRED Default Drop Thresholds

DSCP, Precedence, and Discard-Class Values

Minimum Threshold (times the queue size)

Maximum Threshold (times the queue size)

Drop Probability

All DSCPs

1/4

1/2

1/10

0

1/4

1/2

1/10

1

9/32

1/2

1/10

2

5/16

1/2

1/10

3

11/32

1/2

1/10

4

3/8

1/2

1/10

5

13/32

1/2

1/10

6

7/16

1/2

1/10

7

15/32

1/2

1/10

For the PRE2, the random-detect command specifies the default profile for the queue. For the PRE3, the aggregate random-detect command is used instead to configure aggregate parameters for WRED. The PRE3 accepts the PRE2 random-detect command as a hidden CLI.

On the PRE2, accounting for the default profile is per precedence. On the PRE3, accounting and configuration for the default profile is per class map.

On the PRE2, the default threshold is per precedence for a DSCP or precedence value without an explicit threshold configuration. On the PRE3, the default threshold is to have no WRED configured.

On the PRE2, the drop counter for each precedence belonging to the default profile only has a drop count that matches the specific precedence value. Because the PRE2 has a default threshold for the default profile, the CBQOSMIB displays default threshold values. On the PRE3, the drop counter for each precedence belonging to the default profile has the aggregate counter of the default profile and not the individual counter for a specific precedence. The default profile on the PRE3 does not display any default threshold values in the CBQOSMIB if you do not configure any threshold values for the default profile.

Examples

Cisco 10000 Series Router

The following example shows how to enable IP precedence-based WRED on the Cisco 10000 series router. In this example, the configuration of the class map named Class1 indicates to classify traffic based on IP precedence 3, 4, and 5. Traffic that matches IP precedence 3, 4, or 5 is assigned to the class named Class1 in the policy map named Policy1. WRED-based packet dropping is configured for Class1 and is based on IP precedence 3 with a minimum threshold of 500, maximum threshold of 1500, and a mark-probability-denominator of 200. The QoS policy is applied to PVC 1/32 on the point-to-point ATM subinterface 1/0/0.1.

Router(config)# class-map Class1
Router(config-cmap)# match ip precedence 3 4 5
Router(config-cmap)# exit
Router(config)# policy-map Policy1
Router(config-pmap)# class Class1
Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 1000
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect prec-based
Router(config-pmap-c)# random-detect precedence 3 500 1500 200
Router(config-pmap-c)# exit 
Router(config-pmap)# exit
Router(config)# interface atm 1/0/0
Router(config-if)# atm pxf queuing
Router(config-if)# interface atm 1/0/0.1 point-to-point
Router(config-subif)# pvc 1/32 
Router(config-subif-atm-vc)# ubr 10000
Router(config-subif-atm-vc)# service-policy output policy1 

Related Commands

Command

Description

class (policy-map)

Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change, and the default class (commonly known as the class-default class) before you configure its policy.

interface

Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration mode.

policy-map

Creates a policy map that can be attached to one or more interfaces to specify a service policy.

random-detect aggregate

Enables aggregate WRED and optionally specifies default WRED parameter values for a default aggregate class. This default class will be used for all subclasses that have not been explicitly configured.

service-policy

Attaches a policy map to an input interface or VC, or an output interface or VC, to be used as the service policy for that interface or VC.

show policy-map interface

Displays the configuration of all classes configured for all service policies on the specified interface or displays the classes for the service policy for a specific PVC on the interface.

random-detect-group


Note


Effective with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S and Cisco IOS Release 15.1(3)T, the random-detect-groupcommand is hidden. Although this command is still available in Cisco IOS software, the CLI interactive Help does not display it if you attempt to view it by entering a question mark at the command line. This command will be completely removed in a future release. For more information, see the "Legacy QoS Command Deprecation" feature document in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

To define the Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) or distributed WRED (DWRED) parameter group, use the random-detect-groupcommand in global configuration mode. To delete the WRED or DWRED parameter group, use the no form of this command.

random-detect-group group-name [ dscp-based | prec-based ]
no random-detect-group group-name [ dscp-based | prec-based ]

Syntax Description

group-name

Name for the WRED or DWRED parameter group.

dscp-based

(Optional) Specifies that WRED is to use the differentiated services code point (DSCP) value when it calculates the drop probability for a packet.

prec-based

(Optional) Specifies that WRED is to use the IP Precedence value when it calculates the drop probability for a packet.

Command Default

No WRED or DWRED parameter group exists.

If you choose not to use either the dscp-based or the prec-based keywords, WRED uses the IP Precedence value (the default method) to calculate drop probability for the packet.

Command Modes


Global configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

11.1(22)CC

This command was introduced.

12.1(5)T

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.1(5)T. Keywords dscp-based and prec-based were added to support Differentiated Services (DiffServ) and Assured Forwarding (AF) Per Hop Behavior (PHB).

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

15.0(1)S

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

15.1(3)T

This command was modified. This command was hidden.

Usage Guidelines

WRED is a congestion avoidance mechanism that slows traffic by randomly dropping packets when there is congestion. DWRED is similar to WRED but uses the Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) instead of the Route Switch Processor (RSP). WRED and DWRED are most useful when the traffic uses protocols such as TCP that respond to dropped packets by decreasing the transmission rate.

The router automatically determines parameters to use in the WRED calculations. If you want to change these parameters for a group, use the exponential-weighting-constantor precedence command.

Two Methods for Calculating the Drop Probability of a Packet

This command includes two optional arguments, dscp-based and prec-based, that determine the method WRED uses to calculate the drop probability of a packet.

Note the following points when deciding which method to instruct WRED to use:

  • With the dscp-basedkeyword, WRED uses the DSCP value (that is, the first six bits of the IP type of service (ToS) byte) to calculate the drop probability.
  • With the prec-based keyword, WRED will use the IP Precedence value to calculate the drop probability.
  • The dscp-based and prec-based keywords are mutually exclusive.
  • If neither argument is specified, WRED uses the IP Precedence value to calculate the drop probability (the default method).

Examples

The following example defines the WRED parameter group called sanjose:

random-detect-group sanjose
 precedence 0 32 256 100
 precedence 1 64 256 100
 precedence 2 96 256 100
 precedence 3 128 256 100
 precedence 4 160 256 100
 precedence 5 192 256 100
 precedence 6 224 256 100
 precedence 7 256 256 100

The following example enables WRED to use the DSCP value 9. The minimum threshold for the DSCP value 9 is 20 and the maximum threshold is 50. This configuration can be attached to other virtual circuits (VCs) as required.

Router(config)# random-detect-group sanjose dscp-based
Router(cfg-red-grp)# dscp 9 20 50
Router(config-subif-vc)# random-detect attach sanjose

Related Commands

Command

Description

dscp

Changes the minimum and maximum packet thresholds for the DSCP value.

exponential-weighting-constant

Configures the exponential weight factor for the average queue size calculation for a WRED parameter group.

precedence (WRED group)

Configures a WRED group for a particular IP Precedence.

random-detect (per VC)

Enables per-VC WRED or per-VC VIP-distributed WRED.

show queueing

Lists all or selected configured queueing strategies.

show queueing interface

Displays the queueing statistics of an interface or VC.

rate-limit

To configure committed access rate (CAR) and distributed committed access rate (DCAR) policies, use the rate-limit command in interface configuration mode. To remove the rate limit from the configuration, use the no form of this command.

rate-limit { input | [ output acl-index | [ rate-limit] rate-limit-acl-index | dscp dscp-value qos-group qos-group-number ] } burst-normal burst-max conform-action conform-action exceed-action exceed-action
no rate-limit { input | [ output acl-index | [ rate-limit] rate-limit-acl-index | dscp dscp-value qos-group qos-group-number ] } burst-normal burst-max conform-action conform-action exceed-action exceed-action

Syntax Description

input

Applies this CAR traffic policy to packets received on this input interface.

output

Applies this CAR traffic policy to packets sent on this output interface.

bps

Average rate, in bits per second (bps). The value must be in increments of 8 kbps. The value is a number from 8000 to 2000000000.

access-group

(Optional) Applies this CAR traffic policy to the specified access list.

acl-index

(Optional) Access list number. Values are numbers from 1 to 2699.

rate-limit

(Optional) The access list is a rate-limit access list.

rate-limit-acl-index

(Optional) Rate-limit access list number. Values are numbers from 0 to 99.

dscp

(Optional) Allows the rate limit to be applied to any packet matching a specified differentiated services code point (DSCP).

dscp-value

(Optional) The DSCP number. Values are numbers from 0 to 63.

qos-group

(Optional) Allows the rate limit to be applied to any packet matching a specified qos-group number. Values are numbers from 0 to 99.

qos-group-number

(Optional) The qos-group number. Values are numbers from 0 to 99.

burst-normal

Normal burst size, in bytes. The minimum value is bps divided by 2000. The value is a number from 1000 to 512000,000.

burst-max

Excess burst size, in bytes. The value is a number from 2000 to 1024000000.

conform-action conform-action

Action to take on packets that conform to the specified rate limit. Specify one of the following keywords:

  • continue --Evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • drop --Drop the packet.
  • set-dscp-continue --Set the differentiated services codepoint (DSCP) (0 to 63) and evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • set-dscp-transmit --Transmit the DSCP and transmit the packet.
  • set-mpls-exp-imposition-continue --Set the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) experimental bits (0 to 7) during imposition and evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • set-mpls-exp-imposition-transmit --Set the MPLS experimental bits (0 to 7) during imposition and transmit the packet.
  • set-prec-continue --Set the IP precedence (0 to 7) and evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • set-prec-transmit --Set the IP precedence (0 to 7) and transmit the packet.
  • set-qos-continue --Set the quality of service (QoS) group ID (1 to 99) and evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • set-qos-transmit --Set the QoS group ID (1 to 99) and transmit the packet.
  • transmit --Transmit the packet.

exceed-action exceed-action

Action to take on packets that exceed the specified rate limit. Specify one of the following keywords:

  • continue --Evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • drop --Drop the packet.
  • set-dscp-continue --Set the DSCP (0 to 63) and evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • set-dscp-transmit --Transmit the DSCP and transmit the packet.
  • set-mpls-exp-imposition-continue --Set the MPLS experimental bits (0 to 7) during imposition and evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • set-mpls-exp-imposition-transmit --Set the MPLS experimental bits (0 to 7) during imposition and transmit the packet.
  • set-prec-continue --Set the IP precedence (0 to 7) and evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • set-prec-transmit --Set the IP precedence (0 to 7) and transmit the packet.
  • set-qos-continue --Set the QoS group ID (1 to 99) and evaluate the next rate-limit command.
  • set-qos-transmit --Set the QoS group ID (1 to 99) and transmit the packet.
  • transmit --Transmit the packet.

Command Default

CAR and DCAR are disabled.

Command Modes


Interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

11.1 CC

This command was introduced.

12.1(5)T

The conform and exceed keywords for the MPLS experimental field were added.

12.2(4)T

This command was implemented on the Cisco MGX 8850 switch and the MGX 8950 switch with a Cisco MGX RPM-PR card.

12.2(4)T2

This command was implemented on the Cisco 7500 series routers.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2SX

This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set, platform, and platform hardware.

Usage Guidelines

Use this command to configure your CAR policy on an interface. To specify multiple policies, enter this command once for each policy.

CAR and DCAR can be configured on an interface or subinterface.

Policing Traffic with CAR

CAR embodies a rate-limiting feature for policing traffic. When policing traffic with CAR, Cisco recommends the following values for the normal and extended burst parameters:

normal burst (in bytes) = configured rate (in bits per second) * (1 byte)/(8 bits) * 1.5 seconds

17.000.000 * (1 byte)/(8 bits) * 1.5 seconds = 3.187.500 bytes

extended burst = 2 * normal burst

2 * 3.187.500 = 6.375.000 bytes

With the listed choices for parameters, extensive test results have shown CAR to achieve the configured rate. If the burst values are too low, then the achieved rate is often much lower than the configured rate.

For more information about using CAR to police traffic, see the "Policing with CAR" section of the "Policing and Shaping Overview" in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide .

Examples

In the following example, the recommended burst parameters for CAR are used:

Router(config)# interface serial6/1/0

Router(config-if)# rate-limitinputaccess-group11700000031875006375000conform-actiontransmitexceed-actiondrop

In the following example, the rate is limited by the application in question:

  • All World Wide Web traffic is transmitted. However, the MPLS experimental field for web traffic that conforms to the first rate policy is set to 5. For nonconforming traffic, the IP precedence is set to 0 (best effort). See the following commands in the example:
rate-limit input rate-limit access-group 101 20000000 24000 32000 conform-action
set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 0
access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq www
  • FTP traffic is transmitted with an MPLS experimental field value of 5 if it conforms to the second rate policy. If the FTP traffic exceeds the rate policy, it is dropped. See the following commands in the example:
rate-limit input access-group 102 10000000 24000 32000
conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action drop
access-list 102 permit tcp any any eq ftp
  • Any remaining traffic is limited to 8 Mbps, with a normal burst size of 1,500,000 bytes and an excess burst size of 3,000,000 bytes. Traffic that conforms is sent with an MPLS experimental field of 5. Traffic that does not conform is dropped. See the following command in the example:
rate-limit input 8000000 1500000 3000000 conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5
exceed-action drop

Notice that two access lists are created to classify the web and FTP traffic so that they can be handled separately by the CAR feature.

Router(config)# interface Hssi0/0/0
Router(config-if)# description 45Mbps to R2
Router(config-if)# rate-limit input rate-limit access-group 101 20000000 3750000 7500000
conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 0
Router(config-if)# rate-limit input access-group 102 10000000 1875000 3750000
conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action drop
Router(config-if)# rate-limit input 8000000 1500000 3000000 conform-action
set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action drop
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252
!
Router(config-if)# access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq www
Router(config-if)# access-list 102 permit tcp any any eq ftp

In the following example, the MPLS experimental field is set, and the packet is transmitted:

Router(config)# interface FastEthernet1/1/0
Router(config-if)# rate-limit input 8000 1500 3000 access-group conform-action
set mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5

In the following example, any packet with a DSCP of 1 can apply the rate limit:

Router(config)# interface serial6/1/0
Router(config-if)# rate-limit output dscp 1 8000 1500 3000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop

Related Commands

Command

Description

access-list rate-limit

Configures an access list for use with CAR policies.

show access-lists rate-limit

Displays information about rate-limit access lists.

show interfaces rate-limit

Displays information about CAR for a specified interface.

rcv-queue bandwidth

To define the bandwidths for ingress (receive) WRR queues through scheduling weights in interface configuration command mode, use the rcv-queuebandwidthcommand. To return to the default settings, use the no form of this command.

rcv-queue bandwidth weight-1 ... weight-n
no rcv-queue bandwidth

Syntax Description

weight-1 ... weight-n

WRR weights; valid values are fr om 0 to 255.

Command Default

The defaults are as follows:

  • QoS enabled--4:255
  • QoS disabled--255:1

Command Modes


Interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(17a)SX

This command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(50)SY

Support for this command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines


Note


In Cisco IOS Release 12.2(50)SY and later releases, you can enable this command only if either the platform qos queueing-only command or the auto qos default command is configured.

This command is not supported on Cisco 7600 series router that are configured with a Supervisor Engine 2.

This command is supported on 2q8t and 8q8t ports only.

You can configure up to seven queue weights.

Examples

This example shows how to allocate a three-to-one bandwidth ratio:

Router(config-if)# rcv-queue bandwidth 3 1
 
Router(config-if)#

Related Commands

Command

Description

rcv-queue queue-limit

Sets the size ratio between the strict-priority and standard receive queues.

show queueing interface

Displays queueing information.

rcv-queue cos-map

To map the class of service (CoS) values to the standard receive-queue drop thresholds, use the rcv-queuecos-map command in interface configuration mode. To remove the mapping, use the no form of this command.

rcv-queue cos-map queue-id threshold-id cos-1 cos-n
no rcv-queue cos-map queue-id threshold-id

Syntax Description

queue-id

Queue ID; the valid value is 1 .

threshold-id

Threshold ID; valid values are from 1 to 4.

cos-1 ... cos-n

CoS values; valid values are from 0 to 7.

Command Default

The defaults are listed in the table below.

Table 6 CoS-to-Standard Receive Queue Map Defaults

queue

threshold

cos-map

queue

threshold

cos-map

With QoS Disabled

With QoS Enabled

1

1

0,1, 2,3,4,5,6,7

1

1

0,1

1

2

1

2

2,3

1

3

1

3

4

1

4

1

4

6,7

2

1

5

2

1

5

Command Modes


Interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(14)SX

Support for this command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(17d)SXB

This command was implemented on the Supervisor Engine 2 and integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(17d)SXB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(50)SY

Support for this command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines


Note


In Cisco IOS Release 12.2(50)SY and later releases, you can enable this command only if either the platform qos queueing-only command or the auto qos default command is configured.

The cos-n value is defined by the module and port type. When you enter the cos-n value, note that the higher values indicate higher priorities.

Use this command on trusted ports only.

Examples

This example shows how to map the CoS values 0 and 1 to threshold 1 in the standard receive queue:

Router (config-if)# rcv-queue cos-map 1 1 0 1
  cos-map configured on:  Gi1/1 Gi1/2

Related Commands

Command

Description

show queueing interface

Displays queueing information.

rcv-queue queue-limit

To set the size ratio between the strict-priority and standard receive queues, use the rcv-queuequeue-limit command in interface configuration mode. To return to the default settings, use the no form of this command.

rcv-queue queue-limit q-limit-1 q-limit-2
no rcv-queue queue-limit

Syntax Description

q-limit-1

Standard queue weight; valid values are from 1 and 100 pe rcent.

q-limit-2

Strict-priority queue weight; see the "Usage Guidelines" section for valid values.

Command Default

The defaults are as follows:

  • 80 percent is for low priority.
  • 20 percent is for strict priority.

Command Modes


Interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(14)SX

Support for this command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(17d)SXB

This command was implemented on the Supervisor Engine 2 and integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(17d)SXB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(50)SY

Support for this command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines


Note


In Cisco IOS Release 12.2(50)SY and later releases, you can enable this command only if either the platform qos queueing-only command or the auto qos default command is configured.

Valid strict-priority weight values are fro m 1 to 100 percent, excep t on 1p1q8t ingress LAN ports, where valid values for the strict-priority queue are from 3 to 100 perce nt.

The rcv-queuequeue-limit command configures ports on a per-ASIC basis.

Estimate the mix of strict-priority-to-standard traffic on your network (for example, 80-percent standard traffic and 20-percent strict-priority traffic) and use the estimated percentages as queue weights.

Examples

This example shows how to set the receive-queue size ratio for Gigabit Ethernet interface 1/2:

Router# configure terminal 
Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet 1/2 
Router(config-if)# rcv-queue queue-limit 75 15
 
Router(config-if)# end
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

show queueuing interface

Displays queueing information.

rcv-queue random-detect

To specify the minimum and maximum threshold for the specified receive queues, use the rcv-queuerandom-detect command in interface configuration mode. To return to the det fault settings, use the no form of this command.

rcv-queue random-detect { max-threshold | min-threshold } queue-id threshold-percent-1 threshold-percent-n
no rcv-queue random-detect { max-threshold | min-threshold } queue-id

Syntax Description

max-threshold

Specifies the maximum threshold.

min-threshold

Specifies the minimum threshold.

queue-id

Queue ID; the valid value is 1 .

threshold-percent-1 threshold-percent-n

Threshold weights; valid values are from 1 to 100 percent.

Command Default

The defaults are as follows:

  • min-threshold -- 80 percent
  • max-threshold -- 20 percent

Command Modes


Interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(17a)SX

Support for this command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(17d)SXB

This command was implemented on the Supervisor Engine 2 and integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(17d)SXB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(50)SY

Support for this command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines


Note


In Cisco IOS Release 12.2(50)SY and later releases, you can enable this command only if either the platform qos queueing-only command or the auto qos default command is configured.

This command is supported on 1p1q8t and 8q8t ports only.

The 1p1q8t interface indicates one strict queue and one standard queue with eight thresholds. The 8q8t interface indicates eight standard queues with eight thresholds. The threshold in the strict-priority queue is not configurable.

Each threshold has a low- and a high-threshold value. The threshold values are a percentage of the receive-queue capacity.

For additional information on configuring receive-queue thresholds, refer to the "QoS" chapter in the Cisco 7600 Series Router Cisco IOS Software Configuration Guide.

Examples

This example shows how to configure the low-priority receive-queue thresholds:

Router (config-if)# rcv-queue random-detect max-threshold 1 60 100

Related Commands

Command

Description

show queueing interface

Displays queueing information.

rcv-queue threshold

To configure the drop-threshold percentages for the standard receive queues on 1p1q4t and 1p1q0t interfaces, use the rcv-queuethreshold command in interface configuration mode. To return the thresholds to the default settings, use the no form of this command.

rcv-queue threshold queue-id threshold-percent-1 threshold-percent-n
no rcv-queue threshold

Syntax Description

queue-id

Queue ID; the valid value is 1.

threshold- percent-1 ... threshold- percent-n

Threshold ID; valid values are from 1 to 100 percent .

Command Default

The defaults for the 1p1q4t and 1p1q0t configurations are as follows:

  • Quality of service (QoS) assigns all traffic with class of service (CoS) 5 to the strict-priority queue.
  • QoS assigns all other traffic to the standard queue.

The default for the 1q4t configuration is that QoS assigns all traffic to the standard queue.

If you enable QoS, the following default thresholds apply:

  • 1p1q4t interfaces have this default drop-threshold configuration:
    • Frames with CoS 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 7 go to the standard receive queue.
    • Using standard receive-queue drop threshold 1, the Cisco 7600 series router drops incoming frames with CoS 0 or 1 when the receive-queue buffer is 50 percent or more full.
    • Using standard receive-queue drop threshold 2, the Cisco 7600 series router drops incoming frames with CoS 2 or 3 when the receive-queue buffer is 60 percent or more full.
    • Using standard receive-queue drop threshold 3, the Cisco 7600 series router drops incoming frames with CoS 4 when the receive-queue buffer is 80 percent or more full.
    • Using standard receive-queue drop threshold 4, the Cisco 7600 series router drops incoming frames with CoS 6 or 7 when the receive-queue buffer is 100 percent full.
    • Frames with CoS 5 go to the strict-priority receive queue (queue 2), where the Cisco 7600 series router drops incoming frames only when the strict-priority receive-queue buffer is 100 percent full.
  • 1p1q0t interfaces have this default drop-threshold configuration:
    • Frames with CoS 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 7 go to the standard receive queue. The Cisco 7600 series router drops incoming frames when the receive-queue buffer is 100 percent full.
    • Frames with CoS 5 go to the strict-priority receive queue (queue 2), where the Cisco 7600 series router drops incoming frames only when the strict-priority receive-queue buffer is 100 percent full.

Note


The 100-percent threshold may be actually changed by the module to 98 percent to allow Bridge Protocol Data Unite (BPDU) traffic to proceed. The BPDU threshold is factory set at 100 percent.

Command Modes


Interface configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(14)SX

Support for this command was introduced on the Supervisor Engine 720.

12.2(17d)SXB

This command was implemented on the Supervisor Engine 2 and integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(17d)SXB.

12.2(33)SRA

This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.

12.2(50)SY

Support for this command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines


Note


In Cisco IOS Release 12.2(50)SY and later releases, you can enable this command only if either the platform qos queueing-only command or the auto qos default command is configured.

The queue-id value is always 1.

A value of 10 indicates a threshold when the buffer is 10 percent full.

Always set threshold 4 to 100 percent.

Receive thresholds take effect only on ports whose trust state is trust cos.

Configure the 1q4t receive-queue tail-drop threshold percentages with the wrr-queuethresholdcommand.

Examples

This example shows how to configure the receive-queue drop thresholds for Gigabit Ethernet interface 1/1:

Router(config-if)# rcv-queue threshold 1 60 75 85 100
 

Related Commands

Command

Description

show queueing interface

Displays queueing information.

wrr-queue threshold

Configures the drop-threshold percentages for the standard receive and transmit queues on 1q4t and 2q2t interfaces.

recoverable-loss

To enable Enhanced Compressed Real-Time Transport Protocol (ECRTP), use the recoverable-loss command in IPHC-profile configuration mode. To disable ECRTP, use the no form of this command.

recoverable-loss { dynamic | packet-drops }
no recoverable-loss

Syntax Description

dynamic

Indicates that the dynamic recoverable loss calculation is used.

packet-drops

Maximum number of consecutive packet drops. Range is from 1 to 8.

Command Default

ECRTP is disabled.

Command Modes


IPHC-profile configuration (config-iphcp)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(9)T

This command was introduced.

12.4(11)T

Support was added for Frame Relay encapsulation.

Usage Guidelines

The recoverable-loss command is part of the ECRTP feature.

ECRPT Functionality

ECRTP reduces corruption by managing the way the compressor updates the context information at the decompressor. The compressor sends updated context information periodically to keep the compressor and decompressor synchronized. By repeating the updates, the probability of context corruption because of packet loss is minimized.

The synchronization of context information between the compressor and the decompressor can be performed dynamically (by specifying the dynamic keyword) or whenever a specific number of packets are dropped (by using the packet-dropsargument).

The number of packet drops represents the quality of the link between the hosts. The lower the number of packet drops, the higher the quality of the link between the hosts.

The packet drops value is maintained independently for each context and does not have to be the same for all contexts.


Note


If you specify the number of packet drops with the packet-drops argument, the recoverable-losscommand automatically enables ECRTP.

Intended for Use with IPHC Profiles

The recoverable-losscommand is intended for use as part of an IP Header Compression (IPHC) profile. An IPHC profile is used to enable and configure header compression on a network. For more information about using IPHC profiles to configure header compression, see the "Header Compression" module and the "Configuring Header Compression Using IPHC Profiles" module of the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide , Release 12.4T.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure an IPHC profile called profile2. In this example, ECRTP is enabled with a maximum number of five consecutive packet drops.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# iphc-profile profile2 ietf
Router(config-iphcp)# recoverable-loss 5
Router(config-iphcp)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

iphc-profile

Creates an IPHC profile.

redirect interface

To configure a traffic class to redirect packets belonging to a specific class to the interface that is specified in the command, use the redirect interface command in policy-map class configuration mode. To prevent the packets from getting redirected, use the no form of this command

redirect interface interface type number
no redirect interface interface type number

Syntax Description

interface type number

The type and number of the interface to which the packets need to be redirected.

Command Default

If this command is not specified, the packets are not redirected to an interface

Command Modes


Policy-map class configuration (config-pmap-c)

Command History

Release

Modification

12.2(18)ZYA1

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

Use this command to redirect packets to a predefined interface. You can also configure the redirect interface command with the log command but not with a drop or copy interface command. This command cannot be configured with a service policy for a stack class. The packets can be redirected only to the following interfaces:

  • Ethernet
  • Fast Ethernet
  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • Ten Gigabit Ethernet

Examples

In the following example, a traffic class called cmtest has been created and configured for use in a policy map called pmtest. The policy map (service policy) is attached to Fast Ethernet interface 4/15. All packets in the cmtest are redirected to FastEthernet interface 4/18.

Router(config)# policy-map type access-control pmtest
Router(config-pmap)# class cmtest
Router(config-pmap-c)# redirect interface FastEthernet 4/18
Router(config-pmap-c)# log
Router(config-pmap-c)# exit
Router(config)# interface FastEthernet 4/18
Router(config-if)# service-policy input pmtest

Related Commands

Command

Description

log

Generates a log of messages in the policy-map class configuration mode or class-map configuration mode.

show class-map

Displays all class maps and their matching criteria.

show policy-map

Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy map or all classes for all existing policy maps.

show policy-map interface

Displays the packet statistics of all classes that are configured for all service policies either on the specified interface or subinterface or on a specific PVC on the interface.

refresh max-period

To set the number of packets sent between full-header refresh occurrences, use the refreshmax-periodcommand in IPHC-profile configuration mode. To use the default number of packets, use the no form of this command.

refresh max-period { number-of-packets | infinite }
no refresh max-period

Syntax Description

number-of-packets

Number of packets sent between full-header refresh occurrences. Range is from 0 to 65535. Default is 256.

infinite

Indicates no limitation on the number of packets sent between full-header refresh occurrences.

Command Default

The number of packets sent between full-header refresh occurrences is 256.

Command Modes


IPHC-profile configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(9)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

Use the refreshmax-period command to set the number of non-TCP packets sent between full-header refresh occurrences. The refreshmax-period command also allows you to specify no limitation on the number of packets sent between full-header refresh occurrences. To specify no limitation on the number of packets sent, use the infinite keyword.

Prerequisite

Before you use the refreshmax-periodcommand, you must enable non-TCP header compression by using thenon-tcp command.

Intended for Use with IPHC Profiles

The refreshmax-periodcommand is intended for use as part of an IPHC profile. An IPHC profile is used to enable and configure header compression on your network. For more information about using IPHC profiles to configure header compression, see the "Header Compression" module and the "Configuring Header Compression Using IPHC Profiles" module of the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide , Release 12.4T.

Examples

The following is an example of an IPHC profile called profile2. In this example, the number of packets sent before a full-header refresh occurrence is 700 packets.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# iphc-profile profile2 ietf
Router(config-iphcp)# non-tcp
Router(config-iphcp)# refresh max-period 700
Router(config-iphcp)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

iphc-profile

Creates an IPHC profile.

non-tcp

Enables non-TCP header compression within an IPHC profile.

refresh max-time

To set the amount of time to wait before a full-header refresh occurrence, use the refreshmax-timecommand in IPHC-profile configuration mode. To use the default time, use the no form of this command.

refresh max-time { seconds | infinite }
no refresh max-time

Syntax Description

seconds

Length of time, in seconds, to wait before a full-header refresh occurrence. Range is from 0 to 65535. Default is 5.

infinite

Indicates no limitation on the time between full-header refreshes.

Command Default

The amount of time to wait before a full-header refresh occurrence is set to 5 seconds.

Command Modes


IPHC-profile configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(9)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

Use the refreshmax-timecommand to set the maximum amount of time to wait before a full-header refresh occurs. The refreshmax-time command also allows you to indicate no limitation on the time between full-header refresh occurrences. To specify no limitation on the time between full-header refresh occurrences, use the infinite keyword.

Prerequisite

Before you use the refreshmax-time command, you must enable non-TCP header compression by using the non-tcp command.

Intended for Use with IPHC Profiles

The refreshmax-timecommand is intended for use as part of an IPHC profile. An IPHC profile is used to enable and configure header compression on your network. For more information about using IPHC profiles to configure header compression, see the "Header Compression" module and the "Configuring Header Compression Using IPHC Profiles" module of the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide , Release 12.4T.

Examples

The following is an example of an IPHC profile called profile2. In this example, the maximum amount of time to wait before a full-header refresh occurs is 500 seconds.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# iphc-profile profile2 ietf
Router(config-iphcp)# non-tcp
Router(config-iphcp)# refresh max-time 500
Router(config-iphcp)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

iphc-profile

Creates an IPHC profile.

non-tcp

Enables non-TCP header compression within an IPHC profile.

refresh rtp

To enable a context refresh occurrence for Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) header compression, use the refreshrtp command in IPHC-profile configuration mode. To disable a context refresh occurrence for RTP header compression, use the no form of this command.

refresh rtp
no refresh rtp

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

Context refresh occurrences for RTP header compression are disabled.

Command Modes


IPHC-profile configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(9)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

Use the refreshrtp command to enable a context refresh occurrence for RTP header compression. A context is the state that the compressor uses to compress a header and that the decompressor uses to decompress a header. The context is the uncompressed version of the last header sent and includes information used to compress and decompress the packet.

Prerequisite

Before you use the refreshrtpcommand, you must enable RTP header compression by using the rtpcommand.

Intended for Use with IPHC Profiles

The refreshrtpcommand is intended for use as part of an IP header compression (IPHC) profile. An IPHC profile is used to enable and configure header compression on your network. For more information about using IPHC profiles to configure header compression, see the "Header Compression" module and the "Configuring Header Compression Using IPHC Profiles" module of the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide , Release 12.4T.

Examples

The following is an example of an IPHC profile called profile2. In this example, the refreshrtp command is used to enable a context refresh occurrence for RTP header compression.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# iphc-profile profile2 ietf
Router(config-iphcp)# rtp
Router(config-iphcp)# refresh rtp
Router(config-iphcp)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

iphc-profile

Creates an IPHC profile.

rtp

Enables RTP header compression within an IPHC profile.

rtp

To enable Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) header compression within an IP Header Compression (IPHC) profile, use the rtp command in IPHC-profile configuration mode. To disable RTP header compression within an IPHC profile, use the no form of this command.

rtp
no rtp

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Default

RTP header compression is enabled.

Command Modes


IPHC-profile configuration

Command History

Release

Modification

12.4(9)T

This command was introduced.

Usage Guidelines

The rtp command enables RTP header compression and automatically enables non-TCP header compression (the equivalent of using the non-tcp command).

Intended for Use with IPHC Profiles

The rtpcommand is intended for use as part of an IP Header Compression (IPHC) profile. An IPHC profile is used to enable and configure header compression on a network. For more information about using IPHC profiles to configure header compression, see the "Header Compression" module and the "Configuring Header Compression Using IPHC Profiles" module of the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide, Release 12.4T.

Examples

The following example shows how to configure an IPHC profile called profile2. In this example, RTP header compression is configured.

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# iphc-profile profile2 ietf
Router(config-iphcp)# rtp
Router(config-iphcp)# end

Related Commands

Command

Description

iphc-profile

Creates an IPHC profile.

non-tcp

Enables non-TCP header compression within an IPHC profile.

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