By default, for Protocol Independent Multicast sparse mode (PIM-SM), Source Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM), bidirectional PIM (bidir-PIM), and PIM dense mode (PIM-DM) groups, if multiple equal-cost paths are available, Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) for IPv4 multicast traffic is based on the PIM neighbor with the highest IP address. This method is referred to as the highest PIM neighbor behavior. This behavior is in accordance with RFC 2362 for PIM-SM, but also applies to PIM-SSM, PIM-DM, and bidir-PIM.
The figure illustrates a sample topology that is used in this section to explain the default behavior for IP multicast when multiple equal-cost paths exist.
|Figure 1 ||Default Behavior for IP Multicast When Multiple Equal-Cost Paths Exist |
In the figure, two sources, S1 and S2, are sending traffic to IPv4 multicast groups, G1 and G2. Either PIM-SM, PIM-SSM, or PIM-DM can be used in this topology. If PIM-SM is used, assume that the default interface 0 is being used on Device 2, that an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) is being run, and that the output of the show ip route command for S1 and for S2 (when entered on Device 2) displays serial interface 0 and serial interface 1 on Device 1 as equal-cost next-hop PIM neighbors of Device 2.
Without further configuration, IPv4 multicast traffic in the topology illustrated in the figure would always flow across one serial interface (either serial interface 0 or serial interface 1), depending on which interface has the higher IP address. For example, suppose that the IP addresses configured on serial interface 0 and serial interface 1 on Device 1 are 10.1.1.1 and 10.1.2.1, respectively. Given that scenario, in the case of PIM-SM and PIM-SSM, Device 2 would always send PIM join messages towards 10.1.2.1 and would always receive IPv4 multicast traffic on serial interface 1 for all sources and groups shown in the figure. In the case of PIM-DM, Device 2 would always receive IP multicast traffic on serial Interface 1, only that in this case, PIM join messages are not used in PIM-DM; instead Device 2 would prune the IP multicast traffic across serial interface 0 and would receive it through serial interface 1 because that interface has the higher IP address on Device 1.
IPv4 RPF lookups are performed by intermediate multicast device to determine the RPF interface and RPF neighbor for IPv4 (*,G) and (S, G) multicast routes (trees). An RPF lookup consists of RPF route-selection and route-path-selection. RPF route-selection operates solely on the IP unicast address to identify the root of the multicast tree. For (*, G) routes (PIM-SM and Bidir-PIM), the root of the multicast tree is the RP address for the group G; for (S, G) trees (PIM-SM, PIM-SSM and PIM-DM), the root of the multicast tree is the source S. RPF route-selection finds the best route towards the RP or source in the routing information base (RIB), and, if configured (or available), the Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) routing table, the Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MBGP) routing table or configured static mroutes. If the resulting route has only one available path, then the RPF lookup is complete, and the next-hop device and interface of the route become the RPF neighbor and RPF interface of this multicast tree. If the route has more than one path available, then route-path-selection is used to determine which path to choose.
For IP multicast, the following route-path-selection methods are available:
All methods but the default method of route-path-selection available in IP multicast enable some form of ECMP multicast load splitting.
- Highest PIM neighbor--This is the default method; thus, no configuration is required. If multiple equal-cost paths are available, RPF for IPv4 multicast traffic is based on the PIM neighbor with the highest IP address; as a result, without configuration, ECMP multicast load splitting is disabled by default.
- ECMP multicast load splitting method based on source address--Enables ECMP multicast load splitting based on source address using the S-hash algorithm.
- ECMP multicast load splitting method based on source and group address--Enables ECMP multicast load splitting based on source and group address using the basic S-G-hash algorithm.
- ECMP multicast load splitting method based on source, group, and next-hop address--Enables ECMP multicast load splitting based on source, group, and next-hop address using the next-hop-based S-G-hash algorithm.
The default behavior (the highest PIM neighbor behavior) does not result in any form of ECMP load-splitting in IP multicast, but instead selects the PIM neighbor that has the highest IP address among the next-hop PIM neighbors for the available paths. A next hop is considered to be a PIM neighbor when it displays in the output of the show ip pim neighbor command, which is the case when PIM hello messages have been received from it and have not timed out. If none of the available next hops are PIM neighbors, then simply the next hop with the highest IP address is chosen.